M. Sage


Cornell University Library

PA 857.B97 1893

3 1924 021

607 431


original of



is in

Cornell University Library.

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1892. Gushing & Co. By EENBST D. BUKTON. Boston. Typography by J.. .A. yt'jo^ C0PTBI8HT. S.

TO MY FATHER AND MOTHER in grateful recognition of the instruction of early years and the helpful in interest and encouragentient the work of later years THIS BOOK IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED .


It is not enough of thought which are . If he would acquire facility in the work of interpretation. grammar. therefore. The book is has any value for historical Its main purpose is to contribute to the interpretation of the New Testament by the exposition of the functions of the verb in New Testament Greek. in the interest not of historical but of exegetical grammar. or that a knowledge of it is the sole qualification for successful in- terpretation. he must have an easy familiarity with the leading uses of each mood and tense. but of philology as If an auxiliary of interpretation. The work has not been undertaken under the impression that grammar is an end in itself. it seems desirable to state somewhat more fully than was done in the former preface the purpose which it is hoped the book will The 1888.PREFACE. Classified according to its intent. so far as those functions are expressed by the distinctions of mood and tense. serve. it belongs among the It is de- aids to the interpretation of the New Testament. not of philology as such. first edition of this work appeared as a pamphlet in In issuing this revised and enlarged edition. this is incidental. signed to assist English-speaking students in the task of translating the Greek New Testament into English forms of thought and expression. The student of the New Testament who would along with other with accuracy and clearness must possess a knowledge of the distinctions qualifications for his work — — interpret it marked by the different moods and tenses of the Greek verb. it grammar is one of of interpretation. but in the conviction that the indispensable auxiliaries written.

illustrate to the student the right investigation and so suggest the course conditions. lie have at hand for reference an encyclopedic treatise on He must acquire. have been emphasized by being set in the largest type.still better. It may be well to require of students who use the book as a text-book that they be able to name and define these leading usages of each mood and tense if they also commit to memory one of the Greek examples under each of these prominent usages. For this purpose he needs a book which. Eor the English-speaking student English usage must be constantly considered and must frequently be defined and compared with Greek usage. and of the forms which express those functions in English. or otherwise of especial importance.VI PEEPACB. as a personal mental possession. The table of contents also has been so constructed as to make prominent a conspectus of the leading uses. method of its conmost frequent occurrence. The aim The usages which are of . and applying to the interpretation of the Greek verb the principles of grammar and logic. a knowledge of the leading functions of the several forms of the Greek verb. My aim has been to provide a book fulfilling these it discusses. they will do of the book has determined the struction. method of which he must pursue in solving for himself those problems which the book leaves unsolved. The matter printed in smaller type consists partly of fuller exposition of the usages defined in the more prominently . The definitions should be scientifically accurate. If such a book does not solve all the problems of New Testament grammar. but they should at the same time be constructed with reference to the point of view of the interpreter. shall enumerate the various functions of each mood and tense. and define each clearly. the laws both of Greek and of English speech. exhibit in some degree their relative importance. availing itself of the assured results of comparative and historical grammar. . with a title in bold-faced type. by its treatment of those which that the subject. it should.

But I am chiefly indebted to Professor William Arnold Stevens of the Eochester Theologiqal Seminary. Eespecting classical usage and pre-classical origins. To all of the works there enumerated. One often fails to apprehend accurately a thought expressed in . Burton of the University of Eochester. D'Ooge and W. I have relied upon those authorities which are recognized as most trustworthy. They are an addition to the text-book proper. the character of a book of reference. Professor Henry P. I have aimed to make no statement concerning New Testament usage which I have not myself proved by personal examination of the passages. to a limited extent. as well as to those mentioned by full title in the body of the book. Vii printed sections. acknowledge the valuable assistance privately given by various friends.Y. On a subsequent page is added a list of books and authors referred to by abbreviations in the body of the book. under whose instructions I first became interested in the Professor . are W. I am under obligation for or suggestion from assistance or suggestion. Hale of the University qi Chicago. but to the end which this book is intended to serve they are as really germane as. L. my brother. own language as much through through ignorance As others. W. N. G. Gilmore of Brooklyn. Prominent among these. The occasional discussions of English usage would of course have no place in a work on Greek grammar pure and simple. The portions in smallest type are chiefly discussions of the rarer or more diflS. though not completing the list. and Professor George W. little concerns the extent to which I have used the work of need be added to the testimony which the pages all accessible While gathering information sources.Greek quite as inexact knowledge of one's of Greek usage. and are intended to give the work.PfiEFACE. any discussions of the force of a Greek tense. partly of enumeration and definition of the less frequent usages. It is a pleasure also to of the book themselves bear. Beman of the University of Michigan.cult usages. Professors M.

eighth edition or of Tregelles in a matter affecting the point The word text designates the preferred reading of the editor referred to. BURTON. or corrections from any teacher or student into whose hands the book may fall. In the English translation of the examples I have preferred to follow the Revised Version of 1881 rather than to construct entirely independent translations. or because their translation obscured the value of the passage as an illustration of the grammatical principle under discussion.viii PREFACE. ERNEST Chicago. I shall welcome most cordially criticisms. but have intended to note any important variations of Tischendorf's directions are larger than can be under discussion. ' . I dare not hope that it has altogether escaped either typographical errors or those of a more serious character. Yet in not a few passages it has seemed necessary to depart from this standard either because the revisers followed a Greek text different from that of Westcott and Hort. and to subject of this book. In quoting examples from the New Testament I have followed the Greek text of Westcott and Hort as that which perhaps most nearly represents the original text. 1893. or occasionally because I was unwilling even to seem to approve what I regarded as unquestionably an error of translation. D. While I have given all diligence to make the book correct in statement and in type. suggestions. whom my obligations in many- acknowledged here. September. as distinguished from the marginal reading.

11.14 14. 14.29. Present for the Futuee Present of tjkih. Periphrastic Form of the Imperfect 16 ix . Imperfect of Verbs of wishing . Present in Indirect Discourse Periphrastic Form of the Present The Imperfect 21. 12 12 13 25-27. 7 The Present 8-10. 5.. 19. 16. 4. 15. . Present of past Action still Similar use of the Aorist in Progress . 8 8 General or Gnomic Present AoRiSTio Present Historical Present 13. etc. 18. -irdpeiiu. 24.. 16 . 34.. General Definition of the Tenses of the Indicative . Two-fold Function of the Tenses 6 TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. 6. 33. 2-5 5 THE TENSES... 7.. 30-32. SECTION 1. 13. 28. Imperfect of Repeated Action Minor uses of Secondary Tenses Imperfect translated by English Perfect and Pluperfect Imperfect of Verbs denoting obligution. Indicative. 6. 8 9 9 9. PAGE 1 Form and Fvmction The Interpreter's Relation to Grammar The four Moods and the seven Tenses 2. INTRODUCTORY. 22. Indicative. 12 Progressive Imperfect Conative Imperfect . 15 15.CONTENTS.. 20.. Progressive Present Conative Present . 3. 10 10 10 11 11 11 etc 17. 12. 28. 7.

43. 68. The Aorist Fundamental Idea Indicative. 33 63.. Aorist for the (English) Perfect Use of the Aorists iiriBavov. . 33. 36.. Gnomic Perfect 39 39 . PAGE 16. X CONTENTS. 49. i^iarriv^ iyvav Aorist for the (English) Pluperfect Aorist Indicative in Indirect Discourse Aorist used proleptically . Perfect op Completed Action Perfect of Existing State Intensive Perfect Historical Perfect 37. 50..64. 45. 44. 37 75. Distinction between the Aorist and the Imperfect The Future 58-66. 47. 51.. 60..34 34. 61. . . 20 21 21 21 20. 32. 67. .76.. Form of the Future MAXu with the Infinitive The Perfect 74. 66.. 78. 62. 71. 42. 79. 48. 19 19. 35 35 35 35 35 36 36. 41. 69. 37 Gnomic Future Deliberative Futuke Periphrastic . Types of Aoristio Future Predictive Future as assertive or promissory Predictive Future with oi ij. 72. 18 18. 65. Indicative. 22 22. 21 22 22 46. 59. Indicative. 57. SECTION 35.. 31 56.i Imperative Future . 17 of the Aorist Additional uses of the Aorist Indicative 17.. Minor uses of the Aorist English Equivalents of the Greek Aorist Indioa^ tive 23 23 23 23 23-30 30. 77. Functions of the Aorist distinguished 38-40. 70. Phedictive Future Aoristio Future Progressive Future Relation of Aoristic and Progressive Future 31-35 31 32 . 37. 73. Historical Aorist Inceptive Aoeist Resultative Aoeist Gnomic Aokist Epistolaky Aokist Dramatic Aoeist .38 38 38. 52-55.

. 115-118. 85.56 56-58 58 . . 47 47. 82.59 . . 100. . 92. 48.. 104-109. 110-114. 99. . . Simple Future Perfect Periphrastic Future Perfect 45 45 TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. 94.55 55. 90. 123-126. 39 39 39. 120-122. Participle. Pluperfect and Aorist similarly translated 44. Present Participle or Simultaneous Action Present Participle of Identical Action General Present Participle Present Participle for the Imperfect Minor uses of the Present Participle ..CONTENTS. Pluperfect of Completed Action Pluperfect of Existing State Periphrastic 44 91. 98.. SECTION 80. Perfect. 54 The Present 119. Form of the Pluperfect . 83. General Principles 46 46 46. 97.41 41-44 The 89. 128-131. . 95. XI PAOE Aoristic Perfect • 81. 96. General Principles 53. Form of the Perfect Definition of the term " complete " Periphrastic 40 40 40 86-88.. . Perfect Indicative in Indirect Discourse Perfect Indicative translated by English Past Perfect used proleptically . Aorist and Perfect compared 40. 48 . 101-103. Pluperfect.49 49-51 51-53 Discourse TENSES OF THE PARTICIPLE. 54. . 127. 58. Present of the Dependent Moods Aorist op the Dependent Moods Future of the Dependent Moods Perfect of the Dependent Moods Tenses of the Infinitive after Prepositions Tenses of the Dependent Moods in Indirect . 84.45 45 45 The Future 93. .

Exceptional uses of the Aorist Participle Equivalence of the Aorist Participle . . SECTION 132. General Force of the Indicative Indicative in Qualified Assertions . . 133. 74 75 75 76 76-78 78 The Optative Mood. Hortatory Subjunctive Prohibitory Subjunctive Deliberative Subjunctive Subjunctive in Negative Assertions . . . The Aorist Participle. . . 65 65-67 67 67 67. Aorist Participle with \ave6. Participle. . 173. 70.. 174. General Force op the Future Participle M^XXwi' . 134-138.. Optative of Wishing Potential Optative 79 79 80 . .. 73 73. . Infrequenoy of the Optative in later Greek .. 160. . 142-145. 72 THE MOODS. . 155. . . Participle. .. 149. Aorist Participle of Identical Action Aorist Participle of Subsequent Action AoKisT Participle with the object of a Verb of Perception .151. with the Infinitive. 148. . 68 68-70 147. '^ . MOODS 157. . 159. 178. 74 The Subjunctive Mood. 139-141.. 79 175-177. 146. . .vui 150.. . 64. IN PRINCIPAL CLAUSES. 158. 162-167. . etc The Perfect 154. General Force of the Aorist Participle Aorist Participle of Antecedent Action PAOB 59-63 63. 71 153. . The Indicative Mood. 172. . 168-171.Xll CONTENTS. The Future 152. 161. General Force of the Perfect Participle Perfect Participle used as a Pluperfect 71 72 156. 64 . denoting inten71 tion. 179.

. 197-199. in Clauses of Cause. . Predicate.. . 237..189. The Imperative Mood. . 80 80 80.232. Indicative with (iVre Independent Consecutive Sentences 100 Moods 238-241. .. .... etc. .. 190-196. Impekative in Commands and Exhortations Imperative in Entreaties and Petitions Imperative to express Consent or an Hypothesis Tenses of the Imperative in Commands and Pro- . . 224-227. .85 Pure Final Clauses 85. 96 Moods 228. Moods and Tenses in Causal Clauses . ' xiii SECTION 180. in Clauses of Result. 233. and General Usage -83. 205-210. 97 97 98 98 231.86 Object Clauses after Verbs op Exhorting. 230. 183. 100 Distinction between Indicative and Infinitive in Consecutive Clauses 236. duced BY IVa Complementary and Epexegetic Clauses introduced BY tva Clauses op Conceived Result introduced by Xva Object Clauses after Verbs of Fear and Danger . Definition 99 99 99. 81-83 Subordinate Clauses Classified Moods 188. Definition and Classification Simple Present or Past Particular Supposition . 87. 88 Object Clauses after Verbs of Striving. in Conditional Sentences. 101 102. 103 242-247. MOODS IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. 100. 91 91. etc.. .84 Testament Use of Final Particles 84. 181.. 184. Definition 229. 88-90 Subject. and Appositive Clauses introClassification New . 200-204. 211-214. 90. . in Clauses Introduced by Final Particles. 92 92-95 95. ..CONTENTS.. . 81 hibitions 81 FINITE 185-187. 182. 215-217.. 218-223.. Independent Causal Sentences Other Methods of expressing Cause Moods 234. 235.

. and Kal General Usage El KaL in Concessive Clauses .XIV section 248.. Definition 112. Definition Moods in Definite Relative Clauses 118 118 . in Concessive Sentences. 114 . 108 First and Fifth Classes compared .. . . . . 301. 260. 108 109 109 109-112 [Past General Supposition] Peculiarities of Conditional Sentences 266-277.. Definite Relative Clauses implying cause.. CONTENTS. 116. Definition in Relative Clauses. 262. 293. 103. 287. 104 ' 104 104. 107 107. 115 . 283. . 114 of Moods and Tenses in Con- cessive Clauses 284. .. result. 258. Restrictive and Explanatory Relative Clauses II. 264. pagb 251-256..263... Concessive Clauses op the First Class Concessive Clauses referring to the Future Concessive Clauses of the Fourth Class .. 250. Definition and Classification Simple Present or Past Particular Supposition [Supposition contrary to Fact] . . . 116 Moods 289-291.. . 113. Supposition contrary to Fact Future Supposition with more Probability Variant Forms Particular and General Suppositions referring to the Future Present and Future Suppositions in Indirect Discourse Future Supposition with less Probability Present General Supposition Third and Fifth Classes compared . 114 114. 249. 259. . . 119 or concession 295. 288. 119-121 121 296-300. 294. Definite Relative Clauses. 117^ 118 292. 261. Moods 278. . 286. . 117 and Classification I. 115 115 115. 257. 302. Concessive Clauses of the Fifth Class Concessive Particles in English . 265..113 el 279-282. 105 106 106 106. 285. 121 . . Conditional Relative Sentences.

. 310.350. in Indirect Discourse. iyevero. Relative Pronouns in Indirect Discourse Indirect Discourse in English . . 328. FuinEE Supposition with more Probabilitt Variant Forms to the future . [Future Supposition with less Probability] Present General Supposition Past General Supposition 123 123. 126 IV. 318-320.. 129 129 129 Moods 334-340.332. 125. 135 fect in Indirect Discourse 349. While. 331. but definite in sense III. 311. 333.. Clauses introduced by rplv . and referring TO a past fact Clauses introduced by Im (while). and Pluperfect for Per. . SECTION XV PAOB 121. 127 324-326. 330. Relative Clauses introduced by words meaning Until.. 323.. and in Greek 135 135-142 Construction after Kal 357-360..CONTENTS. Definition of ?ws 126. Relative Clauses of Pure Purpose Complementary Relative Clauses . 341. 316. . and Before. 312-314. 123 303-305. 125 . . 317. 306-309. Definition and Classification Classical 130-132 132 132-134 343-346. New Usage in Indirect Discourse Testament Usage in Indirect Discourse.. 321. . Three Forms of the Idiom . Particular and General Suppositions referring 123 .329. 322. Clauses introduced bt Sus and referring to the FUTURE Clauses introduced by ?ws and referring to WHAT WAS IN past TIME A FUTURE CONTINGENCY Clauses introduced by las (until). 134 134. 128 128 128 128.. 348. 142.. 315. 122 122. 124 . and referring to a contemporaneous event "Ems followed by oiJ or «tou Clauses introduced by &xPh *XP« o"> 6tc. 327. 127 127. 143 . 351-356. 124. Single dependent Clauses in Indirect Discourse Imperfect for Present. 342.125 125 Clauses conditional in form. Relative Clauses Expressing Purpose. . 347.

379. 160 . General Use of Infinitive with the Article Infinitive with to as Subject 155. 385. and Classification of 143-145 The 364.408. . in Apposition . Impekative Infinitive Infinitive op Pukpose Infinitive as an Indirect Object Infinitive op Result Exceptional usages Infinitive bepining Content op a previous 146 146 147 147-150 150 Verb 150.. 388.. 157 . 368. 366. 390. 394. 367. 399.. 365. 378. 386.. 156 156 156. swear- 387-389. 404. 396.. Uses PAGE 361-363. 158 Infinitive op Purpose with toO Infinitive of Result with toO Infinitive with tou after Adjectives Infinitive with toJ after Infinitive with toC . . . 395. . 393. 397. . 406-417.XVI CONTENTS.. 891. Infinitive -without the Article. 151 . 154. 157 157 157. promising. 159 159. . Genitive Various constructions after Verbs of hindering Infinitive with toO as Subject or Object Infinitive with the Article governed by Prepo. 398. or Noun 376. 372-374. . Infinitive after irpiv 152 153 153 158 153.. Infinitive with tQ . etc 155 The 392. 369-371. sitions 160-163 . 401. commanding. 159 402. Origin. 405.. Infinitive limiting Adjectives and Adverbs 151 151. 377. 155 ing. 152 Inpinitive limiting Nouns or wplv ij . 156 Infinitive with to as Object Infinitive with the Article. Nouns after Verbs that take the 158 158. .. 375. 154 Infinitive used absolutely Infinitive as Subject 384. Infinitive with the Article. 380-382. 158 400. Infinitive as Appositive Infinitive as Object Infinitive in Indirect Discourse Infinitive after verbs of hoping. THE SECTION INFINITIVE.

166 166. 421.. .171 171 171 171 .. 447. PAGE General Nature of the Participle Classification respecting logical force 163 163. Participle.173 173 . . Participle op Time Participle of Condition Participle of Concession Participle or Cause Participle of Cause with w's Adverbial Participle of Purpose Adverbial Participle of Means Adverbial Participle op Manner 'fis with the Participle denoting Manner Adverbial Adverbial Adverbial Adverbial 169 .. Order of words with Attributive Participle limiting a Noun with the article Attributive Participle conveying a subsidiary idea of cause. 437.. Explanatory Attkibctive Participle . 439. SECTION 418. 438.. 164 The Adjective 420.. 169 170 170 170. 172. 419. 442. 445... tions The Adverbial 434. 169 432..483.. 172 Participle of Manner action as that of 448. Definition and Classification Restrictive ATTRiBniivE Paeticiple Restrictive Attributive Participle with 164 164... 440. 422. Participle. 443.. XVll THE PARTICIPLE. — Hebraistic .. with the article Neuter Participle with the abstract 165 article equivalent to an 166 Noun 426. 430.446. 169 Definition 436.CONTENTS.. 165 423. 167 428.. Means denoting same the principal Verb or Intensive Participle . 444. . 431. 427. 435.441. etc 167 167 429. Subject 165 omitted 424... purpose. Predicative Adjective Participle Predicative Participle used to form periphrastic tenses Participles in Predicate in various construc- 168 168. Noun without the article limited by a Participle 426.

182 182. Negatives with the Subjunctive 181. 463. 474. 183 .450. 479. 464. 455... 175 176 176 176 177 460. General Usage 178 NEGATIVES WITH THE INDICATIVE. 477.. 174 More than one adverbial the same Participle Genitive Absolute relation implied by 174 174. Position of Adverbial Participle 175 The Substantive 456. 476. 451. 459. 471. .. 458... 468. 177 THE USE OP NEGATIVES WITH VERBS. Substantive Participle as a limiting Genitive Substantive Participle distinguished from jective Participle Ad. 182 Negatives with the Optative Negatives with the Imperative 478..XVlll section CONTENTS. AND IMPERATIVE.180 180 181 181 after as a conjunction Negatives in Indirect Discourse Negatives in Causal Clauses and in simple Relative Clauses 181 NEGATIVES WITH THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 179 179 179 Negatives in Questions Mil oi in Rhetorical Questions 469. 457. page 449. 462. 467. Definition 175 Substantive Paeticiple as Subject Substantive Participle as Object Substantive Participle in Indirect Discourse Position of Substantive Participle ... 465. 461. . 179. 472. . 175 452-454. OPTATIVE.. . 475. 473. Adverbial Paeticiple op Attendant CikcumSTANCE 173. . Participle. Negatives in Conditional and Conditional Relative Clauses Ei Oi) /ii} in the sense of except /xi} .. used substantively . 178 466... Negatives in Independent declaratory Sentences Negatives with a Prohibitory Future .470.

Two 487. 481. 186 489. General Usage of Negatives with the Participle . 183 its 183. etc Negative with Infinitive dependent on a verb negatived by oi> 184 . 486.184 of oi with 482. simple . 485. denying. .CONTENTS. ing. Negative followed by similar compound Negative or double Negative 186 . XIX NEGATIVES WITH THE INFINITIVE AND PAETICIPLE. 488.Negatives. or a compound Negative lowed by a simple Negative Double Negative ofi /xi} fol- 185 185. Compound Redundant an Infinitive oi> dependent on a 184 principal verb limited by 483. 184. SECTION PAGE 480. ynii with Infinitive after verbs of hinder184 itself 484. 185 SUCCESSIVE AND DOUBLE NEGATIVES. General Usage of Negatives with tlie Infinitive Negatives witli a limitation of an Infinitive or of subject .


. (Verses according to the edition of Harnack. EEFEEKED TO BY ABBEEVIATION. Sac. 4 Lon- A. Kautzsch. A Grammar of 2 vols. vol. W. A Treatise on the Grammar of the New Testament. Edition. A Greek Grammar for Schools and ColRevised by E. Leipzig.A. Third Oxford and London.J. Harper. Journal of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. Thayer. A Grammar of the New Testament Greek. Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache. Raphael Kiihner.. W.J. vols.V B Bib. Revised and enlarged. . . Translated by J. The Greek New Testament. Elements of Hebrew Syntax. Alexander Buttmann. American don.B. the Greek Language. Gild Basil GMT Gr JIA Hr J. W. 1861. Miinchen. 1873. various papers in A. Leipzig. Grammatik des Biblisoh-Aramaisehen. W. D. J. Goodiein. 1884. L. Bibliotheca Sacra. . Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. New York. Alf. II. E. ' Boston. Xa S. Griechische Grammatik. and T. Second Edition. New Edition. Henry Alford. 1871- CI. Gildersleeve. James Hadley. Boston. . ler's in Iwan Miil- Handhuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. Allen. New York.. 1862. B. Del Ev. Hanover. 1889. Goodwin. Thomas Sheldon Green.L Ji. A. Syntaktische Forsohungen. Delbruak. Andover.P. Jelf. leges.) W. A Greek Grammar. Br Karl Brugmann. 1888. 1888. H. Apocryphal Gospel of Peter. Pet ff B. 1892. Revised Edition. Halle. 1890.LIST OP WORKS AND AUTHORS Journal of Philology. London. 1884.P.A. Authorized Version of the New Testament.P. 1893. 1869-1872. W. . Bev Classical Review.

the text Hort. WM. and WT. is at the time of going to press incomplete.A. including the Apocrypha. Edition. Thayer. J. London. Polyc. enlarged and improved by Gottlieb Liinemann. tament. . B. .. Eighth Edition. Grammatik der Attischen Berlin. Westcott and Sort. unless otherwise indicated.' Tisch Constantinus Tischendorf. 1857-79. 2 vols. James. Thayer. 1869. London and New York. Lightfoot. Graece. A. 1889. on Philipand on Colossians and Philemon. G. . B.V . English Translation. S. 1867-1876. and enlarged.) Meist K. . F. Cambridge. S. Revised and authorized Translation by J. iiber das Neue Testament. revised. The Psalms Th W. etc. . Greek-English Lexicon. Fathers. 1891. Moulton. 2 vols. (Eecent edition by Ryle and of Solomon. AND AXTTHORS. Commentaries on Galatians.A. H. Cambridge. are based on the edition of Tischendorf. W. Leipzig. See WS. menti. . . Sol R. Testa- G. Winer. pians. and Liddell and Scott. G. Andover.S'. 2 vols. Mey H.xxii L. References to the Old Testament are to the Septuagint Version. . Ltft J. Westcott and F. . The Language of the New Testainent. Third Edinburgh. Martyrium Polycarpi. T. Edinburgh. W. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament: Being Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi TestaNew York. J. A Treatise on the Grammar of New Translated by ment Greek. but may be used for the passages contained in vols. B. . Citations from the Septuagint. Tregelles. 1885. WM. A Grammar of the Idiom of the New TesSeventh Edition. F. translated. A. LIST OP "WORKS S. 1887-.P. 1 and 2. 1886. Cambridge and New York. 1882. Seventh Edition. The New Testament in the Original revised by B.) The New Testament in the Revised Version of 1881. M. WT. . . B. The edition of Swete. 1882. 1881. Meisterhans. Transactions of the American Philological Association. Winer. Kommentar Gottlngen. W. Winer. (See any edition of the Apostolic Inschriften. Simcox. New York. 1887. For classical and Scripture writers the ordinary abbreviations are used. Mart. Greek. 1873-1880. 1869-72. F. Meyer. Ps. Novum Testamentum Leipzig. . Treg The Greek New Testament.

New It is Testament. 198). different functions. performs various distinct functions. the various functions of the Aorist Indicative (38-48). and that each Forms may be associated together under one and perform the same function. the other hand.iruv : these forms are of quite diverse origin. 1 . or group of functions. function can be discharged by but one form. Forms also which still have different names. the and d. and ecrTjji'.. origin by no means of various the case that each form has but one function. cSeila The same is true of the Aorist Active Indicatives. Observe. 1. so far as respects their mood and important that the nature of the relation between It is form and function be clearly held in mind.g. Aorist Active Infinitives. kva-ai Compare. On we find that a given form. e.g. The following pages deal with the various functions of the various verb-forms of the Greek of the tense. in function they have become entirely assimilated. and to an even greater extent.. or a given group of forms bearing a common name. INTRODUCTORY.STN"TAX Moods and Tenses in New Testament Gkeek. e. may have certain Compare the Aorist Subjunctive and the Future Indicative in clauses of purpose (197. and usually perform functions in common. FoKM AND Function.

The distinction between these points of view should be clearly recognized by the inIt may be conveniently represented by the terms exegetical grammar. and of none of them invariably. Thus the term Aorist reflects the fact that the forms thus designated most frequently represent an action indefinitely without reference to its progress. The name Present siiggests is that the forms thus designated denote present time. not from the names. or group of forms. To investigate the process by which the several forms were built up. on the other hand.2 INTKODTJCTOBY. must be learned. grammarian as such and the interpreter deal with grammar. however. Both the 2. and defines the functions which at a given period each form discharged. names of the forms. grammar and mar deals with the development of both Historical gramform and function through the various periods of the history of the language. to determine the earliest function of each such form. but from observation of functions. to show how out of this earliest function . which true. of the smaller part only of those that bear the name. therefore. and does this from the point of view of the interpreter. The Intbepeetee's Eelation to Geammae. and to a conThe functions siderable extent arbitrary. to express a wish. is usually derived from some prominent function of the form or group. Exegetical grammar. they cannot now be regarded as descriptive of the actual must be taken as conventional. for the purpose of enabling him to reproduce the thought con- veyed by the form. and does this in purely objective fashion. again reminds us that one function of the forms so While. The name of a given form. takes the forms as it finds them. historical different points of view. but the actual usage. but from very terpreter. The name Optative named is the names of the forms were originally intended to designate their respective functions.

the ing a common name is capable of discharging. does not immediately concern the interpreter. result of historical if it is an assured grammar that these two forms are com- pletely assimilated in function. discharging the same function and eventually coming to bear name — all this belongs to historical grammar. sarily concerned both grammar is neces- with the language under investigation and with that in is which the interpreter thinks and speaks. and to express as nearly as may be in his own tongiie. became associated. without reference to the language of the grammarian. bear a common name. IXvcra and tXnrov. but completely assimilated in function. and that the earliest use of such infinitives was as a verbal noun in the Dative case. others were developed. and presumably at the same first of different function. except as this fact . diversity of origin of the two Aorists. it is with the results only of the processes interpreter is of historical grammar that the concerned. Strictly speaking. Nor does it concern him that Uvai. exegetical grammar is concerned only to know what are the functions which each group of forms bearThus. is the at at the end of the Infinitives. so that forms of diverse origin perhaps. however. Our interpretation of the phenomena of language in its later periods can hardly fail to be affected by a knowledge of the earlier history. the exact thought which a given form was expressing cal — this in the period in question capable of is the task of exegetical grammar. The results of historical grammar are of the greatest interest and value to exegetical grammar. If the paradigm has been rightly constructed.INTEODXJCTOEY. SeZ^ai and the mark of the Dative case. To reproduce in the mind of the interpreter. Histori- grammar views its problem wholly from the point of view Exegetical of the language under investigation. to aid in reproducing in the latter tongue since its problem thought expressed in the former. and 3 how forms of different origin.

the interpreter itself.4 of historical INTEODUCTOEY. reference must be had also to the functions of the English forms as related to Since. in the New Testament. to the far as possible separately. e. whom in the present instance sought to serve thinks in English. or group of forms. grammar aids him in the interpretation of the phenomena of that period of the language with which he is dealing.g. since what in Greek it is one function of a given form may be in English subdivided into several functions per- formed by several forms.. languages do not always correspond. An enumeration of the uses of a given Greek tense made list for the use of an English interpreter titles may therefore properly include certain made for one to whom which would not occur in a Greek was the language of . discharge at the period with which we are dealing ? What. and the significance of each of the distinctions discussed by discussion of itself. and discusses these as Its question therefore is. function in the two that is. are the are the uses of functions of the Present Indicative ? What the Aorist Subjunctive ? For practical convenience forms are grouped together. and seeks to express in English the thought of the Greek. What function did this form. made by inflection The present work confines itself mood and tense. moreover. but to subdivide the one are recognized Greek function into those several functions which in English and marked by the employment of different forms. becomes necessary not only to enumerate and define the functions of a given form purely from the point of view of Greek. it is mood ? from the point of view of the Greek language however. What first in the New Testament are the functions of each tense and of each These various functions must be defined of all Since. distinctions of those of the Greek forms. The one question of exegetical grammar to which all other questions are subsidiary is.

Perfect. strictly speaking. The Greek verb has four moods. The Subjunctive. and least of all to the Imperative. 5 for the English The Aorist The and the Aorist for the English Pluperfect (46. varies with the particular use of the tense. and the Participle. to Fidelity Greek usage requires that they be recognized as. Those tenses which denote past time are Since the time denoted by a tense called Secondary tenses. Rem. and Infinitive are often called dependent moods. the Subjunctive. Imperfect. and the Euture and Euture Perfect are always. Aorist. are associated in the study of Syntax the Infinitive. interests of the English interpreter require that they be clearly recognized. however. With these is. Those tenses which denote present or future time are called Primary tenses. Optative. Primary tenses the Imperfect. In the Indicative the Present and Perfect are usually.INTRODUCTORY. and is retained as a matter of convenience. Future. Aorist. and Euture Perfect. — the Indicative. strictly speaking. . It has. which almost always stands as a principal verb. no fixed line of division can be drawn between the two classes of tenses. — the Present. 4. becomes an established term. Perfect. There are seven tenses in the Greek. the Optative. ordinary speech and thought. which which is a verbal adjective. a verbal noun. 3. 48) furnish a pertinent illustration. true Historical Aorists. and the Imperative. tenses. Pluperfect. Imperative. The term dependent is not strictly applicable to these moods. and Pluperfect are usually Secondary .

6. The chief function of a Greek tense is thus not to denote time. tenses of the other moods its in general define the action of the verb only as respects progress. The action denoted by a verb may be defined by the tense of the verb (a) As respects its progress. or indefinitely. as past. . Aorist.e. present. the former to those of the Indicative only. Pluperfect. as in progress. HA. Thus it may be represented i. This latter function belongs to the tense-forms of all the moods. or indefinitely like the Aorist. 5. THE TENSES. O. and Pluperfect denote past time 6 the Future and Future Perfect denote future time. as a simple event without reference to progress or completion. The The tenses of the Indicative mood in general define the action of the verb in both these respects. (6) As respects its time. indefinitely as an event or single fact the Future is used either of action in progress like the Present. The significance of the tenses of the Indicative : may be stated in general as follows As respects progress The Present and : — mood Imperfect denote action in progress . the Perfect. denote completed action. hut progress. TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE MOOD. ov future. 821 . or as completed. As time : respects time : The Present and Perfect denote present the Imperfect. and Future Perfect the Aorist represents the action . Re3i. 1249..

one may refer to an action antecedent to is the other. The most constant characteristic of the Present IndicBr It probably tive is that it denotes action in progress. By prolepsis also a verb of past time may refer to or include events to take place after the time of speaking. The Present Indicative used of action in progress in present time. See Br. 7 tive to that of speaking. 824. 8. Matt. a. 7. is The Progressive Present. 9. 351. not implied in the con48.uiv a-piwuvrai. 1250. our lamps are going out. 156). as respects time. In conditional sen- tences of the second form. and the Future is used both as a progressive and as an aoristic tense it for future time. results that the Present Indicative is chiefly used to express action in progress in present time. Cf. action in progress in past time expressed by the Imperfect. Cf. 248. 50. The tenses of the Indicative in general denote time relaMost exceptions to this rule are apparent or rhetorical rather than real and grammatical. but before a point of future time spoken of in the context. is had But the historical periods of the language. 1:6. Oav/jA^m on ovtws ra^ccos /lETaTt^ecr^e aTro tov Ka\e<TavTos v/tiSs. 1. In original speaking or thinking is retained. but this fact of antecedence text. 154 Cf. Cf 29 and . 25:8. Hence in deciding upon the significance of any given instance of the Present Indicative in the New Testament as well as in classi- .THE PEBSENT INDICATIVE. THE PEESENT INDICATIVE. in no reference to present time (see Br. 180). indirect discourse the point of view. (p. I marvel that ye are so quickly removing from him that called you. JIA. the tenses are properly timeless. expressed in the tense. originally since. of the Of two verbs of past time. at Xa/iTraSes ^fJ. Gal.

illus- John 10 : 32. a certain presumption in favor of the Progressive Present rather than any of the other uses mentioned below. 11. 5"A824. every good tree bringeth forth good fruit. leadeth. itself sufficiently sug- best translated I marvel. is occasionally used of action attempted. All the verb-forms of the Present system are equally. For examples of the Imperfect see 23. the verb gesting the idea of action in progress. Present is The Conative merely a species of the Progressive Present. 1265. cal Greek. not to be re- garded as a distinct function of the tense. use the progressive form. HA. Matt. 1291. Xi^a^eTc. is a Progressive Present. i. and Gal. The Grcneral or is Gnomic Present. : used to express customary actions and general a. since they progress. 1253. 825. Thus the verb but is 6av/id^o)." Some English verbs themselves suggest action in progress. The Conative Present. O. capable of expressing attempted action. The Present Indicative truths. the interpreter at least in the majority of words. such is its tendency.e. and do not. when used in a tense which implies action in progress. with the Present. translated by The Progressive Present in Greek is not always best what is commonly called in English the " Progressive Form. biKaiovcrdt. itself A verb which of suggests effort. 5 Similar trate this usage in the Present.8 THE TENSES. but not accomplished. 1 : 6. . emphasis on the progressive idea. except when there is strong 10. The Present Indicative is. in Gal. may consider that there is. Eespecting the resultative force of such verbs in the Aorist see 42. 2 : 4. and hence incomplete. all : denote action in 4. 12. naturally suggests the idea of attempt. . 7 17 ttSv StvSpov ayadbv Kapvovi xaAoiis Trout. is the use of the Present in Kom. This use however. diyct. 6?.

d<^tevTat. : This use 15. dyovcrtv. The Present to be. 1252. 26 18. irapayyekKto (Toi Iv ovofixvri thee in the name of Jesus . There being in the Indicative no tense which represents an event as a simple fact vfithout at same time assigning it either to the past or the future. epx^rai. in which an action of present time is conceived of without reference to its progress. fXapov yap Sotijv dyoTr^ o ^eds. is The Historical Present. 2 Cor. 1:11. enTpeTrcrax ous instances of Ae'yo) in the gospels. laToi 26:1.THE PRESENT INDICATIVE.. The Present for the Future. for giver. Jerusalem. 828. In a similar way the Present Indicative future event. Acts 16 18 : . . Kdt epxovraL ttoXiv eis lepoa-oXv/w. o uios rov av9pu)Trov irapaSiSoTat is ei's x'lpas avOpiawmv. iKKmriToi. See also Mark 2 : 5. 9:7. and conceived of as a simple event. The Present Indicative is sometimes used of an action or event coincident in time with the act of speaking. Mark to 11 : 27 . very frequent in the gospels. is Most frequently the action denoted by the verb identical with the act of speaking itself. 34. Rem. Christ. This usage is a distinct departure from the prevailing use of the Present tense to denote action in progress (cf. and they come again John 18 28. may be used to describe vividly a Mark 9 : 31 . and the numer'IijtroJ) Xpttrrot). the Present is used for those instances (rare as compared with the cases of the Progressive Present). 9). SA. See also Matt. 9 : / command Acts Gal. the : Son of man jToiS . Indicative used to describe vividly a past event in the presence of which the speaker conceives himself a. . 27 : 63. 9 loveth God a cheerful 13. . is See also Luke 8 : 49. The Aoristic Present. yvmpi^w. delivered into the hands of men. the 14. or takes place in that act. kycipopai Luke 3 : 9.



Rem. The term " Present for Future" is sometimes objected to, but without good reason. The arguments of Buttmann, pp. 203 f ., and Winer, WT. pp. 265 ff. WM. pp. 331 ff., are valid only against the theory of an arbitrary interchange of tenses. It is indeed not to be supposed that Greek writers confused the Present and the Future tenses, or used them indiscriminately. But that the. form which customarily denoted an act in progress at the time of speaking was sometimes, for the sake of vivid;

ness, used with reference to a fact


in the future, is recognized



grammarians. See, e.g., J. 397 K. 382, 5 G.MT. 32. The whole force of the idiom is derived from the unusualness of the tense employed.

The Present form





means I have come (John 2:4; (7am jsresenJ) sometimes means

I have

arrived (Acts


This, however,


not a

Present for the Perfect of the same verb, but a Present
equivalent to the Perfect of another verb.

The use

of aKovu)

meaning /




similar use of English heai;

more nearly a proper Present for Perfect (1 Cor. 11:18; 2 Thess. 3:11). Such use of the Present belongs to a very few verbs. HA. 827 G. 1256.


The Present


past Action




accompanied by an adverbial expression denoting duration and referring to past time, is sometimes used in Greek, as in German, to describe an action which, beginning in past time, is still in progIndicative,
ress at the

The Present

time of speaking.

English idiom requires

the use of the Perfect in such cases.
Acts 15 21

HA. 826





Mojucr^s yap Ik •yevefiv

apx'^i-'^v Kara. iroXiv

tous Kijpvain every

o-ovTas avTov exa, for

Moses from generations of old has had
See also Luke 13

them thai preached him.


SouXeuw; John

5:6, ex"! 2 Tim. 3:15, oiSas. almost always incorrectly rendered in R. V.

15 29, This Present is


Rem. Cf. Br. 156, "Das Prasens in Verbindung mit Tripos, TrdXai wurde seit Homer gebraucht, um eine Handlung auszudriioken die

sich durch die Vergangenheit bis zur Zeit des Sprechens hinzieht."


New Testament

examples definite expressions of past time occur in

place of the adverbs wipo^, etc.




The Aorist

Indicative, limited

by an expression meanMatt. 27

ing up

to this time,


also be

used of acts beginning in past

time and continuing to the time of speaking.




Cf. 46,



Verbs in indirect discourse retain the point of view, as

respects time, of the original statement

a Progressive Present

in indirect discourse accordingly denotes action going on at

the time, not of the quotation of the words, but of the original

utterance of them.

English usage in indirect discourse
this difference it
results that


and from

a Greek

Present Indicative standing in indirect discourse after a verb
of past time


cases, however, involve

must often be rendered by a verb of past time. no special use of the Greek

and should not be confused with those of the Historical
Cf. 351-356.


Peeipheastio Form of the Peesent. One of the marked peculiarities of the Greek of the New Testament is the frequency with which periphrastic forms composed of a Present or Perfect Participle (Luke 23 19 is quite excepclearly

tional in its use of the Aorist Participle



Ev. Pet. 23),

and the Present, Imperfect, or Future Indicative, or the Present Subjunctive, Imperative, Infinitive, and even participle, of

the verb


(rarely also mrdpx<^), are used instead
Cf. 431,

of the usual simple forms.

and see the

full dislist

cussion with examples in B. pp. 308-313, and the
quite complete) in S. pp. 131 ff.


