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Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1294–1300 www.elsevier.com/locate/solener
Study the performance of photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system
K.M. Gangotri a,*, Mahesh Kumar Bhimwal b,1
b a Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342 033, India Solar Energy Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342 033, India
Received 21 November 2009; received in revised form 3 April 2010; accepted 10 April 2010 Available online 14 May 2010 Communicated by: Associate Editor Nicola Romeo
Abstract The Rose Bengal is used as photosensitizer with D-Xylose as reductant and sodium lauryl sulphate (NaLS) as surfactant for the enhancement of the conversion eﬃciency and storage capacity of photogalvanic cell for its commercial viability. The observed value of the photogeneration of photopotential was 885.0 mV and photocurrent was 460.0 lA whereas maximum power of the cell was 407.10 lW. The observed power at power point was 158.72 lW and the conversion eﬃciency was 1.52%. The ﬁll factor 0.3151 was experimentally determined at the power point of the cell. The rate of initial generation of photocurrent was 63.88 lA minÀ1. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 145.0 min in dark on irradiation for 165.0 min, i.e. the storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell is 87.87%. A simple mechanism for the photogeneration of photocurrent has also been proposed. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Rose Bengal; D-Xylose; Sodium lauryl sulphate; Conversion eﬃciency; Storage capacity; Photocurrent
1. Introduction The development of viable and long-term solution to meet our energy needs, that also maintains the quality of our environment which remains one of the most critical challenge is being facing by the scientiﬁc community. The solution of this challenge increasingly depend on electrochemical processes in solids. The solar energy is easily available, cheaper, environmental friendly source and has the potential to provide energy with almost zero emission. The novel approach for renewable sources of energy has led to an increasing interest in photogalvanic cells because of their reliable solar energy conversion and storage capacity. In present work, the photons of sunlight are used as
* Corresponding author. Address: C-38, University Jaswant Campus, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342 001, India. Tel.: +91 291 251 3899; fax: +91 2912614162. E-mail addresses: email@example.com (K.M. Gangotri), bhim firstname.lastname@example.org (M.K. Bhimwal). 1 Tel.: +91 9460435421; fax: +91 2912614162.
driving force for the conversion and storage of sunlight in photogalvanic cell. The photogalvanic eﬀect was ﬁrst of all observed by Rideal and Williams (1925) but it was systematically investigated by Rabinowitch (1940a,b) and later on Clark and Eckert (1975), and Hall et al. (1977). Wildes (1977), Murthy et al. (1980), Suda et al. (1978), Dixit and Mackay (1982), Hamdi and Aliwi (1996) and Bayer et al. (2001) have reported the various systems in photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage. Jinting et al. (2008) have observed the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanocrystals TiO2 ﬁlm prepared with mixed template method. The performance of photogalvanic cells for the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy and storage capacity depends on the photochemistry of the cell. According to Albery and Archer (1977), the conversion eﬃciency of the photogalvanic cell could be as large as 18% but it is unlikely that all the necessary conditions can be met. A more reliable estimate of the maximum power conversion eﬃciency that could be achieved from a photogalvanic cell is between 5% and 9%. Memming (1980) and
0038-092X/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2010.04.006
1. Bhimwal / Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1294–1300 1295 Bhardwaj et al. Eﬀect of variation of photosensitizer (Rose Bengal) concentration on the system With the increase in concentration of the photosensitizer (Rose Bengal) in present system. the photochemical bleaching of Rose Bengal was studied potentiometrically. respectively. 2. Groenen et al. The experimental set-up of photogalvanic cell is given in Fig. ﬁne) and sodium hydroxide (Merck) in the present work. Pramila and Gangotri (2007). 460. Experimental set-up of photogalvanic cell.d. A water ﬁlter was placed between the illuminated chamber and the light source to cut-oﬀ infrared radiations.1. On illumination.M.0 cm2) was dipped in one limb having a window and a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was immersed in another limb of the H-tube. 87. Kumari et al. Experimental method A glass tube of H-shape was used containing known amount of the solutions of the photosensitizer – Rose Bengal (Merck) with reductant-D-Xylose (Loba). 