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DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


PRACTICAL PROGRAMME

REPORT TITLE:

________CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER_________

Students Surname:

CHINONDIWANA

Subject: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY III

Students Name:

COMFORT

Date Performed:

29 March 2012

Student Number:

211155098

Date Handed In:

10 April 2012

Section
Title Page
Table of Contents
List Symbols
Structure
Executive
Summary
Introduction
Theory
Procedure
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Total

Declaration:

Possible
Mark
1
3
2
2

Student's
Mark

5
5
15
10
25
25
5
2
100

I certify that this report is my own unaided work, except for the assistance received
by the teaching staff. I undertake not to pass this report on to any other student.

Date: _______________

Signed: _______________

Contents
ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................................................... iii
LIST OF SYMBOLS ......................................................................................................................................... iv
1.

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 1

2.

THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................... 2

3.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................ 4


Apparatus .................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS ............................................................................................................... 5


TABLES OF RESULTS .................................................................................................................................. 5
4.1 PARALLEL FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 5
4.2 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 5
4.3 TABLE PREPARED USING MICROSFT EXCEL FOR THE CALCULATED RESULTS ON TABLE 4.4 TO 4.9
.............................................................................................................................................................. 6
TABLES SHOWING POWER EMITTED(QH),POWER ABSORBED (QC) AND POWER LOST (Qlost)
RESULTS. ................................................................................................................................................... 6
4.4 PARALLEL FLOW ............................................................................................................................ 6
4.5 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 6
Calculation of the cross sectional area of flow (Aflow) and Diameter (D) .................................................. 6
TABLES SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE INSIDE FILM HEAT TRANSFER (hi) ................................................. 7
4.6 PARALLEL FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 7
4.7 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 7
Calculation of the area outside the tube .................................................................................................. 8
Tables showing calculated results of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and heat flux (ql). ........... 9
4.8 PARALLEL FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 9
4.9 COUNTER FLOW .............................................................................................................................. 9

5.

DISCUSSION:........................................................................................................................................ 10

6.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATIONS: ......................................................................................... 11

7.

REFERENCE: ......................................................................................................................................... 12

8.

APENDICES .......................................................................................................................................... 13

ii

ABSTRACT
The experiment was aimed at demonstrating the working principle and the effect of hot water
temperature variation on the performance characteristics of concentric heat exchanger. The fluid
used was water. The equipment was arranged for both parallel and counter flow. Having noted
the results, heat transfer, heat loss, heat transfer coefficient and log mean temperature were
calculated. The results showed that the concentric heat exchanger obeyed basic laws of
thermodynamics. In addition, the results proved that the one arranged to give counter flow is
more effective than parallel flow. To obtain better results

iii

LIST OF SYMBOLS
Symbol

Definition

Unit

area of heat transfer

m2

Aflow

cross sectional area of flow

m2

Cp

specific heat capacity

J.kg-1.K-1

equivalent diameter

hi

inside heat transfer coefficient

W.m-2.K-1

ho

outside heat transfer coefficient

W.m-2.K-1

k.

Thermal conductivity

W.m-1.K-1

mass flow rate of fluid

kg.s-1

0.4 when fluid is being heated and 0.3 when fluid is being cooled

dimensionless

Nu

Nusselt number

dimensionless

perimeter of heat transfer

Pr

Prandlt number

dimensionless

power emitted or absorbed

ql

theoretical rate of heat transfer

Re

Reynolds number

dimensionless

temperature

overall heat transfer coefficient

W.m-2.K-1

fluid velocity

m.s-1

tube wall thickness

T1

temperature driving force point 1

T2

temperature driving force point 2

TLM

log mean temperature difference

iv

Greek
Symbol

Definition

Unit

efficiency

fluid viscosity

Pa.s

density

kg.m -3

Subscripts
C

cooling fluid

Cin

properties of the cold fluid coming in

Cout

properties of the cold fluid going out

properties of the fluid

heating fluid

Hin

properties of hot fluid coming in

Hout

properties of hot fluid going out

properties of the wall (copper)

1. INTRODUCTION
Heat exchanger is an arrangement of equipment that allows heat energy to be exchanged between
fluids that are not in contact. One fluid at temperature(Tx) enters pipe(A) and exits at
temperature(T y) while another fluid enters pipe(B) at temperature (Tr) and exits at
temperature(Ts).Pipe (A)passes through pipe (b) as shown below. There are two heat exchange
mechanisms when the thermal energy is transferred from fluid in pipe (A) to fluid in pipe (B) or
vice versa.The experiment focused on these mechanisms which are counter and parallel flow.

