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How did the new administration’s attitude differ from the proposals set out in the Truman administration’s NSC-68? NSC-68: a total report of the US National Security Council produced in 1950 o Monolithic view: warned of how all Communist activity everywhere could be traced back to Moscow “Global theme” Growing strength and influence of the USSR All communism fed back to the „nerve centre‟ in Moscow o The report warned of an „indefinite period of tension and danger‟ o Immediate increase in military strength and spending o It encouraged military and economic aid to be given to any country perceived by the USA to be resistant Communism „Roll Back:‟ liberating countries currently held by the Soviets in Eastern Europe o This never really happened – no attempt was ever made under Eisenhower to free countries from Soviet control o The USA encouraged rebellions in Eastern Europe but it didn‟t use these opportunities to extend the US sphere of influence 2. How was Eisenhower’s New Look a) different from and b) similar to the ideas and policies on containment put forward by Truman? „New Look:‟ new policy of containment o Preventing the extension of Soviet Communism outside of the areas where it was already established o Was put into practice by: Setting up alliances to encircle the Soviet Union, like SEATO Using military power to protect vulnerable areas, like Berlin Using the CIA for covert operations An increased reliance on nuclear weapons Brinksmanship: the threat of massive retaliation as an instrument of containment – going to the brink and threatening nuclear war to intimidate the aggressor into backing down The Truman Doctrine: the USA had an obligation to „support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures‟ o Radical change from USA‟s previous isolationist policy o The USA didn‟t want to risk a potential communist takeover of an important European country, like Greece o Preserving democracy over communism o USSR saw this as the USA trying to expand its sphere of influence Marshall Plan: the economic extension of the ideas outside by the President o Give immediate economic help to Europe o Strict criteria to qualify for American economic aid o The initiative must come from Europe 3. The changed international situation after 1953 has led historians to call his period a ‘thaw’ in the Cold War. Identify the factors that set the scene for improved relations – or a ‘thaw’ – between the superpowers after 1953? Eisenhower‟s willingness to negotiate Khrushchev as the new leader of the USSR o His idea of „peaceful co-existence‟
What message did the Eisenhower Doctrine send to a) the Soviet Union and b) Arab states about American intentions in the Middle East? Eisenhower Doctrine = containment policy for the Middle East. “Authorize the USA to co-operate with and assist any nation or group of nations in the development of economic strength dedicated to the maintenance of national independence” 2. which desires such aid” 3. science. and the creative genius of the people in all spheres of life develop better and faster under socialism” – Khrushchev Missile gap . “Authorize the Executive to undertake in the same region programs of military assistance and co-operation with any nation or group of nations. consumer goods were scare. “Authorize such assistance and co-operation to include the employment of armed forces of the USA to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations requesting such aid. culture. What issues/events prevented any lasting Cold War ‘thaw’ during this period? The Suez Crisis o Nasser wanted to nationalize the Suez Canal Built by the French. spread the USA‟s sphere of influence into the Middle East 1. and called on other UN members not to intervene o Crisis was passed through the General Assembly and created the first UN peacekeeping force – UNEF Technology race – Sputnik o Sputnik: the world‟s first artificial satellite created by the Soviet‟s. „traveling companion‟ Soviet threat against the USA Sent USA into a panic because they became convinced of Soviet superiority in missile technology o “Socialism has won the competition between socialist and capitalist countries … that the economy. rather than using force to destroy each other USA: Communism would collapse under deprived opportunities for expansion USSR: capitalism would die out due to its own inherent weakness As a result no need for nuclear war Churchill also supported the idea of more communications between the East and the West in order to avoid a nuclear holocaust Economic factors o USA: 12% of the GNP was spend on the military o USSR: 1/3 of the economy was directed towards the military. living conditions were low A decrease in military spending would be good for both countries 4. against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by International Communism” 5. a pointed criticism of Britain and France.Capitalism and Communism should accept the continuing existence of one another. partly owned by the British French and British shipping waterway o Neither the French nor the British could tolerate Egyptian control o British initiated a plan with the Israelis to take back control with French and British forces o USA was furious – called a Security Council meeting USA called for a withdrawal of Israeli forces.
