heat exchanger prac report

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

167 views

heat exchanger prac report

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Problems HX - English Complete
- HEAT TRANSFER
- Heat Exchanger Equipment STHE (Thermal Design Practice)
- An Experimental Study of the Local Heat Transfer Characteristics in Automotive Louvered Fins
- 25763-56098-1-SM
- Thermo Hydraulics Performance of Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Through Square Ducts With Inserts
- HT-I (L-01)
- Thermal Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
- Heat Convection Introduction
- Notes on Environmental Physics
- Unit 42-21889C-A1-2016-17-HA-1.docx
- 5-design_project.20070116.45ad08183bb055.95219003
- Critical Analysis of Design of Earth Air
- ENGR135_LAB06 Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger
- 2017 Tutorial Cooling Pipe
- print.docx
- 1.2 Basic Heat Exchangers Equations
- Me 340
- 8.Process Design of Heat Exchanger Pg32-38
- Bathe Lt 1981

You are on page 1of 22

PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

REPORT TITLE:

Students Surname:

CHINONDIWANA

Students Name:

COMFORT

Date Performed:

29 March 2012

Student Number:

211155098

10 April 2012

Section

Title Page

Table of Contents

List Symbols

Structure

Executive

Summary

Introduction

Theory

Procedure

Results

Discussion

Conclusion

References

Total

Declaration:

Possible

Mark

1

3

2

2

Student's

Mark

5

5

15

10

25

25

5

2

100

I certify that this report is my own unaided work, except for the assistance received

by the teaching staff. I undertake not to pass this report on to any other student.

Date: _______________

Signed: _______________

Contents

ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................................... iii

LIST OF SYMBOLS ......................................................................................................................................... iv

1.

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 1

2.

3.

Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.

TABLES OF RESULTS .................................................................................................................................. 5

4.1 PARALLEL FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.2 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 TABLE PREPARED USING MICROSFT EXCEL FOR THE CALCULATED RESULTS ON TABLE 4.4 TO 4.9

.............................................................................................................................................................. 6

TABLES SHOWING POWER EMITTED(QH),POWER ABSORBED (QC) AND POWER LOST (Qlost)

RESULTS. ................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 PARALLEL FLOW ............................................................................................................................ 6

4.5 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 6

Calculation of the cross sectional area of flow (Aflow) and Diameter (D) .................................................. 6

TABLES SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE INSIDE FILM HEAT TRANSFER (hi) ................................................. 7

4.6 PARALLEL FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 7

4.7 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 7

Calculation of the area outside the tube .................................................................................................. 8

Tables showing calculated results of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and heat flux (ql). ........... 9

4.8 PARALLEL FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 9

4.9 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 9

5.

DISCUSSION:........................................................................................................................................ 10

6.

7.

REFERENCE: ......................................................................................................................................... 12

8.

APENDICES .......................................................................................................................................... 13

ii

ABSTRACT

The experiment was aimed at demonstrating the working principle and the effect of hot water

temperature variation on the performance characteristics of concentric heat exchanger. The fluid

used was water. The equipment was arranged for both parallel and counter flow. Having noted

the results, heat transfer, heat loss, heat transfer coefficient and log mean temperature were

calculated. The results showed that the concentric heat exchanger obeyed basic laws of

thermodynamics. In addition, the results proved that the one arranged to give counter flow is

more effective than parallel flow. To obtain better results

iii

LIST OF SYMBOLS

Symbol

Definition

Unit

m2

Aflow

m2

Cp

J.kg-1.K-1

equivalent diameter

hi

W.m-2.K-1

ho

W.m-2.K-1

k.