Instances of the periphrastic Present Indicative are, however, few. The clear instances belong under the head of the

General Present.
Matt. 27



tottov A.eyo/u.evoi' VoXyoOa,

o iariv Kpaviov Tottos


unto a place called Golgotha, which

called Place of a

See also Matt. 1




5 41


2 Cor. 2 17







The Progressive Imperfect.




used of action in
a. 1250,









xal iroXAoi TrXoucrioi tfiaXXov TroXXd,

and many



rich were casting in much.




yap x^'P KvpCov

tjv /Aer' avroru,



hand of



was with him.

John 11 36



Tuis €<j>L\a avrov, behold

how he loved him.


The statement respecting the

translation of the Pro-

gressive Present




the Imperfect


Notice the third example above, and. see also Luke 2


mother kept

[8teT»7pei] all these

things in her heart; in



32, A. v., did not our heart burn within us, is better


was not our heart burning within


Though the verb
the English form

a periphrastic Imperfect,

did burn sufficiently suggests action in progress to render


The Conative Impekfect. The HA. 832

Progressive Imperfect

sometimes used of action attempted, but not accomplished.



G. 1255.

Matt. 3:14; o Sc SiCKolXvei/ avrov, hut he would have hindered him. See also Luke 1 59, IkoXovv 15 16, eSt'Sou Acts 7 26, crwijXXaCTCTEv; 26 11, TivayKoZftv.








The Imperfect

fect is

of Repeated Action. The Imperused of customary or repeated action in past time.

EA. 830



Acts 3:2; ov iriOovv Ka6'

wpos t^v Ovpav Tov Upov,



lay daily at the gate of the temple.



For the use of the Imperfect, Aorist, or Pluperfect in
fact, or its apodosis, see 248, 249.

a condition contrary to


The Imperfect and Aorist with
In the

av are

used in classical


to denote a customary past action taking place under

certain circumstances.


Testament this usage
of the Imperfect

never occurs in principal clauses.

The use

and Aorist with ov in conditional a remnant of the usage. Cf. 315.

relative clauses is possibly

The Imperfect and Aorist

are used in a clause express-

ing an unattained wish having reference to the present or past.

The Imperfect denotes

action in progress.

The Aorist
All the


sents the action indefinitely as a simple event.

Either tense


refer to either present or past time.



ment instances seem
Rev. 3

to refer to present time.

15; 6<l>£\ov

or hot.

\jn})(p6i ^s ^ ^eoros, / would that thou wert cold See also 1 Cor. 4 8 (Aor.) 2 Cor. 11 1 (Imperf.).



1. In classical Greek vmattainable wishes are expressed by eWe yip with the Indicative {HA. 871 G. 1511) or u^eXov with the Infinitive. In Callimachus, 260 e.g., <S<pe\ov is found with the Indicative (i. & S; 6(t>el\u II. 3. fin.^. In the New Testament el ydp (in this sense) and el8e do not occur, but S^eXov, shortened form of a<pe\ov, is used (as an uninflected particle) with the Imperfect and Aorist Indica-










p. 301, n. 2.


In Gal. 5


i!0eXoi' is

followed by the Future, but the wish

probably not conceived of as unattainable.

28. When an Imperfect refers to an action not separated from the time of speaking by a recognized interval, it is

best translated into English

by the

Perfect, using preferably

the progressive form, unless the verb
in progress.

suggests action

: . Acts 1 16 17 3. Buttmann. Luke 13 16 24 26 the Imperfect has its usual force. is a true affirmative Imperfect. 2 Cor.e. It See also Luke 8 27 Acts 9 39. 9 26. etc. circumstances related. Cf. of course. Rom. 14 1 THE TENSES. : 31. : not lawful for you to have her. When an action denoted by an Imperfect evidently preis ceded an event already mentioned. : . bility. John 4:4. 42. Such are John 9 33 1 Cor. is an ordinary Progressive Imperfect or Imperfect of Cf. Prom the point of view of Greek." Here belong Matt. should or could have been done. pp. who also quotes examples from clas. 52. such Imperfect sometimes best translated into English by the Pluperfect. 18:33. 23:23. but wrongly includes in his list several passages in which not only the fact but the obligation or ability is hypothetical. 2 : 3. IXeycv yap 6 avnS. not hypothetical or "contrary to fact. Here also. . See also Luke 2 49 in Theological sical authors). this. 'Itoavijs Eepeated Action. but in which the required or possible deed did not take place. 216 f . The distinction : . Matt. 14:4. 5 10 Heb. The Imperfect is also used of a past necessity or obligation when the necessary deed did take place. 27:21. .. ijv etxere air : John 2:7. describes correctly the class of cases in which the past obligation or possibility was actual... Ovk i^eartv is crot tx"'' '"^^•'i for John had been saying to him. : . 52. Acts 24:19. 225 f . the past necessity or possibility was actual. 3 2 (cited by Weymouth Monthly. however.rm that a certain thing i. which are to be explained in accordance with 249. 26:32. apxV'i «''"cA ye have had from the beginning. like the preceding usage. 15 22 Rev. The Imperfect when used to of verbs denoting obligation or possiafB. 25:27. iv. 29. : : . : 30. : . was required or possible under the It is av. incorrect in this case to speak of an omitted it is since though frequently the case that the necessary or possible deed did not take place.

. without av. The Imperfect of verbs of wishing. He could have He could have gone. • Infinitive after such tense. 14. see G. The 32. cf. without affirming that he present utterance. 3:18. if he had been well. 33. as over against his preference. or the perception that cannot be realized. Ltft. since the English forms could. cit. I would the Imperfect rather than the Present. etc. at the time of. his This states is in one ence — where the apostle his personal preferwhat his desire was (i^ovXoiJiriv). I have sometimes Nearly the same meaning may be conveyed in Engwished.THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE. 5:4. on Col. that has been put aside. I should like. and to go. 13. times say in colloquial English. between these two classes of cases is not always easily 15 in English marked translation. etc. but did not wish Through a dimming of the distinction between the ideas of present and past obligation (which has occurred also in English in the case of the word ought) the Imperfect without av is sometimes used to express a present obligation. . 22:22. it Failure to realize the desire. gone. 413-423. 416.T.. and GMT. clause — (^6eXT]a-a). however. is The reason for describing the desire as past it not always.M. On these several uses of the Imperfect of verbs of obliga- tion. Eph. describing a desire which the speaker for a time actually cherishes it felt.. an Imperfect is always in the Present In accordance with this usage we are probably to ex- plain Acts loc. Cf. Col. should. lish by the more usual potential form. is best explained as a true Progressive Imperfect. or reluctance to express a positive and deliberate choice may lead the speaker to use Similarly we someI was wishing that such a thing might happen. and in the next his actual decision especially clear in Philem. are used both for actual and for hypothetical obligation or ability. or even more commonly.

In Acts 25 22 the use of the Imperfect : il3ov\6fj. or THE TENSES. G. simply as an event. 35. Peeiphkastic Porm of the Impeeebct. and may well be rendered I should like. Periphrasformed by adding a Present Participle to the dixl. is strictly In is all these cases. the context alone implies what the present Cf. however. including the participle. what stated in the Greek merely the past existence of a state of desire. In Eom. 22 John 13 23 and probably Mark 2 18. : .riv rather than a Present softens the request for polite- ness' sake. it that it represents the action denoted indefinitely.M-T. Cf 431. nor on the other affirming the existence of nite as thus its result. 4 20 : it is probably the impossibility of realizing the wish that leads to the use of the Imperfect. state of 34. and rjd^Xov wapwai may be rendered. majority of especially in the historical books. i. neither cin the one hand picturing it in progress.e. 10 : 32 . tic Imperfects. 19 47 Gal. : . mind is. and Jesus was going So also Luke 1 10. In Gal. The constant by characteristic of the Aorist tense in all is of its moods. or because he thought of it as beyond the control or influence of his wish. Imperfect of the verb are frequent in the New Testament. koI before them. I could wish. .yuxv avrov's 6 'lijcrdvi. T could pray expresses the meaning with approximate accuracy. 425. I would that 7]vxofiT]v I were present. In a few instances repeated action is referred to. as Luke 5:18. : : .16 that. The large these forms denote continued action. THE AOEIST INDIOATIVE. : . 9 3 may have been chosen because the apostle shrank : from expressing a deliberate choice in regard to so solemn a matter. The name indefi- understood is therefore applicable to the tense in all of its uses. Mark rjv irpoa. 1 23.

which in the Present and Imper. Secondly. absolut vorstellen sollte. the Epistolary Aorist. this sense . These are the Gnomic and the Dramatic Aorist. Das Factum wurde einfach constatiert ohne Rucksicht : auf Zeitdauer. to . may be used to describe an This use of the tense. SiaKovrjcrai. thus used may be called the Eesultative Aorist." Br. which in the Present and Imperfect denote thus KwXvav. 169. 36. both of pp. In the Greek. they apiv. the classical and the New Testament periods. we may distinguish three functions of the Pirst. however. Br. . compare Brugmann's statement concerning the Aorist forms "Am haufigsten wurden diese Formen so gebrauoht. all its In addition to these uses which belong to the Aorist in moods. the Aorist Indicative has three uses. state. instances of which are comparatively infrequent. become it silent. Thirdly. obstruct. Aorist. 159. it In the Indicative to Aorist of any verb may be called the may be used in Historical Aorist. Del. The genetic relation of these three functions of the Aorist tense has not been satisfactorily defined. thus say. The Aorist effort or may be used to denote the success of an effort. fect denote the continuance of a state (nyrjuai.THE AOEIST INDICATIVE. to be silent. 17 is which the action looked however. dass man sich die Handlung in einen ungeteilten Denkakt ganz und vollstandig. it may be used to denote the inception of a called the Inceptive The Aorist thus used may be It belongs to verbs Aorist. to serve. It belongs to verbs attempt prevent. since action or event in its it entirety. to thus myav. is by far the most frequent. to hinder. 100 f. Rem. in sich abgesohlossen. The el-ireiv. pear side by side as co-ordinate uses. it common to all of its moods. As tense respects the point of view from at. may be called by pre-eminence the Indefinite Aorist.. Respecting the force of the Indefinite Aorist. KtoXvarai.

. the Inceptive. The distinction between the Indefinite. fact. it is not possible to decide certainly whether a given its entire verb refers to the inception of an action only. The Aorist for the Perfect and the Aorist for the Pluper- fect are. It : evident that the Infinitive must refer to the becoming silent. and after James answered. others denote action. is The matter that. and With reference to the validity of this distinction. 169. 37. not to the whole period of silence. or Kesultative Aorist.18 THE TENSES. or its legitimacy denied. and the Resultative functions of the Aorist is often ignored. of whatever the genesis of the the Aorists of the its New Testament some denote a past act in undivided entirety. The Inceptive Aorist they is is illustrated in Acts 15 to <nyrj<TaC\ had become silent [/actoi 13. inceptive. since in the latter silent while the others case James must have been were silent. of importance to the interpreter. historically speaking. or to and others in which there is a similar difficulty in deciding whether the reference is to the action as a whole or to its result only. but merely special cases of the Historical. see Br. It is true that there are cases in which extent. are conveniently indicated resultative. which from the it exegetical point of view is often important to mark. however. not a matter of entire cerEspecially must is and that it is possible that. These distinctions. Inceptive. by the terms indefinite. not distinct functions of the Aorist. as explained below (62). merely or chiefly the inception of an affirm as a past fact the accomplish- and others still ment of an act attempted. they it are but varying types of one usage. It is true also that the genetic relation of is these three uses of the tense tainty. be regarded as doubtful whether the Resultative Aorist any- thing else than the Indefinite Aorist of verbs denoting effort.

3. accompanying the bringing out. or to any existing result of it. The Aorist Indicative is most frequently used to express a past event viewed in its entirety. we must read not being rich he was poor. : this man them forth. to be in the So also in Luke 2 : 44. (?. ^X6ev. See also 42. : Cf. where both eireiBov. were persuading. since the signs and in the wilderness forty years. It has no reference to the progress of the event. however. 5. lSw. cts to. Matt.yayev should have had 38. koI oi iSioi avrov ov TrapiXa/3ov. failing to persuade. RA. having wrought wonders and signs in Egypt and in the Red Sea. was not the holding of the opinion that he was in the company that preceded the day's journey. koI eKTet'vas Tr]V X^^pa r]\j/aTO airov. and the participle vo/xicravT£s is inceptive. 1250.' The Historical Aorist. and having stretched hand he touched him. supposing it him company. Polyo. : See other examples under 41. refer to the same event. In 2 Cor. but the forming of it. forth his ^ gave up the ghost. its 39. seems to wrought in the Eed Sea and the wilderness would otherwise have been represented as. 8 9. Illustrations of the resultative sense are less less clear. they went a day's journey. 19 and have begun to speak when their silence had ended. . 8 2. 8:3. (a) A momentary i^ajruiev. but beiTig : rich he became poor.THE AOEIST INDICATIVE. the verb e|7. lie John 1 : 11 . Since any past event without reference to duration the His- or complexity torical Aorist may be conceived of as may be used to describe action. simply as an event or a single fact. Mart. Contrast Acts 16 27. irotcSv. and instead of Troii^cras we refer only to the result. and droTuxiSi'Tf s ToO irewrai. numerous and led In Acts 7 36. he Acts 5:5. came unto his own and they that were his own received him not. a single fact. iTrrdxevcrev is manifestly inceptive. 836 .

however prolonged in time. and the Collective Aorist. or extended. or a but the pur- tense does not express or suggest the distinction. An extended act or state. ij v r)ya. The Inceptive Aorist. if its viewed as constituting a single fact without reference to progress. These three uses of the Historical Aorist may for con- venience be designated as the Momentary clearly observed that these terms do not Aorist. Rem. Cf. The term is applied to the use of the Aorist here described only by pre-eminence. G. the functions of the tense. of his great (c) A : series or aggregate of acts viewed as constituting a single fact. Kesultative Aorists are also Historical. The pose of the subdivision into momentary. 841 . Eph. 2:4. and collective is not to define the force of the tense-form. . 2 Cor. The writer may or may not have in mind that the act was single and momentary. for they all had her. 1260. An Historical it Aorist. but to discriminate more precisely the nature of the facts to which it is applied as 66. 40. Acts 28 30 : .irri<Jiv -^imli. the Compre- hensive Aorist. . 11 25 rph ivavyrja^a.WI. thrice I suffered shipwreck.ya. 8ia r^v ttoXX.tjv a. Matt. and he abode because two whole years in his own hired dwelling. The Aorist of a verb whose condition. commonly denotes HA.v iv iSi'o) fiurOiafuiTi. whatever the nature of the fact affirmed. shown by the context Historical Aorist or the circumstances. 41. comprehensive. 22 28 jravres yap ea-xov avrriv. affirms simply as a past series of acts. Compare what In strictness the Inceptive and is said concerning the term Indefinite under 35. G. Present denotes a state or the beginning of that state. ivi/jxivev Se 8i£Ttav oXr.20 (&) THE TENSES. But it should be mark distinctions in fact. : .irqv avroC love wherewith he loved us.

Sl v/xois iirTiLxtvircv TrXovcrtos 21 your sakes he became poor. 1 24 eth . • • eKutXva-ev avTcnii tov jSowXiy/iaTos. : See also Matt. but the centurion . Acts 7 36. 1292. The passages cited above are entirely similar to the classical examples of this ancient and well-established idiom. whom I send : to you for : this very purpose. 5 11 . : . 4:8. Br. 159. pp. The Aorist of suoh verbs is not. p. 2 28 Col. for Luke 15 32 John 4 52 : . . Phil. but which will be past to his reader. p. . The Aorist is used in provand comparisons where the English commonly uses a General Present. "Winer's contention (^WT. 24. 6 Se iKaTOVTapxo^ . 201 : ff. : 838. Rem.. The writer of a letter sometimes puts himself in the place of his reader and describes as past that which is to himself present. f. 160. ov eirefixj/a tt/oos v/uSs ets auro toCto. 154-161. the grass witherSee also Luke 7 35 John 15 6 Jas. (?. 23. 43. The Epistolary Aorist. in the latter probably inceptive. IL . the verb ia-lyrjra being in the former : : historical. . prevented them from their purpose. 14:9. (cat to avdiK iiiirecrev. Kem. 44. Acts 27 43 : . WM. ^A 840. . See also Acts 23 30 . 27:20. 1 Pet. WT. 346 Q. flower falleth. WM.MT. HA. 277. pp. 277 . Luke 9 36 with Acts 15 12. however. The same form may he in one sentence inceptive and in another historical Cf. Kom. : . p. and the i^pdvOr] 6 x6pT(K. necessarily inceptive. effort or whose Present implies The Aorist of a verb intention. See also w. Philem. commonly de£r. 1 : 11. notes the success of the effort. THE AORIST INDICATIVE. though he was rich. 2 Cor. 8:9. The Resultative Aorist. Cf. 42. Eph. : Acts 7: 60. 11. 1 Cor. B. 346) that the Gnomic Aorist does not occur in the New Testament does not seem defensible. 6 : 22 . erbs The Gnomic Aorist.

and : possibly lyvMv (John 7:26. All these Aorists 48. to-day is Luke 19 come : : 9 <jyfJi. K. The Aoeist foe the is (English) Plupeefect. Luke 16:4. 9. das man sich soeben gebildet hat. The Dramatic it.).22 45. 842. or / perceived] what Greek mainly poetical and is found sometimes called " Aoristus tragicus. THE TENSES." See numerous examples in K. 68 . Phil. (English) Pbkfect. 198." Brugmann thus describes it: " Nioht selten wurde der Aorist von dem gebraucht. is 47. 9. or of an The is effect is to give to the statement greater vividness than given by the more usual Present. 160. It is 46. may also be used as simple historical Aorists. is The Aoeist foe the G'. Cf. 386. The Aorist frequently used in Greek where the English idiom requires . pp. the result of hence with the proper force of a Greek Perfect. 86. tyvo)!/ I shall do. 5 21 yiKova-are on ippeOrj rots dpx"""^. 1 Mace. I know [lit. 75. Testament to denote a present So the Aorists see airiOoivov (cf state. 6:13). Rem. HA. RA. for I have learned See also under 52. iyo) yap ipaOov iv ols dpi avrapKiqi elvax. that it Matt. die soeben iiber einen gekommen ist. 197.€pov criaTrjpia tco oiko) totjto) salvation to this . 2 Cor. besonders von einer Stimmung. iyivero. house. I knew. a Perfect. 6 : 35 with Luke 8 49. iiia-Trjv (Mark 3 21 . 837 . Aorist. was soeben eingetreten ist. The Aorist Indicative of a few verbs used in the a past New act. 386. : Mark cf. in whatsoever state 1 am therein to be content. The Aorist Indicative frequently used in narrative passages of a past event which precedes another past event mentioned .MT. B. This usage is in classical chieiiy in dialogue. tl noi-^cra. ye have heard said to them of old time.MT. . Br. was 4:11. oder von einem Urteil. G^. 60. and : John 8 : 52 ei al. 5 13). sometimes used of a state of act expressive of The Aorist Indicative is mind just reached.

278. 347 WT. 52. It has been much disputed whether Avia-TeiKev in John 18:24 be assigned to this liead. 837 GMT. see 248. Cf. Luke 8 27 : . pp. ad loo. 52. 277. Both the Aorist and the Perfect is are sometimes used proleptieally. See also John 15:8. 273. he said. but even if thou shall marry. For the Aorist in a condition contrary to fact. John 19 68 : . tov 'Iwdvrjv eSr/crev. Cf.. but in the presence of oSp. thou hast not sinned. is to 8 : 14 . 341. or implied in the context. for Herod having laid hold on John had bound him. wJien had received the vinegar. the Aorist is the only form that can be used if the event is thought of simply as an event (cf. matical idiom. 2 10. See also Matt. THE AOKIST INDICATIVE. f. pp.pioSri'S Kparrja-a'. : 51. 363. in John "especially. see 27. 13 : 12. . but this rather a rhetorical figure than a gram. HA. contra). 199 . ovx iJ'/wipTes. 27 31 therefore Jesus : . 1 Cor. which is. must usually be These cases form a class entirelj'' distinct from those that are included above under the term Aorist for the English Pluperfect. English Equivalents or the G-eeek Aorist IndicIt should be observed that tlje Aorist for the Perfect ative. . For the Aorist expressing an unattained wish. 23 In English it is common in such a case to indicate the real order of the events by the use of a Pluperfect for the earlier event. 53. John 12 17 : . 345. and in the absence of any intimation in the context that — — the events are related out of their chronological order. The valid objection to this is not in any inappropriateness of the Aorist tense to express an event antecedent to one already mentioned. It is finished.. Matt. From the general principles of indirect discourse in it English and in Greek results that an Aorist Indicative in indirect discourse after a verb of past time rendered into English by a Pluperfect. 28 iav Sc Koi ya/jL'^crrj'. Mey.. 49. TeTcXtcTTat. pp. 50. Jas. B. 14 3 6 yap 'H. 7 : WM. so constantly continuative. 30 ore ovv IXaySei/ to o^os 6 'IijtroBs eiTrev. and the Aorist for the Pluperfect are not variations from the . : Mark Rem.

heard. equivalent of the English Perfect of the English Pluperfect.24 THE TENSES. . nor the Greek Pluperfect if This will appear distinctly we place side by side the definitions of the tenses which in gen- eral correspond in the two languages. as completed at the time of the later event. and substan- .e. The necessity for mentioning them arises merely from the difference between the English and the Greek idiom. The Greek Aorist corresponds to to the English simple Past (or Imperfect or Preterite. The English Perfect and Pluperfect by and had distinctly suggest completed action in the proper sense.) more nearly than any other English tense. as having an existing result. or Resultative Aorists. Viewed strictly normal use of the Greek Aorist. at the tend distinctly to interpose an interval. standing complete. as hav- ing the speaker does not in- ing an existing result. i. and this whether the earlier event is thought of by the context.e. the posses- sion of a thing in the condition indicated by the participle. The English Pluperfect is The Greek Pluperfect is used to mark the fact that the event expressed by it preceded used to represent an action as standing complete. The English Perfect is used any past action between which and the time of speakof The Greek Perfect to is used as represent an action i. or only indefinitely as a simple occurrence preceding the later 1 event.^ time of speaking. from the point of view of Greek Grammar. etc.-' their auxiliaries have viz. Inceptive. at a point of past time indicated another past event indicated by the context. these Aorists are simply Historical. But is it is not the precise equiva- lent of the English Past nor the Greek Perfect the precise . loved.

in fact. regardless alike of the existence or non-exist> respecting existing result. not implied any result of the seeing remained at the time of the non-recognition. ceased to be Perfect my hut little in meaning from tenses in any proper sense of that word. : The army arrived. leaving it to the context or the nature of the fact to show whether at the past time referred to there were existing results or not. In each pair the distinguishing mark between the two sentences is that example is existing result suggested while the Perfect tense places the event in the past time without defining whether or not an interval has elapsed since the event. it is im§lied that the results of the doing remained at the time of in the sentence. I have I have my lesson learned. for their Only in the Many men fought for their country. He has often visited first by the Perfect tense. action. . Many men have country. e. tiaUy this learned is the meaning often conveyed by these tenses. the Pasts and Perfects in the following examples arrived. ence of an interval between itself and it the moment or of speaking. It affirms nothing any past event which con- ceived of simply as an event (or as entered upon. They have.THE AOKIST INDICATIVE. He did not recognize the persons tliat whom he had previously seen. lesson. The English Past is 25 is used of The Greek Aorist used of is any past action between -which and the moment of speaking an interval is thought of as existing. He often visited Borne.g. Compare. Thus But in the sentence. But this is by no means the only use which may be made of these tenses in modern English.. / showed him the work which I had done. the English Pluperfect affirms only the antecedence of its event to the other past event. affirms nothing respecting ex- It is evident from this comparison that the English Perfect has a larger range of use than the Greek Perfect. and of the question whether precedes not It some other past isting result. differs Thus. it is the showing. Similarly. The army has fought Borne. or as ac~ complished). the Past tense places it in the past time and suggests an interval.

because the interval is not thought of. so that there is actually : no 8 . and between which and the time of speaking the speaker does not wish distinctly to suggest an interval. because the result lish and in Eng- by the up Perfect. will appear that a simple past event which is conceived of without reference to an existing result. in fact. the interval may be ever so long. but which in modern English are performed not by the Past but by the Perfect and Pluperfect. For while the Greek can use its Pluperfect for an event which preceded another past event only in case the result of the earlier event is thought of as existing at the time its of the later event. for all the English freely uses Pluperfect such doubly past events. — will is — be expressed in Greek by not thought of. in its ordinary use not only covers the ground of the English upon that of the English Perfect and Pluperfect. Cases of this kind arise. e. So also the Eng- wider range than the Greek Pluperfect. Hence arise the so-called Aorist for Perfect and Aorist for Pluperfect. tinue interval [Matt. without reference to the existence of the result of the earlier event at the time of the later one.26 THE TENSES. therefore. Past. Sib eKX^Orj 6 dypos eKeivoi 'A-ypos At/aaros . but overlaps in part The Greek Aorist. If the attempt be made it to define more exactly the extent of this overlapping.g. the Greek Aorist has a wider range it than the English Past.. fect only in case such result is lish Pluperfect has a thought of. the Aorist. since performs precisely those func- which the Greek Perfect and Pluperfect refuse. 27 when the event is*said to con- to the time of speaking. Thus a past event between which and the time of speaking no interval is distinctly thought of may be expressed by the English Perfect. whether the result of the event is thought of as existing or not but it can be expressed by the Greek Per. On tions the other hand.

53. See exx. 9 : . the reference is doubtless to the frequent occasions on which they had heard such teachings in the synagogue. the thought of an interval seem unnatural [Luke 5 26 strange things to-day. The Eendering into English of Monthly. the Greek Aorist and Perfect. to another past event already referred to. 6 21 rjKova-aTE on ippiOt] tois apxa^i. English idiom permits a simple Past. 19 also 4 . - The Greek employs the . A Pluperfect is is strictly when the precedence in time somewhat promi- The Eevisers 25 of 1881 have used the Pluperfect sparIt : ingly in such cases. might better have been used also in . under 48. THE AOBIST INDICATIVE. have ye not read ? See . See also Matt. exx. 4 26. we have seen : See also Mark 14 41 : . Cf Beet. 372-385. 17 12 : . are frequent in the New Testament] or when the verb -refers to a series of events which extends : approximately or quite to the time of speaking [Matt. Johu 16 24] : . to suggest the order the English usually suggests the order . in Theological 33-47. See also 1 Esdr. Weymouth. or when : the time of the event entirely indefinite [Matt. ovk aviyvuyn. by the use of a Pluperfect.. . xi. therefore that field has been called Field of Blood until this day. : Instances of the Greek Aorist for the English Pluperfect arise when a past event which is conceived of simply as an is event without reference to existing result of its mentioned out chronological order.27 T^s cr-q/iepov. The Greek Aorist as used in the New Testament. in Expositor. or when the event is so recent as to : make . 296-308. iv. Acts 7 is 52. 191-201. 28 16 : . l(i)s . . Matt. vvv eyci/ecr^c] . aSa/j-cv irapdSoia o-i^/xepov. Eev. . In many cases in which the Greek Aorist is used of an event antecedent required only nent. Mark 8 14 John 12 18 {had : heard). ye have heard that it was said to the ancients. 27]. leaving the context clause. or is expressed in a subordinate Aorist. . 162-180.

lation. a collective Aorist. of the The nature argument or the author's thought. 2 12. 5 21 as a collective Aorist for (English) Perfect. It is therefore a collective historical But since that is series of evil deeds extends even to the irdpTes. ruiaprov is evidently intended to of the evil deeds of men. as in 3 23. employ an English Perfect in translation. the sin of each offender is simply a of : past fact. and in 1 Cor. leaving it to be inferred that the same : But inasmuch as principle would apply to subsequent sin. of preceding paragraphs (1:18 Aorist. must furnish the main evidence by which to decide. comprehensive. 11 17. Of similar force is the same form in Rom. An Aorist which is equivalent to an English Perfect historical. So far as the tense-form is concerned there is no presumption in favor of one or the other of these inter: pretations. In this case the Future Perfect. is It is possible. —3 sum up the aggregate which the apostle has been speaking in the : 20). . : may be either momentary. that by a sort of prolepsis rumprov [/cpiS^o-ocTai]. it moment impos-- of speaking. or it or Pluperfect may be either an If historical. and the apostle accordingly speaks here only of sin then past. This is upon the supposition that the verb Tuxaprov takes its point of view from the time of speaking. thou hast become cfTjircc. may be used in trans- common in subordinate clauses in English as an abbreviation of the Future Perfect. and the sin of tuting a past fact. should be rendered. 4 8. 3 : 23. are inceptive properly rendered by the English Perfect probably in Rev. may be also ^/Sao-iXemras. however. and be classed with Matt. From the point of view from which the apostle is speaking. an inceptive.28 54. : In Eom. collective. "Whether the same form in Rom. or a Besultative Aorist. or again the Perfect. we must. or In Luke 15 Aorists which king. It must therefore be expressed in English by the Perfect tense. iTrXovn^ffare. or refers to a deed or deeds in the remote past in which the "aU" in some way participated. like the other cases. THE TENSES. all a series or aggregate of facts together consti- this series is not separated from the time of speaking. as sible to think of indeed directly affirmed in the is an interval between the : fact stated and this statement it. as learned from sources outside the sentence itself. 32. shall have sinned. representing a series of acts between which and the time of speaking no interval is interposed. uttered from the point of view of the to all sin that will then future judgment and refers be past. both uses of the tense being equally legitimate. 5 12 shall be rendered in the same way or by the English Past depends upon whether it is. : .

and : . this would be the most natural explanation. 24 see W. It may be described. (c) as a comprehensive Historical Aorist. (e) as an Inceptive Aorist referring to some indefinite. The Aorist becoming pleased and leaves the present pleasure to be suggested. imagined point of past time at which God is represented as becoming well pleased with Jesus. : . having the force of an English Perfect. up to the time of speaking. Christ's earthly existence is an Aorist which has by usage come to have the meaning which is I became well pleased with thee. and may be rendered. Cf. Luke 22 2 Pet. this explanation they contained some such phrase as wpb KarafioX^s kImtiuov. on Mark especially if 1 : 11. I am well pleased. Mark 1:11. This explanation. e. and I am [accordingly'] loell pleased with thee. as an Inceptive Aorist equivalent to an English Perfect. that both in the Septuagint and in the New Testament there is in use a regular Present form of this verb. : . however. the rendering force of this evidence is. If all the instances were in connection with the baptism. can only be a vivid way of saying. But against this the absence of any adverbial phrase meaning up to this time. 12 18 Luke 12 32.THE AOKIST INDICATIVE. 1 17. 54. 3 17 17:5. 101 15 Jer.g. But since this point is not thought of as definitely fixed. therefore. 2 17. : 29 55. : however. from the preceding (d) in that it does not suppose the Aorist have acquired the power of expressing an existing result. / have become well pleased. 47. affirms the A true differs Perfect would affirm the present state of pleasure and imply the past becoming pleased. may be explained (a) as a Historical Aorist having reference to a specific event as its basis. See Ps. Cf. The of the English versions is a free but substantially correct paraphrase. 18 and 52. 52 (p. But for those that occur in connection with the account of the transfiguration this explana- tion fails. If then this view is correct. The Aorist eiSdxTiaa in Matt. and is probably therefore not the true explanation of any of the (6) as a comprehensive Historical Aorist covering the period of Christ's prelncarnate existence. therefore. were in the fourth gospel. N. Cf. and that the Aorist in the majority of cases clearly denotes past time. 2 19 . which usually accompanies an Aorist verb used iii this sense. Mai. If the passages John 17 5. There are a few passages of the Septuagint that seem at first sight to favor this explanation. ((?) as strictly appropriate to the Perfect. Com. This. Cf also Matt. The absence of such and the fact that the passages are in the synoptic gospels are opposed to this explanation. : — . . would have much in its favor. Clarke. : : . but judges the existing result to be only suggested by the affirmation of this verb to . English idiom requires a Perfect tense. and referring to the period of limiting phrase. 27). instances. Cf. 3 : . for receiving baptism. I was loell pleased with thee.greatly diminished by the fact that all these instances are capable of being explained without resort to so unusual a use of the Aorist.

56. not of the nature of the fact but of the speaker's conception of the fact. the latter merely states the 57. 42 : is the use if 1. 41. all Cf. 23 2. fact. especially the following: these cases the funda- mental distinction of the tenses. Cf. 12 18. This is rhetorical figure. on the way to become gramManifestly similar : matical idiom. This is illustrated in Mark 12 41 and 44. . it is evident that the same fact may be expressed : by either tense or by both. Matt. 12 : 18 represents a current translation of Isa. Similar also are ^Kdeurav in Matt. . and of eiddK-Qo-ev in Matt.0ov in : there any clearly established usage of the Aorist for Greek Perfect. of Tpo(j-eS4^aTo in Isa. which was inherent in the . Some verbs use one of the two tenses almost or quite to the exclusion of the other. .T. Mark writes in v. tinction between the Imperfect IXtyov and the Aorist scarcely to be A disit-n-ov is drawn in the New "In Testament.g. and %ii. but not yet become such. Mark 3 : 7 and 6 24 Luke 2 18 and 4 : : 22. 4 : 11. and in the 'New Testament the Aorist of this verb does not occur.30 of the past fact. . The former describes the scene in progress. 56. in neither is there apparent any reference Phil. THE TENSES. 44 records Jesus as stating the same fact in the words Travres ifiaXov. The form tXcyov is used in classical Greek without emphasis on the thought of the saying as in progress or repeated. with strict appropriateness in both cases. From the nature of the distinction between the Imperit fect and Aorist. Indeed. where.a. ttoXXoi irXownoi i/3aXXov iroXXa. In neither case is to a definite point of past time . The Distinction between the Aoeist and the The difference between an Historical Aorist and an Imperfect of action in progress or repeated being one Impbefect.M. in both the real fact intended to be suggested is the present state. G. and in v. 42 : our present passages were probably affected in form by this current rendering of the Isaiah passage. 1.. e. also results that the difference in thought represented by the choice of one form rather than the other is : sometimes almost imperceptible.. 67.

in a moment. or collective. it should be noted. inceptive. comprehensive.rfirja6fXsBa." This approximation of the Aorist and Imperfect. that the Greeks of any period were not fully alive to the distinction of the skill two tenses and could not use it with and nicety.. oiS' idv tk they be persuaded if one rise from the dead [resultative]. occurs only in the case of the Historical Aorist (38). It must not be thought. The Aokisxic Futuee and aflrms that it as an event. or resultative. It it may be indefinite. 15 51. 65 69. Aorists are clearly distinguished THE rUTUEE 58. RA. 6r. Tai/res oi KO\. iv arofiai.MT. 31 only it happened that either of the two disforms expressed the meaning which was here needed equally well. in the twinkling of an eye [indefinite i/xSs StSo^ei Travra koI viro/JLvijiTa i/iSs iravTa momentary]. 52 . form. iv piTtrj 6<t>6a\iwv. or progressive. 1250. Since it The Future does not Indicative is is most frequently used place in future time. to affirm that an action to take distinc- mark the it tion between action in progress and action conceived of indefinitely vt^ithout reference to its progress. indefinite Of. but we changed. «k v€KpS>v avacrrrj Tracr&ijcrovTai.ji. may be either aoristic . John 14 26 exeivos : . The Inceptive and Eesultative in force from the Imperfect. or. 63. IITDIOATIVE. we shall not all sleep [indefinite comshall prehensive] all be . 39. The Predictive Future. . a eTirov iifuv iyu>. As may be momentary. 168. Luke 1 : 33 /cm ySacriXevo-a cttI tov oikov laxciyS «s Toiis ataivas. 6 G^. from these occasional examples. : 1 Cor. remained tinct . 35. Br. we shall not all fall asleep [inceptive]. conceives of an action simply will take place in future time. neither will Luke 16 31 : . iravTcs 8c oAAayTjo-djue^a. and he shall reign over the house of Jacob forever [indefinite comprehensive]. THE FUTURE INDICATIVE. he will teach you all things and bring to your remem- brance all things that . I said unto you [indefinite collective]. 843 .

however. and (herein I rejoice. that the writer must in and such. kol iv rovrio xaipw aXSJa. It is probable. The Progressive Future affirms that an action HA. 9 6. yea. there being no difference of form between a Progressive and an . Whether he left it thus undefined in his mind must of course be determined. will be in progress in future time. he left in his own mind and hence for the reader undefined as respects progress. 6:2. 843 G. since they represent differences of thought in the of the writer to be interpreted. rather. progressive must be accounted as aoristic. Phil. moreover. and that tinctions it is will take the context only that conveys the dis- referred to. THE TENSES. Rev. koI -xap-ficToixtu. See also Rom. that the tense in all these cases makes precisely the that it same afB^rmation respecting the event. most cases have had them in mind when speaking of the facts. and it is to the interpreter a matter of secondary importance whether the distinction in question is by his writer immediately connected with the tense of the verb. if at all. Since the Aoristic Future is less definite respecting progress than the Progressive Future. the distinctions are both justified and necessary. 1250. . the latter predicting the act as continuing. place. the former making no assertion. From the exegetical point of view. are real distinctions either of fact or of thought. viz. aoristic. 62. Phil. It may be doubted whether any of the distinctions indi- cated by the subdivisions of the Predictive Future are justified from the point of view of pure grammar.32 60. it is evident that any instance of the Predictive Future not clearly If the writer did it not conceive the act or event as continuing. mind The terms employed above are convenient'terms to represent these distinctions of thought. 6. These distinctions. therefore. from the context. 1:18. 1:6. 61. and will : [continue <o] rejoice.

I will by my attraction bring In the former case the words will mean. To decide whether a given Aoristic Future merely pre- dicts the fact. and indeed the difference reference to it as a thing accomplished. and such evidence failing. a conative An Aoristic Future of such a verb is like the Aorist. and collective in respect to the Future tense. Aoristic Future.: THE FUTURE INDICATIVE. Rem. I leill exeH on meaning will be. There is one exception to is Progressive Future this principle. the context must give the evidence of this larger meaning. instance of the Aoristic Future not clearly inceptive or resultative must be accounted indefinite. or has must again be determeaning of the word. a mere 64. as in respect . as inceptive or resultative. that any. to 33 It should be noticed that it is not enough show that an act will be in fact continued. all men to men an attractive influence. tense. In verbs of effort a naturally like other Progressive forms. The distinction is between momentary. denotes effort. all In the me. define the action to his In other words. nature of the distinction Here also it results from the between the indefinite use and the other two. it cannot be considered established that the verb is resultative. if the writer did not own mind fact. tense. 63. The verb in John 12 Since the latter 32 furnishes an interesting and important illustration. or the mined by the context of thought will be but slight. or refers to the inception of the action. Every It can Future form is therefore by presumption aoristic. in order to count the verb which predicts it a Progressive Fjiture it must ap. pear that the writer thought of it as continuing. Since the verb the Future will naturally be accounted conative if it is if it is judged to be progressive. be accounted progressive only on evidence that the writer thought of the act as continued. and resultative latter case the taken as aoristic. The distinction between the indefinite and the resultative senses will often be very difficult to make. a resultative is the larger meaning. he left it indefinite. inceptive and resultative. comprehensive.

sentence. without at all will destroy them one by one. the instances of the Predictive Future might be (6) promissory. and its It is in general not indicated in is representation in English complicated by the will. He will destroy Ms enemies. ov fi. promissory in the second and will is assertive. E. third person or solemnly predictive.V. the verb can only be accounted as an Aoristic process. d/i^v Xeyo) vfuv. or all at once. Erom a different point of view from that of the above classification. There may easily occur instances which will defy classification at this point. 65. but is often important for purposes of interpretation. a momentary or Thus the an extended action. A writer may predict an event not only without at the moment thinking whether it is to be a single deed or a series of deeds. imperative. in most cases probably intending predictive. requiring delicate discrimination. as solemnly Matt. Greek. THE TENSES.7) aTroXicrr) tov i^urOov avrmi. or Future. classified as (a) assertive. but even without knowing. employs shall almost constantly in the second and it third person. he shall by no means lose his reward. varied uses of the auxiliary verbs shall and it In general may be said that in principal clauses will is shall is in the first . may be uttered by one who way has confidence that the person referred to will in some destroy his enemies. shall is promissory. and The distinc- tion between the assertion that an event will take place and the promise that it shall take place is difficult to make. verily I say unto you.34 to the Aorist. 10 42 : . person simply assertive. . knowing whether he and whether by some long-continued In such cases by one exterminating blow. incapable of further classification. a distinction which primarily has reference to the facts referred to and only secondarily to the writer's conception of the facts.

before See also Matt. 20 ably to be so regarded. On Matt.MT. Kem. It occurs Testament shows clearly most frequently in prohihiclassical Greek. ovk iir aprio /xw<u ([^o-tTat a. 297. 844 dyair^creis tov ttXtjitLov (7ou <js ueavrov. 8:3) is apparently Gnomic rather than Imperative. 4 fi.£v 'Ef ovpavov. Mark 11 : 35 From ji. . . 67.. 68. but oi.-^ 6. 16 : 22 . TLpXv aXeKTOpa ^(ov^a-aL arip. but the thought requires the Imperative sense. commonly in 3961 WT. not . See also Matt. tions. This idiom as it occurs in the as pp. Luke 22 61 : . 2. thou shall love thy neighbor as thyself. Tph. 172.e. The Imperative Future. 4 : 4. if we say. 257 : WM. 26 35. negative by the use of the negative oi Matt. Some interpreters take this as a Predictive Future. ipei. 15 6. 29 12 : 31 John 16 7. 15 6 the verb Ti/n^irei has the negative oi /ii}. thou shall deny : me thrice. James 2:8. In Matt. see 67. Eem. though the : : 26. pp. its negative being. : : THE FUTUBE INDICATIVE. B. p.pov airapYqari this . is The second person of the Future Indicative a. and in view of the frequent use of oi in with the Future an imperative sense in the Septuagint. 13. 2. is prob- Hebrew of the passage quoted (Deut. 66.e. p. 31 .. the cock crow . HA. n.T. One or two probable instances of the Imperative Future in the third person occur.v6po)Tr(K. 1. 1215. 636 f. 11 28. Eem.M. New the influence of the Septuagint. 27. the possibility of it can hardly be denied. often used as an Imperative. eav ci5r(ii/M. 69. A Predictive Future is sometimes made emphatically ix-q. /t^ G. Mark 14: 31 {Tisch. 315 f. WM. heaven. he will say. and its occasional use in classical Greek. though perhaps no entirely certain case. Matt. day. cf. 70 . Subjunctive).