3. The photopotential and photocurrent generated by the system was measured with the help of the digital pH meter and microammeter (Ruttonsha Simpson). the present work was undertaken and the variation of the power output with the concentrations of the reductant. Gangotri and Gangotri (2009) and Gangotri and Indora (2010) for solar energy conversion and storage in photogalvanic cells. sodium hydroxide. Fig. (1981) have suggested the process of solar energy conversion by photoelectrochemical process and chloroplast photoelectrochemical cells. On further increase in concentration of photosensitizer a decrease in electrical output of the cell was found.0 lA and storage capacity i.K. Genwa et al. surfactantsodium lauryl sulphate (s. variation of diffusion length and other parameters of the cell is found to be quite sensitive. The eﬀect of variation of Rose Bengal concentration on photopotential and photocurrent are reported in Table 1. Therefore. (1984) have observed micelles eﬀect in the ferrous/thionine photogalvanic cell.87% of the photogalvanic cells and to reduce the cost of the cell to gain commercial viability. (2009). respectively. Gangotri. Results and discussion 3.K.e. the limb containing platinum electrode was exposed to a 200 W tungsten lamp (Sylvania) as light source.e. Recently the photogalvanic eﬀects have been observed in various systems by Dube and Sharma (1994).0 Â 1. micellar species and reductants in photogalvanic system. Employing lamps of diﬀerent wattage varies the light intensity.0 ml making up by doubly distilled water. The current–voltage characteristics of photogalvanic cell have been studied by applying an external load with the help of a carbon pot (log 470 K) connected in the circuit through a key to have close circuit and open circuit device. All the solutions were kept in amber coloured containers to protect them from sunlight. . Lal (2007). but no attention has been paid to use of the Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system to enhance the electrical output i. The total volume of the mixture was always kept 25. They have used diﬀerent photosensitizers. 1. Gangotri and Bhimwal (in press). The terminals of the electrode were connected to a digital pH meter (Systronics model335) and the whole cell was placed in the dark. The potential (mV) was measured in dark when the photogalvanic cell attained a stable potential. Dube (2007). surfactant. A platinum electrode (1. M. the photopotential and photocurrent were found to increase until it reaches a maximum value. (2009). Then.
52 9. The eﬀect of variation of pH on photopotential and photocurrent are reported in Table 4.84 Â 10À5 M.66 318. Bhimwal / Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1294–1300 Table 1 Eﬀect of variation of photosensitizer (Rose Bengal) concentration on the system. there is low electrical output.0 885. the movement of dye molecules may be hindered by the higher concentration of reductant to reach the electrode in the desired time limit and it will also result into a decrease in electrical output. The eﬀect of variation of reductant concentration on the photopotential and photocurrent of system are reported in Table 2.14 1. .08 1. light intensity = 10.32 322. On the other hand.80 Â 10À3 M.83. On further increase in pH. Table 2 Eﬀect of variation of reductant (D-Xylose) concentration on the system.83 a maxima was obtained.84 10. there is corresponding fall in the power of the cell.20 Conversion eﬃciency (%) 1.00 Conversion eﬃciency (%) 0.20 Â 10À3 M.15 1. It was observed that there was a sharp increase in photocurrent (imax) in the ﬁrst few minutes of illumination and then.93 1. It can be observed from the Table 4 that there is an increase in electrical output of the cell with the increase in pH values.0 340.1296 K. On further increase in concentration of reductant.0 825. Eﬀect of pH on the system The photogalvanic system is quite sensitive for pH variation.3.0 836.0 460. therefore.0 378. there was a gradual decrease to a stable value of Photocurrent (lA) 348. the photopotential was found to increase till it reaches a maximum value.10 316.92 407. Gangotri. 3.0 885.e.0 The surfactant was used to increase the solubility of photosensitizer. whereas higher concentration of the photosensitizer does not permit the desired light intensity to reach the molecules near the electrodes and hence.4 mW cmÀ2.0 460.83. On further increase in their concentrations.0 390. Concentration of reductant (D-Xylose Â 10À3 M) 0.26 Storage capacity in dark (min) 65.45 407. pH = 12. Eﬀect of diﬀusion length on the system The eﬀect of variation of diﬀusion length (distance between the two electrodes i. photocurrent and power of the photogalvanic cell was observed. It was observed that electrical output of the cell was found to increase on increasing the concentration of surfactant reaching a maximum value.31 1. The electrical output of the photogalvanic cell was changed by the variation of pH on the system.0 780. 