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After Revoltion -threw out Articles of Confederation for the Constitution, the govt was unstable -finances were unstable -revenue declines while debt grows -paper money devalues & no available precious metals -to fix this, America tries to erect a Republic II. 1789 Constitution Launched -America is looked down on by foreign countries -mouth of Mississippi is in Spanish hands -1789 Washington is voted presided -Capitol is in NYC -Washington marks new govt, established the cabinet (not mentioned in the constitution), appointed department needs/created separation of power (checks & balances) -bill of rights: antifederalists criticize it for nit including individual rights -James Madison drafts amendments -in 1791, the first 10 amendments (bill of rights) are adopted to safe guard American principles *KNOW 10 AMMENDMENTS -federalists try to appease afire wrappers by preserving strong central govt while protecting individual liberties -the judiciary act of 1789 created effective federal courts, organized the supreme court w/ 1 chief justice and 5 associates, established federal district and circuit courts, established office federal district attorney general. *John Jay was the 1st chief justice III. Hamilton -Hamilton is key figure in new governor. Loyalty was questionable, sought to correct economic unrest from Articles of Confederation. -planned to change fiscal policies of administration to favor wealthy groups, in turn they would lend govt money & political support, money would trickle down to common people *1st Objective in plan -bolster national credit: raise public confidence and fund at face value + interest -assume completely debts incurred by states during revolutionary war passed in 1790; unify states to fed govt -southern states like Georgia and Virginia didn't like it because they would have to pay for most of it -Hamilton bargains by letting then move Capitol to the Potomac river -his second objective was customes duties and excise taxes to increase national debt -Hamilton is the father of the national debt -he thought that the more creditors that the govt. Owed money to, the more people would want success of the govt. Making the govt an asset. -to get money to pay off the debt, they used customs duties from tarriffs -the first tariff law was passed in 1789 for revenue in protection of local industries -in 1791, a tax on domestic items, mostly whiskey was passed (excise tax) -he suggested a center of the financial system, the bank of the United States -this would be a powerful private institution where the government would be the major stockholder, and the federal treasury would deposit it's surplus money -federal funds would stimulate business, they would be able to print money, and make a stable national

begin to build -Jefferson forms a separate political group -two party system emerges *no political parties when constitution was founded VI. washington issues the neutrality proclamation of 1793 which proclaimed official neutrality in the conflict between France and Britain -the war ultimately created a great conflict internally and externally as rivaling political parties rival over what to do as American ships were swept away by English and French enemies -if America entered war with France. politically unstable to fight -because of this. Embroilments with Britain -Britain did not adhere to the treaty of 1783 -they still had fur trade in the great lakes region -they sold firearms to Indians in the Miami confederacy . in philadelpia -jeffersonians thought they should take constition literally. preventing them from getting needed supplies -America was useful as a neutral provider to France VII. Whiskey rebellion -challenged new govt -farmers regarded it as a burden on economic necessity and medium of exchange. but federalists were afraid. Hamilton's financial success encroaches on states' rights -opposition to his revenue raising and centralizing policies. Britain would block off the American coast to the French West indies. because rye and corn distilled more cheapy than grain -there was an uprising including tarring and feathering -Washington personally put it down with a lot of troops -this showed that the govt commanded respect and showed foreign countries that America was capable of implimeting a force V. Emergence of political parties -even though the US treasury can now borrow needed money from the Netherlands. economically. French Revolution -the non-American event that left the deepest scars on America -jeffersonians cheered like they liked having the revolution. there was lots of argument over whether it waS constitutional -it was passed in 1791. because the economic system depended on trade w/ Britain -because of the Franco-american alliance of 1778 the united states was bound to helping France fight against Britain in the West indies -Washington along with Hamilton wanted to avoid war at all costs cuz they felt the nation was too militarily. where the hamiltonians took it looser IV.currency. because it would eventually bring Britain into the conflict which would negatively impact America.