169. Rom.Tre\cv<76fji. or rhetorical questions taking the place of a direct asserCf. Pekiphrastic Foem of the Future. The Future Indicative mayocca- be used to state what will sion offers. Luke 21 24 : . : . Luke 5 : 10 . Jerusalem shall [continue to"] be trodden under foot. 16 27 20 22 Acts 5 85 20 38 : . or of that which is certain.t6a. is that of a Progressive ev frnxoupr/. men. : Luke 22 49 John 6 68 : . XPVf^' Observe the Gnomic Presents both before and after. Matt. ni airoOavexTai. THE TENSES. but The Future Indicative sometimes used in questions of deliberation. o yap vtos rov avOptoirov fieXXei TrapaStSoo-^ai eZs ^eipas the Tu)v av6pu>ir<av. shall we smite with the sword ? to Kvpie. Trpos Tiva a. shall be a catcher of men. of an action employed which one intends to do. with the thought of continu- ance or customariness somewhat emphasized. for scarcely for a : na-a. 44 15 Rom. See also Gen.iX\u yap 'HpcoSj^s ^rjTelv to TratStov tov aTroXctrai avTo. man will one 70. real questions asking information. avOpim-ovs ia-Q ^o>ypS)v. ei iraTaiofx. The G-nomic Future. : . . : . Luke 9 : 44 . righteous jjloXls yap virip SiKaiov die. for the Son of man is to be delivered up into See also Matt. . : hands of 8 13. 5:7. MeXXo) with the Infinitive is also used with a force It is usually akin to that of the Future Indicative. 72. will seek the for Herod young child lo destroy it. thou shall catch men. Such questions may be tion. asking not what what can or ought to be done. p. whom shall we go ? A Future tense 71. Lord. i. is The Deliberative Future. 'lepoucraX-^/n ta-TM iraxovixivr].36 69. 7 3. destined to take place. customarily happen when Rom. will happen. composed of a Present Participle and the Future of the verb The force tlp.e. 2 13 : .L is found occasionally in the New Testament. : .

HA. TreiroiOev IttI tov Oeov. he trusteth on God. The Perfect of Completed Action. John 7 39 : . Q. The Perfect sometimes used when the attention is directed wholly the present resulting state. 2 Tim. the distinction between the Perfect and the Aorist. on voLVTa fjiov fii/xviitTOe. Matt. 849 . 1263. that believed on him were See also Luke 7:2. the tov Spofxov TereXeKa. ye have filled Jerusalem with your teaching. John 6 71. fight. but this spake he of the Spirit which they to receive. MA.State. affirms : an existing . rrj'S StSa^^s vfiZv. 847 . / . In its most frequent use the Perfect Indicative represents an action as standing at the time of speaking complete. . eTratvS Se u/xas. This usage occurs in most frequently in a few verbs which use the Perfect this sense only. 27 1 Cor. i. kept the faith. it Luke 24 46 . 73. now I praise you stands written. on ij aydirq tov deov iKKe)(yTai iv rais KapStais ^fi. 1250. see 86. tcwto Se cts tov iri/eujtiaTos ov ifXiWov Xafj-fidveLv ol n-io-TCvo-avTes airov. remember me in : all things. of the tense is thus double result.e.uiv. 2 . because the love of God has been poured forth in our hearts. Sonians 5:5. see On 75. outcos yeypaTrrat. 19 13. thus : is written. 11 that ye : 43 : . : THE PEEFEOT IHDIOATIVE. 74. On the use of the term complete as a grammatical term. I have fought good I have finished the course. 4:7. it is 37 By the use of the Imperfect of /xe'Wo) with the Infinitive affirmed that at a past point of time an action was about to take place or was intended or destined elirev irepi to occur. Rem. is The Perfect of Existing. 85. G^. the past action of which to it is the result being left out of thought. See also Rev. tov koAov I have dycui/a ^ywyiar/xai. Acts 5 28 TmrkriputKaTS rriv 'lepovcrakrjix. it implies a past action The reference and 3.THE PERFECT INDICATIVE. Tr]v iruTTiv TeTT^prjKa.

be decided. 12 17 . 162. Testament : Possible instances are Matt. we have believed and know : Holy One of Ood. and the attention while under the former . 24.. See also 2 Cor. Br. the result of which the speaker conceives himself to be witnessing (as in the case of the Historical Present he conceives himself to be witness- ing the action itself). 1 10. iyvtltKa/xtv otl <tv 6 aytos rov Oeov.(TTfuKafji. et John 6 69 : . Whether this usage is in the New Testament a survival of the that thou art the ancient intensive use of the Perfect. regarded by some gramiv. marians as an original function of the tense {Del. under this The Perfect is sometimes used in classical Greek as an emphatic or intensive Present. The Intensive Pbkfect. 78. 94 ff. Of the Historical Perfect in the sense of a Perfect which expresses a past completed action. a stronger Thus triiroiOa the thought of vdOofuu intensified. or a later development from the Perfect of com- pleted action. Br. . 13 : Luke 9 36 is 2 Cor. 162). is no certain : New 46 .ev Perfects of the New Testament more commonly assigned to one of the preceding uses. affirming the present existence of the result of a past act. There is no sharp line of distinction between the Perfect of Completed Action and the Perfect of Existing State. 38 76. 1 . for the purpose of the interpreter. This idiom perhaps rather rhetorical than strictly grammatical. IleTrto-Teu/ca is way of saying mo-revo). need not. It is possible that head should be placed certain practically expresses also clearly iTem. KOA. there instance. head are to be placed those instances in which it is evident that the writer had in mind both the past act and the present result. Cf. Jas. 77. THE TENSES.. To the latter head are to be assigned those instances in which the past act is practically dropped turned wholly to the existing result from thought.

7:5. Koi iye/jiLcrev : avrov. referring to a state that is wont to exist. 11:28. Eev. 2 Cor. L. 19:3. s. and in 1 John 2 : 5. discourse. 2:13. no special use of the tense. The Aobistic Peefect. 2 Cor. 11:25. 79. it is which impossible to render it into English adequately. 81. rereXe/u- probably Gnomic. it is with nearly the force of a Gnomic Present or Aorist.. and filled it.os tov At/SaveDTW. /cat fie Tltov. If &Te\-^\v6ev in Jas. See more fully under 88. BiSerai. When is the Perfect Indicative used of a past event by reason of the context necessarily thought of as separated from the moment of speaking by an interval. 80. but results from the regular. 7 : 39. ii\r)^ev 6 ayyeA. . is Cf. cwk ecTxr/Ka avediv Tcp TrveviMxri /jlov tiS /xy] aipfiiv I had no relieffor my spirit because I found not Titus. The Perfect : in 1 Cor.v. 154. and S. Heb. however. GMT. The Perfect Indicative is sometimes used in the New Testament of a simple past writer's fact where it is scarcely possible to suppose that the thought of existing result was in the mind. 25 6 1:9. English idiom forbids the use of the Perfect because of the interval (present in. rai. But since the Perfect of the verb had already in classical Greek come to be recognized as functionally a Present. See also Matt.74l4. and the angel took the censer. while the English Past tense . Klcpayev in 39 John 1 : 15 if is a Perfect expressing a past fact vividly conceived of as present to the speaker. 8:5. it is from the point of view of the current usage a Historical Present rather than a Historical Perfect. 155. The Perfect Indicative in indirect discourse after a is verb of past time Pluperfect. 353. is Cf. thought as well as existing in fact) between the act and the time of speaking. 1 24 is Gnomic. difference between English and Greek in the matter of indirect 82.THE PERFECT INDICATIVE. regularly rendered into English by a This involves. Kev.

84.. Cf. Present of the verb are frequent in the New Testament. In function these forms more frequently denote existing state. 25. though clear instances about forty instances occurring. of the Perfect denoting completed action occur. illustrated in Luke 20 6 : 26 10 26 26 : 2 Cor. correctly. use : is . These cases should not be confused with those treated under 80. 168 Rom.K£v uvv dyycXou tov o<^6fl'Tos axmS iv Trj fiaTio. etc. see 50. Eor the Perfect used proleptically. result i. 8 5. The former John 2 17 Acts 2 13 the latter in Luke 23 15 Acts . cited by Weymouth in Theological Monthly. : . although implies the performance of the action in past time. : also were [yeyovav. 16 : 7. See also instances f. John R. R. Perfects. -who 6 6.VTpcoT^v direcrTaA. IV. . There the use of the Greek tense 83.V." . : : . . Heb. 431. when earnest [-yeyoi/as] thou here ? Heb. : 40 THE TENSES. Greek at the expense of the Eng- Acts 7 35 : X^tpl TovTov 6 Oeoi koI apxovra xai A. hath God seni] to be both a ruler and a deliverer with the hand I of the angel which appeared to him in the bush. it yet states only that stands completed at the present time. It is important to observe that the term "complete" or " completed " as a grammatical term does not mean The ended. Periphrastic formed by adding a Perfect Participle to the ei/xt. which " remains at the time denoted by the verb. 7 : 9 . Pbeiphbastic Form of the Perfect. have been'] in Christ before me . which the Greek fails to express the idea of existing result Perfect conveys. 85. .V. him did God send [R.V. In most of these cases R.V. 4 : 3. 4 : 2. etc. though it can- not be well rendered by usual English equivalent. it Perfect. brought to its appropriate result. somewhat abnormal. Here the Greek tense has its is its normal force. has attempted to preserve the sense of the lish idiom. but accomplished.e.

otl iyrjytprax rrj ^/J-epa Trj TpiTy. 162." Br. 44. e. and 2 Cor. hatte zwei altuberkommene Funktio- Einerseits hatte es intensiven.-4 : 8 . ye were in 7. 41 "Das Perf.i See. and that he prominently before the mind. (Cat See. . beziehentlich iterativen . 1 Cor. /x€v .g. tote . is thought of apart from any existing These tenses are indeed more frequently used of actions which are complete in the sense of having come to an end than bondage ov to is the Perfect. even though the action the Perfect Tcrrip-qKa.g. An action wliich. them which by nature are no gods. in 2 Tim. without either affirming or denying the existence of the it is result. the existence of the normal result of the action. ' 8 ixeTa/jLeXo/iai et Kal ixcTcixeXo/XTjv. Sinn. this e. provided only the action result of it.rms I do not regret it. it.g. <f>va-e. The burial is simply a past event. In many cases the reason of the choice of one tense rather than is the other very evident and the distinction clearly marked.T. although The Perfect. . has ceased may be expressed in G-reek by the Aorist or the Imperfect quite as well as by the Perfect... OTI Itoi^t. . that he was buried. at that time .M. may be used. Anderseits bezeichnete es die Handlung im Zustand des VoUendet- und Fertigseins. e. eSouAeuo-aTE tois firj oJtrt Seots. . in progress. and the Aorist affirming the event itself. . on the other itself is : hand. still and See. Of the resurrection there is an existing result. . . Gal. 86.. the Perfect affirming the existence of the result of the event. Since the Aorist and the Perfect both involve reference to a past event.. 15 4 : even when in accordance with the principle of 82 both tenses must be translated by an English Past. quoted under 74. nen. G.. THE PERFECT INDICATIVE. evident that whenever the result of the past action does either tense still exist. according as the writer wishes either to affirm the result or merely the event. 4 7. I did regret [was regretting'] aflB. was raised on the third day.

The beginnings of this departure are to be seen in classical G-reek {G.rms that an action attempted in past time was accomplished. 1 John 1:1. Instances of this two approximate very what seem to be quite approximation of the two See cf. In the New Testament we see the earlier stages . saying nothing about the present result. 10. the and are used by side of coordinate facts. clearly marked. belongs to all classes of verbs. however. and the process by which the Perfect had become an Aorist in meaning and been succeeded in ofBce as a Perfect tense by another form was complete.M. 47). own proper side force. and af&rms the existence of the result of the past action.T. 46). (in Greek as in English have) and a participle. though each its tense retains closely. not merely to those that imply attempt. It should be observed that the aoristic use of the Per- fect (80) is a distinct departure from the strict and proper sense of the tense in Greek. pp. of an auxiliary denoting possession ex").T. : also Acts 6:11 24. But there are naturally other cases in which. periphrastic Perfect. The distinction is. and 15 87. tenses are especially frequent in the writings of John.M. made This the English Perfect. and in Greek writers of a time later than the New Testament the tendency was stUl further developed. 326-330. 4:9. 38. on the other hand. John 5:36.42 THE TENSES. until the sense of difference lost. Modern Greek. It might be supposed that the Eesultative Aorist would be especially near in force to the Perfect. The Eesultative Aorist afiS. See Jebb in Vincent and Dickson. the occurrence of which 88. between the tenses was Meantime there grew up a new form as is of the Perfect. traces of which appear even in classical times (G. it implies. The Perfect. at length entirely displaced the simple Perfect for the expression of completed action.

12 17 Heb. rally fects Many : Aorists even go quite natu46. though is possible that in all is thought of an existing result more or less clearly in and gives occasion Perfect treirpaKev to the use of the Perfect tense. Glossary. the new Perfect had not yet appeared. Tre-roiTjKa in 2 Cor. 11 : 26 seems evidently aoristic that it " goes quite all naturally into Engit lish" (S. of this process. proper English translation is no certain criterion. Mark's use of the word pos- sibly the same. 82. 104) does not at show that has the usual force of a Greek Perfect. Cf. : mind The etc.' in Luke 9 36 2 Cor. but the evidence is not decisive. . 11 : 28 . Eev. The Perfect . but for the reasons mentioned in 86 . without violence. . it is other cases should perhaps be explained as Aoristic impossible Perfects. but has begun to be an Aorist. a true Perfect. All other writers of the Still New Testament use the form as a true Perfect. but a little further advanced. Cf.. the the same time. 4). since the functions of the Perfect tense in the two languages differ so widely. and correctly into English Perfects. In Latin this process was already complete so far as the assimilation of the Perfect and the Aorist was concerned. point In modern English we see the process at a New midway between that represented by the Greek of the Testament and that which appears in the Latin of about Modern German represents about the same modern English. probably the former (see Sophocles. 52. p. 13 46 must be either to aoristic or historical. with very few exceptions.THE PERFECT INDICATIVE. stage as It should be borne in mind that in determining whether a given Perfect form is a true Perfect in sense or not. iegularly used ye'yova in the sense of an Aorist Matthew some of the is instances cannot. 43 The Perfect it is still. be otherwise explained. in Matt. : (irpoo-eVxT^Kei/) 9 18 : . 7 13 : The Per. The evidence seems show clearly that . 3:3. it 5 : 7 are probably also Aoristic these cases the- Perfects. and all are naturally so explained.

12 9 and 1 John 1 10 are probably true Perfects of Completed Action. The Pluperfect is perfect used of Completed Action. apy)Ka. The instances of the Perfect and yeyora. See also Luke 8:2. 8. : this John 9 : 22 . While there is clear evidence that the Perfect tense was in the New Testament sometimes an Aorist in force. ^Si. Acts 9:21. of £t\r. yap avveriOtivTo for : the Jews had agreed already. 10 9 also probably conresult. John 1 18 : . 19 32. THE TENSES. 849. and the USe of each of these forms in the sense of an Aorist mainly to one or more writers whose use of it is apparently almost a per- Thus the aoristic use of yiyova belongs to Matt. yet it is to be observed that the New Testa- ment writers had perfect command of the distinction between in the Aorist and the Perfect. : narrow limits in the : New Testament. 31. THE PLTJPEEFEOT. the latter case being explained by : v. 1263. 90. Acts 7 44 . : Of. 2 Cor. 1250. 847 . c . The idiom is therefore confined within sonal idiosyncrasy. 8 : 33 . kol intent.ri\v6a. 23. The Pluan action which was complete at a point of of past time implied in the context. and he had come hither for ot 'louSaiot. icrxrjKa. Pet. . 6 : 37 . . though the use of an adverb more prominence to the past action vey the thought of existing of past time serves to give than is usually given by a Perfect tense. Q-. Verbs which in the Perfect denote a present state. the sense of the Aorist are confined almost entirely to a few forms. in the Pluperfect denote a past state. eiXijt^a. of ecrxriKa to Paul but see also Heb. tovto iX. 7 13.<^a to John in Eev. G. kiapaKa. and Heb. "The Pluperfect of Existing State.44 to decide with certainty. Ev. . 89. tSSs eis MA. . HA. 4.

p. Luke 4 41 : . see B.. 94. 18 : . 61 and the 93. and an occasional form elsewhere. 16. 2 : 13. it had been revealed him hy the Holy Spirit. . Matt. they knew Acts 1 10. weighed down. 6<j>6a\iJiol /3ey8ap7. koI qv avriS K€)(pTijiuxTUTixivov inro tov Trvfu/juiTOi tov aytou. The ambiguity of the English sometimes renders it impossible to distinguish in translation between a Pluperfectof Existing State and an Historical Aorist. Pluperfects of existing state. : . : Cf.v. Cf. . See also John 18 Xpiarov avrbv elvcu. to and 92. A periphrastic Future Perfect. The simple Future Perfect does not occur in the New Testament. 45 that he gScitrav t6v Christ. : was the 91. lexicons s. in the latter a Perfect and refers to a state. Eespecting Luke 19 40. : expressing . lit. 18 : 18 Luke 12 52 Heb. occurs in Matt. phrastic Pluperfect formed Periphrastic Form of the Pluperfect. : a future . state. 16 19 . A periby adding the Perfect Participle el/iC is somewhat frequent in the Greek this was already the only form in the third person plural of liquid and mute verbs. but not at all uniformly. refers td though the an act. referring to the past act as well as the existing result.THE PLUPERFECT. about one-third of the whole number of instances belong to the class of Pluperfects denot- ing completed action. for their eyes Luke 2 26 : . In the New Testament these to the Imperfect of the verb New Testament. In classical periphrastic forms are frequently. 45. GMT. and 31 we must in both cases read were verb in the former case is an Aorist and Thus in Acts 4 : 27 gathered. 26 43 ^crav yap avrtov ot were heavy./*ei/ot. also the and two verbs in Luke 15 : 24.

aira ypa. 11 : 1 . 95. is much more than all whole hurnt offerings and sacrifices.. or its time. present.)ys KapSta's . 46 THE TENSES. and to love him with heart . same things to you. A periphras- Present Infinitive.MT. Matt. 861 G. 1273 . Luke 9 18 : . or may be indicated by the context. The tenses of the dependent moods have in general no reference to time. as may be involved in the function of the Phil. . occur rarely in the : New 17. 97. 20. 85. but characterize the action of the verb in respect to its progress only. 5 23 iav ovv Trpocri^cpijs to SSjow crov i'lrl to : he writing the . The Aorist of the Dependent Moods represents the action expressed by the verb as a simple event or fact.. or completed. if therefore thou shalt he offering thy gift at the altar.<i>av vfiiv ifn-ol fj-ev ovk oKvqpov. . BvcruuTTiQpiov. TENSES OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. representing it as in progress.^ to the Present Infinitive of and a periphrastic Present Imperative. 98. ircpio'a'OTepov icmv TrdvTwv the Teuv oA. Testament. ra. tic Pbkipheastic Fobm of the Peesbnt. formed by adding a Present Participle to the Present Imperative of a'/nt. HA. 1272. mood. may be altogether timeless. 6 25 . Mark all 12 33 : . or indefinitely. or future. The Present of the Dependent Moods is used to It represent an action as in progress or as repeated. the action being thought of without reference to the time of past. and 431. Luke 19 : Cf . . simply as G. to 3:1. formed by adding a Present Participle ei/j. Matt. an event.OKavTO)|iiaT(ov kol 6variS)v.. to me indeed is not irksome. 96. its occurrence . /cat to ayairav avrov e^ oA.

<fyr](TtK avTiS. 86s wiv a^p^pov. irX-qpSurai. 'laxojjSos. James answered. : Compare the Presents and Aorists ijriova-cov Matt. The Future Optative does not occur in the New Tes- tament. tions or of a series of events. but by some : fact outside of the tense. who was I that I could withstand God ? in the following examples Rem.6v. or with reference to the accomplishment of an attempt (resultative). indicated at all. tov aprov rifmv tov this day our daily bread. ciiroj/xtv irvp Luke 9 54. As in the case of the Present tense. works of him that sent me while day. John 15 9 Luke 17 4 : Kara^^vai. i(TTiv. . but to fulfil. tov apTov give us rjpxav tov iTnovmov SiSov rip. aTrCKpWrj they had become silent. 5 17 : . not by the tense. abide ye in my day : . . indefinite. : . Acts 18 9 : prj <l>o^av. and 39. . . eyai rt's rjfjoriv SwaTos KiaXvcrai tov 6e. and after Acts 11 17 : . be not in fear. it When may be used of momentary or extended acCf. ovk ^Xdm> KaToXwat aXXa tpya^eo-^at I came not to destroy. 35. fictvare iv rrj ayoLTrr) ry ifirj. Matt. its 47 progress or to the existence It its may be used with reference to an action or event in entirety (indefinite).lv to Kaff iipipav.: OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS. John 9:4. . a. shall we bid fire to come down? love. we must work [be doing] the epya tov mptj^avTos pe etos ^pipa. it is ij/xas Set to. . but [continue speak and hold not thy peace. the time of the if action. is shown. Acts 15 13 /utTa Se to (nyrja-ai avrovs. give us Luke 11:3. koI iav eTrraKts t^s rjixipa^ a/iapr'^fTri ets ere . . 6 11 . day by day our daily bread. without reference either to of its result. or with reference to the inception of a state (inceptive). and if he sin against thee seven times in the . 99. thou shall forgive him. to'] aWa AoXei koI pij mayinjarrii.

that they be not high minded. nor have their hope set on the uncertainty of riches. 101. but I found that he had committed nothing worthy of death. rots irXoucrtois ev to? vvv alSivt TrapdyyeXXc fXTj v\jir]\oi^povuv this jur/Se fiXiriKevai iiri ttXovtov dSj/Xori^n. only to the in the The time of the action indicated. 27 10. be still. completed action. The Future Infinitive denotes time It is thus Matively to the time of the principal verb. The Perfect of the Dependent Moods is used of As in the Indicative.rjvijfleMnjs Se jiioi eirt/3ovX^s as rov avSpa ea-etrOai. ol 8e irpoacSoKtov avTov uteWeiv TriixvpadOai. 39 . : Tim. and when it was shown to me that there would be a plot against the man. charge them that are rich in present world. See also Acts 19 27 : . has the force of a Future Infinitive of the Infinitive is usually a Present. : . : Mark 4 102. 6 17 . peace. or is be directed both to the action and result. KarairLirTiiv a<t>v(j} veKpov. a Future in the New- Testament in the case of the verb Acts 28 6 : . as Present and Aorist. It is regularly d/u. Acts 26 32 airoXiKvaOai eSwaro o avOponro'S ovtos. not by the tense but by the context or by the function : of the mood. been set at liberty. Trct^iifiMCTO. . but they expected that he would swell or fall down sud- denly. an exception to the general prin- ciple of the timelessness of the : dependent moods. the thought may its result. : etc. StwTra. An Intensive Pekfbct may occur in the dependent moods 1 as in the Indicative. tJiis man might have . . rj The dependent sometimes a Future. The Infinitive jneWav -with the Infinitive of another it verb dependent on latter verb. 100. Acts 23 30 //. Acts 25 25 iyd) 8e KareXafSofu/jv fiiyStv at^utv avrov Oavarov ireirpaxivai.48 THE TENSES.

: 107. See Luke 2 21 22 15 John 1 48. 20 and 431. The reason for the almost uniform use of the Aorist (the Present clvai occurs John 17 5) is the same as in the case of fierd. The Infinitive itself is properly timeless. but this meaning manifestly lies in the preposition. See also Luke 12:35. John Subjunctive of the verb 16:24. Acts 1:3. expressing purpose or tendency. 49 In the Periphrastic Form of the Perfect. : . 103. The general principle that the tenses of the dependent moods characterize the action of the verb only as respects progress and are properly timeless holds also respecting the Infinitive after prepositions. which. Luke 12 5 . with the Infinitive antecedence of the action denoted by is expressed. 2 Cor. That the Aorist Infinitive is almost constantly used (the Perfect occurs once. 1:9. 26 32 . since in dating one event by another the latter is u. See Matt. 10 15) is natural. the Perfect Subjunctive Pas- formed by adding a Perfect Participle to the Present These forms are in the Newclfii. New Testament as in sive is classical Greek. 104. is necessarily point to an action subsequent to that of the verb which the . Perfect Participle. though the time-relation is usually suggested by the meaning of the preposition or by this combined with that which the tense implies respecting the progress of the action. is But here : also the time relation expressed wholly by the preposition. 11 25. By irp6 with the Infinitive antecedence of the action of the prinis cipal verb to that of the Infinitive expressed. enjoining the maintenance of the state denoted by the Cf. which furnishes an instance of a periphrastic Perfect Imperar tive. etc. : . This also results from the meaning of the prepositions. etc. After eU and irpSs the Infinitive usually refers to an action which future with respect to the principal verb.OF THE DEPENDENT MOODS.sually conceived of simply as an event without reference to its progress. 105. Tenses of the Infinitive after Prepositions. /ierd By the Infinitive to that denoted by the principal verb : : : : 106. Testament most commonly Perfects of Existing State. 17:19. Heb. not in the tense of the verb. and the action of the Infinitive is accordingly i-elatively future. 1 Cor.

24 exclusive reference to 12. meaning suggesting an action thought of as in and this is indeed the more iv common usage. strictly speaking. precedes the action of the principal verb. After iv progress we naturally expect to find only the Present Infinitive. of the principal verb. 11 21 and Heb. Phil. 4 2. time of speaking. but in no case expresses antecedence. the action denoted : : : : : : . as continued. yet may be thought of by the writer as marking more or less exactly the time at which the action of the verb takes place. : . completed. 10 25 Jas. tiJk dm/itav apparently refers to the multiplication of iniquity as a fact of that time without its preceding the action of the principal verb. See Rom. it is natural to take iv with it in the same sense which the preposition hears with nouns which denote an event rather than a continued action or state (cf. Mark 5 : 4. 3 12 the action of the Infinitive cannot be antecedent to that of the principal verb see also Gen. Mark 13 : 22. 27 : 9 . THE TENSES. The time of the state of completeness appears from the context it is usually that : . denotes an action whose result was existing. the writer's conception of nite. 3 . or indefi- Time relations are secondary : and suggested. its the preposition by . and the same construction occurs in Hebrews twice. In Luke 9 34 such a relation is very difiScult. v?here ri ir'K-riBvvdrjvai. and in 1 Corinthians once. as marking the time at which the action expressed by the principal verb takes place. : . who uses iv with the Infinitive far more frequently than Testament writers. 18 2 : . the difference marked by the tense being not of time but of progress. The Perfect Infinitive has its usual force. and both Present and Aorist 11 : All three tenses of the Infinitive occur after eis after irp<is. 1 : 23 . 98). In 1 Cor. denoting an action standing complete. where SeSitrdai. Heb. 13 5. : . : . "When irpds means with reference to.. but cf. relation is indicated only of. 408. 109. As respects the . and in Luke 14 1 improbable in view of the Imperfect tense following. The preposition is this sense does not seem necessarily to denote exact coincidence. but at an earlier time. the timeby the necessary relation of the things spoken See Luke 18 : 1. however. See Acts 8:11. all the other New with the Aorist Infinitive nine times. The Present Infinitive refers to action in progress usually shown by the conr text to be contemporaneous with the action of the principal verb. Luke. not at the Cf. Matt. Cf. viz. 6 Acts 12 20 Heb. : by the Infinitive. : . The Aorist Infinitive occurs only in Matt. 108. See Matt. 12 : 2 . 6:1. : . After Sti the three Infinitives distinguish the action as respects its progress. has Since the Aorist Infinitive conceives of an action simply as an event without thought of its continuance. 19 16. In Luke 2 27 11 37 19 15 24 30 Acts 11 15. 409-414. 50 prepositional phrase limits.

in indirect discourse preserve the conception of the action as respects progress v^hich belonged to the direct discourse. The cor- respondence of tenses probably rather results from the necessity of preserving the original conception of the action as respects its progress. Luke 3 : 21 cannot in view of the Aorist tense be rendered. the dependent in indirect discourse express time-relations. Rem. 415. 161. but must be understood as affirming that the baptism of Jesus occurred at the time (in general) of the baptism of all the people. die nur aus der .g. The Future represents a Future Indicative of the direct discourse. Br. aor. The Present Similarly the Optative and Infinitive represent tense forms which in the direct discourse denoted action in progress. the Optative or Infinitive in indirect discourse stands for the same tense of the Indicative Yet it moods is doubtful whether. after all the people had been baptized. On the arrival of the train the procession will be formed. the Aorist Infinitive may be compared to the Aorist Indicative after Sre. while all the people were being baptized. 12 3 : .OP THE DEPENDENT MOODS. 51 relation of the action to that of the principal verh. In the majority of cases each tense of or Subjunctive of the direct form. praes. 110. The Tenses of the Dependent Moods The Optative and Infinitive in Indi- rect Discourse. and the time-relation is conveyed by the context rather than by the tense of the verb. lungen Cf. after iv "" leaving it to the context to indicate the precise nature of the chronological relation. strictly speaking. des ind. Similarly indefinite is the use of the English preposition e. Cf.. year he becomes of legal age. von vergangenen Hand- als Vertreter und inf. which simply marks in general the time of the event denoted by the principal verb. John 19 : 6. 21 : 34 . 27 : 31 . obi. (§ 158) des Ausdruoks der Zeitbeziehung. Aorist of these moods represents forms which expressed action indefinitely. in der or. nor in view of the preposition 4v. 30. und inf. Oh the completion of his twenty-first on with verbal nouns. liUke 9 36 can only mean. as. " Der opt. when the voice came. a meaning entirely : appropriate to the context. entbehrten ebenso wie opt. aor. and the Perfect stands for forms denoting com- pleted action. See Matt.

: : . Greek. future with reference to that of the princi- . New form. this case the action denoted In by the Aorist Infinitive is. Infinitive in indirect discourse in the 112. 119. 2 : 18. 2 Tim. etc. by the nature of the case. as a regular construction after verbs signifying to hope. Natur der in der Eede in Verbindung gebrachten Verbalbegriffe oder aus der ganzen in Eede stehenden Situation erkannt wurde. The Aorist Optative occurs in indirect discourse only in Acts 25 16. 22 23 Luke 11 18 20 41 Acts 4 32 1 Cor. Luke 1 62 6 11 etc. Similarly the Perfect Infinitive rep- resents the Perfect Indicative of the direct discourse. Acts 14 19 : . as in The Aorist classical Infinitive occurs in the New Testament. Luke 1 29 3 15 Acts 17 11 etc. 85. represents a Future Indicative of the : : John 21 26. direct form. Heb. The Present . The Optative with av is taken unchanged from the direct discourse. : a Subjunctive of the direct form referring to the future. The Present Optative . 36 . an exception to the general rule of the timelessness of the de- pendent moods. to command. : . to swear. The PresPluperfect ent Infinitive as the representative of the Imperfect. &MT. : . where it represents : . : in indirect discourse in the New- Testament usually represents the Present Indicative of the direct form. John 12 29 : . 3 : 18. ment. : . as stated above (99). : . 7 : Testament stands for the Present Indicative of the direct Matt. to promise. contra. Neither the Perfect Optative nor the Future Optative occurs in the New Testament. Acts 23 30 . In Acts : . and the Perfect Infinitive as the representative of the (G.MT. 1 John 2 : 9.52 THE TENSES. 111. 123) apparently do not occur in the New Testa- The Future It Infinitive is. Luke 22 34 : . 25 : 16. it stands for a Present Subjunctive of the direct form." Cf. 113.

Rev. et^ariji' iTriBcL^acrOai ttjv TrpoTpcTTTiKYjv <TO(j)uiv. the third day. 127. 115. Infinitive in indirect discourse is timeless. . 171. the characteristics of both the verb and the adjective scribes its it de- subject as a doer of the action denoted by the verb. The participle is a verbal adjective. reXevTij^rat airavra. 278.: OF THE PARTICIPLE. sharing in part . discourse. TENSES OP THE PARTICIPLE. the accomplishment being still future (Carter in CI. 2. 5). . 114. . pal verb. but this time-relation is 53 not expressed by the tense. c^ij/ii See also Luke 2:26. participle three things For the proper understanding of a be observed (a) (&) (c) must The grammatical agreement. 684. § 81 . on outojs yeypaTrrai iraOtiv tov xP'-'^'^ov koI avcuTTrjvai Ik yift-ipa. that the Christ should suffer. they said that they would give a sample of the hortatory wisdom. GMT. Cf 390. rmiTO Sk merai ol /xaXuTTa yeviaOax. or logical force.0. the dead Od. The modal significance. Hom. and other examples in Riddell. vCKpiav Trj TpLTy thus it is written. el crol fuyyevotro. Plat. Acts 3 18. Digest of Platonic that he also in G. would be most likely to attain this if he should associate with you. p. These Of. though closely akin in force to those of indirect are not usually included under that head.MT. 1891. There is apparently no instance in the New Testament of the Aorist Infinitive in indirect discourse representing the Aorist Indicative of the direct form. These must be accounted cases in which the Aorist Luke 24 46 : . Euthyd. The use of the tense.316. and rise : again from Cf. C. The Aorist instances. Feb. The Aorist Infinitive referring to what is future with reference to the principal verb also occurs in a few instances after verbs of assertion. Protag. Infinitive is here as elsewhere timeless. and he supposes Idioms.

The fundamental is distinguishing mark of each of the other tenses the same for the participle as for the dependent moods in general. The matter now under participle. and thus indirectly and to a limited extent. The Present denotes action in . action conceived of indefinitely the Perfect. will be treated at a later point. and case. a participle follows the rule for adjectives. like those of the other dependent moods. consideration is See 419 ff. These distinctions. In grammatical agreement. Participle most frequently denotes an action vs^ith in progress. The logical force of the participle. agreeing with its der. noun Or pronoun in gen- number. 1288. 119. do not. however. usually the most important consideration from the point of view of interpretation. in themselves denote time. the tense of the participle is it. The Present verb. it becomes expedient to treat the tenses of the participle apart from those of the dependent moods in general. . The Present Participle of Simultaneous Action. The tenses of the participle. the significance of the tense of a 118. (?. in general. progress . im- pose certain limitations upon the classes of events which may be expressed by the participle of each tense. 117. simultaneous the action of the principal HA. the Aorist. To this general rule the Future Participle is the leading ex- ception. an indica- tion of the time-relation of the event denoted by Since for purposes of interpretation it is often needful to define the time-relation of an event expressed by the participle. THE TENSES. THE PEESENT PARTIOIPLE. 856 . its functions being such as necessarily to express timerelations. completed action.54 116.

See also Acts 17 13 : . most naturally accompanies a verb denoting action in progress. Acts 10 44 Irt XaXovvTos tov Ilerpov : . A Present Participle of Identical Action. usually describe point of view. The Present Participle of Identical Action. 3 : 23. : .THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. Sometimes. 27 121. 145. : is ex- and : this . . as in Matt. toijto 8e IXiyev irapd^iov ovrov. to. Acts 9 22 Gal. 41 . The verb and the The participle of identical action. Lord to working with them. as in Acts 9 22 : may b^ the relation of fact to method. but are not necessarily so. tov Kvpiov the (TwepymivTO's. p-qpara ravra fell on all eTreTretre irvevpa to ayiov eirt Trai/Tas Toirs aKovovrai tov Xoyov. from a different relation between the different points of It : view varies greatly. reasoning daily in the of Tyrannus. action Is occasionally expressed by a Present which . he said trying him. while Peter was yet speaking these words. and they went forth and preached everywhere. KaO' -^p-cpav SiaAeyo/ievos fv Trj CT^o^J? Tt)pawov. in this case stands after the verb. Even a subsequent Participle. John 21 19 : . John 6:6. 29 of outward : form to inner sig- nificance or quality. since it de- notes action in progress. Cf. however. ckcivoi 8e efeA6dvT£s iKrjpv^av wavraxov. a Pres- ent Participle accompanies an Aorist verb denoting the same . Oftener the action of the verb falls within the period covered by the participle (Acts : 10:44). 15 24. The Present Participle agreeing with the subject of a verb not infrequently denotes the same action which pressed by the verb. : 120. Mark 16 1 55 20 . Acts 19 school : 9 at^iLpicrev Toiis paQrfo. Kem. the the Holy Ghost them which heard word.^. 18 23. he separated the disciples. Luke 22 65 John 6 6. or of act to purpose 122. it though denoting the same action. . The action of the verb and that of the participle may be of the same extent (Mark 16 20). 16 1 : . as in or result. See also Matt.

etc.. 353. 56 action see . Luke 3 16 : . 444 . regularly so in the phrase aircKpivaro : {airiKpiOrf) Xeyav Mark 15 : . 8iKai. paKapioi irai/wTes koX Suj/S)vtk ttjv thirst after righteousness. ava<7Ke. Gal. becomes a simple noun and like any other adjective or noun. 7 : 13.0701S 6. that teacheth in all him that is taught in good things. 12 : 22. 01 vcKpoi 01 Jv Kvpuo atroOvria-Kovm. See also Acts 1:3. Acts 15 29 . but him 124. consist of those word commvnicate A class may stantly do a given act. THE TENSES. Matt.% ras i/'v^as vimv. The General Present is Participle. blessed are in the Lord. also used without reference to time or progits simply defining i. . adjective or timeless p. irSxTLv KotvwvetVo) Si 6 KarrjXovp. 1 Mace. p. which conceives : of it simply as an event. The former latter in Rev. The participle in this case is. the 13. 14 : case is illustrated in Matt. a righteous and God-fearing man. blessed are they that hunger and Rev. what had happened demoniac. paKapioi. Acts 15 24 Irapa^av v/uSs A. 123. 6:6. B. 14 the : 13 . 43 : Similarly a Present Participle representing the action as in progress. 01 6:6.e. and indefinite. Mark 5 : 16 . 296 . pp. subject as belonging to a certain class. WT. WM. may accompany an Aoristic Future. iyeviro tc3 Sai/u>v(^o/xei/a>. 22:4. the class of those who do the action denoted by the verb. Cornelius a centurion. Acts 10 22 : . dead which die See also Matt. subverting your souls.vdZfiVTC.Tovrapyrj'i. Gen. or of those single doing of which is the who habitually or conwho once do the act the mark of the class. 9 . f . 5:6. Kopv^Aios ttuis kKo. John 1 26 : . they have troubled you with words. The Present Participle ress.O'Oi tov let Xoyov the t<o KaTrjxc^vri iv to dya^ois. avi}p hiKOJXK Kai ^o^ovpjOKK to the Tov 6e6v.o(Tvvr}v.

that is man that is i. : but that is taken (German: wird genommen).) or a Present may occur. In Heb. the individual in member of the class. as being once circumcised is the mark of the class referred to in Gal. etc. to every man circumcised. does not mean. and that. that receives circumcision (R. oi is one that is (not. appointed. cf . and would be expressed in Greek is a ypd^erai. In Luke 16 18 : irSs 6 divorce. such Present Participles as those just referred to (124) are easily taken by the English interpreter as equivalent to Perfect Participles. but always to the greater or less distortion of the meaning of the passage. Heb.. refers not to one that has been taken (German: ist genommen Thus in Gal. 5:4 KtCKoinevos In Luke 13 23. : This ambiguity of the English may be illustrated by the form is In the sentence. a dXlyoi. 6 : 13) does not mean. or in the singular designating an individual of the class. Thus to every iravrl &v8pilnr<f TrepiTenvojiivif (Gal. but. but. not in the sense. the same form scholar is written in the register as he enters the by Present of customary action. it is wont to happen to each that he is appointed. The name of each 1 written. literally). each one is wont to be lrepeatedly'\ Cf. 1 THE PKBSENT PARTICIPLE. has been ) called.^avditems wont to be taken. 125. either in the plural designating the class as such. et al. still less. and in German by wird geschrieben.V. but. Perfect of Existing State. . Similarly Heb. every one that divorces. 5 : 1.e. /{ is written in your law. one that is Being once taken is the mark of the class here referred to. every dwo'Kioiv means not. 5:3. wont to be circumcised. 5 : every circumcised man. 5 leorden). 125. 5 1 \a/i. In the used : 57 first class of cases the Present Participle only can be : . is written is a Perfect yiypa-nrai. : correctly though not So also In Heb. John 16 2. The customariness applies not to the action of . 5 : 3. in the second class either an Aorist (as in Matt. In the sentence. school. The apostle is not speaking of circumcision as an accomplished fact. that is taken. but of becoming circumcised. is wont to be appointed... and is expressed by the Greek The German would be ist geschrieben. every one that is wont to one that has divorced. but to that of the class as a whole as the Present Indicative KaeiarnTai may be rendered. Through the ambiguity of the English Passive form. 23 : 20 26 52. but.^ 3 (see 124) TrepiTenvon^tfis not equivalent to a Perfect.