Thermal conductivity

W.m-1.K-1

kg.s-1

0.4 when fluid is being heated and 0.3 when fluid is being cooled

dimensionless

Nu

Nusselt number

dimensionless

Pr

Prandlt number

dimensionless

ql

Re

Reynolds number

dimensionless

temperature

W.m-2.K-1

fluid velocity

m.s-1

T1

T2

TLM

iv

Greek

Symbol

Definition

Unit

efficiency

fluid viscosity

Pa.s

density

kg.m -3

Subscripts

C

cooling fluid

Cin

Cout

heating fluid

Hin

Hout

1. INTRODUCTION

Heat exchanger is an arrangement of equipment that allows heat energy to be exchanged between

fluids that are not in contact. One fluid at temperature(Tx) enters pipe(A) and exits at

temperature(T y) while another fluid enters pipe(B) at temperature (Tr) and exits at

temperature(Ts).Pipe (A)passes through pipe (b) as shown below. There are two heat exchange

mechanisms when the thermal energy is transferred from fluid in pipe (A) to fluid in pipe (B) or

vice versa.The experiment focused on these mechanisms which are counter and parallel flow.

Figure 1

Using the law of conservation of energy, thus energy can never be produced or destroyed but can

only transmitted and be converted from one form to another, can determine and show the

working principle of a concentric tube heat exchanger operating under co-current or counter

current conditions and the effect of hot water temperature variation on the performance

characteristics of a concentric tube heat exchanger.

2.1 Power emitted from the heat source:

QH=mHCpH(THin-THout)..1

2.2 Power absorbed into a cold body:

Qc =mcCpc (Tcin-Tcout).2

2.3 Power lost:

Qlost =QH + Qc........................................................................................................3

2.4 Efficiency ( ):

=-

......4

TLM =

Let TLM=T1 if

T1 = T2

.5

q1=UATLM 6

Where

2

2.7 Calculation of the inside (hi) and outside (ho) film heat transfer coefficients:

Base the physical properties on the bulk temperature (i.e. the average of the inlet and

outlet temperature.) of the fluid in the annulus for ho and the inside tube for hi.

2.8 The general equation for the Nusselt Number (Nu) and heat transfer coefficient (h i

or ho):

Nu=

Nu=

Where

D=

.9

Re=

10

ql=QH=Qc11

3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

3.2 Air bleed valves were closed.

3.3 The valves were open and closed correctly to have the desired flow direction.

3.4 The cold water supply to the heat exchanger was opened.

3.5 The cold water flow rate was set at 2000ml/min.

3.6 The hot water pump is set on maximum.

3.7 The temperature regulator was set to 00C.

3.8 The power supply to the system was switched on.

3.9 The hot water flow rate was set to 2000ml/min

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13

Apparatus

Concentric heat exchanger

TABLES OF RESULTS

4.1 PARALLEL FLOW

Number

water (L/min)

1

2

4

1

water (L/min)

Hot water

Cold Water

Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature

(in)

(out)

(in)

(out)

o

o

o

39.3 C

31.8 C

23.9 C

29.6oC

39.3oC

29.6oC

24.0oC

27.5oC

2

2

Number

water (L/min)

1

2

Temperature

23.9 oC

24 oC

24.8 oC

24.9 oC

27.5 oC

27.5 oC

29.5 oC

29.6 oC

29.6 oC

30.8 oC

31.8 oC

32 oC

39.2 oC

4

1

(Pa.s)

0.000911

0.000909

0.000892

0.000889

0.000837

0.000837

0.000801

0.000799

0.000799

0.000779

0.000762

0.000759

0.000659

water (L/min)

Hot water

Cold Water

Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature

(in)

(out)

(in)

(out)

o

o

o

39.4 C

32.0 C

24.8 C

30.8oC

39.2oC

29.5oC

24.9oC

27.5oC

2

2

(kg/m3) Cp(kJ.kg-1.K-1)