massive retaliation. a. New Look: Eisenhower‟s twist on containment. Explain the meaning of the following: co-existence. and called on other UN members not to intervene Crisis was passed through the General Assembly and created the first UN peacekeeping force – UNEF o o b. preventing the extension of Soviet Communism outside of the areas where it was already established 7. USA called for a withdrawal of Israeli forces. especially in missile development A build-up of conventional forces capable of fighting a limited war Massive building program of fallout shelter to protect US citizens o US Air Force U-2 spy planes over the USSR revealed that there was no missile gap o NASA was created U-2 incident o An American plane was show down over the Soviet Union o Aircraft was a high altitude. trying through this threat of all-out nuclear war to ensure that no such conflict would take place c. rather than using force to destroy each other b. and how did each one affect East-West relations during the 1950’s? a. a pointed criticism of Britain and France. The Eisenhower Doctrine Containment policy for the Middle East. “Authorize the USA to co-operate with and assist any nation or group of nations in the development of economic strength dedicated to the maintenance of national independence” . Massive retaliation: the USA would fight with every weapon at its disposal if attacked. partly owned by the British 2. French and British shipping waterway Neither the French nor the British could tolerate Egyptian control British initiated a plan with the Israelis to take back control with French and British forces USA was furious – called a Security Council meeting 1. but vital necessity” Cuban Missile Crisis 6. despite the devastating consequences this would have. spread the USA‟s sphere of influence into the Middle East 1. The Suez Crisis Nasser wanted to nationalize the Suez Canal 1. Co-existence: Capitalism and Communism should accept the continuing existence of one another. Built by the French. photo-reconnaissance plane o The pilot confessed to the „spy‟ nature of his task o Eisenhower then admitted the truth about the U-2 spy planes and took personal responsibility for the incident “Distasteful. New Look.The promotion of the idea of a „missile gap‟ Gaither Report: the findings of a top-secret investigation committee that recommended: A vast increase of offensive defense power. Who or what was each of the following.
„traveling companion‟ 1. culture. Massive building program of fallout shelter to protect US citizens US Air Force U-2 spy planes over the USSR revealed that there was no missile gap f. but vital necessity” 8. especially in missile development 3. „Spirit of Geneva:‟ discussions were carried out in an atmosphere of cordiality d. A build-up of conventional forces capable of fighting a limited war 4.’ What aspects of their containment policies are similar? What aspects are different? New Look Flexible Response Preventing the extension of Soviet More spending on conventional Communism outside of the areas forces where it was already established Enlarging the nuclear arsenal Was put into practice by: Continuing with CIA covert work Setting up alliances to Giving economic aid to encircle the Soviet Union. Compare Eisenhower’s ‘New Look’ with Kennedy’s ‘flexible response. “Authorize the Executive to undertake in the same region programs of military assistance and co-operation with any nation or group of nations. “Distasteful. The Geneva Summit First meeting of the heads of government of the major powers Proposals concerning the arms race and the issue of Germany got nowhere Better relations in terms of: exchanging certain scientific information. Sputnik Sputnik: the world‟s first artificial satellite created by the Soviet‟s. photo-reconnaissance plane The pilot confessed to the „spy‟ nature of his task Eisenhower then admitted the truth about the U-2 spy planes and took personal responsibility for the incident 1. The Gaither Report The promotion of the idea of a „missile gap‟ The findings of a top-secret investigation committee that recommended: 1. A vast increase of offensive defense 2. Sent USA into a panic because they became convinced of Soviet superiority in missile technology “Socialism has won the competition between socialist and capitalist countries … that the economy. and cultural exchanges 1. and the creative genius of the people in all spheres of life develop better and faster under socialism” – Khrushchev e. against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by International Communism” c.2. The U-2 incident An American plane was show down over the Soviet Union Aircraft was a high altitude. se power. “Authorize such assistance and co-operation to include the employment of armed forces of the USA to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of such nations requesting such aid. like . science. which desires such aid” 3. Soviet threat against the USA 2.