T. meinst du. rbv trapadidSiiTa a{iT6v. were seeking the young : life. if not generally. Matt. It is the addition of the article and an object that restricts the participle to one person. Gal. 10 7 : . . : Present of Simultaneous Action. but by its limitations. They are of somewhat infre- quent occurrence in the New Testament. a yap oi . that "the passive participle of the present tense in Greek is often. (ruf6/iewi. may be understood in the same way. Luther's version. W. we that are (in the sense we that become') saved. A General Present Participle sometimes occurs in the singular when the person to whom it refers constitutes the class designated. Tt6vriKa<nv ^r/Tovvrei rr/v i/'uxV'' ''"'''' they are : dead .e. John 13 11. dass wenige selig werden? and Weizsacker's. 2 : HA. The Present is Participle for the Imperfect. The participle vrapaSiSoiis alone designates any one belonging to the class of betrayers. ircuSiov. sind es die gerettet werden? The same participle in Acts 2 47 1 Cor. p. 20 . that 856. and derives all its verisimilitude from the ambiguity of the English Passive forms. : . not by : the participle. It cannot mean the saved in the sense The statement of Dr. but with reference to those that are [i. and be rendered.L. 1 23. become'} saved. 2 15. probably means simply his betrayer. of those that have been saved." is wholly incorrect.WY. the inquiry being neither on the one hand as to the number of those that are already saved (Perfect of Existing State) or that have been saved (Perfect of Com- pleted Action) nor. child's 140. The following uses of the Present Participle are closely analogous to the uses of the Present Indicative already described under similar names. Mjerai^re. v. : for See also John 12 17 128. 1 18 2 Cor.B. 127. Cf. however. 126. on the other. 1289 to denote a continued action antecedent to that of the principal verb. a. is This limitation of the phrase to an individual accomplished.58 THE TENSES. the participle is undoubtedly a General Present. June 1886. used to express a completed action. Chambers in J. also The Present Participle sometimes used as an Imperfect a.V. as a Progressive : . . 37) . 40. Acts 4 34 (of. or may be taken as in R. with reference to those that are being saved (Progressive Present of Simultaneous Action).

WH. KaTaKei/jLevov iirl 9 : 20 .Evov tov unlade her burden. that the tenses of the participle do not in general in themselves denote time. Acts 9 33 : .. Luke 8 : 43 . who had been lying on a bed eight years. is very impor- tant for the right interpretation of the Aorist Participle that it be borne in mind that the proper and leading function of the is tense not to express time. See also Matt. The general statement made under It 118. neither suffer ye them See also Acts 28 23. John 5:5. 129. : 69 (a) ( The Conative Present. Acts 24 : 10. ejpev Se ckcI avOpanrov tlvo. . leads to constant misinterpretation of the form. et al. : 130. Matt. oiSi rovis d<Tepxon€vovi d^iCTE eixTtXedv.6jt. (c) The Present of Past Action still in Progress. conceived of indefinitely. 132.THE AOEIST PARTICIPLE.iro^opTii. The action denoted by the Aorist Participle may and be past. exeto-c yap to to there the ship was irXoiov ^v a. the action de- noted being thought of as future with reference to the time of the principal verb. yofiov. Mark 5:25. for 131. from the point of view either of the speaker or of the principal verb. the action denoted beginning before the action of the principal verb and continuing in progress at the time denoted by the latter. . ovopan Alveav i^ erwv 6kt(o Kpa^drrov. 23 13 14) that. and there he found a certain man named JSneas. present. TEE AOEIST PAETIOIPLE. applies also to the Aorist Participle. or future with reference to the speaker. as a simple that the Aorist Participle properly The assumption denotes past time. Acts 21 : 3 . are entering in to enter. but to mark the fact that the is action of the verb event. (6) The Present for the Future.

. acquired. the designation of one who performs the is action denoted by the verb. not as in progress (Present). is and wholly subordinate characteristic a certain suggestion of antecedence. suggests action in progress. will it be used when the by mind of distinctly contemplates action. number It is thus. numerically considered. so that there associated with the tense as a secondary. nor as an existing result (Perfect). there remains a is appli- considerable variety of relations to which the Aorist cable. the Aorist being incapable in itself of suggesting subsequence or futurity. and action in progress is expressed. coincident with. or subsequent to. But. not by the Aorist. but as a simple fact. will desires distinctly it the Aorist noun be used the writer to indicate that the doer of the action will perform in time subsequent to that of the principal verb. Nor. of the other tenses. but that conceives of the action de- noted by it. not of the to but the Perfect.60 antecedent to. express existing if result. the common mark of is them all being that the action denoted by the participle thought of simply as an event. and like any other noun or adjective timeless. it the existence of the result of the Aorist. like the participles may be most simply thought of as a noun or adjective. but ll^or the Present tense. again. Among these various relations the case of action antecedent largest to that of the principal verb furnishes the of instances. The Aorist Participle. it The distinction of the Aorist Participle not that expresses a different time-relation from that expressed by it the Present or Perfect. the action of the principal verb. when these cases have been excluded. THE TENSES. the leading use of the Aorist Participle. and this fact has even to some extent reacted on the meaning of the tense. being the function. Such an adjective or contemporaneousness is noun will not ordinarily be used if with the action of the principal verb since contemporaneousness distinctly in mind.

them The instances in which the action denoted by the participle to the action of the principal verb are as is not antecedent normal as that in which it is so. action in But the enigma is solved when we examine the nature of The latter. but in some other way. .Kws'] in the participle if." — mar. must stand [waparaTi. of modern grammarians participle. is in reference to the principal action.others. 139. strictly speaking. we do not here understand at once how the participle became used in this sense. again. The Aorist Participle of Antecedent Action does not denote antecedence it is used of antecedent action. not by the Aorist tense as a tense of past time. fixes on© The action which is denoted by the finite relation to another. by a sort of necessity. When it the secondary action continues side by side with the principal action. an adjective in origin. The same principle holds respecting all the uses of this tense. Kem. verb is the principal one. . intended to denote the secondary action without any reference to continuousness and completion and futurity. but. while 134.: THE AOKIST PARTICIPLE.iOr force into a position of subordination or abnormality. purpose. where antecedence is implied. We indeed. the proper sign of the similarly. If. and were evidently so recognized alike in classical and in New Testament Greek. the aorist participle alone remains for this. 216 f. of the present . Compare the following statements "Since the aorist. regard a point which is fixed in reference to another action as prior to it. The' following section (133) is accordingly a definition of the constant function of the Aorist Participle. referred to the future. like the other non-augmented forms of the has nothing whatever to do with the denotation of past time. and since time previous to a point in past time is not the less a kind of past time. and 142 enumerate the classes of events with reference to which it may be used. the aorist and participle. Elucidations of the Student's Greek Gramaorist participle. but merely as a point or moment. nor did ever displace the. pp. this notion of priority in past time is not signified by the Curtius. . Yet this use is 61 no more than the other uses a primary function it of the tense. the perfect participle serves to express future is needed it and an action regarded as complete however.

62 " THE TENSES. das beisst es bezeiclinet eine Handlung. iin Uebrigen uns nur darin.Lp. An und fur sich bezeichnet Form das aoristisohe Partioip ebenso wenig als ausser dem Indicativ. bei dem die Zeitdauer. dass die Haupthandlung in den Verlauf der Nebenhandlung hineinfalle und neben ihr hergehe (Gleichzeitigkeit). Das Particip des kiirzesten und von uns genauer betrachteten Aorists. oder das tiberhaupt nur als ganz kurze Zeit dauernd bezeichnet werden soil. Xen. gegeben. 125. ereiri Si iyyirara Sktu Kal ixarbv tfiKiffaVf t^v (T(t>eTipav otKi." Leo Meyer. — " In satzen wie AvadTTtaovraL (Xen. sondern durch die besondere Natur der beiden Verbalbegriffe. dass es als aoristisohes Partioip nioht wie das prasentisohe Particip aucb die Bedeutung der Dauer in sich enthalt. Man erkennt diesen Sachverhalt am besten durch Vergleichung mit Satzen wie E 98. 17. der in seinem irgend eine andere aoristische Augment ein deutliohes Merkmal der Vergangenheit hat. pp. nicht zu. An. 133. die es in Anspruch genommen. 3. Griechisohe Aoriste. Vorstellung einer Zeitverschiedenbeit weil es sich um ein Sk tcl VeXtpujv 56vTes. WO die darum nicht entstehen konnte. Die Vorstellung der Vergangenheit in Bezug auf das Hauptverbum war also nicht durch die Aoristform an sich.a dvofjidffaiTeSf oLKLffrds di irof^aavTes Apurrbvovv Kal TLvo-tIXov. ist also nur Particip an und fUr sicli. die zu einander in Beziehung gesetzt wurden. An. IV. mit der noch kein Satz als abgeschlossen gedacht werden liegt sein Characteristisches fiir soil . und denselben Vorgang handelte und das Partizip Oder die Partizipien nur eine. 5. sondern etwas bezeichnet. 8) ersohien die syntaktisch untergeordnete aoristische Handlung gegenuber dem anderen Vorgang darum als vergangen. iireib^ elTrep. well die beiden Handlungen sachlich versohieden waren. etwas Vergangenes. or with reference to the inception . koX pdX sTaUi^ovTa rvxiiv Kurk Seiibv iSfwv.<nv FeXiJoi 'AKpiyaiira TT]V fiiv irbXiv dirb * tov 'AKpdyovTOS Trora^oO vhp. /3ou- 6. dessen Stamm eben nur die Verbalgrundform selbst ist. 4. idv tl (ptiyojaiv. nicht weiter in Frage kommen. 24. dirT/ei. 124. Das Bedeu- tungsmoment der ungeteilten VoUstandigkeit und Abgesohlossenheit der Handlung liess die Vorstellung." — Br. 5. elir^v ravra diryet . Thuk. beziehungsweise mehrere besondere Seiten der Handlung des regierenden Verbums zum Ausdruck brachten. Xoliiifv S' Herod. e5 iiroiriras dTrutA/iexos. 161. The Aorist Participle is used of an action con- ceived of as a simple event. I. It its may be used with reference to an action or event in entirety (indefinite). 4v dKovTOi dirMv Kipov \a8eiv airbv iierd direXSdiii.

and 39. and dragged him out of the city. and its position determined by the same considerations which govern the position of any other noun or adjective : in similar construction. 1 Cor. and having persuaded multitudes they stoned Paul. evxapunovixsv . 1 SucawofleVres ovv £k TrwrTctus eipi^vi]v exui/Jicv Trpos tov having therefore been justified by faith. Cor. . 4 11 MapKov dvaXa(i<ov aye /MeTa a'eavTov.KovTa koI vvxras Teo-o-EpaKovra va-repov iirdvacrei/.6v. let us have peace with God. take Mark and bring him with thee. 5:1. and having fasted forty days and forty nights. Mark John 1 : 31 13 . t<S . icTvpov 2^0) T^s iroXetos. they weighed anchor. djcoutravTcs T-qv tticttiv v)jmv. Col. supposing that they had obtained their pur: . . and sailed along Crete.pi(TT!a to! Otm im rrj ^ap'Tt roiv Oem rrj hoQuarf v/XLV.v avTrjv KpaTi^(rai t^s X"P°s. I thank God for the grace of God which was given you. having heard of your faith. koI vricrTevcra^ ^/xepas T€a-<jepd. When indefinite it may be used of momentary or extended actions or of a series of events. 1 : 4. pose. o Si laOeU ovk gSei rts etrnv. 1:4. . above. . . . .THE AOKIST PARTICIPLE. 5 : . evy(a. . The Aorist . Cf. 35. wist not : who . See John 5 13 . : . 0£iS . 4:2. ijyApe. and taking her by the hand he raised her up. Acts 27 13 So^avres t^s irpodicreoK KeKparrjKivaL apavra acro-ov vapeXeyovTo ttjv Kpiyrijv. or with reference to the accomplish- ment of an attempt (resultative). 134. he afterward hungered. 4 . 6e. 1 : 3. Matt. 63 of a State (inceptive). . . we give thanks to God 2 Tim. and see examples below. koI Treio-avTES Toiis oxXous Kal XiOdcravTe's tov the Acts 14 19 HavXov. 135. Kom. The Aorist Participle is most frequently used of an action antecedent in time to the action of the principal verb. Participle of Antecedent Action is fre- quently used attributively as the equivalent of a relative clause is in this case it usually has the article. but he that had been healed it was. The Aorist Participle of Antecedent Action.

4 (134). and the participle usually precedes the verb. Acts 10 33 . also many cases the best See Mark 1 31 (134).MT. Matt. 27 4 : HA. See Acts 14 19 : . : Frequently also the 27 2 Tim. Col. frequently this beginning only that precedes the action of the principal verb. E.V. Acts 13 16. . and 137. I sinned in that . It is still THE TENSES. The Aorist Participle of Antecedent Action means always best translated into English by the by no very so-called is Perfect Participle. rnjaprov irapaSovi ai/xa SiKaiov. E. 1290.V. 13 27 : 23 1 : .. . 150. The English Present Participle frequently placed before a verb to express an antecedent action. and that. Chief attention being it is directed to the inception of the action. Aorist Participle of the Greek is best reproduced in English : by a 4 : finite verb with and. See also Matt. is The inceptive use of the Aorist of special impor- tance in the case of the participle. See Eom. The Aorist Participle of Identical Action. 856. G^. cn5 te Ka\<os eTroiTjcra^ irapaycvd/iiti/os.. : and thou : done that thou hast come. . b. : 13 : . G. but sometimes follows it. : : . Acts 10 23. I betrayed hast well innocent blood. 1 : 3. 1:9. also Mark 6 33 Acts : . more frequently used adverbially and is equivalent to an adverbial clause or coordinate verb with and in this case the article does not occur. 5:1. 4 10. also Luke 21 1 . 64 136. translation of an Aorist Participle. 43 5. Heb. 2 Tim. 15 18 Eph. : . is 138. See Acts 27 13. 11 (134) 139. . The Aorist Participle agreeing with the subject of a verb not infrequently denotes the same action that is expressed by the verb. 7 27 Gen. . 19 27 (and the numerous instances of the phrase diroxpt^ets et-Trev) Acts 27 3 1 Cor. : Sd^ai/res : (134). too. Acts 21 : 1 . without implying that the action It is accordingly in is thought of as in progress. : Mark 5 36 : .

1 Sam. this only designates the action as a sim- ple event other considerations must come in to determine the time-relation. see 121. wiped his feet with : her hair. sometimes used of an action ante- cedent to the time of speaking but subsequent to that of the principal verb.THE AOKIST PAKTICIPLE. : 29 : . . 65 The verb and the participle of identical action. 140. Acts 7 26). John 12 Acts 25 puxv : 13 'Aypitnra's 6 /JatrtXeiis koI Bepvt'xr. with the : Present and Imperfect (Mark 8 Perfect (Acts 13 142. 143. both verb and participle thus describing the action indefinitely as a simple event. is is most prominent in That which requires is most clearly to be observed that neither relation expressed by the participle . Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment. the mind of the writer. ^v Sk Mapta/i ^ that dA. It occurs also with the Future. 6 a8EX<^os Aa^apos qo'deva.eii/'acra tov Kvpiov ijs fivpto koI iKfxA^aaa Tovs TToSas avTOv rats Opi^lv avT^i. 12 19).£i/ot tov ^(ttov. An Aorist Participle of Identical Action mobt fre- quently accompanies an Aorist verb. The Aorist Participle Participle of is The Aorist Subsequent Action. and it was 3. though it denoting the same action. Agrippa the king and Bernice arrived saluted Festus. from a different Respecting this difference in point of view. usually describe point of view. . and Cf. KaTrjvrrjdav eis Katcra- do-7rao-aju. John 11 2 : . whose brother Lazarus was sick. and with the 33 . with which as an aoristic tense it is entirely appropriate (Luke 9 25 : : . . or of subsequence to the time of the principal verb. 145. 141. It is a question of interpretation to be determined in each case whether the fact of antecedence to the time of speaking. at Ccesarea and See also examples cited under 144. 3 John 6).

No certain instance of an Aorist Participle used adverbially as the equivalent of an adverbial or coordinate clause. in Rev. : Feb.) 266 (423).2 . : For New . : . see Acts 25 13 (142) also Acts 16 23 22 24 23 36 24 23. 10 4. For New : Testament instances. In either case it should be translated not having . 152 . 1 : 8. See Ka. emphasis laid upon it.^ ijBev^ffas tJ vliTTei Karevdriaev veveKpaiiivov. The Aorist . These § 76. see John 11 : also Matt. though one or two possible ones CI. XIX. 24. : out the article and follows the verb) is equivalent to xat with a coordinate verb and refers to an action subsequent in fact and and in thought to that of the verb which it follows. (142) . 3 13. noun or adjective in similar construcCarter and Instances of this use occur not infrequently in classical Greek. II. has been observed in classical Greek. : . (F. 2 : : 26. 49. koI p. cited by Garter. 9 12 the symmetry of the figure is best preserved if ctipifj. Humphreys 16 in CI. See G'. Rev. Acts 1 : . cf. 4 [rjdTi] 19. Participle referring to a subsequent action sometimes used attributively as the equivalent of a relative in this case it clause is usually has the article. See Dem. including both the entrance into the holy place and the subsequent offering of the blood. rb iaVToO aQ/ia is In Rom. and that eipi/ievos is thus a participle : of identical action. 11 21 . But it is possible that eio-^\8ev is used to describe the whole highpriestly act. : etc. is THE TENSES. though preceding the verb. 27. 27 . the participle dcrScciJo-as. and referring to a subsequent action.MT. d Dan. 145. In all these cases it is scarcely possible to doubt that the participle (which is with. and Thuc. and its position determined by the same considerations that govern the position of any other tions. most naturally interpreted as referring to a (conceived) result of the action denoted by KaTevb-qirev. : Testament instances. 1891. It is in that case an inceptive Aorist Its position is doubtless due to the Participle of Subsequent Action. cited by Humphreys. in- stances are perhaps due to Aramaic influence. 2. 66 144.L. 1891.evos is thought of as referring to an action subsequent to that of eiffrj\ffev. In Heb. Feb. occur. 26. Col.

Somewhat similar is 1 Pet. 2 Pet. kol tlScv avSpa )(cipas. . at all. though Sois is strictly subsequent to iveSvvapuiBv. In the latter case it takes the its place of a clause of indirect discourse having verb in the Aorist Indicative. related to Xapdv as a participle of identical action is less certain. : 13 . represent. not 148. It occurs but once in the New Testament (Heb. : . 1 : 18. and hence antecedent to the action of the principal verb. 3 18. The Aorist Participle used as an integral part of the object of a verb of perception represents the action denotes as a simple event without defining tion its time. Slxaios irip aSlKUv. of Identical Action. In Rom. THE AOEIST PARTICIPLE. 13 2). 1290. is 67 : obtained as in Il. 147. . named 856. HA. or may be one which ascertained or learned. Aorist Participle of Anetc. which it The accoinci- may be one which is is directly perceived and hence it dent in time with that of the principal verb.V. but only classes of cases for which the Aorist Participle may be . Avaviav seen a ovo/xaTi. or may be thought of as an additional fact (subsequent action) to iKivwcev.. The Aorist Participle with \av$dvo) denotes the same time as the principal verb. In Phil. tecedent Action. the similar construction with <l>6dvo) : and Tvyxdvo. but obtaining or and obtained. The categories above. which. where ^woiroiriSels is clearly subsequent to iiriBavcv [or iiradev]. not diverse functions of the tense. whatever things we have heard have been done. Luke 4:23. 7 yeviinevot the relation of Xapdv to ixivwaev It may denote the same action as ixiyuaev viewed from the opposite point of view (identical action).purrbs d-n-a^ irepl : : d/iapriwy iiriffavev. but is probably to be taken together with davaTwBeis as defining the whole of the preceding clause 'S. 146. 2 . 4 21 the participles Soit and Tr\iipo<popri8cl! may be understood as together defining iveSma/juidr] ry irlarei. it must be remembered. Acts 9 : 12 . iva u/nas irpoiraydyTi rip SeQ. .. da-eXOovra Koi €iri- Oivra avTm and he has and lay hands upon him. to otra r/KOvcraficv yevofieva. 26 : See also man named Ananias come in Luke 10 18 Acts 10 3 11 3 : . G. b ..

when he slays. 89. not as in progress. 4 15. thought before he shall slay. eirpCTrev yap avrm. Seymour in T. hence 150. John means.P. for it Travra. Gen. but to the fact that an action. aid to interpretation it may may sometimes under 119. Cf. : 149. and Cf. As an Participle with the article be observed that the Aorist be used instead of a relative . or after he shall have slain. yet not identical with] 86irj Xarpetav irpocri^e. Concerning a similar use of the Aorist Participle in Homer. exx. nor yet strictly identical with . The choice in such cases of the Aorist Participle rather than the Present is due to the fact that the action is thought of. 16 : 2. Whether he will have such every slayer of you will think. refers to Very rarely also the Aorist Participle used adverbially an action evidently in a general way coincident in it. etc. uai. THE TENSES. pp. is neither antecedent nor subsequent to teXeiG- Nearly the same thought it. 2:10. see Leo Meyer.A. . but as a simple event or fact. Griechische Aoriste. 94.pav tiS OciS. TToXXcnis vims ets &6^av ayayovra tov apxT/ov t^s (Tiarqpuxs huL TraOrjfmTuiv TeXtiCxrai. time with the action of the verb. There are. do not include absolutely all the instances. and in Greek by ore TJyayiu or iv tw dyayeti' (cf 109). might be expressed in English by when he brought or in bringing. for whom are all things.A. 6 airoKTUvas [v/j. cases in which the time-relation of the action of is the participle to that of the verb left undefined. TrdvTa koI Sc' ov to. The rarity of these instances is due not to any abnormality in such a use of the tense. naturally thought of as in progress. is expressed by a Present Participle. is not at all defined. 125 . in bringing many sons unto glory. for example.68 . D. used. and through whom are all things. 1881. to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. ainSyv became him. temporally coincident with another and subordinate to it (and not simply the same action viewed from a different is point of view). T. p.. The participle ayayovra. Si' ov to.

made not to to aid us in a fuller interpretation of the facts mark different functions of the Greek tense. &v might have stood. in Bib. : dfferences are due not to a difference in the force of the tense in the three cases. he that received. Attributive Aorist Sac. xohoever sweareth . Some scholars have endeavored to explain all participles with the article as equivalent to the relative pronoun with the corresponding It is true that such participial phrases may often be resolved in this way and the sense essentially preserved.6(ra! it may os be translated. and 6 iiiro/ielvas it may be translated. In each case a translation by a timeless verbal noun endurer would correctly (though from the point of view of English rather awkwardly) represent the thought of the Greek. 1889. 151.THE AOKIST PAKTICIPLE. as stated above. This principle holds in a relative clause as well as in a principal sentence. and it may xohoever shall endure. 25 : 16 os ?\a(3e might have stood. But these : 13 os iiro/te/vT) . 69 clause with the Aorist Indicative. (a) All the tenses of the Indicative express time. doubtless rather that the Aorist Participle was always. and for in Matt. while for 6 in Matt. All that the Aorist tense does in respect to Participles in Protasis. but of the speaker. i But it should not be supposed that from the point of view of the Greek language these were two distinct The phrase os eXa^e referred in Greek M^xi ^'' ^o present or future time. standing alternately for the one or the other. G. As respects the time-relation of the action of the participle to that of the principal verb 6 Xa^iiv and 6 iTro/ielvas are participles of antecedent action. An Aorist may indeed refer to an action antecedent to the time of the principal verb. But that this is not a general principle will be evident from a comparison of the tense of the Indicative. are of the case. 24 be translated. — — these distinctions. swearer. and that 6 Xa^dv meant simply the receiver. but this antecedence is not expressed verb standing in a relative clause by the tense ' of the verb. The fact is to past time. 6 o/iSa-as is a participle of identical action. W. for Xo/3<ii' in Matt. the act of receiving being thought of as a simple fact without reference to progress. sometimes os Xd^r/. sometimes instead of such a clause with the verb in the Aorist Subjunctive. . and 6fi. os functions of the Aorist Participle. 23:20 6ij. Apr. Cf Luke 12 8-10. strictly speaking. Ballantine. function of the tense in the Indicative and in the participle.relations from the point of view. not of the principal verb.6<rii &y might have stood. again. so that when he wrote 6 Xo/3i6» he sometimes thought os eXo/Se. But receiver. Thus timeless. It is not probable that in the mind of a Greek 6 Xo/Sii* was the precise equivalent of both of these.

is in itself timeless.g. not with reference to the time of speaking. and not uniformly applicable in fact. not uniform. It would require. instead of by an English Past as it should usually be. like those of the Indicative. (6) The participle. . but life — But such uses of tenses in English are merely permissible. A timeless noun or adjective cannot by any fixed rule be translated into a time- expressing verb. am. 11:4. 152. but that its time-relations are not independent. but present is true of the Present tense. The Future (?. to that of the principal verb. Acts 10 35. Matt. Similarly in the sentence. on the other hand. its relation in that past time to the action of the principal verb must be learned from some other source.. but dependent.g. They that have done good shall come forth to the resurrection of have done is past. and no formula of equivalence between them can be constructed. the rule as thus stated is false in principle. the present tense. standing in connection with an Aorist verb. It is not affirmed that the Aorist Participle denotes time relative to that of the principal verb. clause denotes time not contemporaneous with the action of the principal from the point of view See.70 time is THE TENSES. that a Present Participle. really denotes time future with reference to the speaker. HA. made to read that be translated into English by a relative clause using that tense of the English Indicative which corresponds to the tense Relative clauses in English frequently use the of the Greek participle. tenses apparently to denote time relative to that of the principal verb. and "gains whatever suggestion of time-relation it conveys from its relation to the rest of the sentence. See John 2:16. Pai'tlciple represents an action as future from the point of view of the principal verb. 856. 13:17. to place the action in past time . 1288. of the participle toward time-relations is different from that of the Indicative. : THE rUTUEE PAETIOIPLE. e. in the last sentence. Somewhat less of error is introduced if the rule is the participle may Thus in the sentence. When I am in London I will come to see you. should be rendered by an English Present.. which in a relative of the speaker. It is thus apparent that the whole attitude. so to speak. e. time present relative to that of the principal verb. Shall have done would be more exact Moreover. The corresponding thing verb.

Br. the relations which it expressed necessarily suggested subsequence to the action of the principal verb. 7. John 6 : 64) . as the Future Partici- ple is not. temporal force. tion. not used. jrcTrXr/pw/ieVot ffao-r/s r^s yi/dicretos. Acts 18 14 : . The time of the resulting state usually that of the principal verb. ol avSpts ol aTrea-TaXfiivoi been sent . . 1 Cor. ov irXciovi uaiv fJ-oi rjjxipaj. 153. 154. 15 14 Luke 8:46.%. The Future the other tenses. 17 . and hence gave to the tense a lessness of the participle. I perceived power had gone forth from me. 24 : 71 11 . . 856 . Acts. to express intention. THE PEEFEOT PAETIOIPLE. pp. 163. that tyvoiv Swajutv eieXrjXvOviav i/xov. The Perfect Participle is used of completed acit Like the Perfect' Indicative maj^ have reference state or only to the is to the past action and the resulting resulting state. im. Tlie Present Participle of the verb fiiXXui with a Pres- ent or Aorist Infinitive of another verb occurs as a periphrasis for the Future Participle of the latter verb. 6r. thou sowest not the body that shall be. and Participle is of later origin than the participles of is a clearly marked exception to the general timeWhile its function was probably not primarily temporal. 15 : not more than twelve days since I went 37 . as the Future Partiis to express purpose. tov TrvXfiva. and used. . . Del. . Acts 10 the : SA. fiiWoyv ciple is. Rom. SoSScKa d<^' ^s avipr/v wpocTKV- v^aav ch 'le/oouCToXiJ/A. 20 : 3. tr. . iTrea-TrjO-av men who had : stood before the gate. ov to (joi/wi to ytvijcrofievov (nrupe. oltt filed with all knowledge. Its range of use. Rem. : See John 12 4 (cf. it is up to worship at Jerusalem. somewhat from that of the Future Participle. even unfulfilled intention.i.THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE. however. . While both denote what is future with reference to the action differs is of the principal verb. . 1288. 97 ff.

The Perfect Participle is occasionally used. aTroK^Kpvfifievriv. . also 1 Cor.'s. : marked as one of existing state. 156. of course. 10. 1 21. 4 18 : . The action of which it is the result is.72 155. See also Mark 5 15. 18 . 2 : 7. 6 reOvrjKiois StSc/itVos tovis TroSas koX to. as a Plu- perfect to denote a state existing antecedent to the time of the principal verb. The Perfect Participle stands in two passages of the New Testa- ment as the predicate of the participle uv. John 11 :44. a Perfect See Eph.'s xdpa's he that was [or had been] dead came forth bound hand and : foot with grave-clothes. still earlier. comparing v. The effect is of Participle clearly Col. THE TENSES. icTxrjKOTa. i^Xdcv Kuplxu. noting the Present Participle in the same verse and the Aorist Participle in V.

thou hast no part with me. irov ia-rlv 6 T€)(Oa. (a) When qualified by particles such as av. in the beginning was the Woi'd. MOODS IN PEINCIPAL CLAUSES. Matt.£vi tZv 'lovSaCtov.. 865 a. and it yielded no fruit. 157. HA. 248.p\rj r/v o Aoyos. 2:2. see 7. improbability. etc. 69. see 26. aOe. many The action conceived of as a fact. than a purely assertive fia(7iX. John 13 8 .. Mark 4:7. Respecting these secondary uses of the Indicative in principal clauses.3 . John 1:1. (6) Respecting the uses of the Future Indicative in other 67. The Indicative is primarily the mood of the un- qualified assertion or simple question of fact. 27. 70. 158. THE MOODS. iv a. ovk ex"s M^pos l^^''"' i/jiov. what are ye seeking ? : is he . the Indicative expresses various shades of desirability. 1317. force in The is Indicative has substantially the same assertive principal clauses containing qualified assertions. 159. etc. THE INDICATIVE MOOD. if I wash thee not. iav firj vi'i/'O) ae. though the assertion of the fact : is qualified. where that is born King of the Jews ? John 1 38 n ^rjTeiTE. kol xapirov orvK eStoKiv.

In Matt. tially Kem. The uses referred to in 159 exhibit more difference between Greek and English.: . Acts 7 .. 355 a. is uses of the Subjunctive in principal clauses are as The Hortatory Subjunctive. a. Respecting the uses of the Indicative in subordinate clauses. let John 4:7. ad loc. HA. let : me cast See also Luke 6 : 42 . 74 (c) THE MOODS. E.ov : crov. Kapcfjoi ck him tov 64>6a\fj. The follows 160. i<l>lTitu. 27 49 and of (S(/>eTe in Mark 15 36 is doubtper- 7) deOrc is prefixed to a hortatory son plural without affecting the meaning of the Subjunctive.MT. and each particular usage requires separate consideration. first The Subjunctive used in the person plural in exhortations. 866. a^es tKfidKo) to out the mote out of thine eye. The sense ful (see of lL()>es in Matt. 2. first . 21 38 (Mark 12 R. beloved. Heb. let us run with patience the race that is set before us. WM. ayairui/j-ev a\A. another. a</)es Occasionally the first person singular is used with or Sevpo prefixed.7. B.). passim. p. 7:4. 256. the exhortation in that case becoming a request of the speaker to the person addressed to permit to do something. 1 . 1 . Matt. 8i viro/jLovrji Tpe)(uifJLev rov irpoKUfitvov rnuv dyZva. 34.Xovs. 209 . 1344 . p. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. The uses of the Indicative described in 157 and 158 are substanthe same in English and in Greek and occasion no special difficulty to the English interpreter of Greek. : : and Th.V. the speaker thus exhorting others to join him in the doing of an action. us love one 161. see 185-360. ayaTrtfoi. 12 1 : 255.

HA. Mark 6 : : 50 . John 5 14 /xijKeVt diMpravi. ifipe. Heb. The difference between an Aorist Subjunctive with /xjj and a Present Imperative with its is in the conception of 874. 1346 a.. 6 : 259. Matt. 6 : fji. a conjunction to be supplied before the Subin classical Greek. and most frequently used when the action has not been begun. fir) ovv fj-ipiiivrjarfn cl% r-qv avpiov. continuance of the action. 356. Thus (a) The Aorist Subjunctive is forbids the action as a its simple event with reference to the action as a whole or to inception. be not therefore anxious for the morrow. is The Aorist Sub/^ij junctive used in the second person with to express a . 163.MT. koi eto-evc'yKjjs ^//. 257 . the only exceptions being a few instances of the third person Aorist Imperative "with jur. 165. prohibition or a negative entreaty. 866. 2 Cr. the use of JS. iyu) cl/xi. 75 In none of these oases Cf.. and bring us not into temptation. the action as respects 164. GMT. 162. Acts 18 : 9 . 210 WJU. most frequently in The Present Imperative (180-184) forbids the when it is already progress. Prohibitions are expressed either by the Aorist Sub- junctive or by the Present Imperative. junctive. p. Rev. p. /j-rj dSiiciytn^e ttjv y^v. Matt.Ss eis Treipac/iov. The Prohibitory Subjunctive. sin no more. 34 . it is a demand to desist from the (6) action. /ihJ. 13 . . speak and hold not thy peace. THE SUBJUNCTIVE. AoXci icai fir] o-iuTnjtrjjs. is five. HA. . ni) <f>ol3ei(T6e. it is I. be not afraid. etc. .rj cTKXrjpvvrjTi fiy] Tas xapSias vimv. 8:8. in this case. 7:3. harden not your hearts. hurt not the earth. progress.

866. 166. : 23. 3 1. The imperative rendering of the E. 297. Cf. 6r. tk cf v/j-Zv Ifet <t>iX.ov . koL tote idv tis Lo.V. firi irtcrTEveTc. The Prohibitory Subjunctive occurs 1 Cor. koI eiirg aircp. : GMT. 19j on the other hand. Questions may o»" be classified as questions of fact and questions of deliberation. the passage in Isa. there no fruit from thee henceforward forever. : . 13 14 and Acts 28 : .V. is In the question of deliberato do. Matt. it enjoins continued abstinence from 13 : 21 . the it is (or was will be). the emphatic predictive sense. The former makes a . makes the passage doubly In Matt. 16 : rarely in the third person. believe it not. oi5 i^i) <l>dy7)Te. desirability. 26. here the Christ or. what then Luke 11:5. and then if any man .. Gen. 6 : 9. 2 Thess. 21 shall be exceptional. 2 : 3. is more probable. and shall say lo him f 169. are proljalily to be understood as prohibitory (as in tbe Hebrew of Cf. having reference to the future. shall say unto you.). as in R. used in deliberative questions and in rhetorical questions JIA. 1358. or necessity. The Subjunctive . is The Deliberative Subjunctive. The strong negative. or speaker asks what he what is to be done concerns not fact but possibility. 167. Lo. . Luke 3 10 rt ovv Troi^crujuev. from Septuagint. and oi /iii} being unusual in prohibitions. : rather than emphatically predicate. which of you shall have a friend . there v/ilv eiinj *l8e cuSe o xpurro': 'iSe e/cei. 162. 11 . the action it. occurs rarely in prohibi- tions with the Aorist Subjunctive. . 168. we do ? . Cf Matt. 76 THE MOODS. oi firj. and rhetorical questions. In the question of fact the speaker ' asks what tion. 3 shall . which is clearly prohibitory. the Imperative Subjunctive being rare in the third person. Isa. When Mark is is not yet begun. 24 . . real real But questions may be classified also as interrogative or questions. being more consistent with general usage and entirely appropriate to the context.

iv tiS trjpia Tt yhrqTai. Son of man is f See also Mark 16:3. and "rhetorical questions of fact having reference to the present or past. for if they do these things in a green See also Luke 11 5 16 11.lent to answer to answer. use either the Subjunctive or the Future Indicative. XSiinv. 13 riva Xeyovcnv oi ayBpunroi dvoj. Rhetorical questions of fact having reference to the future. often equiva. Interrogative questions of fact. 6 31 . : what will he done in the dry ? . 16 The : interrogative question of fact. and all deliberative questions. or shall we not give? See also Matt. (a) Matt. apostle f Luke 23 81 on vyp<S ^vX<o ralra irotolcriv. {d) The rhetorical deliberative question.THE S U B JUNCTIVE. . we : give. ei iv 9:1. eifd aTroo-ToXos. to a positive Since both questions of fact and questions of deliberation may be either interrogative or rhetorical. how : shall they believe in shall they preach except they be sent f 6 : him whom they have not heard? See also Matt. itself. ttS? ovv eirtKa\ecro)VTat eis ov ovk iwca-TCvcrav . . (6) 1 Cor. tov vXov tov avOpunrou. Mark SS>iJ. it results that there are four classes of questions that require to be distinguished for purposes of interpretation. : 18. the latter a rhetorical a negative substitute for an assertion. 77 is inquiry (for information or advice) .ev. 26 54 : how . 10:14. if the question is negative. : ^ 18 n : SG/iej/. . ttSs 8e • Kom. employ the tenses and moods as they are used in simple declarative sentences. am I not an tree. . TruTTeva-mnv ov ovk ^Kovoav . : (c) The 12 14 : interrogative deliberative question. . shall . Luke 14 34 . the who do men say that John 7 45 Acts 17 . 21 Luke 22 49. John 68. tSs Sc Kr)pv^w<nv lav fiiq airoara- how then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed ? . . The : rhetorical question of fact. miK . or.

but no instance occurs ixi sometimes used with in the New . 51 . 5 iii. and cf (t'm) Matt. u. Gild. . 12 The Subjunctive is in Negative Assertions. 7 : Rem. 18 Mark 13 : 30 . Heb.J. 25 . 14 5. 21 (N. when the relations of the verbs are such as to make a Deliberative Subjunctive probable. 1032 ft.P. or /Sovkea-Oe. thee. : 54 : . The verb of a rhetorical question may be of any person. . and the following verb in the i. in A. Concerning the rare use of the Future with oi see 66 cf. THE MOODS. Cf.. 4 : Mark 172. . and Eev. Gild. but occasionally in the second or third. emphatic Future Indicative. : Luke 22 Luke 9 . I will in cni /x-q <t£ dvco ovB' ov ere iyKaTaXiTria. 27 31 : 17. : . Testament. fitj The Aorist Subjunctive used with ov in the sense of an . No conjunction to be supplied in these cases.ri G. neither will I in any wise forsake 9 : See also Matt. 1360. Luke 6 . 202 f. 6iX. SA. 21 : Mark : 10 : 36. no wise : fail thee. ttov OeXti? iToifida-iOfiev. : where . but tm never occurs when the verb the second person. Matt. . clause The verb OiXav is sometimes followed by a introduced by tva. used The Subjunctive may be explained as occasioned by the emphatic negative or by the rhetorical nature of the question. wilt thou that See also Matt. 10 : 14. 26 9 6 : 17 .s. we make ready ? 14 12 15:9. This emphatically predictive Subjunctive in Hellenistic Greek. i)i /iij is is of frequent occurrence in classical The Present Subjunctive Greek. 171. 15 4 the Subjunctive with o* /xi5 is.av is in first person. The Deliberative Subjunctive is sometimes preceded is by 6e\as. 78 170. etfreq. 173. In Luke 18 in a rhetorical question. The verb of a deliberative question is most frequently in the first person. 23 33 : . Eom.). 18 : 41 1 Cor. Luke : 27.B. 13 5 : . 7 1 Cor. 6e\£Te.e.