997.4116 4.179672502

997.3871 4.179627031

997.1871 4.179284336

997.1616 4.179244092

996.465 4.178388893

996.465 4.178388893

995.8848 4.177962874

995.8548 4.177946453

995.8548 4.177946453

995.4877 4.177783597

995.1718 4.177694163

995.1076 4.177681107

992.5683 4.178128342

0.605019994

0.002

199.27122 3.321187

0.605191196

0.002

200.09789 3.334965

0.606555362

0.002

206.70941 3.445157

0.606725195

0.002

207.53562 3.458927

0.611085259

0.002

228.999

3.81665

0.611085259

0.002

228.999

3.81665

0.614363146

0.001

122.7427 2.045712

0.614525236

0.001

123.15459 2.052576

0.614525236

0.002

246.30917 4.105153

0.616456576

0.002

256.19022 4.269837

0.618046325

0.004

528.83699 8.81395

0.618362091

0.004

532.12699 8.868783

0.629220047

0.001

162.56544 2.709424

5

39.3 oC

39.3 oC

39.4 oC

0.000658 992.53

0.000658 992.53

0.000656 992.4917

4.178145367

4.178145367

4.178162645

0.6293636

0.6293636

0.629506948

0.004

0.001

0.004

651.89814

162.97454

653.53439

10.86497

2.716242

10.89224

4.3 TABLE PREPARED USING MICROSFT EXCEL FOR THE CALCULATED RESULTS ON TABLE 4.4 TO 4.9

POWER LOST (Qlost) RESULTS.

4.4 PARALLEL FLOW

EXPERIMENT

1

2

QH(kJ/s)

2.051019186

0.66366584

QC(kJ/s)

-0.783965799

-0.48168506

Qlost(kJ/s)

1.267053387

0.18198078

0.382232309

0.725794565

TLM (0C)

6.5588861

6.08223023

QC(kJ/s)

-0.824680219

-0.357723023

Qlost(kJ/s)

1.198776359

0.305989331

0.407560126

0.538972976

TLM (0C)

6.675550522

5.392618964

EXPERIMENT

1

2

QH(kJ/s)

2.023456578

0.663712353

Calculation of the cross sectional area of flow (Aflow) and Diameter (D)

Area =

The measurements of the cross section of the tube are as below

Wall thickness=0.7mm

Hence the inner Diameter=15-2(0.7)

0.7mm

=13.6mm

15mm

Therefore r =13.6/2=6.8mm=0.0068m

Aflow=

(0.0068)2=0.0001453m2

6

D=

= 0.0136m

0.0068) =0.04273m

Velocity

=0.004/(60* Aflow)= 0.004/(60*0.0001453)=0.4589ms-1

When the flow rate is 2 L/min

=0.002/(60* Aflow)= 0.002/(60*0.0001453)=0.2294ms-1

When the flow rate is 1 L/min

=0.001/(60* Aflow)= 0.001/(60*0.0001453)=0.1147ms-

TABLES SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE INSIDE FILM HEAT TRANSFER (hi)

4.6 PARALLEL FLOW

Experiment

1

2

Pr

4.755535463

4.892920515

Re

8736.946685

2129.247952

Nu

52.23666137

17.02861297

hi

2395.607715

778.739028

Re

8763.678308

2124.996493

Nu

52.30993515

17.01303298

hi

2399.851046

777.8353628

Experiment

1

2

Pr

4.739043324

4.904082627

Area =

The measurements of the cross section of the tubes are as shown below

Insulation

thickness

outside -outside area of the tube inside

0.9mm

therefore r2=20.2/2=10.1mm=0.0101m

15mm

22mm

20mm

therefore r1=15/2=7.5mm=0.0075m

Hence area =

0.00752)=0.00014376m2

Perimeter (P)=2

=0.06346m

(0.01012-

Velocity

D=

=0.002/(60* Aflow)= 0.002/(60*0.00014376)=0.23188ms-1

=0.00905767m

Tables showing calculated results of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U)

and heat flux (ql).