despite the devastating consequences this would have. In what way does Kennedy use the building of he Wall as a propaganda weapon against the USSR? Quote directly from his speech. Let them come to Berlin. trying through this threat of all-out nuclear war to ensure that no such conflict would take place . SEATO Using military power to protect vulnerable areas. The reasons why he agreed to remove the missiles He was able to claim victory over the missile crisis o Continued existence of a socialist Cuba Because he put them in there in the first place as a bargaining took c.” “City …. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere that we can work with Communists. Explain the meaning of the following: a. and determination of this city of West Berlin” “…The most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system” 10. “There are many people in the world who do not understand what is the great issue between the free world and Communism. “we intend to have a wider choice than humiliation or all-out nuclear war” 9. force. What does Khrushchev say about: a. Massive retaliation: the USA would fight with every weapon at its disposal if attacked. above. to support your arguments. What evidence is there to support the view that the United States helped push Castro into a relationship with the Soviet Union? The Bay of Pigs The Cuban Missile Crisis 11. like Berlin Using the CIA for covert operations An increased reliance on nuclear weapons Brinksmanship: the threat of massive retaliation as an instrument of containment – going to the brink and threatening nuclear war to intimidate the aggressor into backing down developing countries to help them resist communism Continuation negotiations with the Soviet Union Broadened the range of options for resisting Communism Moving away from Eisenhower‟s massive retaliation. The reasons why he put missiles on Cuba It was a provocative act bound to cause a US reaction Was to protect Cuba „It was high time America learned what it feels like to have her own land and her own people threatened‟ since the US had missiles in Turkey aimed to seize propaganda advantage after the humiliation of the Berlin Wall b. The outcome of the crisis The crisis was a humiliation for Khrushchev Contributed to his fall 2 years later 12.” “We have never had to put up a wall to keep our people in. Let them come to Berlin.still lives with the vitality.
Mutually Assured Destruction: the existence of nuclear weapons meant that there could never be a total war between the superpowers 13. USA fear of falling behind.b. Counterforce: developing a nuclear strategy which could be fought in a more limited way than the idea of massive retaliation – the objective was to destroy the enemy‟s military forces which made nuclear war more likely c. In what ways did the arms race affect the Cold War? The arms race between the major power helped to maintain and continue the hostility between the superpowers o Stockpiling of nuclear weapons became necessary in order to safeguard interests o Continuing advances made each side feel they had to stay one step ahead of each other o Secrecy in the 60s. USSR fear of catching up Both sides had to rethink military strategy for conflicts to be handled during the Cold War Huge economic strains were placed on both countries o Played a role in the ending of the cold war Domestic Policy: a president‟s attempt to rectify social problems and promote growth within the nation‟s border Foreign Policy: a president‟s general objectives that guide the activities and relationships of one state in its relationships with other nations – promotes the national interest with diplomacy as a took Truman Domestic Policies Foreign Policies .
like government and the military Berlin Using the CIA for covert operations An increased reliance on nuclear weapons Brinksmanship: the threat of massive retaliation as an instrument of containment – . pro-labor reforms. housing reforms. Postwar wage and price controls Labor unrest The Taft-Harley Act Collective bargaining: unions. do this or we strike The Fair Deal Increase minimum wage. civil rights HUAC: House Committee on UnAmerican Activities Civil Rights Desegregated military and government The Truman Doctrine: the USA had an obligation to „support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures‟ Radical change from USA‟s previous isolationist policy The USA didn‟t want to risk a potential communist takeover of an important European country. like Greece Preserving democracy over communism USSR saw this as the USA trying to expand its sphere of influence Marshall Plan: the economic extension of the ideas outside by the President Give immediate economic help to Europe Strict criteria to qualify for American economic aid The initiative must come from Europe Eisenhower Domestic Policies Foreign Policies Hands off domestic policy „New Look:‟ new policy of containment McCarthy trials. like Commitment to social justice SEATO Wanted a gradual reform Using military power to Continued to desegregate the protect vulnerable areas. social security. McCarthyism Preventing the extension of Soviet Civil Rights Communism outside of the areas Overturned Plessy VS where it was already established Ferguson Was put into practice by: “Separate but unequal” is Setting up alliances to unconstitutional encircle the Soviet Union.