Mark 11 14 and Acts 8 20 are peculiar in being im: : . The Optative Mood Of. 175. 174. and in Hellenistic sical "writers generally. 6 14 1 Thess. 1507. on Gal. The Optative of Wishing occurs thirty-five times in the New Testament Mark 11 14 Luke 1 38 20 16 Acts 8 20 Eom. 20 Heb. 3 11. : . It most frequently expresses a prayer. : . Swjj ifxiv Trjv elprivrfv. The Optative Mood in Hellenistic Greek.L. 13 21 1 Pet.THE OPTATIVE. 1 Pet. an apodosis correla- .B. 7 7.with av what would happen on the fulfilment of It is thus some supposed condition. 3:31. 1:2. : . and Ltft. : . 3:4. : . always. The Potential Optative. 13 9 14. : : : : 178. : . 12 5 23 2 Thess. Dec. 1 2 2 Pet. The phrase jnf. . Fourteen of the>fifteen New Testament instances are in Paul's writings. except Philem. Gal. is used to express The Optative. 9 10. 11 15 5. : : . than in Greek. It is mainly confined to four uses. in J. : . on Rom. 1 Mace. two of which are in prin- cipal clauses. : : . 3 now the avrbi Sk 6 KvpUK rrji eipijwjs 16 Lord ofpeace himself give you peace. 2 17. you and peace 1:2. Mey. : j^a/MS vjilv koX ctpijvjj '7r\r]6vv$£Cri. is used without av to express a wish. in the third person singular. The Optative of Wishing. 20. is mucli less frecLuent in the New clas- Testament. 3 21 16 2 Tim. 3 4. . The Optative 870 . 11 1. 2:17. yivotro is an Optative of Wishing which strongly deprecates something suggested by a previous question or assertion. 1886. Harmon. 6 14 cf. On Gal. Cr. 15. : . 13 . : . 6:2. 1 16. 18 Philem. 79 THE OPTATIVE MOOD. 3:5. 1 Cor. . grace to be multiplied. : : precations of evil. : . 2 Thess. and in twelve of these it expresses the apostle's abhorrence of an inference which he fears may be (falsely) drawn from his argument.Cf. 2:17. 3:6. EA. 177. 6:15. 176..

Mark 9 : 22 . translated by the English Potential. The Imperative Mood is also used in entreaties and petitions. The Imperative Mood is used in commands and exhortations. EA. . . &.vix. . 182. 5 42 t<3 oItovvti (re. John 17 11 iroiTep ayu. trov. It is usually to be tive to a protasis expressed or implied. Of these instances the six marked t8 31 *10 17 with * are in indirect questions the two marked with t are in direct others still more questions those in brackets are of doubtful text 179. In only one instance (Acts 8 31) : is the con- THE IMPEEATIVE MOOD. give to him that asketh thee. holy Father. : : . doubtful might be added. but if thou canst do anything. dition expressed. what would babbler wish to say The Optative with &v occurs in the New Testament only in Luke's Luke *1 62 *6 11 *9 46 [*15 26 18 36J Acts *5 24 tl7 18 [26 29]. Matt. : . Increase our faith. . T-qprqaov auTovs ev Tc3 ovofuiTL : . 1327 I ff. Sos. : ^A873. keep them in thy name. : . quench not the spirit.a fir] (r^ewvTC. ? 6 (rwep/xoXoyoi ovtos A. Kol elirav ol aTrocTToXoi tco Kvpito Ilpotrfles ij/tTv ttlcttiv. . The Impeeative Mood is also used to express con- sent. : . Acts 8 31 : . Eem. 5 19 to irvf. have compassion on us and help us. : . see 67. . : . Respecting other methods of expressing a command. . : . iruls yap av av 8uvat)u. jiorjBrjtrov ^fuv (TirXayxi'iiiBeii f<t> ij/ias. 181. 18 .80 THE MOODS. : . writings . and the apostles said to the Lord. Luke 17 : 5 . or merely to propose an hypothesis. 180. 872 /xe.e'y«v. ff . 160-167. dAA' el n Svvr]. 1 Thess. 1342. . tl OiXoi. : . 364.ijv eav firi tis oSr/yTjcrci iiow should he able unless some one shall guide me ? this Acts 17 .

\n\ KpivcTc. Destroy this temple. let them marry. and if need so require. 6 OiXa iroieiTia ov\ yafiiLTuxrav. anrf iAe Et iKJSaXt&v xoipuiv. apapTaLvei • and said unto and in three days I will raise it up. Xeis '7/xas. however. 183. John 2 : 19.FINITE MOODS IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES. judge not. 185.koI eiTrev demons besought him saying. And he said unto John 2:19. An 37 ImperatiTe suggesting a hypothesis imperative or hortatory force. them. he sinneth not. ov /jlt/ may or may not retain its Luke 6 : . and ye shall not be judged. A few instances only of the Aorist occur. 1 Cor. Go. 32. on the other hand. Cf. 81 oi 8e Sat/iovcs atrocTTSiXov ijjuas auTois 'YTToycTe. Cf. give to the mood or tense a force different clauses. 184. Kal («) ovtuk 6<j>€i\a ylviadax. aTreKpCOrj Itjo-oCs koI elirev avrois ^fj.epai's Avcrare tov vaov tovtov Kol [iv] TpuTiv them. 163. above. Matt. kol KpiOfjre. 8:31. let him do what he iyiplo avTov. mood or is affected by the subordinate clauses which . also require discussion in so far as their Principal clauses or tense affects limit them. from that which they usually have in principal Hence arises the necessity for special treatment of the moods and tenses in subordinate clauses. FINITE MOODS IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES.. Many subordinate tenses clauses. Any tense of the Imperative may be used in positive commands. If thou cast £ts rrjv vapeKaXow avrw X-tyovTH ayiXtpi us out. the use of the Imperative is confined almost entirely to the Present tense. 7 : 36 . Cf. Jesus answered • will. the distinction of force being that of the tenses of the dependent moods in general. send us away into the herd of swine. with the clauses employ the moods and same force that they have in principal Others. 95 ff. In prohibitions.

Kesult (218. (10) Comparison. but in part on genetic relationships. in part . Adjective. 188-227. III. 219. partake at the same time of the nature of adjective and of adverbial clauses. in part). 319). . 186. As As As As As subject or predicate nominative (211-214. 234-237). Place (289-316. 216. .: : 82 THE MOODS. and relative clauses denoting cause and purpose introduced in the same way. object after verbs of exhorting. 228-233. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) II. (200-204). object after verbs of striving. is 347) general order of treatment Moods in clauses introduced by Moods in clauses of cause Moods in clauses of result final particles . 213). in part . etc. 321-333). and in part on considerations of practical convenience. (4) (5) (6) Condition (238-277. The arrangement of the matter in the following sections (188not based upon a logical classification of clauses. object after verbs of fear and danger (224-227). Purpose ([188-196]* 197-199. Cause (228-233. in part). The following is the 187. etc. etc. 317). expressing equality or inequality (289-816. Substantive. in part). (7) (8) 318. such as is indicated in the preceding section. Rem. Concession ^278-288). 296-315). 217. Clauses considered as elements of the sentence may be classified as follows I. Definitive (215. (205-210). (215. 289-316. 357-360). denoting (1) (2) (3) Time (289-316. object in indirect discourse (334-356). 294). Adveebial. (1) (2) (3) Appositive (211. (9) IManner (217. Eelative (289-333. in part). Conditional relative clauses introduced by relative pronouns. Indirect object. in part). 234-237.

General Usage. . (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) etc. Moods Moods Moods in conditional sentences in concessive sentences 83 238-277. Relative clauses introduced by las. 334-356. tially ignored. by a process of assimilation. but. and appositive clauses. . Under the general head are included in of clauses introduced bj' final particles New Testament Greek (1) (2) Pure final clauses. to a considerable extent disappeared. etc. viz. 357-360. in relative clauses Definite relative clauses Conditional relative clauses Relative clauses expressing purpose Indirect Discourse . etc MOODS nr GLAUSES INTEODUOED BY PINAL PAETIOLES. predicate. 296-316. 317-320. Complementary and epexegetic clauses. Clauses modeled after final clauses take the place of Infinitives in various relations 5 the Opta- from this class of clauses the distinction between the Subjunctive and the Future Indicative is partive disappears . Object clauses after verbs of striving. Classification. Subject.: : CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY FINAL PARTICLES. . Clauses of conceived result. . Object clauses after verbs oi fearing. It results that the six classes of clauses named above conform in general to one rule. . etc. The relations expressed clauses enumerated in 188 are in classical by the Greek expressed differ- in various ways. Construction after rai iyivero. . 321-333. 292-295. 278-288. 289-333. these ences have. in the New Testament. Object clauses after verbs of exhorting. 188. 189.

V. and appositive clauses. Subject. and by Gild. Object clauses after verbs of striving. Cf. usage than in classical Greek. predicate. clauses. the first class is the only one that regularly classical Greek.MT. "Ottus occurs in the New Testament. 311. employs ha in 192. J... The usage of the final particles In classical Greek is elaborately by Weber in Schanz. Final Particles. (6) Of these clauses. VI. as final particles oVco?. Hefte IV. Clauses introduced by a final particle usually employ the Subjunctive after both primary and secondary tenses the Future Indicative the Present Indicative. (on the basis of Weber's work) in A. etc. discussed New Testament Use of iva. This extension of the use of iva one of the notable characteristics of the of all later Greek. 84 THE MOODS.. 53 ff. but clauses introduced by largely it upon the function is of the Infinitive. 'iva. P. 'Im occurs very frequently in the New Testament. G'. "Iva oc- Greek of the curs in the (1) (2) (3) (4) (6) New Testament and New Testament in final clauses. in . 416 ff. is sometimes used. The New Testament employs and firj. Pure Object clauses after verbs of exhorting. Not only does it assume in encroach part the functions which in classical Greek belonged to the other final particles. IV. etc. Complementary and epexegetic Clauses of conceived result. Beitrage zur historischen Syntax der griechisohen Sprache.. Rem. and very rarely 190. and with a greater variety of 191. New Testament Use op ottcos. as in classical Greek.

Of. 314. etc. 307-310.MT. Eom. Mi.. final clauses take the Subjunctive . in the predicate which In classical Greek. is by av in Attic inscriptions. 197.MT. 312. New Testament. appears in a final clause in the New Testament : in only one passage and that of doubtful text. etc. Object clauses after verbs of striving. 194. p. "Oirus after verbs of fearing. which occurs as a final particle in classical prose. Object clauses after verbs of fearing. New Pure Testament Use of final clauses. Luke 2 36.P. which is found occasionally in Greek. GMT. /ajj. pure and oirojs object clauses after verbs of striving. in A. 339. Pure Final office is to Clauses. regularly accompanied Indeed. 'Os.. which was used as a final particle in epic and lyric poetry. 54. 3 4. 352. in (1) (2) (3) Object clauses after verbs of striving. as in classical Greek. Meist.J. Cf. A pure final clause is one whose express the purpose of the action stated it limits. In classical Greek.CLAUSES INTRODTJOED BY FINAL PARTICLES. Object clauses after verbs of exhorting. 'O^pa. In the in pure New Testament there are four instances of ottojs av. G?. vi. three of : : : : classical 196. 313. etc. 212. final clauses Use of Sv. final clauses. (1) (2) (3) 85 Pure final clauses. introduced by and oTTcos <os frequently take av without change of meaning. 193. etc. Gild. does not occur in the 195. all them in quotations from the Septuagint. is used in the New Testament. 328. does not occur in the New Testament. Acts 20 24. Acts 3 19. Of. 15 17. GMT. p. (?.

iva KpiBrJTt. U. that they might give. • jui). tva avrovs ^rjXovTC. shut you out. avro tovto this i^yapd ac ivSuiw/iai iv trot rrjv Swa/itV fiov. and their eyes they have closed lest haply they should perceive with their eyes. primary tenses . classical Greek. B. irore iSuxriv 6(t>0aXixots. The following passages contain the Future.'i servant. or both Future and Subjunctive Matt. Acts 21 24 28 27 Rom. 3:4.S. 4:17. 1366 . 17:2. . The Future Indicative occurs in pure final clauses in classical and di^po. WM. See also 199..S. ment. A very New pp. 1 John 5 : 20.i e/cKa/u. they desire also 1 Cor. 289 : . HA. 4 : may seek them. 86 after THE MOODS. and both forms are sometimes found together. pp. 881.S. 324. Weber. 199. 13 15 Mark 14 2 Luke John 7:8. Oild. 7:6. . 14 10 20 10 Greek chiefly a&er &irm. 198.ov. koL tov'S 6(j}6a\p. G-. U. that ye he not judged. GMT. gift- iTrmoQio yap i&eiv i/xSs. for very purpose did I raise thee up that . in thee : my power. 3 : 1. . fxrj Kpiverc. rarely after . pp. /juxTLKov. 1 Pet. 1:11. to tva. tva 8u)(Tovcrtv. 9 : 17 . Pure final clauses occasionally take the Future Indica- tive in the New Testament as in G. never after Ua. to_ Gal. that I may impart unto you some ottcos spiritual Kom. and W. 1365. 360 few instances of the Present Indicative occur in the Testaff. In the HA. and cf WH. that ye OiKovrnv. n p-CTaSC) ^^apicr/jui i/xlv irvev- for I long ets see you. : . WT. 881 . I might show Tot'. . 234 f./XDO'ai''*^ fiiQ . judge not. The manuscripts show not a few variations between Subjunctive and Future Indicative.ovi avrlav Acts 28 27 . after the same conjunction. ws. Kom. : . jxr] regularly used after primary and sec- alike. is The Subjunctive ondary tenses Matt.u^iroTf) and one after chiefly after iva Sttus. . Gal. . : : . New Testament. The New Testament instances are a few instances occur after /i^ (. eKKkcidai. on passages cited by B. 2 : 4 . 7:1. . : . husbandmen a ip. c ff. : . Luke 20 10 dTreWeiAtv he sent to the irpos toiis yeiapyov's SoCA. See 6 . the Optative does. not occur. : . . after secondary tenses either the Optative or the Subjunctive.

Under the head of verbs of exhorting. Mark 5:18. he who had been possessed with a demon besought him 2 . sometimes ing. II. Testament. clause instead of the more usual Infinitive. vol. Some : editors read 17. Luke 10 CIS : iraptKoXa airov 6 SaL/xovuTdcK tva Sei^Oijre ii. 40). KeXeva and the com'Ei/reAXo/tat pounds of Tao-o-o) take only the Infinitive. commanding. 168. ff. object clauses after such verbs they use both are frequent ha and the Subjunctive to the exclusion of and employ the Future Indicative. 202. pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest that he send forth laborers into his harvest. This is New Testament the most frequent construction... Matt. 87 etc. is in classical Greek after verbs also in the of exhorting. Eem.. 46 . Here also belongs the verb cluded the verb . is to be in6e\a> when used with reference to a command addressed to another. CLAUSES INTEODTJCED BY PINAL PARTICLES. almost 201. See also Matt. In the New . tense in Eph. In the New Testament iva occurs much more frequently than Sttus in such clauses. GMT. 8:6. 14 36 16 20.MT. The use of Ua in an object clause after a verb of exhorting is unknown in classical Greek. v. Mark 13 18 : : : : : (cf. p. Object Glauses after Verbs of Exbortiug. with the Subjunctive instead. Acts 23 15. 2 Cor. 24:20) . 1 10. In classical Greek. 200. but uses 203. the Subjunctive. oTrtos ovv Tofii Kvpiov tov dipuTfUov ipydras iK^dXr/ TOV OepuTfJiov avTov. 1 See B.e. etc. 'va never takes an Infinitive. The regular construction etc. an Optative in such a clause after a primary WS. 355. p. 1 Cor. a. Luke 22 :46 (cf. 357. Appendix. occurring nearly twice as often as the "va and otto)? clauses. the Infinitive.T airtini -g. 1373 .. 4:3. verbs of exhorting. entreat' and persuading are sometimes followed by an object Such a clause usually employs oVo)? and the Future Indicative. It is frequently followed by or request an object clause introduced by "va. oTraj? . that he might be with him.

1375. the Subjunctive occurs more 'iva frequently than the Future Indicative. 684. 3 : 14). New Testament. 337. 16. 4. I will make thy feet. 6 1 . 2 : Acts 13 40 5 : 1 Cor. Koj. 13 12. . usage. after both pri- mary and secondary In the tenses. Gal. are followed by with the Future Q. hut the chief priests took counsel to put Lazarus also behold. 88 elirov. i quently with the Future Indicative. Heb. 16 10 : . 24 4 Col.. 16 20 Mark 9:9. classical ju^ Greek sometimes uses less fre- (instead of ottws it-yj) with the Subjunctive. 3 12. and cf. 13 34. Trpoa-tvxofjLai. verbs signifying to effect. used in the sense of command. 10 : 12 . Kajt-TTTto yovara (Eph. 1372. that head. Cf. though not usually included under Matt. HA. to care 206. rj^omtnv Koi irpoo'KvvqfTovtnv Ivdmiov eyci yiydirrjad. THE MOODS. and 17 to . to ottco? etc. When the object clause after a verb meaning for. to death. Object Clauses after Verbs of Striving. oX l^ovKexKravTO Se dpx'epets Iva Koi tov Ad^apov ajTro- KT€LV(Dcnv. indirectly quoted. is negative. Rev. know that 1 : have loved See also 1 Cor. . plan. to take heed. and Iva ix. 885 . In or entreating many cases a clause may be regarded or Infinitive after a verb of as a commanding It is command . 4 : 16. 1:16. Col. . iSovi iroiricrat avroiis iva. OTTO)?. Col. /ii? "Ottois with the Future in classical Greek. less frequently the Subjunctive. John 11 : 37 . 8 : : 9 . tSv iroSSv (TOV. 4:12). 1 Thess.ri with the Subjunctive in New Testament Greek. See Matt. : This is the : common New Testament . then a species of indirect discourse. : 205. and more fre- quently than John 12 10 : . also such phrases as TO. to strive for. Kev. yvS»nv' on them to come and worship before thee. and ftMT. 8 364. Greek. Philem. ere. Indicative. In classical to take care. which are paraphrases for 204. ixvdav iroioS/nai iirl tu>v irpoa-tvxw (Eph. 2 John 8. 3:9. or Q.WY. 15 . also occur. Q.

243 ..<l>ir)ixL. Acts 9 23 : with Eev. Yet in a larger number of cases the verb is in the third person (Matt. but Testament. II. New Testament : sometimes prefixed to the Imperative (Matt. 5 15 is best regarded as constituting an object clause. 4 17 p\4ire. 12:25). 354. . showing that the paratactic construction is still possible. The verbs ^rjTeo) and which are usually followed by . see p. In Col. clause thus closely approximates an indirect de- liberative question. R. Ml} with the Subjunctive after pxiira is also probably to be regarded as dependent. 24 4 Mark 13 5 Acts 13 40 1 Cor.i. : : . p. See Th. a. p. 24 6). 12 : 89 New Testament 3 : in such clauses (205) only 14 . 307) and though in the . 26 cf. Heb. and John 11 53. It is true that ^XAro does not take an objective clause in classical Greek. The Optative sometimes occurs in secondary tense of verbs of striving. : 35. . that in the New Testament only the Imperative of this verb is followed by a clause defining the action to be done or avoided. but possibly pure final. : may also take the Infinitive as : With : Matt. 22 : 15 . 208. Concerning Luke 11 and p. 2 . object. is followed by im with the Subjunctive the clause in such case being probably objective. 503 Th. 8 9. : . 9 30. In Heb. The Of. 374. It is sometimes difficult to say -with. and might therefore be regarded as a Prohibitory Subjunctive (Luke 21:8. WM. : . loc. but a dependent clause. certainty whether |Ui} with the Subjunctive after 8pa or ipare is an objective clause or an independent Prohibitory Subjunctive. Eem. Mark 11 : 18. ad 210. foot-note. and in all these oases after a phrase meaning to plan. Mark 6. etc. 4. and in 2 John 8 p\4ireTc. 5:15. Verbs of striving..MT. "Oirws occurs in the in Matt. In classical Greek the dependent construction was already fully developed (of. classical is Greek after a not found in the Nev? 209.). : : . 16 10) dinate imperative expression. III. p. : . (?. 18 10 1 Thess. etc. 631 WT. Sras. 3 12 the future Indicative with ^m} is evidently an objective Spa is : : . 207. B. CLAUSES INTRODUCED BY FINAL PARTICLES. /tij with the Subjunctive in such passages as Matt. Gal. etc. 2. cf. V. : clause.. and that in a few instances the second verb is an Aorist Subjunctive in the second person with /n^. and in at least one instance is inThis indicates that we have not a coortroduced by tva (1 Cor. 13 12 13 : 13.

: . 9 18 . 90 THE MOODS. 40 15 2 John 6 3 John 4. 39. These clauses 212. especially such as are cognate with the verbs which take such a clause as object.ij<Tu> to 6e\rjfia tov is ire/xi/'avTOs jue Kal T£\eiut(T(o to ipyov avTov. this my commandment. fj. less frequently in the Future Indicative. Subject. : See also : John 6 29. are. . and Appositive Clauses intro- duced by itive. that ye love one another. cf. tva dyairaTe oXXt^Aovs. (&) Subject. also 1 Cor. See also Mark 9 12 (yiypaTTToi implies command or will) Rev. and with pronouns. predicate. Iva. my meat to do the will of him that sent me and accomplish his work. eacli followed in an one instance by : tva with the Subjunctive. 211. 9:5. it is required in stewards that a man be found dStKijcrovcriv tov Kev. 206. is The verb usually in the Subjunctive. koI ippeOrj avrais tva x^P^""' '''V'' T'J^) and it was said unto them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth. Pkbdicate. 14 12 . 13 . striving. oe Appositive with nouns of various significance. .-)] : 213. which in the active take such a clause as object. Predicate. Cf. 1 Cor. etc. (a) may be further classified as follows : Subject of the passive of verbs of exhorting. 1 Cor. ij John 15:12. See Mark 11 : 16 . 8. John 4 34 : . is : avrr) icTTiv ivToXr] q ijxri. or appos- used in the New Testament with a force closely akin to that of an Infinitive. 1 Luke 1 43 John 3:1. lyfrurai iv rots oiKOvojuots iva iritrros faithful. Infinitive. 4:2. . 9:4. 18 : 39 . ns fvpiOy. Clauses introduced by Xva are frequently as subject.. the clause constituting a definition of the content of the noun or pronoun.. 200. . and of other verbs of somewhat similar force. 4:2. ifiov PputpA to e<TTiv tva 7roi. 1 Cor.

(c) Subject of phrases signifying it is profitable. : . some- times in the Future Indicative. need. the be glorified. iX-^Xvdcv that the : ij <upa Iva ho^atrdrj a vios tov avOputwov. 217. 4 3. with a force closely akin to that of The verb of the clause is usually in the Subjunctive. of John 17 3 and adopted by Tisch. The Present Indicative occurs in MSS. : Complementary and Epexegetic Clauses duced by iva.CLAUSES INTKODUCED BY FINAL PAETICLES. fitness. Mark or 11 : 28 . Son of man should See also Matt. who gave : thee this authority to do these things ? John 12 28 hour is . John 1:27. ground. : . Luke 7 Rev. (a) Complementary limitation of nouns and adjec- tives signifying authority. it is sufficient. or constitutes an method of the action denoted by the indirect object of the verb. John 8 56 : . your father Abraham rejoiced my day. 30 18 6 Luke 17 2 John 11 60 16 7 1 Cor. See also Matt. 21 : 6 . 'Aj8paa/x o irariip vimv ^yaWtacraro to see Iva tSjj t^v ^/ji. it is enough for the disciple that he be as his master. : 91 is 214. power. John 2:27. m : .ipav T7]v ifi'^v. etc. (text). : . verb. . 1 8:8. 2:25. 16:2. limitation. etc. introin the New Testament to express a complementary or epexegetic an Infinitive. 5 29. ^ rk troi IScokev tyjv efotxrtav Tavrrjv iva TaCra irotjjs. and Treg. Clauses introduced by tm are used 215. 10 25 apKerov tiS /juaO-qry iva yivT]Tai 6 SiSacrKoAos avTov. (b) Complementary or epexegetic limitation of verbs . of various significance or the clause defines the content. set time. come 28.82. Matt. These clauses may be classified as follows : 216. : . : . Eem.

ovk tcrre tv (Tkotu. dSeX^oi. iva. See also 218. In other cases the cause So. but ye.. one of theory or inference rather than of observed cases the effect So. : . 10. 1 17 Rev. THE MOODS. Gal. See also 1 John 1 9 (cf Heb. 21 32) : . the cause is inferred. ovtos ^ oi yovets avTov.pTtv. We He must have suffered very severe losses in order to he so reduced in circumstances. (See an Infinitive similarly : used in Acts 15 10. 2:9. this man or his parents. e.) See also John 9 22 . Clauses of Conceived Result Introduced by "va. John 9:2. who did sin. is In all the cases the action of the principal clause regarded as the necessary conto be expected to follow dition of that of the subordinate clause. 14 : 13. are not in darkness. 219. 9 : 20 (cf. Iva 19 ^fji. the action of the sub- ordinate clause as the result which is from that of the principal It is clause. say. 5:4. of the sentence. 5:4. that : — . TV(j>Xb'S yevvrj6rj. The relation of thought between the fact expressed in the principal clause and that expressed in the clause of conceived result introduced by it is tva is that of cause and effect. that : day should overtake you as thieves. that ye he of the : same mind. Cf Martyr..epa xXcWas KaTaXaPy. Matt. : . is observed. Clauses introduced by ha are used in the New Testament to express tlie conceived result of an action. 1. Polyc. 2:2. In some is actual and observed. vmets v/j-Ss <us Se. 92 Phil. the effect is inferred. John 9:2. rts ^fw. 22 : 14.g. fulfil ye my Joy. e. in both these latter passages the Iva clause defines the content of the agree- ment mentioned in the preceding portion John 5 7. but is recognized by the speaker that this relation fact.. that he should he horn hlind f 1 Thess. sion worthy of notice that in English the form of expreswhich ordinarily expresses pure purpose most distinctly may also be used to express this relation of conceived result. 1 Thess. brethren. TrXr/piiXTaTe fiov ttjv x°-P^v "''' '''o °-^° <l>pov^T£. 6 10 Infinitive in similar construction) 2 Cor.g. Such forms of expression are .

telic. 17 8e wo/ioi/^ epyov and let patience haveHeb. not act- which the possession of wo/mon. ye Iva may receive the promise. however. : inrofwv^s yap tx^'"^ ypclav iva. for tion. 10 36 . is Actual result observed to be the effect of observed not. in this case the iva clause in no sense expresses the purpose of ual) of : the action of the principal clause.£iov ex^''"' ""* V'''^ its perfect work. contained in the clause . but to set forth a result (conceived. have suffered severe it is But when we re- He must losses to have become so duced in circumstances. ye may be perfect and entire. tov Otov jrovrjO'avm KOixi<77j(rOe. and only that of inferred result remains. He must have labored diligently to have accumulated such a property. . mean rather that if he accumulated such a property he must . thus expressed except by a rhetorical With these illustrations from the English. but would usually conceived of labor. but a fact conceived to be . first sentence the clause expresses the purpose of vTro/mvn] is In the second. causes figure. that. compare the following from the Greek. have labored diligently becomes say. for ye have need of patience. that is. the sentence may be so conceived that the subit ordinate clause would express purpose.CLAUSES INTBODUCED BY FINAL PARTICLES. Jas. arising from imitation of a construction which really expresses purpose. having done the will of God. T^v iirayyeXiav. TcXciot Kal oXoKkrjpoi. TeA. 93 probably the product of false analogy. tva though the purpose of . In the sen- He must have labored diligently in order to accumulate such a property. that 1:4. ro diXiqim. the subordinate clause expresses pure purpose. the property is as a result the existence of still which proves diligent if This more evident we say. Thus in the sentence. He labored diligently in order to accumulate property. evident that the idea of purpose has entirely disappeared. tence. yet the function of this clause in the sentence is not Its office is not to express the purpose of the principal clause. iirayyeXCav. is the necessary condiIn John 9 2 the idiom is developed a step further. In the excVa).

. Gal. 13 13 is the most probable instance of tva denoting : : actual result . either actual or conceived : : . Matt. R. 370. 5 17 is also best explained as expressing the TTT. scarcely a probable. the result of a cause concerning which the principal clause makes to the inquiry. Eespecting im wXripae^. 12:17. becoming a mere complementary limita- perhaps be suggested by examining the following illustrations John 17 2 Mark 11 28 Luke 7 6 1 John 2 27. no room for doubt. tva to express result. In the last the idea of purpose has altogether disappeared. first gospel. c. is This use of im with the Subjunctive closely akin in force Cf. 21:4. The gospel never uses and that he by this phrase at least intends to express purpose is made especially clear by his employment of Hirus (which is never eobatic) interchangeably with iva. In all these constructions. So. . normal force of (oo-te with the Infinitive. 574. the clause tion. 220. so far as the iva clause is concerned. In the first case the clause probably expresses pure purpose.% is probably equivalent to uVre 1 iroieic. It would be best : translated. Luke p.eyd\a. being indeed in most of these constructions more frequent than the 222. "there is 22 and frequently in the writer of the first . Some of the instances under 215-217 might be considered as expressing conceived result. as a hostility of the iiesh to the Spirit. 4:14. Troi. 26 56.94 THE MOODS. "va clause. so as even to make. 8 17 13:35. and especially GMT. p. : 221. instance in iva the New Testament of a clause introduced by denoting actual result conceived of as such. 459). : . : . With 1:22. 582-584.V. iva . There is no certain. Matt. which are distinct departures from classical usage. purpose of the hostility of the flesli and the Spirit. viewed. 9 45 probably expresses pure purpose : (cf. 211-218. WM. possible course of development : : The may . the Infinitive remains also in use in the New Testament. 11 : 25 . 2:15. being later invasions of the iva clause upon the domain occupied in classical Greek by the Infinitive. and is •epexegetic of /j. Kev. cf. but the idiom has developed beyond the point of conceived result. apparently. .

I come. 1 22 ""li/a ist niemals iK^anKbp. Q. WT. 573-578. when : See also Acts 23 Acts 5 : 10 . if in every individual passage of the N. Concerning the post-classical usage of iva in general see Jebb in Vincent and Dickson. Concerning whether Ira in the New Testament is always in the strict sense telle. Eeu. 224. 1883. yuij Optative. the second half far from true. 12 20 (^o/3oS/uu irtos I fear. after secondary HA.T. Necessary as the demand is. 1378. damit. sondern immer tcXik6i/.CLAUSES INTEODUCED BY FINAL PARTICLES. at the cost of the simple and natural sense. lest hy any means. 235-240: "And although it [I'to] it the strict ecbatic sense (for uxne with the finite verb)." unless a very broad and loose sense be given to the term final. and . of departure. artificial means.T.V. 1. pp. .. clauses after verbs of fear and danger employ tenses.i. and it is nearer to the ecbatic sense than to its original final sense. is which . pp. Modern Greek. for I shall find you not such as I 27 29 2 Cor. Object Clauses after Verbs of Fear and Danger. even (the language of which has already departed so far from original classic Greek usage) we should still take pains. 11:3. : . Hunzinger. always to introduce the telic force. Fritzsche on Matt. the In classical Greek. 26 may /i^ be understood as in E. rbv \a6v denoting 'Kidaaddaiv the thing feared (of. even within a comparatively restricted field. "Die in der klassischen Gracitat nicht gebrauchliche finale Bedeutung derPartikel Ua im neutestamentlichen Sprachgebrauch. more rarely the Subjunctive. pp. eX^mv ov)( olovs BiXto evpm i/iSs. 836 ff. 2 Cor. see — . our point and trace out thence the transitions to its diverse shades of meaning the interests of exegesis would gain very little. 457-462 WM. and whether it is ever ecbatic (two distinct questions not always clearly distinguished). 887 . 4:1. used. B. pp." in Zeitschrift a valuable article which fur Kirchliehe Wissenschaft. never stands in has nevertheless here reached the very boundary line where the difference between the two relations (the telic and the ecbatic) disappears. the familiar the persons feared. pp. 239. with the Subjunctive after primary tenses ." p." the first half of which is true. that in a systematic inquiry into the use of the particle. would. and by a recourse to force. Heb. pp. 319-321. 95 223. : : Meyer on Matt. so dass. we should always make its original telio the only force it has in earlier Greek vyriters. 632-643 elaborately disproves its own conclusion — — "dass tva im N. Testament the Subjunctive only yap //. is In the : New . in alien Fallen final verstanden werden kann.

The opposite course of harshness. . 354. 4 11 . Gen. jt-rj ttms Akti KeKomaKo. lest you he found to he dealing in harshness with those to whom God will grant repentance. 2:2. 25. 4 11). the In- used both in G. could proceed only from the thought that these opposers were past repentance. 352. and ijA] Xieao-ffQa-iti made to limit ^yev airois. 12:21. i. 227. 225. \abv may afraid that they should be stoned by the people . HA. 25 : : 9. I am afraid I have perhaps bestowed IThess. The verb of fearing is sometimes unexpressed. and Matt. oi /ktA. . al- though the issue dicative is .96 THE MOODS. 3:5. plas . 11.e. so. see (r. and Future Indicative in 2 Cor. : See also Gal. On the probable common origin of both. so Tisch. . he seems to feel. In the preceding context the apostle enjoins gentleness and meekness in dealing with those that oppose themselves. G. It is evident that object clauses after verbs of fear are closely akin to negative object clauses after verbs signifying to care for. 1380. He accordingly adds as an argument for the course enjoined. for they were . 888 : Gal. 2. Some of the instances cited under 206 might not inappropriately be placed under 224. 226. : idiom with oT5a illustrated in Mark 1 24 see also Gal. is perhaps best explained in the same way. and New Testament Greek.MT. the idea of fear being suggested by the context 2 Tim. and WH. 43 labor upon you in vain. or ^0o^oCpto be taken as parenthetical. and their development from the original parataxis. When the object of apprehension i. is conceived of as already present or past. ttote Stirj [or 8(03] avToli 6 6toi fieravoiav. \_fearing'] lest God may perchance grant them repentance. in Acts 5 39. 307. 2 : .e. editors read a Eem. . so that the meaning would be expressed in English by translating. is at the time of speaking classical unknown. ets i/xai. it /aiJ may be. <^oj8oi)/iat vfia<.MT. as a thing already decided. . Some MSS.

. Slotl. 1 Cor. 926. John 14 19 : . 1605. e.. eiret ovk av iiravcravTO irpoa<^£po/i£vat. else i. G. e. by oTt. Moods and Tenses in Causal Clauses. «7r£i. .. Thus we omitted. A causal clause is one which gives either the cause or Causal <S. tu>v veKputv. From the significance of a causal clause it naturally fact. : See 230. on . : Heb. a rhetorical question. 228. however.e. unto the edifying of the church. is expressed in the form of a rhetorical question. which expresses or implies either qualified or unqualified assertion may stand after a causal conjunction.g. 14 : 12 cttci ^ijAcorat itrre Trvev fmrwy. 229.MOODS IN CLAUSES OF CAUSE. 5 12. seek that ye may abound : also Luke 1:1. or an apodosis of a conditional sentence. ey<o ^S) koI i/xeis ^T^crere. omitted. : . results that its verb is usually an Indicative affirming a Any form. 10 2 true'] . because I live. irpos rijv oikoSo/x^v t^s spiritual eKK\jj(rtas ^r)T£iT£ tva irepiucremjTe.r£iS^. clauses are introduced etc. 97 MOODS IK GLAUSES OP CAUSE. have ceased they to be since [if what be offered. 1 Cor. find. since [if the dead are not railed^ they to that are baptized for the dead are baptized no purpose. £7rei8j?irejO. In the latter case the protasis all may be In the following instances coincide it . Acts 15 24 . would have ceased to else would they not was said above were not Cf also Acts 5 38. since ye are zealous gifts. 15 29 iiru tl iroi-^(TOV(nv ot /Sairrifo/iei/oi vnep what shall they do which are baptized for the dead? : . the reason of the fact stated in the principal clause.e. ye shall of live also. e<^' HA. The moods and tenses are used in causal clauses with the same force as in principal clauses. three of these pheits protasis nomena is the causal clause is an apodosis. Kom. offered ? i.

Erom the nature of the causal clause as making an it assertion. So also in John 16 3. 15 29 Heb. upon the separate assertions as : assertions. as happens. because they have not known the Father nor me. Kal <j>i\ov(nv oTai/ Trpo(T£v)(r](T6£. when one fact or the other is already present as a fact before the is "When the emphasis than on the relation of the facts asserted. Thus in Eev. particles Sri.. where in a closely similar : sentence. the causal clause is manifestly subordinate. : . ye shall not he as the to stand and pray in the synagogues and streets (cf. 6:5. Matt. 232. 6 16. ydp 1 Cor. Causal relations may also be expressed by a relative 8ta clause (294). the causal clause easily becomes an independent sentence. 1 : used instead of cf. where the words these things refer to an assertion already made. and the intent of the sentence is to state why they wiU do these things. it results that is easily disjoined it from the clause which states the fact of which gives the cause or reason. by an Infinitive with the article governed by and by a participle (439). and these things they mil do. 6:5. The distinction between a subordinate causal clause and an independent sentence aflSrming a cause or reason is usually one of the degree of emphasis on the causal relation between the two facts. where the same conjunction intro- duces a subordinate clause. and neither hot nor cold. : . and the : . Luke 11 32 1 Cor. and 21. 3 16. I will spew thee out of my mouth. . : hypocrites because they love in the corners of is the and when ye pray. and becomes an independent sentence. iird. THE MOODS. v. ^TreiS^ have substantially the force of ydp. cttciSi. See also John 20 29. (408).g. mind. rather : : in Matt. is the existence of the causal relation. 22. On the other hand. See also Luke 11:32. When the chief thing asserted e. 233.98 231. ovk ev ecrecrfle (as ol viroKpirai' oti iv Tats CTWva-ywyats koX Tats ytoi/tats to>v 7r\aT£iS>v eoTuJTes irpocTevx^adai. because thou art lukewarm. 10:2 (see 230). 1 22 (see 231) and in 1 Cor. the causal clause is subordinate. the casual clause is evidently independent. oti).

and the rest of the Jews dissembled likeimse with him . by (So-re. . an actual calculated to produce. God so loved the world that he gave his only Gal. The tendency of the Infinitive to disis place the Indicative is apparent even in classical Greek. In the New Testament consecutive clauses are introduced . result. and the use of the Infinitive to express result. while the former represents it as the act- ual result of such folly. koI a-uwireKpiOrjcrav avriS [xat] oi Xonrol 'lovSaioi. 1449. if senselessness iiTTC Thus ovot/toi tends to credulity. may is always be conceived of as that which the cause in calculated or adapted to produce. is one which expresses the result.MOODS IN CLATJSKS OF BBSULT. of the action stated in the principal clause or a preceding sentence. or outojs avorjTOi icrre okttc to aSv- varov TTUTTevav. insomuch that even Barnabas was carried : away with their dissimulation. 927 G. 2 13. ative or the Infinitive. HA. HA. though strictly the latter represents believing the impossible simply as the measure of the folly. 1451.1 Bapvafias fjvvairqxOt} avTu>v rrj VTroKpiaeL. outos yap ^ydirrjcra' b $ebi tov Kocr/jLOv ti)<TT€ tov vlbv rbv fwvoyevrj eSioKtv. actual commonly takes either the IndicThe Indicative properly expresses the result produced by the action previously mentioned. 99 A consecutive clause . 1450. actual or potential. 927 . 234. the is A consecutive Infinitive the result tends or result which the action of the principal verb Since. oxjre ko. 236. however. for begotten Son. but more clearly marked in later Greek. Concerning the different conceptions of result. The Indicative with Sare always : expresses actual John 3 16 . with little difference of meaning. G. one may say outws mrrc to aSvvaTov Ttumxiere. MOODS IN GLAUSES OF RESULT. the Infinitive question tends to displace the Indicative in expressions of result. clause 235. see 369-371.