Experiment

1

2

Pr

5.859462403

5.999507352

Re

2448.172542

2398.269736

Nu

23.98526731

23.81729817

ho

1614.715392

1599.109869

U

962.7096347

523.1561623

q

423.0566714

213.1910671

Re

2505.877129

2424.804114

Nu

24.17884351

23.90877813

ho

1632.374234

1607.276482

U

969.652636

523.6178914

q

433.6886657

189.1860087

Experiment

1

2

Pr

5.706235303

5.92543917

5. DISCUSSION:

In both cases, that is parallel and counter flow the temperature of the hot water always

dropped while the temperature of the cold water was raised which is consistent with the

law of conservation of energy showing that the heat supplied by hot water is equal to the

heat gained by the equipment, the surrounding and cold water. When the equipment was

arranged to allow parallel flow, the temperature of the cold water exiting was always less

than the temperature of the hot water exiting as shown in table 4.1.The same occurs in

counter flow.

Value of heat lost (Qlost) for the parallel configuration in table 4.4 for experiment 1 is

greater than in counter flow configuration in table 4.5.As a result the efficiency of the

counter flow is greater than parallel flow showing than for experiment 1 counter flow is

more effective in transmitting the heat energy from hot fluid to cold fluid without losing

much energy. This is shown to be true theoretically using Clausius Statement as far as the

two types of the concentric heat exchangers are concerned.

In table 4.4 and 4.5 when the flow rate of the hot fluid was changed from 4L/min to

1L/min the temperature differences for hot water increased. Therefore the larger the flow

rate the lower the temperature difference hence less energy transmitted to the cold fluid.

When the flow rate dropped the temperature difference went up hence more energy was

transmitted to the cold fluid.

As from the heat transfer hypothesis, the heat gained by cold water should have been

equal to the heat lost by hot water but we could not achieve the theory in the experiment

because of the heat loss to the surroundings.

10

Basically the hot water lost energy and cold water gained energy thus obeying the basic

laws of thermodynamics especially the first one. It also supports the law of conservation

of energy. The heat loss in experiment 1 is higher in parallel flow than in counter flow

showing that the counter current is more efficient than parallel flow. As a result, in

designing heat exchanger in industrial applications counter flow should be given a higher

priority than parallel flow for instance in oil cooling. To obtain better results, the water

must be removed completely from the tubes during the period before the next experiment

to avoid corrosion and rusting of the equipment used.

11

7. REFERENCE:

http://mars.uta.edu/mae3183/manuals/04_heat_exchanger.pdf. [ 01 April

2012]

http://www.scribd.com/doc/51634873/Heat-Exchanger-Lab-Report [01

April 2012]

http://www.Hsni.net/ [01 April 2012]

http://www.ucsd.edu/ [01 April 2012]

http://www.egr.msu.edu/classes/me412/ljgenik/heatexchanger.pdf [09

April 2012]

12

8. APENDICES

Sample calculations for experiment 1 Table 4.1

Experiment Flow rate of hot

Number

water (L/min)

1

water (L/min)

Hot water

Cold Water

Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature

(in)

(out)

(in)

(out)

o

o

o

39.3 C

31.8 C

23.9 C

29.6oC

4/1000=0.004m3/min

Since (Pa.s), (kg/m3), Cp (kJ.kg-1.K-1), k (W.m-1.K-1), Q (kJ/min) and Q (kJ/s) values are

temperature dependant, calculations results of these values were done for each temperature value

on the table. Sample calculations for 23.9oC are as follows

(Pa.s) = 3.1180E-11T4 -8.7019E-09T3 + 9.05314E-07T2 5.4272E-05T +1.7722E-03

= 3 .1180E-11 (23.9)4 -8.7019E-09 (23.9)3 + 905314E-07 (23.9)2 5.4272E-05 (23.9) +1.7722E-03

=0.000910918

(kg/m3 ) = -1.3742E -07T4 + 4.3739 E -05T3 7.7824E-03T2 + 5.9613E -02T +9.9988E+02