Figure 1

2. THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW


Using the law of conservation of energy, thus energy can never be produced or destroyed but can
only transmitted and be converted from one form to another, can determine and show the
working principle of a concentric tube heat exchanger operating under co-current or counter
current conditions and the effect of hot water temperature variation on the performance
characteristics of a concentric tube heat exchanger.
2.1 Power emitted from the heat source:
QH=mHCpH(THin-THout)..1
2.2 Power absorbed into a cold body:
Qc =mcCpc (Tcin-Tcout).2
2.3 Power lost:
Qlost =QH + Qc........................................................................................................3
2.4 Efficiency ( ):
=-

......4

2.5 Log mean temperature difference:


TLM =

Let TLM=T1 if

T1 = T2

.5

2.6 Heat transfer across an interface:


q1=UATLM 6
Where
2

2.7 Calculation of the inside (hi) and outside (ho) film heat transfer coefficients:
Base the physical properties on the bulk temperature (i.e. the average of the inlet and
outlet temperature.) of the fluid in the annulus for ho and the inside tube for hi.

2.8 The general equation for the Nusselt Number (Nu) and heat transfer coefficient (h i
or ho):
Nu=

(laminar flow) NB, check flow.7

Nu=

(turbulent flow) NB, check flow...8

Where
D=

.9

The equivalent diameter for the tube inside diameter is


Re=

10

2.9 Also, in an ideal situation:


ql=QH=Qc11

3. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

3.1 All the drain valves were closed.


3.2 Air bleed valves were closed.
3.3 The valves were open and closed correctly to have the desired flow direction.
3.4 The cold water supply to the heat exchanger was opened.
3.5 The cold water flow rate was set at 2000ml/min.
3.6 The hot water pump is set on maximum.
3.7 The temperature regulator was set to 00C.
3.8 The power supply to the system was switched on.
3.9 The hot water flow rate was set to 2000ml/min
3.10

The temperature regulator was set to a desired temperature.

3.11

The system was allowed to reach a steady state.

3.12

The temperature readings from the thermometers were recorded.

3.13

Steps 3.9 and 3.11 were repeated with additional temperatures.

Apparatus
Concentric heat exchanger

4. RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


TABLES OF RESULTS
4.1 PARALLEL FLOW

Experiment Flow rate of hot


Number
water (L/min)
1
2

4
1

Flow rate of cold


water (L/min)

Hot water
Cold Water
Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
(in)
(out)
(in)
(out)
o
o
o
39.3 C
31.8 C
23.9 C
29.6oC
39.3oC
29.6oC
24.0oC
27.5oC

2
2

4.2 COUNTER FLOW

Experiment Flow rate of hot


Number
water (L/min)
1
2

Temperature
23.9 oC
24 oC
24.8 oC
24.9 oC
27.5 oC
27.5 oC
29.5 oC
29.6 oC
29.6 oC
30.8 oC
31.8 oC
32 oC
39.2 oC

4
1

(Pa.s)
0.000911
0.000909
0.000892
0.000889
0.000837
0.000837
0.000801
0.000799
0.000799
0.000779
0.000762
0.000759
0.000659

Flow rate of cold


water (L/min)

Hot water
Cold Water
Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
(in)
(out)
(in)
(out)
o
o
o
39.4 C
32.0 C
24.8 C
30.8oC
39.2oC
29.5oC
24.9oC
27.5oC

2
2

(kg/m3) Cp(kJ.kg-1.K-1)
997.4116 4.179672502
997.3871 4.179627031
997.1871 4.179284336
997.1616 4.179244092
996.465 4.178388893
996.465 4.178388893
995.8848 4.177962874
995.8548 4.177946453
995.8548 4.177946453
995.4877 4.177783597
995.1718 4.177694163
995.1076 4.177681107
992.5683 4.178128342

k(W.m-1.K-1) Flow rate(m3/min) Q(kJ/min) Q(kJ/s)