MOODS IN OONDITIOITAL SENTENCES. 5:8. the class supposed in the protasis. If [in any do init. called the protasis. and the apodosis states what is or was wont to take place in any instance of an act of is general. he does not [is not wont to'] . he will not is the supposition particular. stance^ he believes an act to be wrong. wherefore let us keep the feast. But in the sentence. A conditional sentence consists of a subordinate clause which states a supposition. When the protasis supposes a certain definite event and the apodosis conditions its is assertion on the occurrence of this event. mcrre Kvpioi icrriv 6 vlo^ toC avOpioirav koI tov craP^drov. The clause introduced by <So-t£ is sometimes so dis- joined from the antecedent sentence expressing the causal fact that it becomes an independent sentence. 1 Cor. Suppositions are either particular or general. the supposition Thus do it. wherefore comfort one another with these words.100 Rem. 239. The above are the only two aa-re clear instances in the New Testa- with the Indicative so closely joined to what precedes as to constitute a subordinate clause. in the sentence. Mark 2 28 : . 1 Thess. may be SA. ment of THE MOODS. ula-rc kopTaZ.tiiixtv. 238. The clause conditional clause is is The principal called the apodosis. 237. so Son of man is lord even of the sabbath. 1454. In such cases wj-re. has the meaning therefore. If he believes this act to he wrong. wcttc TrapaKoXuTt dAAi/Aovs iv tois Aoyots that the touVois. in any form capable of standing in a prin. 4:18. or accordingly. the particular. supposition When the protasis supposes any occurrence of an act of a certain class. a G. and a principal clause which states a conclusion conditioned on the fulfilment of the supposition stated in the subordinate clause. and the verb intro- duced by it cipal clause. 927.

So in 1 Cor. should be observed that the the several classes of conditional sentences describe the suppositions not from the point of view of fact. he hath caused sorrow not to me. he is by this time dead. instead of including first class. and take the clauses as referring to what was then. . titles of Kem. and in 3: 17. If any one has eaten any of the food. Thus. 1. it But in the sentence. the supposition refers to a specific case. classes respectively. e. In tlie sentence. the supposition is 101 general. five occur in the 'Sew Testament. if a man walk in the day. he could always tell what contained. but from that of the representation of the case to the speaker's own mind or to that of his hearer. John 18 : 30. If the writer.3 12. in John 11 : 9. though using an indefinite term. are found in classical Greek. is The numbering them of the Present fifth General Suppositions and Past General Suppositions as and sixth as subdivisions under the adopted to It facilitate reference. if any man is destroy: . see Concerning a protasis which refers to the truth of a general principle as 24.MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. is in this case. In the sentence. happening. the supposition is general.g. or will happen on the other hand. it is probable that we ought to read. Of the six classes of conditional sentences •which. The classification of conditional sentences here followed is substantially that of Professor Goodwin. Even the mental selection of one of many possible instances suffices to make a supposition particular.. It should be noted that the occurrence of an indefinite pronoun in the protasis does not necessarily make the supposition general. 2 5. and is particular. going on rather than to what might at any time occur.3. and such. 241. and in the apodosis states what happened. not however without occasional variations of form. the supposition is particular. Luke 7 : 39 . the supposition is particular. but to you all. the supposition is general. If. and the apodosis states what is or was wont to happen in any such instance. in the sentence. If any one [in any instance} ate any of the food. . If he read a book. the supposition is general. hypothetically. refers to a particular instance. the supposition refers to any instance of the class of cases described. 2. 240. . In 2 Cor. but if any one hath caused sorrow. position refers to any instance of walking in the day. if any man is building. he stumbleth not. the supgeneral.. On is the other hand. Cf. : ing. [it was wont to happen that] he died. tlie supposition particular. . If he has read this book. he is will be able to tell what it contains. Eem.

cf. if the case of the man : is so with his wife. and the apodosis conditions its assertion on the truth of this principle. t^s ywaocosjjov it is aT}/j.102 242. 7 : 23 . is The protasis expressed by . Luke 8:10. but in the : context. 8 : 17. Eom. tense of the Indicative el with a present or past any form of the finite verb may . The protasis simply states a supposition which refers to a particular case in the present or past. 243. Prot. 4 14. stand in the apodosis. not on the occurrence of any instance of a supposed class of events.<f>ipci ya/jc^a-ai. 4 2 : .. See also Matt. Simple Present or Past Particular Supposi- tion. : not expedient to marry. 2:17. the supposition particular. Rev. tive. The use of n and the nature of the sentence. /htJ Rem. Conditional clauses of the is fulfilled. John 15 20 : HA. Concerning the use of the negatives and oij in the protasis of conditional sentences of this class. 4:3. John 3 12 . ovk iarri ijro vofjiov. Gal. Matt. A. if they me. 11 : the verb omitted. ti i/A iSita^av. they will also persecute you. ei ovtok Icrriv ij alria rmi avOpmrov /jiiTa. but if ye are led by the Spirit. 1390. . ye are not under the law. first class are frequently used when the condition thetical and the use of the hypofact. 19 10 . see 469. In Rom. is It is expressed in Greek by d v^ith the Indica\ and the sentence belongs : to the first class. Gal. When a supposition refers to the truth of a general principle as such. Gal. . implying nothing as to its fulfilment. This fact of ful- filment however. koL ifxai Siio^ovcriv. form suggests no doubt of the lies. 244. 893 G-. 2 21 is . 5:18. C. 840. have persecuted . 16:11. Eom. el Sk ttvcv/jmti ayta-Oe. 5 : 10. 6 : 30 6. easily suggest what form of the verb would be required if it were expressed. Acts 5:39. 20:15. See also Matt. however. THE MOODS. 470. Plat. not in the conditional sentence.

Lord. if I were still pleasing men. implying that it is is fulfilled. apparently to express a simple present 3 : 8. a. The with protasis . 11. : 11. 895 . I should : not be a servant of Christ. See also John 14 28 Acts 18 14 . ^fJ-riv. 37 . Hv is used with the Present Indicative in the 5 15. or to state not when reference when the writer is had desires what will take place on the fulfilment of a future Cf. Luke 23 246. 11 : . 9 : of a future event. 103 first class On the other hand. Eom. GMT. The time verb. ft : 35. but merely to affirm a necessary logical consequence 1 Cor. my brother would not have died. a ?« : . 1 Thess. the apodosis by a past tense of the Indicative HA. Ileb. The Imperfect denotes continued a simple the Aorist the Pluperfect completed action. Even a Future Indicative may stand in the protasis of conditional sentence of the first class to a present necessity or intention. Xpurrov SoBXos ovk av 15. protasis of a conditional sentence. Kvptc. conditional clauses of the is may be used of what regarded by the speaker as an unful- filled condition. Supposition contrary to Fact. B. 247. John 18 23 : . But this also is not expressed or implied is in itself by the form of the sentence. Gal. which wholly Gal. 1397. 1 John : 248. possibility. action. not or was not el The protasis states a supposition which refers to the present or past.MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. In a few instances supposition. if thou hadst been here. avOpiinroii rjp£<rKOV. 407. 1 : 10 . is implied in the context. not expressed by the John 11 21 : . suggesting nothing as to the fulfilment of the condition. 4:8. 5 colorless. expressed by with a past tense of the Indicative &v. ci ^s <uSe ovk av diriOavcv 6 a8e\(f>6i /iou. 245. 4:2. fact.

lav fi. 216 pp. f . O^m. which is the usual form both in classical and New Testament Greek. jixe. (a) Et with the Subjunctive. if I shall hut touch his garments. from the apodosis. B.iis dyopd(TO)fi. Heb. 15. 225 f . 30. I shall he Suxkovt/j made whole. 9 26. fishes . will the Father honor. ye will keep my commandments. . 4:19. : me.. . esp. 305 f . 249. suggesting some probability of its fulfilment. tia-iv Luke 9:13. : John 15 22 250. ci /xr] -rjv John 9 : 33 . f. The protasis is usually expressed by idv (or av) with the Subjunctive. outos irapa. 9:21. we have no more than and huy food for all five loaves this people. him . man were : not from God. . pp. *Av is sometimes omitted Cf. HA. 1 Cor. In addition to Idv with the Subjunctive. 1403. 2 : See also Matt. GMT.. serve me. 422. WM. John 12 26 : . the apodosis by the Future Indicative or by some other form referring a. pp. to go See also 1 Cor. 26 24 . 5:10. 382 WT. Gal. T-qprjaere. John 14 15 : iav dyaTraTe Tas cvToXas ras e/x.. 14 1 Thess. 16. ovk Troptv6ivT€% ^fuv TrXeiov fj aproi TreVre Kal l\Ove's 8vo. 898 tov lixaTiov avrov c7u>Brj(T0jxaL. cf. idv Tts e//. ei p. Judg. Matt. and two unless : we are 5 . 19 : 11 . . if any man if ye love . the following forms of protasis also occur occasionally in the New Testament to express a future supposition with more probability : 252. 104 THE MOODS. 5:10. 4:15. pp. 11:9. C. 251. if this See also Matt. he could do nothing.^qri ^fj. 416 eis irdvTa tov Xaov tovtov /Spuj/uara. Future Supposition with more Probability. ovk ijhvvaTo iroietv ofiSev. 5:2. a supposition which refers The protasis states to the future.ot Tt/Aiytret airbv 6 TraTiqp. .6vov ai/'to/^at to future time.. Jas. . 5 20 1 Cor. Gal.

WT. 2 Tim. f. 4 14. 374. For the few special reason. unless indeed we are to go.P. pp.n. 9 . 12. 28) and as possible instances Matt. 123 see 246. Concerning the other instances. pp. 30 18 8. 49 .MT. pp. unless some one shall guide me. 3 : 11. first class The protasis is then apparently of the asis to the future. 276. whether the discovery of any difference in force between el with the Subjunctive and Hv with the Subjunctive in these latter passages is not an over-refinement.A. In 1 Cor. : he also will deny us. apvyiaofuSa. 1887. 272. . . since the nature : — : . Gen. 2 (&) : Et or idv with the Future Indicative.P. . p. 1 Thess.).. 254. illustrates the mireaion/ or moiM'ioJ-i/ force attributed to such clauses by Gild. 276. 6:10 a preference for the more common el /n^ and elre etre over the somewhat unusual icLv ^ii} and idvre HvTe may have led to the use of the former in spite of the fact that the meaning called for a Subjunctive. but is veryIt is found in the Septuagint and becomes very common in later Hellenistic and Byzantine writers. : See : 44 : 26 .A. one. . This usage also occurs in Homer and the tragic poets. 368. 340. 27 (cf. 105 253. . et 12. rare in Attic prose. especially in tragedy..e. 88 f . Acts 8 31 eav /u. fi. 2 Tim. 2 John 10. . On Phil. 447. 20 7. New Testament instances there : is possibly in each case a Thus in Luke 9 13 there is probably a mixture of a conditional clause and a deliberative question unless indeed are we to go? i. G. 5 10 can hardly be explained as attraction (S. (c) El with the Present Indicative. : of the thought itself calls for a Subjunctive. 294 f. pp. 2 : 12.17 ns See also Luke 19 40. It is doubtful.. if we shall deny Mm.MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.453. send us also 1 Cor.J. v. however. of the third : 1876. The instances which belong here are distinguished by evident reference of the prot- Matt. . 9 ff. d EK/SoXXets 17/xas. 14 6 and 1 Thess. and W. . 5 29.A. (242).A. : Luke 14: 26. 255. 8 : 31 . WM. G. Of the New Testament instances of el followed by a Future (about twenty in number). 256. . 254. : . 454 Clapp in T. dirocrTeiXov ^/tas £is rijv ayeXrjv tS>v XOtpuv. cf. . A. : o^yq^a jnc. 10 : away into the herd of swine. El with the Future Indicative occurs as a protasis of a condition form not infrequently in classical writers.P. . pp. 2 Tim. 2 12. WT. 1891. kcIkeivos apv^o-erat ^/uSs. XIII. T. if thou cast us out.

The protasis states a supposition which refers to the future. There is no distinction in form either in Greek or in English between a particular and a general supposition referring to the future. to be at sentence d Svvarov dr] represents the protasis of the sentence iav to for he was hastening. 9 21. 240. I shall he made whole. 900 .MT. it you in my name. which the writer here refers. . 259. : See G^. 334-347. the supposition evidently refers to a speBut in John 16 23. G-. 257. Cf. illustration of the class.106 THE MOODS. . the supposition is evidently- A large number of the future suppositions in the It is New Testa- almost always possible. but on these cases see : : : also 276. When a conditional clause which as originally uttered first or thought £1 was of the or third class idv and expressed by is with the Indicative or with the Subjunctive so incorporated into a sentence as to be made dependent on a el verb of past time. he will give general. Future Supposition with Less Probability. for him. it may be changed to with the Optative. is suggesting less probability of its fulfilment than sug- gested by edv with the Subjunctive. The distinction in thought is of course the same : as in the case of present I shall but touch his garment. HA. The same explanation applies to Acts 24 tion) . 347. Cf. This principle applies even when the apodosis on which the protasis depends is not itself strictly in indirect discourse. 457. 258. In this SvvaTov y yevrja-ofXiOa which expressed the original thought of Paul. 694 Swarov etij ff. also to Acts 17 and to 27 39 (unless ei Svvaivro is an indirect ques27 and 27 12. Thus in Matt. The protasis is expressed by el with the Optative . D. if it were posJerusalem the day of Pentecost. the apodosis by the Optative with dv. however. 1408. esp. and is particular. Acts. if ye shall ask anything cific case.- Koa-T^s yeviaOaL sible eU 'IcpotrdAv/ia. 20 16 . if : of the Father. to suppose that a particular imagined instance is mentally selected as the ment are apparently general. 342. ecrirevSev yap ei avrcu rrjv ^fxepav rrji ttevti. or past suppositions (239). 261. 19.

The supposi- tion refers to any occurrence of an act of a certain class in the (gfeneral) present. et 6i\yjiJ. that ye suffer for well doing than for evil doing. 3 : protasis. but never with a regular 1 Pet. KaKOwotcnivTa's. 467. Present General Supposition. Apodoses occur in Luke and Acts. possible that a particular imagined instance in the present or future before the Cf. he stumhleth not. G. and the apodosis states what is wont to take place in any instance of an act of the class referred to in the protasis. 3 14. 1 Cor. scarcely possible to decide in each case whether the supposi- tion was conceived of as general or particular. the apodosis by the Present Indicative. unless he contend lawfully. There ment. 894. if the will of God should so will.T. is 107 Testa- no perfect example of this form in the New Protases occur in 1 Cor.a. Cr. 14 10 15 37 1 Pet. 1. . 40. : See also Mark 3 : 24. KpciTTOv yap ayo. 7 39. 2:5. MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. but never with a regular and fully expressed apodosis. El with the Present Indicative not infrequently occurs in clauses which apparently express a present general supposition. 1 . /cat 2 Tim. : 260. 256. 242. walk in idv Tts irepLiraTrj iv rrj ^/iepa. John 11:9. ov (7TC<f>avovTai iav is /xr] vo/*t/io)s and if also a man contend in the games.(T)(€iv rj : . ov TrptXTKcmTa. mind as an illusIt is tration of the general class of cases. John 7 : 51 12:24. 261..6oTroiovvTai. eav Se d^AiyoTj. he not crowned. 17 . : . and 1 Pet. &d\y Tts. it is Yet in most is New Testament pas- sages of this kind. Toiv for it is better. OeXoi to Oeov.. protasis is expressed by edv with the Subjunctive. 7ra. E.M. The 1393. if a man the day. See also 1 Cor. ITA.

Rom. [he will forgive us. Cf John 8 51 12 26 where in protases of apparently similar force idv with the Subjunctive occurs. if .. John 8 : 81 . that which stands that. also Cf. see not. he cannot be my disciple. [ye will show thatj ye are truly ecrnv xat my 1 disciples.<3. . : do tee with patience wait 262. the third from the fifth only in that a sentence of the third class tells what will happen in a particular instance or in any instance of the fulfilment of the supposition. righteous to forgive us our sins. 1 26. while a sentence of the fifth class tells what is wont to happen in any such case. ov Swarat . lav StKaios iva a. . if ye shall abide in my word.(o/u. Mark 3 24 with 25 the two sentences of Eom. we hope for that which we See also Jas. £i 8e 6 ov /SAeTro/Acv ikTrt^ofj-ev. THE MOODS. : : . e. aXrjOSi'S fixiOrfal fiov ia-re. Observe the Future in the next clause. the Present Indicative is frequently used after a protasis referring to future The thought would be expressed more fully but less forcibly by supplying some such phrase as it will appear that or it will still be true In other instances the true apodosis is omitted. cases the Present is merely the familiar Present for Future (15). time. and the apodosis refers to the future. If the fact stated if already true at the time of speaking. if we shall confess our sins. and hateth not his own life.£6a. o/xoXoyS/A£v ras d/juxpTiai rjiuav. . eivat /xcru /jmOyitt^s. In still other in its place being a reason for the unexpressed apodosis. 108 Luke 14 26 : . There the issue raised by the protasis is as to the truth or falsity of the principle as a gen- . though not necessarily known. The difference in force between the fifth class of suppositions and the class described under 243 should be clearly marked. 264. iav i/ieis jxcivrfi iv tm Xoyto t<3 e/u..g.. 'then but if it. See also Mark 1 : 40 . fori he is faithful and . SC {nro/wv^i d7r£KSe. When the subject or other leading term of the protasis class differs is an indefinite or generic word. 7 3.<jyrj TricrTOs yfiiv rets d/juxpTia'S. The third and fifth classes of conditional sentences are very- similar not only in form. rrjv i/'^xV any man cometh unto me. iavTov. : 263.. It should be observed that a Present Indicative in the principal clause after a protasis consisting of idv with the Subjunctive does not always indicate that the sentence in the apodosis is is of the fifth class. but also in meaning. John 19 12 : Acts 26 : 5. John 1:9. et rts epx^Tai Trpos fie koI ov fiurei . : . . for 8 : 25 . or the issue involved has already been determined.

v ovTus fxv <rvii4>ipei. (6) An . be accompanied by more than ' one protasis retaining its these protases may be of different form. apodosis may force. protasis is expressed by with the Optative. 19 10 (243) the disciples say that if the principle stated by Jesus is true. G. G. 265. states and the apodosis what was wont el to take place in any instance of an act of the class referred to in the protasis. 267. : id. the apodosis 2.rj Tts oBr/yrjau jue. wliile the apodosis affirms 109 particular some other general or statement to be true if the general principle is true. eral principle. On the other hand. oi5 ya/irjffai. Thus in Matt. all Peculiarities of Conditional Sentences. (a) See RA. each own proper . . SA.MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. Nearly the peculiar variations of conditional sentences men- tioned in the classical grammars are illustrated in the New Testament. The supposition any past occurrence of an act of a certain class. it follows as a general principle that it is not expedient to marry. If in any instance the case supposed is realized. would mean. is A protasis form sometimes joined with an apodosis of another form. There is apparently no instance of this form in the New Testament. fJi. how can I. 2. but suggests as an hypothesis. then it is wont to happen that it is not expedient to marry. Acts 8 31 irols yap av Swai/i-^v tav unless some one shall guide me f : . that a general statement is in any single case realized. 894. and the apodosis states what is wont to take place when the supposition of the protasis is thus realized. 901-907 of one . Here the protasis raises no question of the truth or falsity of the general principle. 1413-1424. F. Cf examples under 260. 268. by the Imperfect Indicative. The 1393. refers to Past General Supposition. 266.

an Imperative. 26 : 15 . Matt. Tt OiXire give me. KCKivioTox tj irio-Tts kox Karqpyrjrai iirayyeXia. if ye : know these things. In and Jas. (e) : The apodosis Kav if fikv TroirjfTri it is sometimes omitted. 9 . 5. Acts 23 9. 48.p. thou shalt cut See also Luke 19 . yScTE. Cf. what are ye willing to . fiaKapm ecrre iav ttoi'^te avra. jrapahuxroi avTov.r]v Xiyw. 18. Ets Luke 13 doiun. See also Matt.. Mark 8 : 12 . /not SoSvai Kayw v/uv deliver koj. is <ro(t>lai. et r] yap ot Ik vouov KX-qpovofwi. eKKoiptu it if not. 3 11 : . 269. alTetcrOe. verily I this generation. Hem. 6 : 14 see Th. believe that ye have received them. or other form of expression suggesting a supposition. 19 21. Kapwov 42 to /AeXXov auTiJv. 1 at the : 5. Koi cCTTai vfuv. . Eoni. and bear fruit thenceforth. See also 1 Cor. 273. 9. et ravra oiBare. 4 el BoOri<TiTai. say unto you. 270. 9 11. Messed are ye if ye do them. (d) : The protasis is sometimes omitted. 11. Luke 1 : 62 Acts 17 271. alrelTw the apodosis of el di tis inQii Mwerai same time fills the place of protasis to SoBiiaeTai. . for if they which are of the law are heirs. and I mil him unto you. 272. there shall no sign be given unto also See Heb. Et with the Future Indicative is used by Hebraism without an apodosis. rrj yet/m Tavrrj a-qpjuov. (/) The verb of the protasis or apodosis may be omitted. 4 : 14 . irtcrTeueTe oti eXa- Mark 11 : 24 Travra ocra Trptxrevxtcrde. 110 John 13 17 : THE MOODS. Mark 1 : 17 : . See also Matt. (c) The place of the protasis with ti or idv is some- times supplied by a participle. in. Hr. On Heb. : — but : — et Be p-riye. and ye shall have them. a. a. under 436. with the force of an emphatic negative assertion or oath. all things whatsoever ye pray and ask for. : 3. «. 7 : 10 . and exx.

ceptive. 275. 1 Pet. 1 {h) 7. never Ltft. 19.. 1 : . or if not. 486-493. 393. ever. if so. Matt. and Rom. faith is made void. (g) Ei fLYj without a dependent verb occurs very except. . 11 : 16 Kav stands for koL iav hi^rja-Oe. 9 : 17 .MT. Ill See also the promise : is .MT. on Gal. Having become fixed phrases. Eev. 2 : 5. In some instances approaches the force of an indirect question. 8 17 11:16. and hence has nearly the it force of a final clause. In classical Greek such protases are introduced by « or Optative. In the New Testament they occur with d only. C?. El §€ fiL-^ and d hi juijye are used elliptically in the sense of otherwise. to introduce an alternanegative or command. Idv. MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. made of none : effect. 8 12 19 . and take the Subjunctive. Luke 10 6 : . tive statement i. but a limitation of the principal statement. and the limitation not strictly conditional. place. fre- quently in the sense of It may be followed by any as form of expression which could have stood as subject or limitation of the principal predicate. In 2 Cor. : Cor. and the latter expresses a possibility which is an object of hope or desire. 478 276. G'. An omitted apodosis is sometimes virtually con- tained in the protasis. The origin of this usage was of course Both in a conditional clause the verb of it omitted because in classical which was was identical with the verb of the apodosis.e. or Future Indicative. 7 5. howCf. 274. but exit Like the English except states not a condition on fulfilment of which the apodosis is true or its action takes It is. p. 3 14. and New Testament Greek the ellipsis is unis conscious. in the : New Testament purely adversative. d. is they are used even when the preceding sentence also when the nature of the condition would naturally call for iav rather than . 13 : 9 . {i) B.

if by : See also Mark 11 13 . (j) After expressions of wonder. of the protasis The latter represents the fulfilment of the apodosis as conditioned on the fulfilment .e as unfavorable to the fulfilment of apodosis.g. A concessive clause is a protasis that states a supis position the fulfilment of which thought of or represented th. put to sea from thence. if so be that 1 may apprehend. Phil. protasis. : Acts 27 12 . or by the as to In Gal. : . KaToXaySo). Mark 16 44 : . cf 1 . but I press on. and the clause so But the element expressed in ^/ueis ^ ayyeXos i^ ovpavov. It might be resolved into two clauses. 12 . is unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis. 1 10 : .. 3 : THE MOODS. more part advised Phcenix. e. and the clause is so far forth concessive. etc. thus. John 3 : 13.cult. 277. 61 irXeioves i&tvTO £is /Sovkijv dvaxO^ai iKeWev. any means they could reach Acts 8 22 17 27 Rom. the former represents the apodosis as fulfilled in spite of the fulfilment of the protasis. 1 8. ta-rw. MOODS II CONCESSIVE SENTENCES. 3:11. the fulfilment of the element of the Trap' 6 cvrj-yy^XLa-dfuOa is protasis expressed in favorable to the is fulfilment of the apodosis dvdBtita far forth conditional. SuaKio Sk ci kcu. .. which is emphasized by the km. the : construction. Acts 26 : 8 . a clause intro- duced by d has nearly the force of a clause introduced by on. The force of a concessive sentence is thus very different from that of a conditional sentence. : 11:14. 112 Phil. 278.. in Yet there are cases which by the weakening of the characteristic force of each by the complexity of the elements expressed two usages approach so near to each other make distinction between them difB. the ei irtos SvvaivTO KaTavTTjtrai/Tcs to ^OLViKa Trapa^etjUaaat.

and /cai el. 1 8. be probable or improbable it is not this or that that makes it conbut the fact that its fulfilment is unfavorable to the fulfilment of . (cf. el III. . 285. ' .' " See other statements and references in Th. Mark 14 29) 280. Greek Kai Particles. 26 : Gal. 279. 7 and It should be observed that a concessive supposition especially J. 3 1 (but cf. improbable in or specially unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis. that ei xal implies an admitted fact 'even though. A concessive d (idv). Rem. e. (cai him be anathema.' Kai el a somewhat improbable supposition. thus distinguishes the force of ci "generally with this difference. 113 If any one shall preach unto you any gospel other than that we preached unto you [let him be anathema'] . introduces a supposition conceived of as actually fulfilled or likely to be fulfilled. Matt. somewhat rarely in the John 8 16 1 Cor. : 281. 31. WH. p. especially improbable or especially unfavorable to the fulfil- ment of the apodosis. or Koi also clause is commonly introduced by d {idv) But a clause introduced by ei or idv alone may : be in thought concessive. The force of the Kai is : 35 . in concessive KOL as well as in conditional clauses may it. : element is . Foley. : . 8:5. belong not to the whole clause but to the word next after having an intensive force. Mark 14 31 (cf. El (idv) Kai concessive in the New Testament generally Yet. 26 : 35). representing the supposition as actually or from a rhetorical point of view an extreme itself.. even if. though the concessive not emphasized in the form. 861. though let we or an angel from heaven so preach. 282). may cessive. 26 : 33 (cf.g. : See Matt.MOODS IN CONCESSIVE SENTENCES. one. and suggesting that the is supposition in some sense or respect an extreme So probably Mark 14 29. apparently intensive. 1 Pet. Kat £t {idv) concessive occurs New Testament. Matt. case. See examples under 284. yea.). the apodosis.

Concessive clauses of the class corresponding to the of conditional sentences are first class most frequent in the New clause Testament. 11:6. . 6 9. Trj iiruTTokrj. 2 Cor. Carefully to be distinguislied from the cases of {idv) Ko( concessive are those in wliioli ei . 7:8. Mark 29. Heb. however. 11 : 15). much less in the case of concessive clauses than of conditional clauses. 4 16 7 12 2:5. epistle. d koI iXmrqca v/xS. In in their use of moods and tenses concessive clauses follow general the rules for conditional clauses.'i iv made you sorry with my Luke 18:4. /cai et (idv') 282.. 283. is force construction that discussed under 246. the apodosis. 7 Such a supposition is not necessarily unfavorable to the fulfilment of 11) Cf 280. though I also Col. but conceived of as actual. Phil. usage is in The variety of the New Testament. Luke 11:8. Moods and Tenses in Concessive Clauses. : oi ii. : I do not regret it. 284. See 33 . (idv) is conditional : and /cai and el means John 8 55. 4:7. etc. and hence may be conditional however estreme.iXoixai. (a) to They take d what is regarded this W or d.). Sia ye T^v dvaiBCav avroil iyepSd's and give avT<S o(Tu>v xpjj^^h though he will him because he is his friend. or is • . 2 Cor. and a Future Indicative referring In logical closely akin to as certain or likely to occur. or also (Luke 32.ov avroS. 2 See : 17 : 285. 33. d not rise koX ov Zuxrti avT<3 dvacrTas Stocrei Slot to elvai <j>iX. 26 : and 14 : give him as many as he needeth. yet because of his importunity he will arise also Matt. . 11 11 : : 14 . Concessive clauses referring to the future occur in two forms. 2 Cor. 34 simply intensive. is The event referred to in the concessive in general not contingent. 114 THE MOODS. . and (Matt. otl for. emphasizing the following vyord and suggesting a supposition in some sense extreme (1 Cor.iTaii. Luke 6 : 18. . 12:11.

1 Cor. See John 8 : 14 . : Cf. let him be anathema. occasionally by if alone. a true causal con- Yet it is : ditional clause. koI idv. . o evijyycXMra/AE^a vfuv. 9 27. even if a man be overtaken in any a one [ijUiv] trespass. 263. Gal. even intentionally. Matt. or what rhetorically con- ceived to be possible. is Kat idv introduces an extreme case. or an angel from heaven. 282. dAAa kol iav Trap ayyeXos ii. 286.^Brj TrapaTrTtifUiTi. the use of Kai hefore TrdtrxoLTC is suggests that the writer has in to hlessedness. 5 10 f . See also Luke 22 67. : In 1 Pet. The apodosls after a concessive protasis referring to the future. but is. sometimes has a Present Indicative. (6) 115 They take iav km. eotv /cat Trpo\r]ft. : : . The New Testament Instances of concessive clauses correspond: ing to the fifth class of conditional clauses are few. Concessive clauses in English are introduced by Even though. with the Subjunctive is referring to a future possibility. ijjueTs tj . 2 5 (first clause) under 260 . (On the thought cf. and even if. : Rem. : . supposition or one especially if introduces an improbable Though and unfavorable to the fulfilment of the apodosis. affirming what is true and will still be true though the supposition of the protasis he fulfilled. suffering for righteousness' sake. or idv. 2 : 13. See 2 Tim. el Kal TrdaxoiTe 5ta dLKaioffvvqv. usually one which Gal. 288. 14. but through. restore such in a spirit of meekness. ye which are spiritual. dvOpiawo^ tv tiati 6:1. The 3 New Testament furnishes no clear instance of a concessive clause corresponding to the fourth class of conditional clauses. represented as highly improbable. v^ueis ol TTvtvfjuinKol KaTapTi^€T€ Tov ToiovTOv iv irvtvjxaTi wpavTrjTO's. 1:8. ^Kdptoi. avdOtpa but even if we.MOODS IN CONCESSIVE SENTENCES. John 8 16 10 38 Rom. strictly speaking. mind that suffering apparently opposed probable that he intends to affirm that blessedness comes. 68. 2 Tim. 287. Cf. 9 16. a concession. ovpavov euayyeXi'crijTai €<7tu).) Thus the protasis suggests. and the concessive force is not strongly marked. preach unto you any gospel other than that which we preached unto you. although. not in spite of.

fact. place. The it is may be expressed or understood . i. the relative clause is definite. MOODS IN EELATIVE GLAUSES.. meaning. and he received it. to a definite i.e.116 THE MOODS. Eelative Clauses are introduced by relative pronouns and by relative adverbs of time. profit was made. and may be introduced by the simple relative. with the Present Indicative in the sense of a Future. if expressed. Definite Eelative Clauses. It should be observed that the distinction between the definite indefinite relative clause cannot be drawn simply by reference to the relative pronoun employed. though and although Kai. although with the Indicative usually imply an admitted With the Subjunctive and Potential. On the other hand. II. a demonstrative pronoun. an indefinite relative clause may have as its antecedent a definite term. or in certain transactions. it is made so by the defihiteness of the relative clause. A clause and its antecedent are made definite by the reference of the clause to a definite and actual event they are made indefinite by the reference of the clause to a supposed event or instance. He received whatever profit was made. e. and manner. In a certain transaction. though and although have substantially the same force as even corresponds in force very nearly to to £t if. because . but to a sup- posed event or instance. 289. They may be divided into two classes : I. .e. A definite relative clause may be introduced and the by an its indefinite relative pronoun or may have an indefinite pronoun as antecedent. or to the word which stands as the antecedent of the relative. 290. and hence imply a condition. clauses which refer not antecedent and actual event.g. usually some indefinite or generic word. Even if thus koI d . pressed or understood. Indefinite or Conditional Eelative Clauses. Thus if one say. clauses which refer to a definite and actual event or fact. If not in The antecedent may be exitself definite. and with a Past tense of the Indicative in conditions contrary to fact.

who hopeth for that which he seeth f the relative clause apparently does not refer to a definite thing seen and an actual act of seeing. the relative clause presents the successive instances distribuThese examples serve to show how slight may tively as suppositions. it 117 one use tlie refers to an actual event or series of events. In Rom. Por of usage introduced by Iws and other words meaning peculiarities purposes of treatment therefore of relative clauses. But if same VTords meaning. is actual. but because the clause refers to a certain class who actually received him. whensoever they beheld him. In Mark 3:11.MOODS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES. If at any time they saw him. If any profit was made. them. I. excluding those which express purpose. because it implies a condition. on the other : hand. is be the difference at times between a definite and an indefinite relative clause. we must recognize four classes Definite relative clauses. Relative clauses introduced by words meaning until. and relative clauses until. but equivalent to a conditional clause. That is. the form of the Greek sentence shows that the meaning is. referring to an event the making of profit — which — is only supposed. as received him. show special and require separate discussion. and that it must often be a matter of choice for the writer whether he will refer to an event as actual. while the class of events they were wont to fall down before him. Relative clauses expressing purpose. and those introduced by words meaning II. Relative clauses denoting purpose. IV. until. not because of the expressed antecedent. I. 291. purpose. the relative clause is indefinite. they fell down before him. Indefiilite or Conditional relative clauses. hut as many become children of God. 292. and those introduced by words meaning III. excluding those which express until. . if he seeth anything. or present it as a supposition. Under the head not only adjective clauses introduced by relative pronouns. to them gave he the right to In John 1 12. he received it. we : are doubtless to understand the relative clause as definite. of definite relative clauses are included os. Dbfih-ite Relative Clauses. 8 24.

such clauses being introduced by relative words. aiJTOii. 2 : 6. 294. Definite relative clauses in general (excluding III. A definite relative clause may imply a relation of cause. Jas. 1427. : Col. X'^oh TrvevpaTOi vtKpov icTTiv. OTTOV. : . whereas to [i. Moods in Definite Relative Clauses. dead. ye that say.v Kal ^u)^ €(7nv. God sent forth Jas. even so faith apart from ivorks : . either pronouns. but all clauses of time. ner). 1445. Gal.14. and com- parison. a/juxpTia. 4:4. To-day or to-morrow we will go into this and spend a year there and trade and get gain. G. 63 . ovrtos Koi ecrrtv. or adverbs. etc. 10 25. i^a7ri(TTuXcv 6 Otbs Tov vlov his son. and IV. city. place. believe on 8c the light. n-icrTcvcre ch to i^uis. . 909 G-. result.S>v. See also Matt. oa-o's. hold fast that which thou hast. mood or tense HA.. it is used in principal clauses. locnrcp to uSifia TTwrns xapXi ipyiav vtKpa. we who died how shall we any longer exct live therein ? 4:13. <us (expressing either time or man- 293. Rev. ra a iyu) XeXaXrjKa vfuv irveB/ia io'Ti. but employ the . or concession. oinves aTTt^ai/OjUEv Ty wSs in rj ^r](TOfX. and the length thereof is as great as the breadth. manner. 21 16 koX to faJKOi aii^s oaov to irAaTos. 6:2.ev • 'Sirjixcpov avpiov Tropeva-op^Oa ivtavTov Kal ip. wcrirep. and are life. . above) show no verb as John 6 : special uses of mood and tense.£v iv avTrj.e. go now. fj 2:26. aye vvv ol XcyovTcs th TrjvSe Trju iroXiv /cat ttoit^o-o/xcv Kal K€pS^(TOp. 910. Tm> xp°vov. Eev. when the fulness of the time came.7ropivtr6p£da Tijs OiTtves ovk iiriCTTaade avpiov woia fj ^anj vp. THE MOODS. without affecting the of the verb. us to <^(i)s ex^re. the words . to sin. Rom. 3 11 KpartL o ex£'s. 118 ocTTts. John 12 36 : I have spoken unto you are spirit. ore. Heb. 26 19 Cf. oTos. on ^Xdcv to but irX'ripoifm. although^ ye know not of what sort your life will be on the morrow. while ye have the that light. prj/juiTa SA. as the body apart from the spirit is is dead.

or sufficiently thing. therefore HA. Cf kcu. as other conditional sentences position. : . as really conditional as the conditional clause in the 297. os av OeXr] /jiiya's yaiicrOai iv v/uv. 912 .. or manner is signified. Since a conditional relative clause implies a supposi- tion. Sevn iSete tov he lay. of 6 : 17. shall be your minister. it 296. the sword the Spirit. ea-rai 8iaKoi/os. II. i/j.u>v Mark 10 43 : . are classified according the expressed sup- . remember the John 15 20 fxyqixovev^T^ tov word that I said unto you. A. is An explanatory clause adds a description to what defined. the latter describes. ttjv pAxaipav which roiv irvev/oiaTos. G. and he came to Nazareth. but days will come when : the bridegroom shall be taken away from them. see the place where Mai'k 2 : 20 .oyov ov eytu uttov Restrictive clauses adjective or adverbial may re- be distinguished as either restrictive or explanatory. Conditional Eelative Sentences. tottoi/ ottov ckcito. o etrrtv prifxa 6iov. implies a condition. conditional relative sentences may to be classified according to the nature of the implied supposition. 1428. It is evident that the relative clause in the former passage latter. 295. et rts Oeka irputrtys etvat lorat TrdvTiov (Lvyaro^ iravTcov StaKovos. place. since refers to a supis posed event or instance. come. whosoever would become great among you. MOODS IN BBLATIVE CLAUSES. 8e yjfjiipai orav a-TrapOrj ott avrutv b vii/t(^tos. strictive clause defines its antecedent. is the word of God. Matt. An indefinite relative clause. 119 All relative clauses wheth. ov ^v reOpafj. Explanatory clauses Luke 4 16 Koi ^X0tv eis Na^apa. eXsvcrovrai. 28:6. Eph. already known The former : identifies. where he had been brought up. and called a conditional relative clause. Mark 9 : 35 is .fievoi. : . indicating A what person.

or a certain occasion. he does not Cf. But in 1 John 3 22. but to the implied supposition. But in the sentence. is partic- When the relative clause refers to any occurrence of an act of a certain class. If [in any transaction] any profit loas made. upon whomsoever thou Shalt see the Spirit descending. so that the sentence means. and is : : general. Whether the implied supposition is particular or general can usually be most clearly discerned from the nature of the principal clause. if in the sentence. meaning. meaning. he believes an act to he wrong. we have not a general principle applying to any one of many cases. whatsoever we ask. But if one use the same words. or expresses a general injunction which . Whatever act he {in any not wont to'] do. If on that occasion. He received whatever profit was made. When the relative clause refers to a particular supposed event or instance. the implied supposition is particular. Thusif one say. the implied supposition is general. the implied supposition is general. The distinction between the relative clause Implying a particular is not marked either in Greek or in English hy any uniform difference in the pronouns employed either in the relative clause or in the antecedent clause. 239. and the principal clause states what is • or was wont to take place in any instance of an act of the class supposed. THE MOODS. If [in a certain transaction] any profit was made. Thus do. and the principal clause conditions its assertion on the occurrence of this event. or expresses a command with reference to a particular case. he will not do the implied supposition is particular. So also in John 1 . particular in thought.120 298. [it was wont to happen that] he received it. If this states what is true in a particular case. If it states a general principle. the implied condition is general. he received it. we receive of him. The implied supposition may be particular or general. and abiding upon him.33. or to one made it. the relative clause implies a particular condition. the same is he that baptizeth with the Holy Spirit. [is instance'] believes to be wrong. but a supposition and an assertion referring to a particular case. The terms particular and general apply not to the relative or its antecedent. the implied supposition ular. is The act which he believes to be wrong he will not reference had to a particular occasion. the supposition refers to any instance of asking. supposition and the relative clause implying a general supposition 299.

sition. to Xoiirov. for as sinned without law shall also perish without law sinned under law shall be judged by law. SA. which refers to the The relative clause states a supposition .. It has a past tense of the Indicative. Simple Present or Past Particular Suppo- The relative clause states a particular supposition past. ocra fvi^TjfMX. or was not. 915 . Phil. The principal clause has a past tense of the Indicative with dv. Rem. the 300.MOODS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES. oca iarlv aXr)6^. The principal clause may have koI any form of the verb. 240. B. of the negatives ^^ and oi in relative clauses 302. A. Rom. ouot yap avo/jLuis q/juaprov. Sua ocra dyvd. 4:8. : many as have and as many as have cre/tva. tlie relative 121 clause. see 469. 914. koI drroXoSi/rai • 12 . Cf. applies in any instance of the event descritied in implied supposition is usually general. fulfilled. 301. 1433. Future Supposition with More Probability. Sara Trpocri^tX^. 470. aSeX^ot'. C. 6?. It has a present or past which refers to the present or tense of the Indicative. 2 : BA. See also 2 Cor. o<Ta St'icata. instance occurs in the New Testament. and these with considerable deviation from They are designated here according to the kind of condition implied in the relative clause. Of the six classes of conditional relative sentences found in classical Greek. avo/jLtoi ouoi iv vofXM rjpapTov. ei : Tis aperr) koX et ti^ iwaivo'S. but four occur in the New Testament. 1430. No 303. Q-. Respecting the use of this class. classical usage. 8ta vo/xov KpLd'qa^ovTai. 2 10. ravra Xoyi^ecrde. Supposition contrary to Fact. The rela- tive clause states a supposition which refers to the present or past implying that it is not. A .