War with Japan All begins in „47 VP for only 80-something days when FDR dies o FDR chose Truman as VP because they knew he wouldn‟t interfere not a big dog Truman didn‟t even know about the Manhattan Project because he was kept out of the loop.going to the brink and threatening nuclear war to intimidate the aggressor into backing down Kennedy Domestic Policies Reluctant to advance major reforms “New Frontier” determination to continue the legacy of Democratic presidents in generating renewal. “we intend to have a wider choice than humiliation or all-out nuclear war” Class Notes. one day for all of the domestic policies 1947 – 1968: Civil Rights Movement Truman. JFK. and change alleviate poverty. December 8th – February 8th Truman ’45 – ‘53 No domestic policy ‟45 – „47 o Too busy with: 1. Eisenhower. guarantee equal pay. and Johnson Phase I: Martin Luther King JR Phase II: Black power movement o Compare and contrast Phase I & II . provide medical care for elders Medicare. mass transit. education Balanced budget Released MLKJ from prison yet Congress wouldn‟t support him in civil rights laws Foreign Policies More spending on conventional forces Enlarging the nuclear arsenal Continuing with CIA covert work Giving economic aid to developing countries to help them resist communism Continuation negotiations with the Soviet Union Broadened the range of options for resisting Communism Moving away from Eisenhower‟s massive retaliation. End of WW2 2. reform. raise minimum wage. promote urban renewal. not because he was stupid The only president who didn‟t graduate from college Worked his way up the political ladder Not a lot of Truman domestic policy all under the Fair Deal. Reconstruction of Europe 3. initiate Peace Corps.
why? o People in congress didn‟t like him Mostly Republican o People didn‟t feel a need for economic policies o Economy doubles. Desegregated military a. or whoever. political dynamite o Most presidents stayed away from the issue o Created the committee on civil rights (PAGE 251) Civil Rights Commission Very bold o Already an outsider so didn‟t care what he had to love Two big things: 1. pro-labor reforms. civil rights (PAGE 249) Did it ever go through? No. social security. Sets a precedence b. Lots of opportunity 2. welfare or securities to HUAC Hartley required communist party members to be reported by union if plan to strike Report particular communist activity to government o Workers of the world unite o Efficient vehicle for a communist revolution Incite friction Unions were seen as efficient vehicles for communist revolution HUAC: Russian spies penetrating sensitive areas . 80 days to cut a deal o Strikes were considered threat to national health. Desegregated government employment a. opened the can of worms and leads to Phase I Controversial issue: divisive. do this or we strike o Done together o Issues in giving unions too much power o Gave president. housing reforms. Worked with them d. Huge numbers c. Politically courageous Discussion of the Fair Deal Mostly economic Increase minimum wage. not urgent so Congress was able to shoot his ideas down o Economic policies were not seen as urgent by the public Economy at the time was going well Taft-Harley (PAGE 248) HUAC Attack on collective bargaining Collective bargaining: unions. Eisenhower didn‟t want to be a civil rights president Common theme within the next 4 presidents: containment Truman The first civil rights president „47 o Gets the civil rights moving.
Truman Doctrine. the military and the government wasn‟t on the same page so it prolonged the war Military had to follow political objective because it was limited war. UN. Did the Soviet Union have spies in the USA? o Yes. head of HUAC at the moment o Chambers calls it out media will spin it so he‟s a devil and Hiss as a martyr o Hiss gets out on a mistrial and perjury but not anything for spying Verona Files reveals from the KBG that all what Chambers said was true McCarthy Trials: huge show trials. spy in a cell and all the Yalta Conference with FDR When Chambers breaks from Communism he turn to HUAC and reveals all Chambers talks a lot to Nixon. containment Korean War North of 38th parallel = communism South of 38th parallel = democratic o North invades south by crossing the 38th parallel Dilemma does the USA expand containment to Korea? o The USA plays the biggest part Context of containment o Policy in Eastern Europe o Can USA extend policy? Issue & Wilsonianism o The UN penalizes north for invading the south o Fought under UN flag but USA does the heavy lifting USA goes to Korea under framework of containment Limited War: political objective was only to push north back to the line at the 38th parallel o After that the war should‟ve been over it continued from ‟51 – „53 o Military had never fought a war like this They had only ever fought total war before USA got pushed back to Yalu River Got China involved which prolonged the war If the worse case scenarios is just going back where you started then countries don‟t really care exhaust resources o At this point. peace as a legal concept o Specified to show that bad behavior would not be tolerated Kissinger why we go into Korea under containment (PAGE 476) . Marshall Plan. took away a lot of credibility with what Chambers did (PAGE 250) o He wasn‟t wrong but looking in all the wrong places for the wrong people Connection with Taft-Harley = communism aspect Foreign Policies: NATO. during the Cold War o Not crazy for USA to think this Whitaker Chambers: head of Communist cell (group of spies) in DC o Spy and a former editor of TIME magazine Alger Hiss: high level state department.