0.605019994
0.002
199.27122 3.321187
0.605191196
0.002
200.09789 3.334965
0.606555362
0.002
206.70941 3.445157
0.606725195
0.002
207.53562 3.458927
0.611085259
0.002
228.999
3.81665
0.611085259
0.002
228.999
3.81665
0.614363146
0.001
122.7427 2.045712
0.614525236
0.001
123.15459 2.052576
0.614525236
0.002
246.30917 4.105153
0.616456576
0.002
256.19022 4.269837
0.618046325
0.004
528.83699 8.81395
0.618362091
0.004
532.12699 8.868783
0.629220047
0.001
162.56544 2.709424
5

39.3 oC
39.3 oC
39.4 oC

0.000658 992.53
0.000658 992.53
0.000656 992.4917

4.178145367
4.178145367
4.178162645

0.6293636
0.6293636
0.629506948

0.004
0.001
0.004

651.89814
162.97454
653.53439

10.86497
2.716242
10.89224

4.3 TABLE PREPARED USING MICROSFT EXCEL FOR THE CALCULATED RESULTS ON TABLE 4.4 TO 4.9

TABLES SHOWING POWER EMITTED(QH),POWER ABSORBED (QC) AND


POWER LOST (Qlost) RESULTS.
4.4 PARALLEL FLOW

EXPERIMENT
1
2

QH(kJ/s)
2.051019186
0.66366584

QC(kJ/s)
-0.783965799
-0.48168506

Qlost(kJ/s)
1.267053387
0.18198078

0.382232309
0.725794565

TLM (0C)
6.5588861
6.08223023

QC(kJ/s)
-0.824680219
-0.357723023

Qlost(kJ/s)
1.198776359
0.305989331

0.407560126
0.538972976

TLM (0C)
6.675550522
5.392618964

4.5 COUNTER FLOW

EXPERIMENT
1
2

QH(kJ/s)
2.023456578
0.663712353

Calculation of the cross sectional area of flow (Aflow) and Diameter (D)
Area =
The measurements of the cross section of the tube are as below

Tube outer Diameter =15mm


Wall thickness=0.7mm
Hence the inner Diameter=15-2(0.7)
0.7mm

=13.6mm
15mm

Therefore r =13.6/2=6.8mm=0.0068m
Aflow=

(0.0068)2=0.0001453m2

Perimeter (P) =2 r=2


6
D=

= 0.0136m

0.0068) =0.04273m

Velocity

When flow rate is 4L/min


=0.004/(60* Aflow)= 0.004/(60*0.0001453)=0.4589ms-1
When the flow rate is 2 L/min
=0.002/(60* Aflow)= 0.002/(60*0.0001453)=0.2294ms-1
When the flow rate is 1 L/min
=0.001/(60* Aflow)= 0.001/(60*0.0001453)=0.1147ms-

TABLES SHOWING RESULTS FOR THE INSIDE FILM HEAT TRANSFER (hi)
4.6 PARALLEL FLOW

Experiment
1
2

Pr
4.755535463
4.892920515

Re
8736.946685
2129.247952

Nu
52.23666137
17.02861297

hi
2395.607715
778.739028

Re
8763.678308
2124.996493

Nu
52.30993515
17.01303298

hi
2399.851046
777.8353628

4.7 COUNTER FLOW

Experiment
1
2

Pr
4.739043324
4.904082627

Calculation of the area outside the tube


Area =
The measurements of the cross section of the tubes are as shown below
Insulation
thickness

Outside cross sectional area=inside area of the tube


outside -outside area of the tube inside
0.9mm

Inside diameter of the tube outside=222(0.9) =20.2


therefore r2=20.2/2=10.1mm=0.0101m

15mm
22mm
20mm

Outside diameter of the tube inside=15mm


therefore r1=15/2=7.5mm=0.0075m
Hence area =
0.00752)=0.00014376m2
Perimeter (P)=2

=0.06346m

(0.01012-

Velocity

D=

When the flow rate is 2 L/min


=0.002/(60* Aflow)= 0.002/(60*0.00014376)=0.23188ms-1

=0.00905767m

Tables showing calculated results of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U)
and heat flux (ql).