251. Acts 2 See WH. or in a Matt. jH'^ irpoix^pLixvaT^ tL XaK-qmyre. ov ol XaXowTcs aXXa to Trvevfjux.'S Mark 13 : 11 . 1. koX orav ayuicriv TrapaSiSovTes. v/J-S. In the New Testament also it is rare. but whosoever shall do teach them. Matt. 11 7 instances are very frequent in . It has the Subjunctive with dv. suggesting THE MOODS. 14 7. see 333. aXX to o iav yap icTTC ifteis they lead you wpa tovto XaXiirc. 19 . tive : : Cf. In the New : Testament 21. Mark 3 : 28 . p. text) we read otrTts Se apvrjcrryrai p. and 916 . In addition to the relative clause having the Subjunc- with av (303). outos /ncyas KXy/Bi^a-eTai iv rrj /SatrtXeta twv ovpaviSv. et al.: 122 future. 25 Eev. Eev. if . apvT^(Top. 10 : 33 also. be not anxious beforedioOrj v/uv ev iKuvrj rrj hand what ye shall speak : : but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour. The Subjunctive without av. the following forms of the relative clause also require mention as occurring in the New Testa- ment to express a future supposition with (a) more probability This is 307. 306. 5 L HA.t . New Testament. App. 344. : . Jas. and WH. (with Treg. ii. that speak ye See also Luke 13 the : for it is not ye that speak. 12 4. to aylov. The principal clause takes the Future Indicative or the Imperative. which is the regular form both in classical and New Testament Greek. os 8' av iroi-^crr] Koi StSa^g. 305. 173. 1434. and when judgment. G-. New Testament usually retained in indirect discourse. 7 : tional relative clause instead of the simple dv. 12 . . even after a past tense. On Acts 26 16 : Eem. but the Holy Ghost. he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. some probability of its fulfilment. and deliver you up. 2 10 probably : belongs here . Hv not infrequently stands in a condiMatt. Luke 9 : 57 . 304. The Subjunctive with av in a relative clause is in the . . very unusual in classical Greek in relative clauses referring to the Matt. sentence having the effect of indirect discourse.

Present General Supposition. WH. 5 39 : . 299. go with him two. . whoSee also 8 : soever shall compel thee : . A large part of the conditional relative clauses referring New Testament 16 : to the future found in the e. forgive. whomsoever I shall kiss. 1436. and thence depart.. 309. There is no distinction in form either in Greek or in English between a relative clause implying a particular supposition. 10 32 (cf v. : . to . Luke 12 34 . etc. 25 . (c) : The Present . Kev. MOODS IN EELATIVB CLAUSES. (6). Indicative with or without Mark 11 25 orav (TTiJKere TrpoaevxoiJjsvoi. See also Matt. 5 : 19 .of a class of acts. 311.<l>UTe. John 12 26 : 14:3. The Future octtk (T£ IndicatiTe witli or without Matt. p. Luke 8 : 18. 917 No instance 312. a. occurs in the New Testament. 16 3.. Mark an 11 23 . : See. Matt. v. there in 1 Cor. 172. . are apparently general. 18 4 (cf. viraye /x£t avrdv Svo. In Matt. 5 41 ayyapevcrsi. go one mile. future.g. App. But in Luke 9 4. principal clause has the Optative with HA. E. : 123 av. ii. It has the Optative without dv. the supSo also position is particular. 308. fuXum : ev. (?. that is he. . The relative clause states a supposition D. 310. Yet in many cases it is possible to suppose that a particular imagined instance of the writer as illustration of the general class was before the mind of cases. 5) 28 12 Matt. suggesting less probability of fulfilment than is implied by the Subjunctive with dv. av. 33) Luke 12 8. The relative clause refers to any occurrence of a class of acts in the . av. 26 48. Future Supposition with Less Probability. 10 : 14 . The . Cf : . the supposition is general. into whatsoever house ye enter. Cf. : : : . abide. 10 17 31 Acts 7:7. 4:9. and a relative clause implying a general supposition. Mark 35 . whensoever ye stand : praying. referring to any one particular 298. when The difference in thought is the same the supposition refers to the as that which distinguishes and general suppositions referring to the present or past. : . referring to a specific occasion and event. which refers to the its future.

12 6. 29 . 6a. Tov 914. rov apTov tovtov koI to TTorripiov the cup. principal clause the 1. 9 : 18. Luke 1 John 3 : 22. of. Mark 10 : 11 . 6 16 . Rom. Rev. Yet in most such passages ditional relative clauses in the New Testament. for as often as ye eat this bread. Present In- HA. 309. death. Past General Supposition. 634. 15:2. 15 Luke 36.MT. The relative clause refers to any occurrence of a certain act or class of acts. 1 Cor. See also Matt. Luke : 7 : my disciple.ov whosoever doth not bear his own and come . ye 'TTivTjTe. Luke 14 27 cross : oo^tk au ySacrra^ei tov <7Tavpbv eavTov Koi tpx^Tai omo'ui paByfrri'i. cannot be 13 12 (cf 1 Cor. and the principal clause states what wont to take place in any instance of the act referred to in the relative clause. 8 . Concerning the use 313.. relative clause has the Sub- junctive with av^ the dicative. of idv for S. The . F. a^pi. The Present Indicative not infrequently occurs in conwhich apparently imply a present general supposition. Cf. 1431. there sentences. scarcely possible to decide in each case whether the supposition is particular or general. fwv. See also Matt. Concerning the similarity of the third and tional relative clauses. states and the principal clause what was wont to take . : 37 Heb. 9 5. is general present. fifth classes of condi- made respecting ordinary conditional sentences are applicable also to conditional relative 262. 48 : . 47 John 3:8. see 304. 315. ov SvvaTai elvai p. See Mark 3 : 28.T0v Tov Kvpiov B. : 18) . : 10 38 : . 301. it is possible that a particular imagined is instance in the present or future before the mind as an It is illustration of the general class of cases. till and drink proclaim the Lord's : he come. . after me. G?.v. The difference of meaning is in any case : slight. The statements 9 24. (1) yap iav a. 314. Kem. 124 THE MOODS. ov tKBri. ocraKis IcrOi-qre. 11:26.

aKaOapra. eXcucrovTai Sc ^p. p. Relative Clauses expressing Pukpose.. MOODS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES. See also Acts 6 : 8. and . were wont to fall See also cf. the relative clause has the Op- tative without av. 672. Cf. take the Subjunctive both in classical and New Testament Greek. 8:1. 26. oiTiva avo- SuxTovdiv auTco Tovs Kapirovs. HA. G.ipai orav airapOrj o/tt avrcov 6 wji. (2) . 1442 Matt. . III. f n. the Optative does not occur in such clauses. the Future Indicative also occurs. . the principal clause the Imperfect Indicative. p. 1 Sam. 911 41 tov ap-irtXiava eicSojcreTat aWots let yeuipyoii. HA. Relative 317. Greek. orav avrbv iOedpouv. 2:13. B. kol to Trvevfux/ra to. 2. which shall render him the fruits. (TfinirTov avTia Kal tKpa^ov. 2:19. 12:2. In the New Testament. 1 Cor. In the New Testament. In classical Greek. 125 place in any instance of the act referred to in the relative clause. Gen. irpothe Mark 3 : 11 . 386. 4:35. Mark 2 : 20 .MT. 914. Relative Clauses of Pure Purpose. Complementary relative clauses expressing the purpose which the person or thing referred to serves. Q. 1431. and unclean spirits. Mark 6:56. 316.<f>txKy hut days will come : when . he will out the vineyard unto other husbandmen. 14. In the New Testament. Acts 2:45. the Imperfect or Aorist Indicative with dv being used instead. 11:19. whensoever they down before him and cry out. B. clauses expressing purpose take the Future Indicative both in a. . . See also Luke 5 35 13 28 Rev. 229 New Testament WM. 21 : classical . 318. the : bridegroom shall be taken away from them. heheld him. relative clauses conditional in form are sometimes definite in force.

the clause with Iva (215-217) and the Infinitive (368) expressing a similar relation. in G. The clauses referred to in 318 are to be distinguished from true pm-pose in that they do not express the purpose with which the action denoted by the principal clause is done. p. . as long On 924. . the relative clause Sirov ipdya reproduces in dependent construction the thought of the deliberative question ttoB 0d7<.A. Cf. but constitute a complementary limitation of the principal clause. Hale . and to the Future in Luke 7:4. while. Luke 11:6. March 1892. 321. either (a) so that the beginning or simple occur- rence of the action of the verb introduced by ems is the limit of the action denoted by the principal is verb.P. in lios the latter.P. the classical use of G. IV. fX^iv ti koI tovtov o irpoaeviyKri.J. Earle in CI. . Cf. though less obviously. . Subjunctive. necessary that this high priest also have somewhat : See also Mark 14 : 14 .A. the clauses similar in force. 611-661. rdv iiadi)T(av /jov (piya. 22 11. 1463-1474. The same explanation doubtless applies.i. and Before. and similar words. Bev. to the Subjunctive in Acts 21 16. or (&) so that the continuance of the former the limit of the latter. . 346. o6ev avayKoiov it is THE MOODS. 920Gild. in two ways. iv. see HA. however. : in T. relative clause limiting the adjective aiioi has the relative clauses of 319. pp. In both instances the thought of a deliberative question is reproduced in the relative clause. 8:3. Bev. The Subjunctive Thus in such clauses in is probably in origin a Deliberative tI> Mark 14 : 14. While.T. 320. July 1891. 1893.. 'Ecus is properly a relative adverb -which marks one It does this action as the temporal limit of another action. The Optative sometimes occurs after a past tense in these delibThere are. erative relative clauses in classical Greek. A. In Luke 7:4a complementary Future Indicative. irdfl-xa lieri. See Tarbell in CI. In the as. 302 (contra. ttoC iffrlv KaTdXu/id iwv Sirov rb . former case ecos means until.126 Heb.M. no New Testament instances of the Optative so used. 93-95). wherefore to offer. Relative Clauses Inteoduced bt Wokds Meaning Until. but employing an interrogative pronoun.

im to airoXiaXo^ find it. pp. : . there abide till ye See also Matt. cKei fih/ere depart thence. : . l«)s evprj avTO.evov. In classical Greek. occurrence of the action of the verb introduced by Some- . Gilmore in J. 12 : this construction is frequent. Mark 6 : 10 . a verb of future time. : 324. GMT.B. Clauses Introduced by em? and in Past referring to what was Time a' Future Contingency. xat iropeveTai is lost. and refers to a future contingency. e/SaXev avrbv ds •^vAax^i' ecus an-oSiS to 6<l>a\6iJi. When the clause introduced by ets? depends on 322. Iws av iieX6rp-£ exei^cv. he cast him into prison till he should pay that which was due. : 323. 620. the Subjunctive without av sometimes occurs with ews after a verb of present or future time. : and goeth 23 . 153-160.L. 10 Luke 59 . In the New Tes- tament it takes the Subjunctive without dv. 325. 22 34.MOODS IN RELATIVE CLAUSES. 416-418. it takes the Subjunctive with dv both in classical and New- Testament Greek. 127 Ou Icos in Hellenistic Greek see G. In the New Testament Luke 15:4.. 18:30. it Optative without dv in classical Greek. W. 5 18 12 20 Luke 9 27 1 Cor. 1890. the limit of action being the beginning or simple Icos. When the clause introduced by eeo? depends on a verb of past takes the time and refers to what was at the time of the principal verb conceived of as a future contingency. 'Eojs followed lated by the Subjunctive is usually best trans- by until. Clauses Introduced by em? and obferring to the Future. : . after that which until he See also Matt. especially in tragic poetry. Matt. 4 5.

it is an ordinary temporal clause (293). "Ews 330. 293. Mark 14 32 . sit . the limit. tJ/wEs Set ipyd^ecrOai the to. When refers to is eta? means introduced by it an actual past occurrence. When em? means while to a and the clause introduced by it refers to an event contem328. See also Matt. while 1 pray. ye here. . Indicative occurs a few times in the in a clause referring to the future : New John Testament after 21 22. When the las clause refers to the future or to what was at the time of the principal verb the future (822-826). 328). till it came and stood rjv TO iratSt'ov. 329. 4 13.£ ecos r/ficpa it is we must work works of him that sent me. 326. 18 30 Luke 15 4. however. 23 : . . Luke 17 : 8. the verb of this clause in a past tense of the Indicative. ecos i\0(av fcrTaOr} iwavoi ov Matt. : . poraneous with that of the principal verb. and : l<os means Cf. force of a conditional relative clause. : usages from those described above. is then a preposition governing the genitive of the relative pronoun. . icTTiv. evidently the end of the action which while. 26 36 of. John 9:4. 327. . The Present la>s . struction of an ordinary relative clause. it has the con- Cf. it is is THE MOODS. In the New Testament las is sometimes followed by oE or Stov. as long as. Clauses Introduced by em? (while) and referring Contemporaneous Event. while day. the star over where the young child was. KaOiuare : <38e lo)s Trpoo-eufoj/xai. 2 9 6 axTT-qp went before them. . requiring special mention here only to distinguish these : . it frequently has the See Matt. 1 Tim. In Mark 6 : 45 it occurs after a verb of past time. . Trporjyev avTow. as in an ordinary relative clause referring to past time. epya toC ire/jLij/avToq p. 321. When it refers to an actual event (327. Clauses Introduced by etu? (until) until and referring and the clause to a Past Fact. .128 times.


but the phrase fus oJ or lus Stov


is in effect a compound conjunction having the same force as the simple ?us. The construction following it is also the same, except that &i> never occurs after ?ws oS or Sus Stov. See Matt. 5 25; 13 33 John 9 18 Acts 23 12.






Clauses introduced by

a^pi, axpt


/nexp's °" liave

in general the

as clauses introduced


eus, Iws

m, axpt ^s ly/Mtpas, /ic^pt same construction and force ov, and lus otou.
avTi] /^^(pis ov










raSra Travra


Acts 7









avioTrj PaxriKev^ erepoi
: ; :


iv AlyinrTia, a\pi ov See also Rev. 15:8; 20 3

Luke 17 27 Acts 27 33. Kev. 7:3; dSt/oycrijTe ttjv yijv




Sr)(pi o-<^paytcro)juev Toiis


TOV 6idv.

332. Gal. 3 19 [^WH.


furnishes one instance of &xp^^ *" 'with a

[ WS. margin, Tisch., and Rev. 2 25 contains the combination 4xpi ov &v with the Future Indicative cf. 3.30. Rev. 17 17 contains a Future Indicative with 4xP' after a past tense.

word meaning

until after a verb of past time

Treg. read ilxp"







Clauses introduced by
in general the

mood have
duced by

irpiV and employing a same construction as clauses




The New Testament, however, contains but two instances of a finite verb after irplv, Luke 2 26 Acts 25 16. In both cases the clause is in indirect discourse, and expresses what was from the point of view of the original statement a future contingency. In Luke 2 26 the Subjunctive




In Acts 25 16 the Optative represents a Subjunctive with or without S,i> of the direct discourse. Cf. 341-344.


S.V is

retained from the direct discourse.


G. 1470.


The employment

of a finite


rather than an Infinitive
Cf. 382,

in these instances

in accordance with classical usage.


Rem. 2. In Acts 25 16 17 occurs after vplv, and in Luke 2 26 it appears as a strongly attested variant reading. Attic writers used the
: :

simple Tplv with the finite moods.

Cf. 381.




Wlieii words once uttered or thought are afterward

quoted, the quotation

may be

either direct or indirect.

In a

direct quotation the original statement

rapeated without

incorporation into the structure of the sentence in the midst of





In an indirect quotation the original


incorporated into a


sentence as a subordinate

element dependent upon a verb of saying, thinking, or the



such modification as this incorporation requires.
will illustrate

The following example

Original sentence (direct discourse), / will come. Direct quotation, He said, " I will come.''
Indirect quotation.


said that he would come.

Rem. The


of the exactness of the quotation. direct quotation

between direct discourse and indirect is not one Direct quotation may be inexact. InSuppose, for example, that the original

may be


statement was, There are good reasons why I should act thus. If one say, He said, ^^ I have good reasons for acting thus,'^ the quotation is direct

but inexact.


one say.


said that there were good reasons

why he

should act thus, the quotation

exact though indirect.


Direct quotation manifestly requires no special discus-

sion, since the original



simply transferred to the
its structure.


sentence without incorporation into

336. Indirect quotation,

on the other hand, involving a


adjustment of the original sentence to a new point of view,
calls for

a determination of the principles on which this







most simply stated in
does the original form

the form of the question.
of a sentence undergo

What change






an indirect quotation

All consideration of the principles


of indirect discourse


must take

as its starting point the origi-

nal form of the words quoted.

For the student of Greek that expresses his own thought
another language,


will also be necessary to

compare the

idiom of the two languages.

See 351


The term

indirect discourse


commonly applied only

and indirect questions. Commands, promises, and hopes indirectly quoted might without impropriety be included under the term, but are, in general, exto indirect assertions

cluded because of the dif&eulty of drawing the line between

them and

certain similar usages, in which, however, no direct

form can be thought of. Thus the Infinitive after a verb of commanding might be considered the representative in indirect discourse of

an Imperative in the

direct discourse





probably the Infinitive after a verb of wishing might

be supposed to represent an Optative of the direct
the Infinitive after verbs of striving, which in

while for


scarcely be regarded as of different force from those after

verbs of commanding and wishing, no direct form can be



Concerning commands indirectly quoted, see 204.


cerning the Infinitive after verbs of promising, see 391.
Indirect assertions in Greek take three forms



clause introduced

by on or


In the



ment, however,


not so used.

An Infinitive



subject expressed or understood.

See 390.

A Participle
and the

agreeing with the object of a verb of per-



See 460.


by d or other intermood; HA. 930 G.

340. Indirect Questions are introduced

rogatiTB word


the verb


in a finite



rect assertions after

Usage in Indirect Discourse. In indion and in indirect questions, classical



as follows


the leading verb on which the quotation de-

pends denotes present or future time, the mood and tense
of the direct discourse are retained in the indirect.



the leading verb on which the quotation de-

pends denotes past time, the mood and tense of the direct

may be may

retained in the indirect, or the tense


be retained and an Indicative or Subjunctive of the direct

be changed to an Optative.






The above

rule applies to all indirect quotations in

which the quotation

expressed by a

finite verb,

and includes

indirect quotations of simple sentences

and both principal and

subordinate clauses of complex sentences indirectly quoted.



grammars enumerate

certain constructions in

which an

Indicative of the original sentence

uniformly retained in the indirect

eral rule being sufficient as a basis for the consideration of

These cases do not, however, require treatment here, the genNew Testament



STew Testament Usage in Indirect Discourse.


indirect assertions after 6ti

and in indirect questions.


Testament usage


in general the sariie as classical usage.


peculiarities as exist pertain chiefly to the relative

frequency of different usages.

See 344-349.

ou yap -gSei for he wist not what this to ansioer. 1497. See also Luke 6:11. 20 : 10 .MOODS IN INDIRECT DISCOURSE. If the &v he supposed to have been in the original sentence (cf Luke 2 26) it has . iTrrjpwTwv St avrov ol fuxOrjTal avroS rts avrij his disciples . Luke 8:9. Mark 9:6. found only in Luke's writings.v. Acts 5 24 oirpropovv irept airSiv tl av yivoiTO roxrro.i. deliberative question having the Subjunctive or Future Indicative.drj. Matt.TTOKpt. and there almost exclusive- ly in indirect questions. it might be thought that the direct form was a . . 133 John 11 27 iym irciriarcuKa ort. Luke 24 23 of angels. In this example the principal is clause of the direct discourse after a verb of past time expressed in the indirect discourse clause retains the tense : by an Infinitive. 344. eiij ^ Trapa- and : asked him what parable was. been dropped in accordance with regular usage G. while the subordinate and mood of the original. Acts 25 : 16 contains the only New Testament instance of an (But cf. they on ttXuov X'qfJApovTa. in such cases. 934. 2 14 elSov on ovk opdoTroSovo'i. it must be supposed that the indirect discourse has preserved the form of the direct unchanged. Rem. when supposed that they would receive more. the Son of God. I saw that they were not walking : . Gal. Acts 10 : 17. eX^dvres ot irptoTot ivo/xicrav the Jirst came. But in the absence of evidence that av was ever added to an Optative arising under the law of indirect discourse. 15:26. <ru ei o xpK'"''os o vios tov 6eov. I have believed that thou art the Christ. 347 and 258. l3oXiQ. tC a.) It here stands in a subordinate clause which in the direct discourse would have had a Subjunctive with or without Sv. But for av in this sentence. 1. : . ot came saying that they had also seen a vision lohich said that he was alioe. 2. The Optative occurs in indirect discourse much less frequently in the It is New Testament than in classical Greek. uprightly. HA. : . and that this was therefore a Potential Optative with protasis omitted. they were perplexed concerning them whereunto this would grow. they ^\6av Acyovcrat kol oTrracruiv ayyiXiav eaipaKevaL. AeyouCTiv avTov ^yv. Optative in the indirect quotation of a declarative sentence.

etirev 8e avrrj and he said unto her. See also Matt. 2 : 25 affords a possible instance of an Optative in an Botli text p. 1502. See B.rjv kXivt). exeivos eXeyev otl din he said. 937 . 2 Luke 12 17. Indirect deliberative questions are sometimes found after ex") ^'^^ other similar verbs which do not properly take a its question as object. Luke 7 48 . indirect question after a verb of present time. 1 347. . . Both in classical and New Testament Greek. the Im- perfect occasionally stands in indirect discourse after a verb of . 348. John 9:9. : .' 374. 256 W3I. 345. 'Ac^eWrat aov al 'Eyol dfjapriai. somewhat uncertain. : . The interrogative. however. G. I am he. Luke 9 58 6 8e vloi tov avOpwirov ovk l^tt ttov tyjv K€<j)aX. The presence of on before a quotation is in the New Testament therefore not even presumptive evidence that the quotation indirect. . 2. is The . Zva . See HA. 346. tion are. the direct form either with or without on being much more frequent. pp. they may buy themselves somewhat to eat. The principles of indirect discourse apply to all sub- ordinate clauses which express indirectly the thoughts of another or of the speaker himself. foot notes.134 Rem. comparatively infrequent in In quoting declarative sentences the indirect form is tlie New Testament. while retain- ing the form which shows its origin in a deliberative question. tion. ayopaiTwnv eauTots t[ ^ayuxrw. Rem. : . even tion is when the construc- not strictly that of indirect discourse. New Testament examples under 258. . Mark 6 : 36 . 631. otl is of course redundant. that . and interpreta. but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. THE MOODS. 8 20 Mark 8 1. 2 Tim. The redundant 4 : sometimes occurs even before a direct ques- Mark 21. clause in this case serves the purpose of a relative clause and antecedent. et al. Thy sins are forgiven. ei/it.

said above. 28. and adverbs are someNew Testament as in RA. n ^v iv tw dvOpdnrw. its A verb in a principal clause views action from the point of view of the speaker. 250 f Luke 8 47 : . 208. it Erom what has been appears that the tense of a verb standing in a clause of indirect discourse in Greek does not express the same relation between the action denoted and the time of speaking as is expressed by a verb of the same . 351.. O. f .n. 4 also (contra') WH. It has the original author of the words quoted. 1489. G. 252 f : . tense standing in a principal clause or. B. 1011. See B. Obs. to speak more exactly. but there are a few passages in which apparently used as an interrogative pronoun in a direct question. 16. 3. Sjns. oa-m is used in introducing indirect In the questions. 350. 20 . 14 27 : See also Mark 5 : 19. 1600. 135 past time as the representative of a Present of the direct discourse. The simple relative pronouns times used in indirect questions in the classical Greek. for he himself See also Acts 19 32. pp. IfA. 877. p. views viz. on the other hand. WH. 1011 . 936 . G. A verb in an indirect quotation. John 2 25 auros yap fyivuia-Kev in knew what was 349. Acts . New Testament it is it is not so employed. B. WM. Thus exceptional Greek usage usage.. Indirect Discoukse in English anb in Gbbek. et al. 15 : 14. and a Pluperfect as the representative of the Perfect. also . p. 167. does not describe it from the same point of view.. WT. and by . 1600. . man. its action from the point of view of another person. a. It is so in Mark 2 . MOODS IN INDIKEOT DISCOUESE. Th. . taken by Mey. : In classical Greek. 9 : 11. 8i' ijv ahiav -^tparo avrmi dtri^yyaXev. she declared for what cause she had touched him. in Mark . pp. : coincides with regular English HA.. J.

since Greek usage has will be expedient to state been expressed in terms of the relation between the original utterance and the quotation. on oTTTcuriav euipaKcv. tion of the law of indirect discourse for English as well as for Greek. has seen a vision. Furthermore. then translate (2) by the Greek law of indirect disinto (1). we must ascertain what English usage is in respect to the tenses and moods of the verbs of indirect discourse otherwise we .136 THE MOODS. An example will illustrate at the same time the necessity lating (1) it of formulating the law and of formu- in terms of relation to the direct form. the employ corresponding Greek using a Perfect. . and finally by the English law of indirect discourse construct (3) from (1) and the transThis process requires the formulalation of the Greek eurov. They do It is evident therefore that the principle of indirect discourse is not the same in English as in Greek. tenses. The sentences marked (3) and (4) represent respectively the indirect quotation of (1) and (2) after a verb of past time. the English a Pluperfect. Now it is evident that in order to translate the indirect discourse into English correctly Greek sentence containing a clause of and intelligently. lish usage in the it Eng- same way. (2) owTaulav iuipaKeV' (4) eiTrov He (3) They said that he had seen a vision. The sentences marked (1) and (2) express the same idea and employ corresponding tenses. and express therefore the same meaning. not. have no principle by which to determine what English tense and mood properly represent a given Greek tense and mood in indirect discourse. however. is appeared that in certain cases the mood of the Greek verb changed when it is indirectly quoted. tenses which (4) we employ first in To we must restore (2) course. and that we cannot translate translate (4) into (3) by the same principle of equivalence of direct assertions.

after present tense " " future " " " past I shall He says He will say that he shall see the city. we may deduce the following principles for the translation into English of clauses of indirect discourse in Greek . that he shall see the city.. see the city. He He He He says that he sees the will say that he sees the city. adopting a form of statement similar to that employed in the statement of the rule for indirect discourse in Greek (a) After verbs of present or future time. should see (the change of mood here is only apparent) becomes might 353.. but the tense is changed to that tense becomes 7nay see which past relatively to the time of the direct discourse.: : : MOODS IK INDIRECT DISCOURSE. (6) After verbs of past time. 352. He said that he should see the city. Direct form Indirect. see Thus. shall see . see. I may see the city. after present tense " " " future " " " past is 137 illustrated in the / see the city. said that he might see the From these examples we may deduce the following rule for indirect discourse in English... Comparing this with the Greek rule. will He He say that he saw the city. the mood of the direct dis- course is is retained. said that he had seen the city. city. etc. see the city. Direct form " . city. Direct form Indirect. English usage in indirect discourse following examples Direct form Indirect. after present tense " " future " " past He He He says that he will say that he may see may the city.. future " I saw Indirect. said that he saw the the city. city. saw becomes had seen. the mood and tense of the direct discourse are retained in the indirect discourse.. becomes saw. after present tense says that he saw the city.

then translate each Greek verb by that English verb which is relatively past to that which would correctly translate the same verb standing in direct discourse. and (3) viewed as in progress. He will not go is a Future from a present point of view presenting the action as a simple event. translate the verbs of the indirect discourse by the same forms which would be used in ordinary discourse. These . (2) it is viewed the action itself is previous to that point of view. When the quotation is introduced by a verb of present or future time. rather a forof thought. In the sentence. ing. It is. I had been read'is (1) the point of view. 354. In other instances the same form might be a Past from a present point of view. is The statement of English usage in indirect discourse presented in the form adopted above for the sake of brevity application. it In order to apprehend clearly the difference between English must be recognized that certain English (1) the temporal relation of the point is tenses have. there are Optatives which represent Indicatives or first Subjunctives of the direct discourse. not like the Greek tenses a two-fold function. (2) the temporal relation of the action described to . When he came. Thus in the sentence. I was reading. this point of (3) the conception of the action as re- spects its progress. restore in thought these Indicatives or Subjunctives. from which the act of reading is past. I was reading would be more accurately described as a Present progressive from a past point of view.138 (a) THE MOODS. than as a Past progressive from a present point of view. (&) direct When if the quotation is introduced by a verb of past time. and convenience of however. mula than a statement which represents the process and Greek usage a three-fold. but They mark of view from which the action view described to the time of speaking .

'yoI.J. viii. But in English this antecedence may be affirmed without affirming the completeness of the act. treating as present it as if it were still present. to the original speaker . while adopting in indirect discourse the point of view of the person quoting as respects the person of verbs and pronouns. as future. on the other hand. from verb-forms which originally had only the two-fold function. . What was present future. but are used also in direct discourse. out of which so many English tenses have arisen. Bearing in mind this three-fold function of certain English tenses. is still treated from his point of view.: MOODS IN INDIKECT DISOOTJBSE. Hale^ in A. but their existence in modern English is none the less clearly established. the antecedence of an action to a past point of view is in Latin only implied in the assertion of its completeness at that past point of time. pp. in quoting a past utterance. G. Professor W. yet as respects tense. . But it should be noticed that the English has developed this three-fold function more clearly even than the Latin. 1 Professor Hale's article furnished the suggestion for the view of the English tenses presented here. the difference between Greek and English usage in stated comprehensively as follows in- direct discourse may be The Greek. what was past. Many of them are derived by the process of composition. as past what was In English.. regularly carries over into the indirect discourse the point of view of the original state- ment.P. and while sometimes after a verb of past time marking the dependent character of the statement by the use of the Optative in place of an Indicative or Subjunctive of the original statement. 66 fe. 139 triple-function tenses have perhaps their chief use in English in indirect discourse. For example. has set forth the similar three-fold function of the Latin tenses in the Indicative Mood.

where again the time of the original statement differs from that of the quotation. I have sinned. one says in Greek. treated as What the Greek does after a verb of . Xe'ya It Sn eAercrcTat. English such a prediction expressed by a Past-future.d.v(rofx.e. requires only a change of person in quotation after a verb of present time. the original statement is The point Thus of view of in both it is languages retained and iXe. I shall come. in quoting oipofuu. and present or its this point of view being treated as character as past being ignored. is But in i. threv on oifitrai but in English. ever is Such how- not the case. might naturally be anticipated that in quotations after verbs of future time. since the difference between the point of view of the original utterance and the quotation. he said that he should Similarly. the act being viewed as future from the assumed point of view. in indirect . the usages of the two languages naturally coincide. but in English by a Pluperfect. I shall see. past is not only indicated by the past tense which introduces the quotation. by the English tense which describes an action as future from a past point of view. but still further by the employment of a tense in the quotation which marks the point of view from which the act is looked at as past. when quoted after a verb of past time. disappears. discourse. eiTrev otl When we pass to quotations after verbs of present time. Thus see.140 the fact that of the verb it is THE MOODS. expressed by a Perfect tense in Greek. when is still ex- pressed by a Future. said that he had sinned. a statement made originally by the Perfect is still tense. ^fidprriKiv. he Thus ^fji. tense. because present. which in English gave rise to a change of tense not however made in Greek. Thus in Greek a prediction expressed originally by a Future afterward quoted after a verb of past time. there would arise a difference of usage between English and Greek. he says that he shall come.

but that the two languages differ somewhat in their method of indicating the relation of this point of view to the time of the quotation. This diflerence. 356. The correct statement is that in both languages the act is looked at from the point of view of the original speaker. takes the by he things. but it is He imagined that when he has seen returns he will say. and different in two respects. this does not describe the event from his own point of view will say. just as in — would require he will see. 355. . viz. Thus let us suppose the case of one what a person just now departing will say when he has not yet seen anything. however. the English as well as the Greek does after a verb of future time. point of view is present or future the usage of the two languages is • identical. is past. Thus while the Greek is consistent in as if it were present. pertains only to quotations whose point of view When the Its precise nature has already been stated (354).MOODS IN INDIRECT DISCOUESE. These facts enable us to see that that the tense of the direct discourse is point of view of the original the person would he inoorrect to say from the speaker. treats the point of view of the original utterance as present. The asser- tion of this all form he will say that he Greek one quoting iwpaKa iravTa Thus the person quoting after epeZ says ipd on impaKcv Travra. predicting returns. and follows here the same method as — the Greek. nor does he mark the fact that the this point of view of the utterance is different from his own would require he will have seen. in English from the point of view of it in Greek determined who makes the quotation. The comparison of English and Greek usage may : be reduced to articulated statement as follows is English usage like Greek usage in three respects. but treats the point of view of the person whose expected language he quotes in advance. 141 past time. simply adopting the conceived point of view of the future statement. I have seen all things. the English departs from the principle which it follows after past tenses.

This the Greek does not do. iyivero. (a) While it looks at the act from the point of view of the view is past it designates which describes the action from a past point of view. having in general no tense this double temporal power.: 142 I. (a) It adapts the person of the pronouns and verbs of the original utterance to the point of view of the quoter. The . THE MOODS. Apparent changes of mood. are OONSTEUOTIOF AFTER Kal 357. shall to should. By a Hebraism Kal eyevero and iyivero 'HI'I. it is as after verbs of present time II. if that point of it as past. or by an It thus results that the construction takes three forms . as will to would. Septuagint ren- derings of are used in the New Testament (Matt. which has (&) It never changes the mood of the verb of the original statement in quotation. Infinitive. Clause or Infinitive as the Subject of 8i. (6) It looks at the act described in the quotation from the point of view (c) of the original statement. A Past of the original utterance becomes in the quotation a Past-past. using a tense etc. Infinitive Mark. original statement. It differs from Greek in that. a Future becomes a Past-future. It is like Greek in that. After a verb of present or future time this point of view is of the original utterance treated in the quotation as present. Luke. iyivero usually followed by a phrase or clause of time is the event to be narrated then expressed by icai with an Indicative. such changes of tense.. Iy^vcto. Acts) to introduce a clause or an which is is logically the subject of the iyevero. or by an Indicative without kul. in fact.

as Peter went throughout all parts. that he was standing by the lake of Gennesaret. Tov A.v to ajro Na^apcT T^s raA. while it still retained the functions appropriate to the dative. 'Ir/croBs followed by an Indicative without Mark 1:9. it was also used as an accusative and as a nominative. Later developed also the other cases. at first as a subject-nominative. accusative. and pass. and dative.t\atas. and chiefly at least in the dative case of such a noun. B. however. (6) Kat iyivero. and it came came from Nazareth of Galilee. or eyei/cTo 8c. the other cases of this verbal noun had passed out of use. while the multitude pressed upon him and word of God. result of comparative now regarded At the time as an assured grammar.- now the heard 359. of the earliest Greek literature. to Mark 2 : 23 . 143 (a) Kat eyiv^To. eyevero 8e Xlcrpov Stepxojuevov 8ta TrdvTtav KareXOelv. (c) Kat iyivero. pass in those days. and the dative function of the form that remained had become so far obscured that.THE INFINITIVE. Kai eyc'vero ej/ EKcivais rais jy/itpats rj\6e. that Jesus and the phrase of time are followed by an Infinitive.oyov pcT. 358. or iylvero Kai Si. o)(X. iyevero 8c iv tc3 tov Toru iiriKelaOou avrS koI aKovav 6eov Koi avTos ^v eo-Tcos irapa ttjv XLjMrqv Ttwrjiia. Beginning with Pindar it appears with the it article. the narrative being continued either by an Infinitive or : an Indicative. Luke 6 : 12. 976-278. In Post- . it came to pass.ov Luke 5:1. he came down. INFINITIVE. Acts 9 32 it came See also . Greek had is That the Infinitive in its origin as respects both form and function in a verbal noun. pp. 360. or cyei/cTo Se. and the phrase of time are followed by with an Indicative. By this process its distinctively dative force was obscured while the scope of its use was enlarged. THE 361. and the phrase of time are xat. genitive.

that for which we must go back of the historic period of the Greek language itself.A. and as to be used as a nominative or accusa- before. As a verb it has a subject more or less definite. 241 ff. As a noun it fills the office in the sentence appropriate to its case. this as at a much earlier time the dative had acquired. and accusative singular.A. pp. article in the genitive began to The Infinitive with the assume some such prominence some degree lost. First. 788 . Concerning the history of the Inflnitiye. see T. when the Infinitive was distinctly a dative case. and in A. Aristotelian Greek. 1878. and takes the adverbial and objective limitations appropriate to a verb. . the sense of its case being in genitive Infinitive tive. that which is found in Homer : the Infin- itive begins to be used as subject or object. another step was taken. GMT. genitive. the Infinitive with the article in the genitive begins to lose the sense of its genitive function as a nominative or accusative. . some are peculiar to the Infinitive. and expressed or implied. dative.J. sometimes with dative functions. in Eem. though the strictly still dative functions cle is have a certain prominence. came mark therefore four stages of development. sometimes with the force of is used side by side with the articular Infinitive in the nominative.P. that which appears in the Septuagint and the New con- Testament : all the usages found in the third stage still tinuing. and the arti- not yet used.P.144 THE MOODS. 193 ff. 742. Fourth.. Gild. III. Many of these case- functions are identical with those which belong to other substantives . pp. other cases. notably in the Septuagint and the New Testament. IV. and to be employed Prom the earliest historic period of the Greek language the Infinitive partakes of the characteristics both of the verb and the noun. We Second. that of which the beginnings are is seen in Pindar and which authors of a later time : more fully developed in classical the Infinitive without the article. Third.

though it is by no means affirmed that in details the precise order of historical development has been followed. (4) (5) (6) Measure or degree (after adjectives and adverbs) (376. 418 ff. the temporal idea lying in irplv rather than in the Infinitive. pp.368). 371 (d). As (1) AN Adjective Element. disregard the historical order of development and to some extent obscure the point of view from which the Greek language looked at the Infinitive. 365). (2) As object in indirect discourse (390). 377. striving. and proceed to those in which the dative force is vanishing or lost. Birklein. As A Substantive Element. (387-389. (3) Eesult (369-371. or respect (375.366. hoping. (2) Expressing other IV. promising. etc. 404). adnominal limitations denoting. 367. m. moans. the meaning of the preposition employed. As AN Adverbial Element. 393. Beitrage zur historischen Syntax der grieohischen Sprache. Manner. . 372. Entwiekelungsgeschichte des sub- stantivierten Inflnitivs. 370 (d). 399). (378. Heft 7. (3) As object after verbs of exhorting.. In the Greek of the classical and later periods. therefore. II. 390. 396). (2) Indirect object (. (4) As object after verbs that take a genitive (401-403). The articular Infinitive governed by a preposition (406-417) expresses various adverbial relations. 404). 885. in Schanz. 363. A modal modification of an assertion (383).: THE INFINITIVE. 400). p. (1) As subject (384. 362. As A Pkincipal Verb (364. . to begin with those uses of the Infinitive which are most evidently connected with the original dative function. 398). 329 . To arrange the treatment of the Infinitive on the basis of such a logical classification as that given above (362) would. the precise nature of which is determined by Similarly Trplv or irplv fi vyith the Infinitive (380-382) constitutes an adverbial phrase of time. This is the general plan pursued in the following sections. They may he classified logically as follows I. 145 VIII. however. 391. 394. 395). 379. As appositive (386. 397). It seems better. cause. (1) Purpose (. the functions of the Infinitive as an element of the sentence are very various.