not a friend o History of being expansionists in order to make up for a weak regime (PAGE 463) o Arguments about containment o Prior to (PAGE 463). no doctrine No strategic interest Principle aim: penalty for aggression Sino-Soviet strategy “The American military…” Diplomacy and strategy = traditionally separate. law NOT power USA involvement (PAGE 478 – 480) “Another factor…” Principle of collective action Limited war. rise of the Cold War o Containment was to dis-contain and prevent it from spreading to the rest of Europe Contain communism ONLY in Europe The whole point because that‟s where it was Russia. Berlin containing it there where it was Resist from spreading it West o Three Arguments: 1. different now! In a limited war. overextension of empire o Draining American resources (PAGE 464): “containment.o o o o o o o What we learned from Munich Can‟t endanger Japan Quote from Truman Security under UN law Peace as a legal concept Need to act and send a message to all other national that it won‟t be tolerated (PAGE 447): “Through Truman…” = wilsonianism Core values Defense of universal principles Uphold rule of law Defends principles NOT interests. synchronized Too much VS too little o Korea fell under both traps Kissinger Chapter 18 First and last paragraph about containment o Containment specifically meant to keep communism from spreading to Europe (PAGE 448 – 449) o Kennan‟s analysis of Soviet Union o Ideology of Soviet Union is hostile by nature Inherit Soviet‟s understanding of foreign and outside world o Spheres of influence Not communist. Lippmann argued…” . Walter Lipmann Psychological & geographical overstretch.
back off Theme of radical left (PAGE 468): “Wallace had…” “Moral equivalence” o Arrogance of power . USA & Allies are strongest at this moment so why wait and level out the playing field o Warned: look at what happened with Hitler… o Time = power. power = diplomacy Didn‟t want war Willing to co-exist with a smaller communist empire goes against ideology 3. but it will buy Soviets time to get stronger which is worse Counter Argument: what if it all leads to the war. Winston Churchill USA is at the pinnacle of strength o “You‟re in a positional to call all of the shots” o Use the USA atomic bomb to make a threat Bad idea because at the beginning of the Cold War. since Russia has been our ally in the war o Churchill was right but we didn‟t know that then and so hard to sell to US population since we had just gotten out of the war Not easy marketing job USA = aggressors but they were already viewed as the aggressors with the doctrines & etc. (PAGE 466): “Negotiated settlement” (PAGE 467) first big paragraph. for Hitler = appeasement We can only bully them right now Use it as a threat Willing to act is for to the point Bully Soviets to get what they want Containment is a passive policy let it all flow until we need to act. Henry Wallace communist (PAGE 464) denied USA moral right to obey containment Give up.I understand that communism is to be contained in only Europe but if there are small communist fires elsewhere then the USA will be spreading itself too thin Need criteria decide which areas are of national and economic interest & defend those areas within reason Containing someone who imposes a threat to our national security so what ends up happening is we contain it all (PAGE 465): Kennan VS Lippmann o Important to extinguish all communist fires o “Its” = communist weakness What was containment asking you to do? o A test of endurances that will eventually result in the fall of communism because of its inevitable weaknesses “Diplomatic intuition…” Very ambitious will have to continue to sell it to the American people who want a quick answer without the analytical research in the reason 2. uncertainty of what Russia has.
Definition: weapons used. socially liberal Modern republicanism Budget cutting Government support for big businesses Return of federal functions back to state and local governments . or objectives pursued are restricted in the sane way Henry Wallace argument against containment: o Moral approach to diplomacy Prejudice. and identify to what extent the Korean War was a limited war.o We were no one/no moral position to tell others what to do We have no moral standards to judge because we were immoral ourselves (PAGE 469) o Russia has their own sphere of influence. military eroded the diving line Objective changed: “unification” o Limited use of weapons: by the 1930s had atomic bomb o Truman prohibited MacArthur‟s suggestion of nuclear war Limited war can be defined as… o Confined to geographical area o Limit number of states involved o Limited aims and weapons o Could be argued that definition applies to “proxy wars‟ of Cold War o Need to show why efforts in selected war were limited o To what extent o Why not confrontation between USA & USSR Eisenhower & Domestic Policies Republican. notions or territories involved. staunch anti-communist New Look o National security act affecting the military and national defense “Dynamic conservatism” o Conservatism with matters of money. hatred and fear were root causes of international conflict o We feared the spread of communism o We couldn‟t intervene abroad until we solved immorality in our own country Simplest comprehensible war aim: o Apply Security Council resolutions o Push North Korean forces back tot their starting point along the 38th parallel Multilateral approach via UN: o No doctrine and fighting in a way where it had no political interest o Aim was to demonstrate penalty for aggression (moral & principle) UN sanctioned war Containment produced opposite of limited war: o Confusion about strategy and diplomacy o Problem military and political goals not synchronized US military did too much. but do we just let these men rule? What would happen if we didn‟t intervene? (PAGE 468) “A product of…” o o Define limited war.