=-1.3742E -07(23.9)4 + 4.3739 E -05(23.9)3 7.7824E-03(23.9)2 + 5.9613E -02(23.9) +9.9988E+02

=997.4116498

Cp (kJ.kg-1.K-1) = 3.1485E-09T4-7.683E-07T3 + 7.4027E-05T2 -2.8515E-03T +4.2150

=3.1485E-09(23.9)4-7.683E-07(23.9)3 + 7.4027E-05(23.9)2 -2.8515E-03(23.9) +4.2150

=4.179672502

k (W.m-1.K-1)= 6.7369E-10T4 -1.4518E-07T3 + 6.1224E-07T2 + 1.8955E-03T +5.6113E-01

= 6.7369E-10(23.9)4 -1.4518E-07(23.9)3 + 6.1224E-07(23.9)2 + 1.8955E-03(23.9)+5.6113E-01

=0.605019994

13

=4.179672502*997.4116498*0.002*23.9

= 199.2712234

Q (kJ/s) = Q (kJ/min)/60=199.2712234/60

= 3.321187056

A table was then prepared showing all the calculated results for each temperature

Temperature

23.9 oC

29.6 oC

31.8 oC

39.3 oC

(kg/m )

0.000910918

0.000799109

0.000762258

0.000657612

(Pa.s)

997.4116498

995.8547678

995.1718266

992.5300333

-1

-1

Cp(kJ.kg .K )

4.179672502

4.177946453

4.177694163

4.178145367

-1

-1

k(W.m .K )

0.605019994

0.614525236

0.618046325

0.6293636

Flow

rate(m3/min)

0.002

0.002

0.004

0.004

Q(kJ/min)

199.2712234

246.3091714

528.8369931

651.8981443

QH (kJ/s),= Q(kJ/s)at 39.3 oC- Q(kJ/s)at 31.8 oC

=10.86496907-8.813949886

=2.051019186

=3.321187056-4.105152856

=-0.783965799

=-0.783965799+2.051019186

=1.267053387

=- QC/QH

=-(-0.783965799/2.051019186)

=0.382232309

14

Q(kJ/s)

3.321187056

4.105152856

8.813949886

10.86496907

T =29.6-23.9=5.7

T =39.3-31.8=7.5

=6.5588861

EXPERIMENT

1

QH(kJ/s)

2.051019186

QC(kJ/s)

-0.783965799

Re=Dv/ ()

=( at 39.3 oC+ at 31.8 oC)/2 =average

=(995.1718266+992.5300333)/2

=993.85093

= The average was calculated as above

D=0.0136m

v=0.4589ms

-1

Pr=Cp/ (k)

The averages of Cp, and k were calculated as

Therefore Pr=4.755535463

15

Qlost(kJ/s)

1.267053387

0.382232309

TLM (0C)

6.5588861

0.023*8736.946685

Nu=

0.8

* 4.7555354630.3

=52.23666137

Making hi subject of the formula

hi= Nu* kf /D

kf=the average k calculated from the values of k in the reference table

hi=2395.607715

Experiment

Pr

4.755535463

Re

8736.946685

Nu

52.23666137

hi

2395.607715

The same procedure used to calculate hi was used for ho and the same table was prepared as