4.8 PARALLEL FLOW

Experiment
1
2

Pr
5.859462403
5.999507352

Re
2448.172542
2398.269736

Nu
23.98526731
23.81729817

ho
1614.715392
1599.109869

U
962.7096347
523.1561623

q
423.0566714
213.1910671

Re
2505.877129
2424.804114

Nu
24.17884351
23.90877813

ho
1632.374234
1607.276482

U
969.652636
523.6178914

q
433.6886657
189.1860087

4.9 COUNTER FLOW

Experiment
1
2

Pr
5.706235303
5.92543917

5. DISCUSSION:
In both cases, that is parallel and counter flow the temperature of the hot water always
dropped while the temperature of the cold water was raised which is consistent with the
law of conservation of energy showing that the heat supplied by hot water is equal to the
heat gained by the equipment, the surrounding and cold water. When the equipment was
arranged to allow parallel flow, the temperature of the cold water exiting was always less
than the temperature of the hot water exiting as shown in table 4.1.The same occurs in
counter flow.

Value of heat lost (Qlost) for the parallel configuration in table 4.4 for experiment 1 is
greater than in counter flow configuration in table 4.5.As a result the efficiency of the
counter flow is greater than parallel flow showing than for experiment 1 counter flow is
more effective in transmitting the heat energy from hot fluid to cold fluid without losing
much energy. This is shown to be true theoretically using Clausius Statement as far as the
two types of the concentric heat exchangers are concerned.

In table 4.4 and 4.5 when the flow rate of the hot fluid was changed from 4L/min to
1L/min the temperature differences for hot water increased. Therefore the larger the flow
rate the lower the temperature difference hence less energy transmitted to the cold fluid.
When the flow rate dropped the temperature difference went up hence more energy was
transmitted to the cold fluid.

As from the heat transfer hypothesis, the heat gained by cold water should have been
equal to the heat lost by hot water but we could not achieve the theory in the experiment
because of the heat loss to the surroundings.

10

6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATIONS:


Basically the hot water lost energy and cold water gained energy thus obeying the basic
laws of thermodynamics especially the first one. It also supports the law of conservation
of energy. The heat loss in experiment 1 is higher in parallel flow than in counter flow
showing that the counter current is more efficient than parallel flow. As a result, in
designing heat exchanger in industrial applications counter flow should be given a higher
priority than parallel flow for instance in oil cooling. To obtain better results, the water
must be removed completely from the tubes during the period before the next experiment
to avoid corrosion and rusting of the equipment used.

11

7. REFERENCE:

MARS, Manuals Heat Exchanger,

http://mars.uta.edu/mae3183/manuals/04_heat_exchanger.pdf. [ 01 April
2012]

Scribd,2012,Heat exchanger Lab Report,


http://www.scribd.com/doc/51634873/Heat-Exchanger-Lab-Report [01
April 2012]

The Hashimite University,Departiment of Mechanical Engineering,


http://www.Hsni.net/ [01 April 2012]

University of California, San Diego, Center for Energy Research,


http://www.ucsd.edu/ [01 April 2012]

Michigan State University,College of engineering


http://www.egr.msu.edu/classes/me412/ljgenik/heatexchanger.pdf [09
April 2012]

12

8. APENDICES
Sample calculations for experiment 1 Table 4.1
Experiment Flow rate of hot
Number
water (L/min)
1

Flow rate of cold


water (L/min)

Hot water
Cold Water
Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
(in)
(out)
(in)
(out)
o
o
o
39.3 C
31.8 C
23.9 C
29.6oC

The volumetric flow rate was converted to m3/min by deviding by 1000


4/1000=0.004m3/min
Since (Pa.s), (kg/m3), Cp (kJ.kg-1.K-1), k (W.m-1.K-1), Q (kJ/min) and Q (kJ/s) values are
temperature dependant, calculations results of these values were done for each temperature value
on the table. Sample calculations for 23.9oC are as follows
(Pa.s) = 3.1180E-11T4 -8.7019E-09T3 + 9.05314E-07T2 5.4272E-05T +1.7722E-03
= 3 .1180E-11 (23.9)4 -8.7019E-09 (23.9)3 + 905314E-07 (23.9)2 5.4272E-05 (23.9) +1.7722E-03
=0.000910918
(kg/m3 ) = -1.3742E -07T4 + 4.3739 E -05T3 7.7824E-03T2 + 5.9613E -02T +9.9988E+02
=-1.3742E -07(23.9)4 + 4.3739 E -05(23.9)3 7.7824E-03(23.9)2 + 5.9613E -02(23.9) +9.9988E+02
=997.4116498
Cp (kJ.kg-1.K-1) = 3.1485E-09T4-7.683E-07T3 + 7.4027E-05T2 -2.8515E-03T +4.2150
=3.1485E-09(23.9)4-7.683E-07(23.9)3 + 7.4027E-05(23.9)2 -2.8515E-03(23.9) +4.2150
=4.179672502
k (W.m-1.K-1)= 6.7369E-10T4 -1.4518E-07T3 + 6.1224E-07T2 + 1.8955E-03T +5.6113E-01
= 6.7369E-10(23.9)4 -1.4518E-07(23.9)3 + 6.1224E-07(23.9)2 + 1.8955E-03(23.9)+5.6113E-01
=0.605019994