Korea 38th parallel o Co-existence Khrushchev peaceful co-existence Let the two economic policies exist and the better one will prevail Who or what was each of the following.e. Conflict between limited government spending and containment “I will be a conservative when it comes to monetary matters. and how did each one affect East-West relations during the 1950s? o Suez Crisis. and a liberal when it comes to human beings” Massive retaliation: USA will respond to the Soviet aggression through nuclear war Brinksmanship: pushing situations to the brink of total war o Foreign policy Federalism: when there‟s a difference between state and government Eisenhower = opponent of deficit spending. ‟56 USA upset because not passed through the UN . co-existence o New Look: twist on containment Eisenhower & Dulles twist. new approach on containment policy Use of CIA Brinksmanship SEATO – Asian alliances to surround Soviet Union How did events increase or decrease tension with the Soviet Union? o Massive Retaliation Response to an attack would include nuclear weapons Will be repercussions to aggressions. new ideas? Explain the meaning of the following: New Look. Kissinger 21 Built by French and partially owned by the British Both used canal for shipping because it connects Europe to Africa and Middle East British and Israelites from tripartite with France. Hungary: Upheaval in the Empire & 25 & Cold War (PAGE 80) New leaders. vetoed legislation because of it o Public housing measures o Anti-recession public works project Economic policy = laissez-faire Domestic Policies o Rise in social security coverage High minimum wage Expanded unemployment insurance coverage o Wanted to balance federal budget. but: Growing demand for military and foreign aid Negative effects on economy when the federal government reduced spending Unacceptable political costs o End of Eisenhower administration saw highest peacetime deficit Military Industrial Complex: theory stating that incentive to go to war comes from the profit of it o Eisenhower warned against this in his farewell address Kissinger 22. massive retaliation. a lot to loose Will not return to status quo Means just returning things to normal – i.
plans were originally only to arrest . Soviets had this in Hungary Events in Hungary emboldened Soviets o Berlin: construction of the Berlin Wall Berlin = emblematic of Cold War. that‟s our natural interest Tension with the Soviet Union began to simmer down in the 70s The Vietnam Fatigue: being really careful after being burned o Politically and militarily wise Final page of Kissinger Chapter 25 “By choosing Vietnam…” o Global balance = ratio of democracy:communism in the world Key: now wilsonianism gets US involved in Vietnam Diem: who we put in power in Vietnam.o o o o (PAGE 173) UNEF troops sent in Eisenhower Doctrine If there is a communist threat to middle Eastern country that is non-communist. not have a presence militarily (PAGE 559) Real-politik: power politics. assassinated o US encouraged a coup: but. roll back. then USA will intervene Sputnik Gaither Report (PAGE 77) U-2 incident We become paranoid of what was happening weapon wise in the USSR Spy mission made us look bad Hungary: Upheaval in the Empire Hungarian revolution. role that USA assumed after upheaval filling the vacuum Eisenhower Doctrine: containment in the Middle East Roll Back: liberating countries under Soviet Control in Eastern Europe o Radio Free Europe = propaganda Dulles understood Soviets well. he encouraged “peaceful separation from Moscow” through the Tito model o Tito – for Eastern communist countries to separate like Yugoslavia and then seek help from USA o Encouraging Tatoism for more peaceful transition Suggestions we were making. tension o Bay of Pigs o Cuban Missile Crisis Colonialism o USA has an anti-colonial legacy o Controversy in helping out France who colonized o Vietnam was a piece to a larger Soviet Union puzzle Wilsonianism: needs to get into Vietnam before it becomes a natural threat and to keep Vietnam free If we didn‟t put out these fires they‟d become threats. wall separation.