below

ho=1614.715392

Calculation of U and q

=

16

hi =2395.607715

ho=1614.715392

x=0.0007m

k=350

making U subject of the formula

U=

U =962.7096347

ql = UATlm

where U=962.7096347

A=0.067m2

Tlm =6.5588861

=423.0566714

17

- Problems HX - English CompleteUploaded byDan Talmaciu
- HEAT TRANSFERUploaded bynickynieya
- Heat Exchanger Equipment STHE (Thermal Design Practice)Uploaded byantoine131
- An Experimental Study of the Local Heat Transfer Characteristics in Automotive Louvered FinsUploaded byAmnur Akhyan
- 25763-56098-1-SMUploaded byPrachi
- Thermo Hydraulics Performance of Turbulent Flow Heat Transfer Through Square Ducts With InsertsUploaded byIAEME Publication
- HT-I (L-01)Uploaded byGopi Krish
- Thermal Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat ExchangerUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Heat Convection IntroductionUploaded byEugenio Guerrero
- Notes on Environmental PhysicsUploaded byRameshkumar Ramanathan
- Unit 42-21889C-A1-2016-17-HA-1.docxUploaded bynice_wasif_999935395
- 5-design_project.20070116.45ad08183bb055.95219003Uploaded bydavidpavon1986
- Critical Analysis of Design of Earth AirUploaded bymsticco3
- ENGR135_LAB06 Concentric Tube Heat ExchangerUploaded bygigabyte3235840
- 2017 Tutorial Cooling PipeUploaded byatankasala
- print.docxUploaded byJessica Saballero
- 1.2 Basic Heat Exchangers EquationsUploaded byViñu LittleMonkey
- Me 340Uploaded byclone_wolf
- 8.Process Design of Heat Exchanger Pg32-38Uploaded byYogi Yugan
- Bathe Lt 1981Uploaded bykhalil
- Convection [126679]Uploaded byChia Bing Xuan
- Two-phase Experimental Heat TransferUploaded byedo.de
- laboratory 5Uploaded byapi-352575896
- Conjugate Heat Transfer of a Finned Oval Tube Part b Flow PatternsUploaded bymandalore_fett
- DesignandFabricationofShellandTubeHeatExchangerforPracticalApplicationUploaded byहरिओम हरी
- EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER AND FLUID FLOW IN MICRO-CHANNEL HEAT SINKUploaded byAnonymous pKuPK3zU
- Artigo 1.pdfUploaded byIago Henrique
- Exp Setup SampleUploaded byNuzhatMaisha
- Heat Transfer test1 solutionUploaded byAb Normal
- Heat Transfer Performance Analysis of Water Nano Particles Combination for Corrugated Plate Heat ExchangerUploaded byInternational Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Science

- sm8-122Uploaded bySadie Hnatow
- Kiefer_fqx.pdfUploaded byespacotempo
- Double PendulumUploaded byIndranil Bhattacharyya
- Noether TheoremUploaded bymikolaj_bugzilla
- Homework11 (g(w) for Solids,Blackbody,Debye; And Fermions)Uploaded bybhishan
- Caso 1 (Version 2).XlsbUploaded byLuis Manuel Castillo Jesus
- Ch 5 Gaseous StateUploaded byTony
- 20110711154509-M.Sc--Hons.-School--PhysicsUploaded byravi
- Exergy AnalysisUploaded byMô Dion
- 3183X_bibUploaded byCalin Campean
- keep506.pdfUploaded byshubhamkhande
- Chap 5 Applications of Thermodynamics to Flow ProcessesUploaded byHus Arif
- Theory of RelativityUploaded byYagnik Bandyopadhyay
- Advanced CosmologyUploaded byCAmila DIaz
- introduction to wavesUploaded byapi-276003030
- Warp Drive eBookUploaded bypaultrr2000
- Time-Dependent Statistical Mechanics09 N9 Classical Linear RespUploaded byRituparn Singh
- Slides 10 RadiationUploaded byJames Mathseon
- physics II 2Uploaded byapi-3782519
- Linearized gravityUploaded byjirihav
- Statistical Mechanics - Model PaperUploaded byManoj Rajput
- (Frontiers in Physics)Richard P. Feynman, Fernando B. Morinigo, William G-RedUploaded byBruno Da Fonseca Gonçalves
- Traschen J. - An Introduction to Black Hole EvaporationUploaded byKhem Upathambhakul
- Statistical mechanics and molecular simulationUploaded bySantiafo Zuluaga
- VIG 1.pdfUploaded byFulgen Villegas
- Tensors without TearsUploaded byAmber Holman
- Emf Theory d 3Uploaded bykmh0506
- Bedingham Et Al. - 2014 - Matter Density and Relativistic Models of Wave Function CollapseUploaded byBeto Carreño
- 13.docxUploaded byMEOW41
- lect06_2Uploaded byVamsi Pavan