America made preparations for war -they created a navy department. Spain granted America free navigation of the Mississippi river and the area north of Florida * Hamilton is the best known member of the federalist party IX. when french spokesmen demanded extremely high bribes to speak to Talleyrand. Undeclared war with France -the French were mad about jay's treaty with Britain because they thought it was a violation of the Franco-American treaty of 1778 -the started swiping American merchant vessels and refused to receive American envoys in Paris which were sent in adams's attempt to create diplomacy -after the X. Jay's Treaty -Washington negotiates jay's treaty in an effort to avoid engaging in war -he sends envoys to London in 1794 -jeffersonians feared that Jay would sell out America to the British -Hamilton. John Adams -the second president of the US was supported by New England and Jefferson was vice president -his presidency was hard because he was hated by Hamilton and inherited the quarrel with France -Hamilton didn't like him because Hamilton wanted to run for presidency but no one liked him so he couldn't be elected X. the US still needed to pay back their debts -because they did not promise to stop seizing American ships in the future or supply Indians with firearms -jeffersonians felt that the treaty was a surrender to Britain and a betrayal to the South because the southerners would have to pay a majority of the debts. the British promise to evacuate their chain of trade posts in northern US (not likely. while the rich federalists would receive money for the damaged ships -the consequences of this was that Spain moved to make a deal with the US because they were afraid of a British-American alliance. in Pickney's treaty of 1795. Talleyrand sends word he will accept American envoys . fearful of war. supplied Britain wit American bargaining strategies -in the treaty. Y.-the battle of fallen timbers. the united marine corps. the Miami confederacy gives up land in the old northwest in exchange for money and hunting rights -the British try to starve out the French west indies by seizing merchant ships and sea men -the Americans people are calling for war by Jefferson wants to keep peace because conflict with britain would ruin the financial system VIII. and authorized an army of 10. because this was also promised in the treaty of Paros 1783) -they promised to pay back the damages of the seized American ships while in exchange. Z affair.000 men -realizing France's mistake. the Americans fight against the miami confederacy and ends with the 1795 treaty of Grenville -in the treaty of Grenville.

Alien and Sedition Acts -the president could imprison immigrants during war or deport them -this was considered unconstitutional. manufacturers. entered a contract regarding how it was to be ruled -these are examples of the extreme states rights view and they were not accepted by any other state -their key purpose was to remove the federalists' party's from the seat in govt in the election of 1800 XII. by stating that anyone who got in the way of government policies or defamed it's officials would have to pay a heavy fine or be imprisoned -the trials of the accused were unfair because the courts were dominated by federalists judges -jeffersonians refusing to let the alien and sedition laws go. aimed to be rid of them. also the alien law changed the resident requirement from 5 years to 14 years to become a citizen -this was a law created by the federalist party because they hated poor immigrants *federalists were the rich people -the sedition act was a direct violation of the bill of rights. Differences between federalists & democratic-republicans Federalists/Hamiltonians -distrusted democracy because they feared democracy of the common folk -voiced for a strong central govt because it protected the estates of the wealthy and supported private and enterprises -advocated good relationship with Britain for the benefit of trade -they were mainly merchants. they feared tha the laws would eventually wipe out constitutional guaranteed rights -Jefferson wrote a series of resolutions approved by he Kentucky legislature and Madison wrote similar papers in Virginia -they both stressed the compact theory that the 13 states in creating the government. by the people (they only allowed white male landowners to vote) -abdicated freedom of speech as a means to expose tyranny -believed America should support French . it took away freedom of speec and freedom of press. *John Adams is well known for his pjs for peace and paved the way for the Louisiana purchase XI.-Adams accepts the French pleas to stop war because he noticed that the country was much too weak to engage in war. at the convention of 1800 the Franco-American alliance of 1778 was annulled. and shippers along the Atlantic coast -they had a looser interpretation of the constitution Democratic-Republicans/Jeffersonians/Republicans -appealed to the middle class and underprivileged people -they wanted a weak central govt with power held by the states because they felt that more power would result in dictatorship -they interpreted the constitution strictly and thought the national debt should be paid off -they thought agriculture was the favored branch of the economy -their key belief was a govt for the people. so.