the Soviets created the Berlin Wall but because he didn‟t respond to it. West Germany getting nuclear weapons from USA 2.o We wanted stability Cold War Book Chapter 8 Political differences in Berlin: o East – no free democracy Hostile o West – democracy Prosperous because of political differences Made communists/Soviets look bad Berlin Crisis Because of economic differences. Failing East German economy 3. Ulbricht government of East Germany losing control of East Germany Build a wall to keep people in Khrushchev didn‟t want the wall wanted it as leverage with the USA o VS Ulbricht who thought of it on a more local level When we decided to partition Germany and Berlin our ultimate goal was to reunite Germany and Khrushchev was hesitant because of it was officially USA VS Them Kennedy & Foreign Policy Three big events: 1. April ‟61: Bay of Pigs 2. October ‟61: Construction of the Berlin Wall 3. October ‟62: Cuban Missile Crisis Was Kennedy‟s foreign policy a success or a failure? o Because Kennedy was so weak in the Bay of Pigs. people wanted to leave causing riots Built the wall around West Berlin so people wouldn‟t leave East Berlin to West Berlin People would want to go to West Berlin to East Berlin because family and friends were divided by the wall West East Berlin WEST Germany EAST Germany (PAGE 83) Khrushchev’s Concerns 1. it all led to the Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy didn‟t respond to the Construction of the Berlin Wall because Soviets were building a wall already on their own land – nothing Kennedy would protest to Still caused a domino effect and Kennedy finally responded to the Cuban Missile Crisis .
divide physical symbol USA VS Them o Physical separation o “Other world” What‟s on the other side? Mysterious o Can‟t even coexist Bay of Pigs Began with Eisenhower. (PAGE 83) o Both a twist on containment. showed weakness More about Kennedy o Inexperienced and weak Khrushchev thought so too Makes Castro look more popular Cements relationship with USSR o Cuba needed protection o USSR needs Cuba only 90 miles away from the USA Mutual suspicion and fear of each other Results . administrations take on it but still containment o (PAGE 63) detail Similarities Flexible Response Use of CIA Conventional forces Economic aid to > On Kennedy countries Advisers VS boots on the ground What did the Wall mean? Khrushchev o A defeat. Eisenhower’s New Look VS Kennedy’s Flexible Response. citizens aren‟t satisfied o Ulbricht was still in power still needed him Ulbricht o Wall was good because now could create a communist “utopia” Citizens o Unhappy experience o Front line of Cold War Cold War o Symbolic US didn‟t respond o Separation. was there? USA would recognize trained exiles as the provisional government Move from Trinidad to Bay of Pigs Huge embarrassment. Kennedy inherited it USSR & Cuba closer relationship o Something needed to be done Have CIA train exiles in Nicaragua to invade in Cuba and take over Original plan was good. but Kennedy watered it down and underestimated the people‟s loyalty or.
USSR takes missiles out of Cuba and USA inspection. USA takes out of Turkey Can‟t announce it until 6 months after so it doesn‟t all look connected to the Cuban Missile Crisis Soviets get the better end of the deal but they look worse to the rest of the world . Kennedy speech Resolution o Quarantine o All communication was done through back channels o Castro had little to no role in the crisis o Big moment: Russian spy and Washing Post reporter are friends. USSR would have first strike hit capability reaction time from when missiles were launched to when hit USA was 3 minutes & USA couldn‟t respond so they needed to go Our missiles had been there since NATO. USA won‟t invade China 2. RS says to WPR that is USA says this. since WPR and Kennedy are friends WPR goes to Kennedy and tells him that RS says to do this and that so ambassadors start to meet with Rob Kennedy (Attorney General) Basically. to just remove weapons in Turkey and Cuba cut the deal 1.o Appeared as it we wanted to colonize Cuba and hen it‟ll question our involvement in Vietnam Wallace argument Cuban Missile Crisis Balance of power o USA had missile‟s in Turkey so they‟ll make an equality But. out of Berlin o We couldn‟t abandon Berlin. but Castro doesn‟t allow it 3. then USSR might back down so. early 50s What was the point? o Khrushchev puts missiles in Cuba and doesn‟t care what happens because… Intimidation Bargaining took settle a deal because Kennedy is a weak argument Deal: removing missiles from Turkey.