3.0 145.34 1.0 378.0 386. a decrease in the electrical output of the cell was observed.0 802. [NaLS] = 6.52 1.0 [D-Xylose] = 1. there are a limited number of photosensitizer molecules to absorb the major portion of the light in the path and.K.4.0 [Rose Bengal] = 9.0 90.0 70.0 352. saturated calomel electrode and Pt electrodes) on the current parameters of the photogalvanic cell was studied using H-cells of diﬀerent dimensions. 3.0 Power (lW) 265.0 Power (lW) 276.42 Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system Photopotential (mV) 795.0 65. On the lower side of the concentration range of photosensitizer. At pH 12.2.93 265.00 282. M. 3.0 Photocurrent (lA) 335. The fall in power output was also resulted with decrease in concentration of reductant due to less number of molecules available for electron donation to the cationic form of dye. [NaLS] = 6.16 Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system Photopotential (mV) 792. Concentration of photosensitizer (Rose Bengal Â 10À5 M) 9. Eﬀect of variation of reductant (D-Xylose) concentration on the system With the increase in concentration of the reductant (DXylose) in present system.37 1. light intensity = 10.0 145.0 75.4 mW cmÀ2. a fall in photopotential. Eﬀect of variation of surfactant (NaLS) concentration on the system The eﬀect of surfactant-sodium lauryl sulphate (NaLS) concentration was also investigated in the present system.0 828. there was a decrease in photopotential and photocurrent.0 812.00 10.5.98 1. Thus. temperature = 299 K. pH = 12.10 306.0 70.68 9. The results are reported in Table 3.M.52 1. temperature = 299 K.80 Â 10À3 M.0 80. photogalvanic cells containing the Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system were found to be quite sensitive to the pH of the solutions.52 1.11 Storage capacity in dark (min) 60.20 1.
it may be concluded that the leuco or semi reduced form of dyes. M.79 12.0 80. 3. 3. temperature = 299 K. respectively.10 314.0 460.0 Power (lW) 275.0 785.25 268.20 Â 10À3 M.52 1.0 75. [NaLS] = 6. 3. This photocurrent at equilibrium is represented as (ieq).M. Gangotri.0 [Rose Bengal] = 9.10 315.84 Â 10À3 M. However.K. Concentration of surfactant (NaLS Â 10À3 M) 6. Variation of photocurrent and log V with light intensity. as investigated by Kaneko and Yamada (1977).0 335.48 6.64 6.7.0 12. light intensity = 10.87 790.0 460.96 7.0 65.0 822.00 1.K.0 382.52 1.23 1. [D-Xylose] = 1.20 Â 10À3 M.07 Storage capacity in dark (min) 55.14 0. [DXylose] = 1. pH = 12. 3.0 145.0 790.00 407.09 1.85 12. the reducing agents and their oxidized products behave as the electron carriers in the cell diﬀusing through the path.0 342. pH Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system Photopotential (mV) Photocurrent (lA) Power (lW) Conversion eﬃciency (%) 1.0 885. Variation of current parameters with diﬀusion length on the system.84 Â 10À3 M. light intensity = 10.06 1. The results are graphically represented in Fig.0 382.80 6. Bhimwal / Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1294–1300 Table 3 Eﬀect of variation of surfactant (NaLS) concentration on the system.83 12.0 70. temperature = 299 K. Whereas.0 822.81 12.0 378. and the dyes itself are the main electroactive species at the illuminated and the dark electrodes. On the basis of the eﬀect of diﬀusion path length on the current parameters. photocurrent.47 Conversion eﬃciency (%) 1. Current–voltage (i–V) characteristics of the photogalvanic cell The short circuit current (isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) of the photogalvanic cells were measured with the Fig.24 1.0 145.83. Eﬀect of light intensity on the system We have used diﬀerent light intensity sources for change in the intensity of light and it was found that photocurrent showed a linear increasing behaviour with the increase in light intensity whereas photopotential increases in a logarithmic manner.0 834.65 [Rose Bengal] = 9.87 1297 Storage capacity in dark (min) 60.0 278.0 65.4 mW cmÀ2.0 Photocurrent (lA) 348. Fig.0 885.0 845.80 Â 10À3 M. This kind of photocurrent behaviour is due to an initial rapid reaction followed by a slow ratedetermining step at a later stage.0 405.08 342.00 264.12 Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system Photopotential (mV) 792. 2.0 60. Table 4 Eﬀect of variation of pH on the system. the light intensity was measured in term of mW cmÀ2 with the help of solarimeter (CEL Model SM 203).0 352.22 407. .6. 2. The results are graphically represented in Fig.61 314.4 mW cmÀ2.