Q (kJ/min) = Cp (kJ.kg-1.K-1)* (kg/m3 ) * Flow rate(m /min)* T C

13

=4.179672502*997.4116498*0.002*23.9
= 199.2712234
Q (kJ/s) = Q (kJ/min)/60=199.2712234/60

= 3.321187056
A table was then prepared showing all the calculated results for each temperature

Temperature
23.9 oC
29.6 oC
31.8 oC
39.3 oC

(kg/m )
0.000910918
0.000799109
0.000762258
0.000657612

(Pa.s)
997.4116498
995.8547678
995.1718266
992.5300333

-1

-1

Cp(kJ.kg .K )
4.179672502
4.177946453
4.177694163
4.178145367

-1

-1

k(W.m .K )
0.605019994
0.614525236
0.618046325
0.6293636

Flow
rate(m3/min)
0.002
0.002
0.004
0.004

Q(kJ/min)
199.2712234
246.3091714
528.8369931
651.8981443

QH (kJ/s),QC(kJ/s),Qlost(kJ/s), and TLM(0C) were calculated using the table as reference


QH (kJ/s),= Q(kJ/s)at 39.3 oC- Q(kJ/s)at 31.8 oC
=10.86496907-8.813949886
=2.051019186

QC(kJ/s),= Q(kJ/s)at 23.9 oC- Q(kJ/s)at 29.6 oC


=3.321187056-4.105152856
=-0.783965799

Qlost(kJ/s),= QC(kJ/s)+ QH (kJ/s)


=-0.783965799+2.051019186
=1.267053387

=- QC/QH
=-(-0.783965799/2.051019186)
=0.382232309

14

Q(kJ/s)
3.321187056
4.105152856
8.813949886
10.86496907

TLM(0C)= (T-T)/ln (T/T)


T =29.6-23.9=5.7
T =39.3-31.8=7.5

TLM(0C)= (7.5-5.7)/ ln(7.5-5.7)


=6.5588861

A table showing the calculated results was prepared as below


EXPERIMENT
1

QH(kJ/s)
2.051019186

QC(kJ/s)
-0.783965799

Calculation of Pr, Re, Nu and hi


Re=Dv/ ()
=( at 39.3 oC+ at 31.8 oC)/2 =average
=(995.1718266+992.5300333)/2

=993.85093
= The average was calculated as above
D=0.0136m
v=0.4589ms

-1

Therefore Re=8736.946685 hence the flow was turbulent.


Pr=Cp/ (k)
The averages of Cp, and k were calculated as
Therefore Pr=4.755535463

If the flow is turbulent then Nu=hiD/kf=0.023Re0.8Prn

15

Qlost(kJ/s)
1.267053387

0.382232309

TLM (0C)
6.5588861

0.023*8736.946685

Nu=

0.8

* 4.7555354630.3

=52.23666137
Making hi subject of the formula
hi= Nu* kf /D
kf=the average k calculated from the values of k in the reference table
hi=2395.607715

A table showing the results was drawn as below

Experiment

Pr
4.755535463

Re
8736.946685

Nu
52.23666137

hi
2395.607715

The same procedure used to calculate hi was used for ho and the same table was prepared as
below
ho=1614.715392

Calculation of U and q
=

where k is the thermal conductivity of copper metal

16

x the wall thickness


hi =2395.607715
ho=1614.715392
x=0.0007m
k=350
making U subject of the formula
U=

When the values were inserted for hi , ho , x and k


U =962.7096347
ql = UATlm
where U=962.7096347
A=0.067m2
Tlm =6.5588861

Therefore ql for experiment 1 was =6.5588861*0.067*6.5588861


=423.0566714

17