initial generation of photocurrent.4 mW cmÀ2.1298 K. a mechanism has been suggested for the generation of photocurrent in the photogalvanic cell as given below. Storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell.0 min. 4.0 2005. It was observed that the photogalvanic cell can be used in dark for 145. isc represent open circuit voltage and short circuit current. 3. M. output at power point and the power of incident radiations. 4.3093 0. Concentration of photosensitizer (Rose Bengal Â 10À5 M) 9. [Rose Bengal] = 9.0 980. so observed storage capacity is 87.0 880. Storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell The storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell was observed by applying an external load (necessary to have current at power point) after termination the illumination as soon as the potential reaches a constant value.84 Â 10À3 M.16 Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system Fill factor (g) 0.e.0 Fig. It was observed that i–V curve deviated from their regular rectangular shapes. Bhimwal / Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1294–1300 help of a microammeter (keeping the circuit closed) and with a digital pH meter (keeping the other circuit open).. 3.3062 0.52% using the following formula. respectively and Voc.0 2090.68 9.10.3151 0. Conversion eﬃciency of the photogalvanic cell The conversion eﬃciency of system containing Rose Bengal as photosensitizer is calculated using the electrical Fig. and the conversion eﬃciency and sunlight conversion data for this system are reported in Table 5.3151 was obtained and the power point of cell (pp) = 158.34 1. 5. [NaLS] = 6.0 1150. 4. The results are graphically represented in Fig. 5. The value of ﬁll factor (g) = 0. [DXylose] = 1. respectively.52 9. Conversion efficiency V pp Â ipp Â 100% ð2Þ ¼ 10:4 mW cmÀ2 Â Electrode area ðcm2 Þ The systems (at the optimum conditions) were also exposed to sunlight. respectively. called power point (pp) is determined where the product of current and potential was maximum and the ﬁll factor is calculated using the following formula: V pp Â ipp ð1Þ Fill factorðgÞ ¼ V oc Â isc where as Vpp and ipp represent the value of photopotential and photocurrent at power point.00 10. conversion eﬃciency and storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell. Table 5 Conversion eﬃciency of the photogalvanic cell.3037 0. i. light intensity = 10. The current and potential values in between these two extreme values were recorded with the help of a carbon pot (log 470 K) connected in the circuit of microammeter.93 1. the time required in fall of the electrical output (power) to its half at power point in dark.3061 Conversion eﬃciency (%) 0.M. The performance of photogalvanic cell The overall performance of the photogalvanic cell was observed and reached to remarkable level in the performance of photogalvanic cells with respect to electrical output.0 min on irradiation for 165. The Current–Voltage (i–V) characteristics of the photogalvanic cell containing Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system is graphically represented in Fig.72 lW was determined on the system.87%.80 Â 10À3 M. Gangotri. temperature = 299 K. The storage capacity was determined in terms of t1/2.20 Â 10À3 M. The results so obtained in Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS system are summarized in Table 6. Current–voltage (i–V) curve of the photogalvanic cell.0 Photocurrent (lA) 840.0 2210. A point in i–V curve.9. 3. The conversion eﬃciency of the photogalvanic cell is determined as 1. .37 1.K.52 1.0 2070. through which an external load was applied. Mechanism On the basis of these observations.8.84 10.26 Sunlight conversion data Photopotential (mV) 1980.0 945.
Energy Source Part A. Department of Chemistry.0 min in the so developed photogalvanic systems. 1982. Bhimwal / Solar Energy 84 (2010) 1294–1300 Table 6 The performance of photogalvanic cell.N.20 Â 10À3 M. Cells 92.M. 4. R. Energy Res.86% and 0. Dixit. Photogalvanic cells. M.A.. E.J. 271–276. 147–152. pH = 12. At platinum electrode The semi or leuco form of dye loses an electron to electrode and converted into original dye molecule. J. RBÀ.1. Simultaneous use of two reductants in a photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage. RB ! RBÃ hm photogalvanic systems i. Int.K. D-Xylose as reductant and sodium lauryl sulphate as surfactant have been used in the system and the higher values of conversion eﬃciency and storage capacity have been observed in comparison to earlier reported . RBÃ.. semi or leuco form of dye. Energy and Fuels 23.. Phys. K.K.0 min 145. the conversion eﬃciency is 1. Photogalvanic eﬀect in aqueous methylene blue–nickel mesh system: conversion of light into electricity. Dark chamber 4. Energy Mater Sol. 2010.. J. Nature 270. R. Clark. Head. dye molecules get excited. 2009. Genwa. Energy Res. Solar Energy 17. Energy Convers. Photogalvanic cell: a new approach for green and sustainable chemistry. In present research work the Rose Bengal as photosensitizer. One of the author (Mahesh Kumar Bhimwal) is thankful to Indian government for providing ﬁnancial assistance for the research purpose. 1024–1031. Acknowledgement ð3Þ The excited dye molecules accept an electron from reductant and converted into semi or leuco form of dye. 25. 23. R. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parameters Dark potential Open circuit voltage (VOC) Photopotential (DV) Initial generation of photocurrent Equilibrium photocurrent (ieq) Maximum photocurrent (imax) Time of illumination Storage capacity (t1/2) Conversion eﬃciency (CE) Fill factor (g) Observed results 210. I.. J.M.. the considerable research and development for further improvement in results for solar energy conversion and storage is still need. Sharma. 1975. Bhardwaj. 17.3151 1299 light intensity = 10.0 mV 885. Genwa.0 mV 1095.. K. Mackay.D.K. 4. W. Bhimwal. 35.. DSS/CTAB/Triton X-100Rohodamine–Oxalic acid system by Genwa and Genwa (2008) and Brij-35-DTPA system by Genwa and Khatri (2009). S.0 min 1..24– 0.L. Studies in photochemical conversion of solar energy: simultaneous use of two dyes with mannitol in photogalvanic cell. N. Sol. References Albery.4 mW cmÀ2.L.1. Jodhpur for providing all necessary facilities.52% 0.52% and the storage capacity of the cell is 145.0 min on the irradiation for 165. excited form of dye. 1977. Chem. 1981. M.. Gangotri.S. RB þ eÀ ! RBÀ ðsemi or leucoÞ ð6Þ Finally leuco/semi form of dye and oxidized form of reductant combine to give original dye and reductant molecule and the cycle will go on RBÀ þ Rþ ! RB þ R ð7Þ where RB. Gangotri.A. Eckert. Dube. in comparison to the present photogalvanic system consisting of Rose Bengal–D-Xylose–NaLS. University. 4593–4598..0 lA 575. RB ! RB þ e À À ð5Þ 4.80 Â 10À3 M.0 lA 165. Bayer. reductant and oxidized form of the reductant. J. The photochemical conversion of solar energy into electrical energy Eosin.. Sharma (M). N. in press. Nature 289. Studies of the micellar eﬀect on photogalvanics: solar energy conversion and storage–EDTA–Safranine O–Tween-80 system..M.643% respectively... 1994. K.R.D-Xylose system. Gangotri. At counter electrode Dye molecules accept an electron from electrode and converted in semi or leuco form. They have reported conversion eﬃciency is 0. However.84 Â 10À5 M.1..2707–0.. Energy 84. V. The surfactant thionine–iron (II) system. Gangotri. In view of these observations. Comparative study of photosensitizing dye in photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage: Brij35-diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) system. 311–314. Microemulsions as photogalvanic cells ﬂuids. [Rose Bengal] = 9. M.. W. and the reductant into its oxidized form RBÃ þ R ! RBÀ ðsemi or leucoÞ þ Rþ ð4Þ The authors are thankful to Professor P.K. 2007. 396–398. Pan. Illuminated chamber On irradiation. L. [D-Xylose] = 1.e. temperature = 299 K.. S.. [NaLS] = 6.C..2. 2008. R and R+ are the dye (Rose Bengal).2. Indora.N. S.S. Int.M. Optimum eﬃciency of photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion. K. 5.L. J. 2001.88 lA minÀ1 460. Energy and Fuels. K.D. 2767–2772. S.. P. Dube. respectively. L.V. it can be concluded that Rose Bengal is better photosensitizer with D-Xylose as reductant and sodium lauryl sulphate as surfactant in photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage.K. Conclusion The photogalvanic cells have the promising storage capacity. M. Gross.0 mV 63.. 522– 529. Turker. Studies in the photogalvanic eﬀect in mixed reductants system for solar energy conversion and storage: dextrose and EDTA–Azur A system. 399–402. Erogle.R. Solar energy conversion by chloroplast photoelectrochemical cells.83. 709–711. 207–222..1. 2009. Manag. 86.. Archer. Sol. Khatri. Gangotri. Genwa.
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