Kom. . G-. The Infinitive of Purpose. two aKoxKrax toe Acts 10 33 : . Luke 18 10 avOpoinoi Svo avi^rjo-av men went up into the temple to pray. B. from the Infinitive (in v. 5:17.146 THE MOODS.p(. The Infinitive with- out the article or exhortation. . THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE AETIOLE. 271 f WM. only whereunto we have attained. being especially It is of frequent in Homer. . to Upbv irpoo'ev^aa'Oai.fv TrdvTa TO. thee of the Lord. EA. vvv ovv ttoiitk rip-iis (Toi ivwTriov tov Otov ira. and Winer a change of construction by which the writer returns from the independent Imperatives used in v. 12 the remoteness of the verb \4ya (in of the latter . on ^XOov : KaTaXvtrat tov 7r\r)pSi{rai. 15) makes the dependence the former improbable. 365. 366. vo/jlov yj firj vofilcFyjTe. by the same rule walk. tovs irpo- ovK rjX. This explanation of change of construction probably applies in Mark 6 9 (cf. 1532. 957 . See 370 (d). The Imperative is Infinitive. principal verb. Phil. th^ even more abrupt change in use of the Infinitive. 364. tw avTiS {rroixw. 3. v. : Mark 3) 5 : 23) . WT. TrpocrTeray/ici/a iiro tov KVpiav. 12 : 15 affords another probable instance of the imperative Btittmann supposes an ellipsis of Xiya. The Infinitive expressing purpose is sometimes intro- duced by <3(7-T£ or m. 372. 316. rrXrjV els o icjiOdcra/xcv.(Tfx. (^jjTas to • HA. upon . hear all things that have been commanded 367. pp. but in Kom. Matt. now therefore to are all here present in the sight of God.Oov KaraKvcraL dAAa think not that I came destroy the law or the prophets : I came not ets to destroy. pp. but to fulfil. furnishes but one certain instance 3:16. The Infinitive is used to express the purpose of the action or state denoted by the principal verb. ch. 397 f. 951 . Cr. 1536. occasionally used to express a command This is- the only use of the Infinitive as a ancient origin. 371 (d). 14 to the construction of an Infinitive dependent on \4yu employed in v. The New Testament of this usage.

369. (a) Actual result. fgo-T6. The is Infinitive may be used to denote the result of the action expressed principal verb. Luke7:40. in this See 236. so used it by the usually introduced by HA. insomuch that the boat 1 Thess. conceived of and affirmed as actual.19. expressing the similar dative relation. 953 G. The Infinitive of Result. ov /teXci troi on d8eX<^^ /juyv iJ. is the Infinitive of the indi- a supplementary addition to a statement in itself complete. Acts4:14. . 23:17. Kvpte.6vrjV /xe KareXciTrev SiaKovuv. •^ Luke 10 40 : . and the waves beat into the boat.18. : 6:31. 370. wctte 5787? y£/it- ^e<T$ai TrXoiov. When . 4 37 TO : . Under the general head of expressions of result : it is necessary to distinguish three different conceptions case classical Greek uses wore with the Indicative. was now filling. is akin to the Infinitive of Purpose rect object. Lord. so that we need not to speak anything. 12:4. 1449. 25 26 : . your God-ward gone forth. or other Some of the instances of this usage are scarcely to be distinguished from the Infinitive of Purpose. 'A6rp/aioL 8e ttoivtes koi ot eTrtSij/ioIvres iivoi r] ovSkv the erepov rjVKaipavv Xeyetv n rj aKoveiv ti Kaivorcpov. while in others the distinction is clearly marked. Tit. <S(TTe faith to xpiinv Ix"" is XaXetv ri. 1:8. dost thou not care that my sister has left me to serve alone? eis Acts 17 21 : . 2 : 8. direct ten- dency of the action denoted by the principal verb. 147 Closely- The Infinitive The former as an Indirect Object. and expresses the purpose had on the other hand is in view in the doing of the action or the maintenance of the state. THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. now all Athenians and the strangers sojourning there spent their time in nothing See also Mark 4 23 else than either to tell or to hear some neiv thing. 10:40. The Infinitive of the indirect object a complementary limitation of a verb. KvpaTa CTrc'/SoAXev £ts Mark »cai rot to ttXoIov. 7:42.. 368. iv TraVTi fiLT] totto) ^7 ma-rn iJ/U'Ss vfiSiv 17 Trpos tov 6cov i^eXi^in every place kvOev.

In this case the result thought of as that which the action of the principal verb is adapted or sufB. simply as such. introducing a principal clause . though the actual production is either left in doubt. O. and the them has become correspondingly realm of the first between with the together Indicative occurs very rarely except with the meaning therefore. Clasor is indicated by the context not to have taken place. to be actual is apparently instances entirely similar to those found in classical Greek. In this case classical (c) Greek uses wo-re with the Infinitive. To these three may be added as a closely related conception which the Greek also expressed by luore with the Infinitive (d) Purpose. except that the construction appropriate to the second meaning has apparently encroached upon the line of distinction indistinct.e. 582-584. makes uctte that the use of with the Infinitive no longer restricted. to instances in which the result thought of as theoretical.WI. and it is the context or the nature of the case only which shows that this result is actually produced. sical Greek employs uxm with the Infinitive (in Homer the Infinitive without ma-ri). however. and this in fact. is as in classical Greek. several shades of The constructions by which these are expressed are substantially the meaning same in the New Testament as in classical Greek. Tendency or conceived result which is it is implied is an actual result.cient to produce. There remain.: 148 (6) THE MOODS. uxrT^ it with the large number of instances Infinitive is which is with the probable used of a result evidently actual. intended result. but is used also of result in fact and in thought actual. action of Tendency or conceived result thought of and affirmed In this case the result is one which the the principal verb is adapted or sufficient to produce. Cf. i. "fio-Te meaning. in which a result shown by the context .

third class are expressed in the tive with or without loo-re. of Judah. iv oTs iTrurvva^OeLcrSiv Tdv to /xvpidBoiv KaTairaTeiv oAAijAous. 16 9. Tendency or conceived usually after : result thought of as such. 1 : 10. In- finitive. 13 2 . . the <l>v\rj's Rev. : all faith. 2 Thess. axaOdpTtov wcrre to cast 1 . for God so loved the world thai he gave Infinitive after wtrre. multitude were gathered together. See also 2 Cor. insomuch that the more part said that he was dead. he gave them authority over unclean spirits them Here probably belongs : also Kom. 1 Cor. behold the lion that is of the tribe Root of David. by implication realized in actual usually after : result. 2:7. the See also Acts 1 25. eSoiKCv. aa-re. he became as one dead . 1 (c) : to open. lyivero uxrii vcKpcK wcrre Toiis TroAAoris Aeyeiv on aTri- 6a. so as to remove mountains. and if e/c- I have Matt.v. uxttc. The following examples illustrate New Testament usage (a) Actual result conceived and aflSrmed as such. Luke 12 1 . in the meantime. In- finitive. iSoi iviKrjcrev 6 Xea>v 6 ex r^s 'lowSa. also 218 and 398. 371. hath overcome. ovtid'S yap ^ydjTnjO'ev 6 Bsbi rbv koct/jlov wcrre tov vlbv his only Tov (wvoycvrj begotten Son. Kav txo Tra<Tav rr)V irio'Tiv (acm opjj p. 2 Cor.viv. Indicative after John 3:16.: THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ABTICLE. 5:5. 17 dvoT^at TO PifiXiov. (b) Tendency. so as tread one upon another. Mark 9 : 26 . Rev. 149 presented simply as one which the event previously expressed tends to produce. Cases of the Infini- New Testament by the Cf. : 8 . (oore thousands of the pi^a AavetS.i. 2 : 4. 10 out.i6uTTa. warre.av avTa. tohen the many tov oxXov. eSaiKCv avroii e^oucriav Trvevixdruyv j3aXX. Between these two classes it is evidently impossible to draw a sharp line of distinction.

G. 1453. See avTov. 150 THE MOODS. The classical usage of an Infinitive (of conceived result) with ^. to forget. does not occur in the New Testament. The Infinitive reading adopted by is WH.. the Infinitive most probably expressing purpose and us fix modifying it in the Infinitive. ws. and Gr. The origin of this idiom may be an impersonal construction (cf. 9 us &v is used : This usage also occurs rarely in classical and later Greek.MT. p. 27 1. they and they led him unto might throvfhim down headlong. acre with the Infinitive stands in definitive appowith <Tvii. by a previous verb or noun. See Luke 18 25 Acts 20 35. uVre. after a comparative. and usually as a nominative. e. Hr. 390 . sense of quasi. b . On Acts 17 21 cf. and cf. The Infinitive after fi in the New Testament is used as the correlative of some preceding word or phrase. must also be accounted an Infinitive o£ conceived result. 230. 372. but it has departed in meaning as vrell as in form from its original. 6 10. G.ov. the Infinitive used to define closely the content of the action denoted Cf. WT. : : 375. or ^ at. The Infinitive in Heb. 1460. 29. defining the content of the plan. Somewhat akin in more force to the Infinitive of (conceived) is but probably of Hebraistic origin. 373. eu)S Luke 4 29 : . 3. result. koI rjyayov avTov d<^pi5os tov opov. wcTTe Karathai Kprj/JLVicrai. p. (d) Purpose. the : hill In Matt. oii ykp ASikos 6 6ebs fTiKaBia-Bat. God is not unjust so as i. or ri : . rather than expressing the purpose of making it. 762).e. WM. In 2 Cor. No read a Subjunctive) instance of ws with the New Testament. III. ad loe. See Th. 368. 10 and references with the cited there.. sition Kem. but. Infinitive denoting result occurs in the ( WH.povKi. . : hrow of the also Luke 20 20. : Rem. 374. 310. The meaning of this sentence is not. It would not be unjust for God to forget. New ifTe p. G'. HA. 1456. used with us in Luke 9 52 according to the (most editors read wo-re) and in Acts 20 24 : : according to the generally adopted reading In both cases the phrase denotes purpose. intended result. The phrase is elliptical. See Alf. 953. In the or ^0' t} Testament the in the Infinitive is not used either with uare or i(t>' sense on condition that.

— whom hard our discourse is much. the latchet of whose shoes am not tuorthy to stoop doicn and 2 Tim. Mark 1:7. tSv VTroSr/naToiv avTov. G. THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. 2 28.. More literally it and hard of interpretation a would read. Here may also be included authority. that ye should put (i. Xxi/Seiv ttjv So^av koI to Trjv Tiprpi KoX TTjV Bvvapiv. outojs kol 6 )(puTTOi ovx iavrbv eSo^acrcv yevrjB^vai apxi-^pia. 39. by putting. unloose. 72 .a6riT5>v. 22 13 . or ready to do. : See also : Luke 1 : 54. 4 11 . etc. to say. ability. may be used after any adjective to limit 952 . 12 : 23. 12 : 14. now therefore why tempt ye God. 952 I . Heb. to or is able. iroAiis HA. abilis The not Infinitive is used with adjectives and adverbs of denote that which one ity. 378. hope. Ps. authority. or in that ye put) a yoke upon the neck of the disciples f Cf.e. o Kvpioi koL 6 Ow ^piiiv.. HA. G. i. omves iKavoi to ecoi/Tot koj. cf. need. : Rev. etc. p. The Infinitive limiting Adjectives and Adverbs. Ps. 5 11 irepl ov ^piv 6 Xoyos kol Suo-ep/i^vevTos \iyeiv.. 1 Sam. denote that which one has. Ps. concerning to state. worthy art thou. to do. 1526. 7S : 18 (Hebrew). 377. 2:2. tmBelvai ^vyov ctti tov Tpa. aftos £t.^Xov Toil' ix. . need. avih/ai. so Christ also glorified not himself to be made a . fitness. Heb. ov ovk dpi iKavoi Kui/'as XCcrat tov Ipavra. Ixxxiii. iripovs StSa^at. 1528. and hard of interpretation to state intelligibly. application : . readiness. high priest.. fit.e. our Lord and our God. of whom we have many things felicitous free translation. The Infinitive limiting ]S^ouns. Sol. its The Infinitive to. Sol. 376. 151 Acts 15: 10 vvv ovv ti irupd^cn tov Otov. a particular action. See also Luke 14 31 2 Cor. . or has not. The Infinitive is used with abstract nouns of etc. : receive the glory and the honor and the power. to ability. 40. 5:5. See Ryle and James. who shall be able teach others also.

379. 924. 952 . o<^eiA. 13 to : 11 . 955 . 10 Rev. a variant in other passages. See also 2 Cor. the Subjunctive and Optative occur only The Indicative after irph which someafter a negative leading clause. 1521. As respects the mood which follows irph or irplv ri. which occurs twice in the Iliad. before cock crow twice. and occurs as. airaprqayi. thou shall deny : . eyoj xpsiav exo) vtto (tov PairncrOrjvcu. crete The Infinitive is also occasionally used after con- nouns cognate with verbs which take an object In- finitive. down ere my child die. 1469-1474. 14 30 : Mark the . 5:8. KaraP-qdi. it is high time for you : awake out of sleep. the Infinitive is Testa^ in that generally (in the Is New Testament invariahly) used when the leading clause affirmative . ?8o)K£i/ to airois iiovcriav TiKva Bern yevicrOat. and rarely in Attic writers.152 THE MOODS. he is a debtor to do the ivhole law. G. 380. I have need to be baptized of thee.Homeric Greek in general. the Infinitive after dSpa. times occurs in classical Greek. John 1 : .€Tr. vplv -q 8ts aXexTopa Trplv <j)on'^(Tai TpC% p-e. . 3 14 12 . HA.. and knowing the season. Gal. The Infinitive is used after irplv or Trplv f). a. HA. xat tovto eiSotes tov Kaipov. New ment usage is the same as that of Post. chiefly after a negative leading clause. 9 10. HA. 382. which implies a necessity. : Matt. this. frequently in Herodotus. is not found in the New Testament. me thrice. jnov. anodavciv to iratStov come 381. is well attested in three of the thirteen instances jn the New Testament in which vplv is used with the Infinitive. 1474. v/iSs ii vin/ov iy€p6rjvai. 1470. become children of God. a . John 4 49 Kvpn. on : (opa ijSi. The use of ^ after Trplv. Q. that now 15 . Sir.s iurlv oXov tov vo/xov Trot^crat. to them gave he the right Rom. G.

4 18.ia KaOapa Kal xfjpai. so to speak. 4:3. pure religion afflic- and undefiled tion. is employed.). The Infinitive may be used as the object of a verb. THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT THE ARTICLE. 385. SA. Jas. 1 : 27 . SA. 153 The Infinitive used absolutely in a parenthetic clause occurs but once in the New Testament. The Infinitive may be used as the subject of a finite verb. 26. 1517. that which is properly the subject of the Infinitive being put in the nominative as the subject of the principal verb. cal relation is the But the logi- same in either case. avrlav. is this. The Infinitive as Object. Jas. 959 a. dXiij/ei.iJi. avTTj i<TTiv. The Infinitive as Appositlve. In the New Testament the personal construction is regularly Soxei. 384. . cus cttos ehrtiv. d/utavros iv rrj . for it is easier for a camel : to enter in : through a needle's eye. 1634 Heb. etc. Gal. 2:9. . 360. . iiri- aKiiTTecrOai. employed with Acts 17 18 : ^evoxv Sot/iovtW SoK£t KarayyeXevi clvai. . he seemeth 1 : to be a setter forth of strange gods.. Rem. . however. : rptj/juiTOi jScAovr/s • £i(7£X6etv. The with subject accusative sometimes Fre- stands as the subject of an impersonal verb quently. See also Gal. 944. evKOTroyrepov yap ecrTti/ Kd. The verbs which are thus . 383. The Infinitive may 950: stand in apposition with a noun or pronoun. see 357. The Infinitive as Subject. op^avovs Kal . to visit : orphans and widows in their See also Acts 15 28 . HA. a. 7:9. 3 15 ovria yap Trpiwov l(TTiv rjiuv irXi/jpSxTai for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. G. : See also Mark 3:4. the personal construction (Soxei. 956. 949. Matt. 6p-q(TK(.r]X. 386. Luke Infinitive 16 17 . Luke 18 25 . 20 22 . HA. 1 Thess. 1517.ov Sia : . 387. 7ra<Tav St/catocrui/jjv. etc. Concerning the Infinitive as subject of ^^keto.

or the subject of such a verb in the voice. . The Infini- frequently used in the indirect quotation of asserusually the object of a verb of saying or of passive tions. John 5 18 : Rom. beg 1 am ashamed. a. 14 . 946 . Matt. 389. HA. iKOelv Trpos not. to the twelve tribes which are of the Dispersion. is sometimes implied : The Infinitive reKeiv in Eev. See also Matt.. thinking. 1:1. and forbid them come unto me. 3 : 2. 7 25 is oBev koX (Tia^cw to TravreXes SiVaTat. I have not strength dig . 19 : an Infinitive to complete their meaning. suffer the little . they sought to lay hold Mark 12 12 : kol i^-qrovv avrbv KpaTrj<TM. greeting.£. 14 2 388. . greeting. to /«. children. in part such as take a but require 948. noun or limited by an Infinitive are in part such as take a pronoun in the accusative as object. 1522. a-Kd-KTUv ovk icr^uco. eis Heb.XiKt f^alpuv. or as an Infinitive of conceived result. The Infinitive feia-aa-eai in Acts 5 3 may be regarded as an object Infinitive governed by the idea of persuading implied in ^jrX^pwo-ei' : riif KapSlav. . in part verbs as object which cannot take a noun or pronoun 1518. Luke 16 to : : 3 . iiraiTclv aia-xyvofmi. 'laKtu/Sos • . The Infinitive xaipwi' in salutations is to be regarded as the object of an unexpressed verb of bidding. James . noun or pronoun in the genitive as object. tive is The It is Infinitive in Indirect Discourse. : . Jas. 1 : 19 . to . The verbal idea governing the Infinitive rather than expressed. etfreq. 1519. Claudius Lysias unto the most excellent governor Felix. Cf. and on him. Gal. afjiere ra TraiSia Kal /xij KUiXvcre avTo. : . 370 (c). 12 2 is doubtless an object Infinitive governed by the idea of desire implied in the preceding participles. 154 THE MOODS. rais SuiScKa (f>vXais raw iv Trj SiadTTOpd Xaipciv. Acts 23 26 KXauStos Avitmxs tco KpaTicmo ^ye/xdvi <E>i. HA. Q-. 390. wherefore also he able to save to the uttermost.

article Thus the use of the Infinitive without the etc. rrji /xeTadecrtiOi fjLefuipTvprjTM ivapta-TrjKevai Tif to : for before his translation he had witness borne See also : him . see 480-482. Respecting the use of negatives with the Infinitive in indirect discourse. THE INFINITIVE WITH THE AKTICLB. Luke 2 26 22 34 Rom. fir) etvat. THE INFINITIVE WITH THE AETIOLE. : . swearing. and commanding. head. Eem. worthiness. Heb. 2. and G. 337. 391. that he : had been well-pleasing unto God. The Infinitive occurs frequently as object after verbs of hoping. The prefixing of the article to the Infinitive tends to its the obscuring of its original dative force. : 9. vp6 yap OeiS. but with a different thought of the case- relation involved. promising. Others express nearly the same relations which were expressed by the Infinitive without the article. 27 . 2 18 : 1 John 2 1. after adjectives of fitness. which say that there John 21 25 : ov8 aurov ol/wu tov KOfffwv \uipri(T€iv to. Such instances are not. usually included under that Cf.. however. Respecting the force of the tenses of the Infinitive in indirect discourse. 2 Tim. while it emphasizes new substantive character as a noun which can be used in any case. that will be written. 684. case with the use as subject and object. : 155 is . •ypa<^d/iEi'a Pip\[a. with a force closely akin to that of the Infinitive in indirect discourse. 24 46 (?) John 12 29 Acts 16 : . Rem. 392. Some of the uses of the Infinitive with the article article only differ from those without the its by the greater emThis is phasis on the substantive character of the form. doubtless .. 15:8. 1 suppose that even the world itself will not contain the books .MT. Mark 12 18 oiTtves Xiyov<nv dvooratni/ no resurrection. 11:5. see 110-114.

I refuse not 11 also 2 Cor. 4:13. to KXijpovofwv avTov tTvai Koa/jiov. common than the HA.p(nv <l>ayiiv ov koivoZ tov avOpanrov. 14:21. Compare Still the English worthy to receive and worthy of receiving. 20:23. used as the subject of a finite verb. 394. Matt. See 395. sprang originally from the thought of the Infinitive as a dative.959. Rem. . The • Infinitive with the verb. vofjiov 17 Rom. to Si aviwTOii \e. Phil. very slight. The difference in meaning however. that he should he heir of the world. 1542. 8:11. other uses of the Infinitive with the article are wholly new. : to die. object ov TrapaiTov/xai to airoOaveiv. The Infinitive with the Article. ov yap Sia eirayycXia tiS 'A/Spaa/u.4. 1543. for not through the to law was the promise Abraham or to his seed.156 THE MOODS. the various uses are grouped in the follow- ing sections according to cases. The Infinitive with the article to is G^. The Infinitive with the article being by means of that article practically a declinable noun. £". far less article. To this class belongs the use of the Infini- tive after prepositions. tov. in Apposition. being developed only after the Infinitive had begun to be used with the article. The Infinitive with TO as Object. 959 Gr. 12:33. Eom. pxm avTov. hut to eat with unwashen hands defileth not the man. 15:20. The Infinitive with to as Subject. . The Infinitive with the article after such adjectives is thought is of as a genitive. article The Infinitive with the may stand in apposition with ^ t<3 a-rrep- a preceding noun or pronoun. article to is is used as the object of a transitive This usage Infinitive Acts 25 : without the . See also Matt. Mark9:10. as evident from the use of the article is. 2 6. 393.

Matt. 24 45 Luke 2 24. The Infinitive with the article tou is occasionally result. . : . The Infini- with the article tov is used to express the purpose of ITA. Gen. 2 Gov. . tive The Infinitive of Purpose with tov. Its only other use is after the preposition iv. probably 17. ria fjoj aipeiv jixe TtVov tov aBc\cf>6v jnov. 1547. See also Matt. 21 o-at : and 369-371. because I found not Titus my brother. 3 22 21 . 34 : 22 . See also Rom. 397. New Greek to express cause. : 2 Cor. (3^. : . when ye saw 19 did not even repent afterward. 3 10. : 22. . : tially the That the Infinitive with toC expresses purpose with substansame force as the simple Infinitive appears from the joining of the two together by ko/. Luke 2 . used in the Cf. a. 398. vartpov toC avTw. 5 : 14. The Infinitive with t&5. pre: sent him to 77. See also Acts 7 : . : . 2 13 . 1:79. 24 . and ets 'lepotroXv/xa Trapatrr^crat r(S Kvpim. /mi irdXiv iv 157 Trpos v/iai to kmrg for I determined this for myself. Rom. 2:1. . 14 13. t/cptva yap i/iavTiS tovto. to Koi TOV Sovvai 6v(Tiav. 27 Acts 26 18 Phil. : 19 . for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. to iXOeiv. HA. 959 . the action or state denoted by the principal verb. Rem. means. they brought the to offer him up to Jerusalem. that I would not come again you with sorrow. manTestament it is used to express cause. Cf also Luke 1 76. 2 13 jueAAa yap 'HprnSiys ^rfTiiv to TraiStW ToC aTroXeWi avTO. : so as to believe him. : . Isa. The Infinitive with the article tc3 is used in In the classical ner. iruj-Ttv- 32 .THE INFINITIVE WITH THE ARTICLE. and ye. 960. a sacrifice. 218 New Tes- tament to express conceived Matt. : 396. The Infinitive of Result with tov. u/xets St iSoWes ov'Se ixfTip-eXriOyfc it. 7:3. also Acts 18 : 10 . av^yayov wStov Lord. cf .1548.

74 : 2:6. Rom. not even in Acts 7 : pretation. : SA.4:17. ye have that some one teach you. The Infinitive with rov after Adjectives. (?. See also Luke 1 57. Cr.^ aKovav. and adds that toO vfith the Iniinitlve never But this is grammatical purism 19. : 6 . 8 11 401. toi) cf. Heb. 11:8. of the objective genitive. 959. article tov is with the used to limit nouns. eStoxei/ avTois o Otoi irvevpa Karavufeajs. etc. 16:3. lPet. 158 Rem. 21 : 22 : . as in Greek. God gave them a spirit of stupor. Infinitive with the article tov is used with such adjectives as may be limited by a simple Infinitive. the genitive of connection. 1549. The uniformly telic force of toC with the Infinitive can be maintained only by evasive definition or forced interexpresses result. See also Luke 24 25. 9 . 399. and when eight days were fulfilled for circumcising him. and ears that hear not. 963 .i^(T6rj(Tav ^fiepai oktio rm TrcpiTtjuiv avTov. : . Meyer takes tlae Infinitive phrase toO liij ehai in Eom. Cf. eyes that see not. 959 . Eom. 10 : 19 . HA. Acts 23 : 15 . ffA. 400. 1 24 Gen. : The Infinitive with after Verbs that take the is Genitive. not justified by the evidence. 20 : 3 . 1547. 6<\>QaXiwvi tov firj pXiirav Kax wra rov ju. '''"'" 959 . 2 Cor. 5 12. 22 . 1547. classical Instances occur not only. Luke 2 21 Kai ore €irX. 376. tToijxoi irr/jnv : tov aveXelv avrov. especially of verbs of hindering. The Gr. and the appositional genitive. need again 7rdX. ..2:24. 7 : 3 as expressing a divine purpose.9:10. we are ready to slay him. The InfiniThe rela- tions thus expressed are very various and are not always easy to define exactly. The Infinitive with tov used as the object of verbs which take a noun in the genitive as object. THE MOODS. lSam. but also of the genitive of characteristic. 1547. tive The Infinitive with tov after IN^ouns. Acts 14 : lCor.1v XP^"'-^ 'X^'''^ StSacrxetv i/iSs.

. In classical Greek. Fil!f:pp. 2 . 12:23. J5. . all : G. Acts 3 12 that we should sail for Italy.327f. New fi^.. 4 13. verbs of hindering are followed by three constructions. 15:20. Rem.MT. 14 : . Cf. Acts 14 : 18. Acts 10 : 47. 5:7. 402. 17 . 10:25. 21:12. iroXAa tov iXOtlv Trpds i/iSs. Rem. 1 Sam. may be used In the 39 Gal. 963. 1 Cor. or omitted with the Infinitive without difference of meaning. 1549.pp. 8t6 koI ci/eKoirTO/tiji' to. The Infinitive with tov as Suhject or Ohject. The Greek most naturally means. classical usage.p. 15 22 : . wherefore also I was hindered these many times from coming to you. 1551. 398. . Their eyes were held from knowing him. (a) Infinitive without the article. |Ui} Luke 24 16 . The finite Infinitive with tov is used even as the subject of a This a wide departure from verb or as the object of transitive verbs which reguis larly take a direct object. 3 : 15.270.S. G. Mi. Ps. character of the article tov before the Infinitive was partly lost in later Greek. after verbs of hindering is closely akin : 403. Testament. 34 19 . THE INFINITIVE WITH THE AKTICLE. Rom. (c) Infinitive with to.411f. : : 1 Mace. Meyer's interpretation of toC /*•). : Acts 27 1 eKpiOr] tov airoirXuv ij/ixas «s ttjv 'ItoXuiv. See Matt. and indicates that the sense of the genitive Fy. Luke 1:9. iSctts i^airopriOrjvai ^/j. iTiyvdmi airiv in Luke 24 16 : as expressing a divine purpose (the English translation does not correctly represent the meaning of the German original). Cf.g 2 Cor. Cf Gen. 791 (exx.). 29. : : 28. 23:20. 404. e\a\e tov to OviJiiaxrcu.. Eccl. HA. 1:8. insomuch that we de- spaired even of life. (6) Infinitive with TOV. it was determined See also Luke 4 10 5:7. is not required by New Testament usage. koX tov ^yv. it 159 was his lot (prop. The Infinitive with toC to the Infinitive of Result. 19 14 Eom. these constructions occur except that with to . he obtained by lot) burn incense. 16 22 : . Sol.

the expression tive being : : : : 406. iX6w> Tijv wtdTiv vtto vofwv i<j>povpovfjie6a. with the genitive. while he blessed them. Tuiv avOpanriav irpos to dcaOijvai avTols. These prepositions vary greatly in frequency in the New Testament. eireiMlia £ts to yvu>vaL ttjv tticttlv v/juitv. take heed that ye do not your but righteousness before men. Mark 14 28 dAAa /terot to iyepOrjvai /xe vpod^u) i/ias eis rrjv TaXiXouav. tt/oos tt/so . Sol.(£Te [Sc] Ttpi hiKoxofTvvyjv vpJStv p. is The Infinitive article to. 16 in of hindering or avoiding in the adjective ivSi/SeKTov 4 it is the adjective Aiiov which gives occasion to the genitive but in both cases the Infinitive seems to be logically the subject of the copulative verb. 3 : 23 . It is doubtless the idea of hindering in xpovi^a that gives rise to the genitive in the former passage in the latter the Infinitive is a direct object. tov. 959 . evsKev. Mark 4:6. it with the dative. koi it iyevcTO iv tcS cvXoyetv avTov avrovi pass. to be seen of them. 1546. Testament are with the accusative. Gal. the Infinidependent on the predicate adjective. iv. : 51 . tS governed by prepositions. dvTt. The prepositions so' used in the New . SUcrTri to Luke 24 avTuiv. or whether is rather to be regarded as an impersonal one. howheit.T] iroteiv i/xiTpouOcv 1 Thess. Whether this construction represents the thought in the mind of the writer. we were kept in ward under the law. by the idea 1 Cor. root. and is still more in such as 1 the genitive apparently suggested . 16 : : 4 . it xat hia. : . 160 THE MOODS. irpo tov 8e before faith came. cannot with confidence be decided. ro /M] ex^iv pC^av i^r/pdvOrj. 1 will go before you into Galilee. Luke 17:1. irpocTe. 6:1. Prepositions. Sid. Ek occurs with the Infinitive about sixty . the adjective being the predicate. The origin of this use of the Infinitive with toD usages as appear in that in perhaps in such Luke 4 : : 10. 3:5. Std. Such usages as Luke 4 10 and 5 7 doubtless owe their origin to the same mental process by which a clause introduced by tm came to stand as the object of a verb of exhorting. In Luke 17 1 Cor. is 405. he parted air and came from them. fierd. The Infinitive with the Article governed by with the ITA.: . and because had no withered away. 6r. . I sent that I might know your faith. 2 28 compared with Luke 12 45 is also suggestive. ew?. eh. after I am raised up. 407. Ps. Matt.

. Heb. Gal. 11 : is also used. eis to etvai avTov irpiarofroKov iv iroAAots doeXi^ois. 20 19 26:2.^ atTCicrSai iju. purpose. and Jas.. 408. 409. because ye ask not. In Mark 5 4 Sid with the Infinitive expresses the evidence rather than : the cause strictly so called. on ovs irpoiyvut.MT. measure of or result. Aid governing the Infinitive with t6 denotes cause. Eom. iv . conceived or actual. koX Trpoiapurev' atreiTc koi ov Xa/x- Sion KaKus alTtlcrOi. See also Rom. and receive not. 161 . 8:6. differing in that the Infinitive gives in Itself no indication of the time of the action. because ye ask amiss. 12 : 3 . . times . and is nearlySi.. 22 . Eph. 1 Cor. 3 : 17 . 2 : 17 . 1:18. equivalent to Sti or Jas. Els with the Infinitive represent an indirect object. Concerning other prepositions used with the Infinitive by classical writers. 2 Cor. by faith we understand that the worlds have been framed by the word of God.^ yap oikuis ovk ex^TC eis to eat to itrOCciv koI mvuv. ySai/ere. TO fUj «K tio-tci voovpev KaTrjpTia-OaL tous aiGvas prjpaTi Otov. 3 : 7. 368. Ye ask. Jas. 1:12. 3. 1:10. like the simple Infinitive. eis (fiaivop-evoiv to j8A. 410. To5 /o7- 8 : 29 . Eij governing the Infinitive with t6 most commonly expresses It is employed with special frequency by Paul. 7:4. /xtTa fifteen Trpds twelve TTpo each of tlie others once.»jaop<^ous t^s etKwos vicfu avTciu. to be whom he foreknew. Phil. he also foreordained conformed to the image of his Son. so that what is seen hath not been made out of things which do appear. to Cf. 1 Pet. ovk txere 8ia to ju. nearly fifty nine . see G. See also Rom. that he might be tlie frsi-bom among many brethren.e7ro/xevov yeyovevai. 1:11. . 3:26. 4:2. THE INFINITIVE WITH THE ARTICLE. p. Eis with the Infinitive also expresses tendency. Heb. 8id. what 1 : have ye not houses and to drink in f See also Matt. 1 Thess. 1 Pet. 11:3. twenty-four . effect.6ti with the Indicative. 411. but occurs also in Heb. ye have not. 2 : 16. 800-802.

3 13 Eph. with reference to. Acts 9:3. 6 11. Gen. 20 might appropriately be interpreted as expressing purpose but This clause could be joined to an expression of purpose only by supposing an ellipsis of some such expression as Ktti ovTus elffh. : . but occasionally expresses other relations. 162 El's THE MOODS. 415. Ps.1 .. 19 16 34 15. : . having raised up his Servant. etc. as the direct object of verbs of exhorting. 2 : 2. Matt. 15. : .ev avTov evXoyovvTa v/jws iv tiS a. /cat cv T<p uinipav avTov o pjev cTretrev irapa Trjv oSw. This construction is especially frequent in Luke and Acts.wot7Tpi<j>e. EZs with the Infinitive is still further used. Trpoa^xert [Se] T'fjv SiKauxjvvrjV v/muiv fio] troLelv tii^irpoaOv/ tZv a. 26 : 12 . 1 1 (temporal) Luke 12 15. See also Matt. Eis with the Infinitive 1 Thess. Acts 3 26 v/uv irpuyrov dvao'T'^crai 6 flcos tov iraiSa avTov a/TricrTuX. Heb. np6s governing the Infinitive with t6 usually expresses purpose occasionally used with the sense. 1:3. not justified by the evidence. means. Luke 8:5. ySoXoScra yap avrrj to /xe. tive. . Acts 4 30. 'E. Sol. such as manner. Ps. a case of grammatical purism. to limit 413. unto you first God. : . 2 is also used. like the simple Infinian adjective. 1 : for the causal clause which follows.governing the Infinitive with rip is most commonly temporal. t6 iaSlav in 1 Cor. : Infinitive is 412.vawo'KoyfiTovs in Kom. : . or content. etc. like iva with the Subjunctive. in turning away every one of you from your iniquities. Rem. Meyer's dictum (see on Eom. Sol. as in Fhil. like his similar dictum respecting row with the Infinitive. to bless : : : : : . See also Luke 1:8. or a noun. 5 28 13 30 2 Cor. to be seen of them. 2 Thess. some fell by the way side. 1 20) that els with the articular always telic. and as he sowed. : : it is 414. sent him you. Matt.iv Ikoxttov airo tS>v irovr]piS>v [yiJLwv]. (purpose) Luke 18 iTroi-quev. 1 23. she did it to prepare me for burial. : . as in Jas. /xvpov tovto etti tctu (rtop/XTOi //. 1 19. : 12 . 6:1.ov irpos to ivTa^idxrai for in that she poured this ointment upon my body.v6pu)Tr(i>v irpbi to deaOrjvai a-uVots. and seems therefore to require that ch rb ehai be interpreted as expressing result. Eis t6 elvai airois d. 11:15. or the simple Infinitive. is. 2:8. but take heed that ye do not your righteousness before men. 3 : 10 . 3 12. 8 : 10 either expresses measure of efieot or is the indirect object of oi/coSo/HTjff^ffeTOt. : (reference).

and (c) The logical force or modal function. Gen. 803. verb it has both tense functions and functions which As a may be designated as modal functions. It is adopted substantially from the article of Professor Wm. in Acts 4 30. "On The Adjective Participle corresponds nearly to the Attributive Participle . force or It remains to consider the logical participle. or Optative belong to the mood.P. The force of the other prepositions used with the Infinitive scarcely needs special definition. it ical agreement. Adverbial. this is usually the matter of most In respect to logical force. the rep which precedes iKTelveiv belonging in effect also to THE PAETICIPLE. Arnold Stevens. The Participle is a verbal adjective. Eem. see 104-109. ticiple. 1872. 419. 418. modal function of the From the point of view of the interpreter importance. therefore. Respecting 417.. ciples differs The terminology here employed for the classification of partisomewhat from that commonly employed. and Substantive. grammatical agreement in 116. and cf.A. Subjunctive. which is by R. the meaning of each being in general the same as that of the same preposition governing nouns.THE PARTICIPLE. taken as the object of S6s is more probably sitions.V. The first and second of these have already been treated. iv. (6) For the proper understanding of a paris necessary to consider (a) The grammatThe use of the tense. The Infinitive yivea-eai. participles may be classified as Adjective. 1. sharing in part the characteristics of both the verb and the adjective. the force of the tenses after prepositions. see : : governed by the preposition article. 163 416.A. It is however not strictly without the ylv€<reai. Concerning the Infinitive without the article governed by prepo&MT. being analogous to those which in the case of verbs in the Indicative. the uses of the tenses in 118-156. 10 19. the Substantive Use of the Greek Participle" in T.

ni) and oi with partici- ples. €K o-TTEtpTys TTJi Kakov/jiivrj's 'iTaXiKjj?. a centurion of a hand called the Italian hand. which is joined by koI to the adjective : For other similar examples see Col. jixcvos. 2. &. The Adjective Participle may be used attributively or it predicatively. 295. and HA. Participle. 965 . The Restrictive Attributive Participle. THE ADJECTIVE PAETIOIPLE. Acts 10 X»7S : marked by that action. SA. It attributes tbe action wbich denotes to the subject as a quality or characteristic. 2 . Rem. who gave much alms to the people and prayed all to God alway. now was a certain man Cornelius hy name. pointing out what person or thing meant. see 485. . the Adverbial Participle to the Circumand the Substantive Participle to the Supplementary stantial Participle. Jas. The Adjective Participle limits its subject directly it and exclusively. 420. ^oySou/tcvos Tov $€ov XafS Kol in (Tvv iravTi TtS oik<o Avtov. €Karovrapeio-e/S^s kou. or assigns the subject to the class 1559. Respecting the use of the negatives . When used attributively may be either re- strictive or explanatory. THE MOODS.164 as treated in (?. An at- tributive Adjective Participle may be used to define or is identify its subject. 1. a devout man and one that feared God with all his house. Cf. 2 : 15 see also examples under the following sections. This is Adjective Participles. 1 21 . Ccesarea. It is then equivalent to a restrictive relative clause. deespecially clear in the case of <f>ol3oveva-efi'^. . TroiGi/ eAoj/iotrwas TroXAas t<S there Seo/z. avr]p Si tis iv Kat(rapta ovoiuxn Kopv^Xtos. 421.ei'os rmj Oecyu Sia TravTos. The four participles in this sentence are scribing their subject. 422..

p-rj 136. Acts 10 35 : . bread which Cometh down out of heaven. by the action denoted by the and the attenKearly the article. HA. 1560. 423. pXiirtTi t« vfws Icrrat o miXayayuiv that Sto. is more specifically identified. . take heed lest there shall be any one : maketh spoil of you . 2:8. f.(7oC tSiv Trpouprifia/oiv inro twv airotT- ToXtov TOV KvpLOV yjpMv XptcTToC. Matt. The person or thing referred to terized placed within the class characparticiple. TFT. remember the words which have been spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ. A noun without the article. 109 Col. tion is directed to some one or to certain ones of that class. acceptable him. The subject of the Eestrictive Attributive Participle is often omitted. 966 rj G. through his philosophy. pp. expressed by a participle without the or on the other hand by a relative clause limiting an indefinite For classical examples of this usage see WM. and worketh righteousness. who are not. to. t^s <^iA. Slkollooiovi^v Sektos avTiS but is in every nation he to that feareth him. 10 37 : Such a participle usually has the article. : .THE ADJECTIVE PAETICIPLE. however. The participle is then an Adjective Participle used substantively. belieoers were added to the Lord. TrpouenOcvro iritTTeuovres t<S KVpCto irKridi] avSplav re koX ywaiKoii/. /xvi^crdrjTe tu>v p-qiiATitiv 'Ir.ypafLp.iv(x. 1:3. jua/capios o avaytvaxTKOiv kol oi aKolvovreis tows Aoyous t^s he that the trpotjiTfCuvi Kal T-qpovvre. same meaning substantive. he that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me. Acts 5 14 : . blessed is and they that hear the words of the prophecy. article. readeth. Jude 17 . 6 tjuXlav Traripa firjTepa xnrep afios. John the 165 this is 6 50 oiJtos iirnv 6 apros o ex tov ovpavov KwraPaivuiv. p. See also Acts 5 17. ev avrg y(. but not invariably. 10 :41 Gal. is sometimes limited by a participle with the in this case does not The article make is the noun strictly definite.oo-o- ^ias. Kev. multitudes both of men and women. dXA. ipx ovk eoriv /jlov . ei/ ffavrt iOva 6 <^oPovixtvoi airov koI epya^o/*cvos io-TLV. 424. 1 : 7. or an indefinite pronoun. . and keep things which are written therein.

8. tive like Phil. . WT.. 8ia to HA. and called us with a holy calling. WM. 9 . .as ex Trjs opy^s t^s ip^ojihrqi. the participle. Kvpicnj 3:8. 1662.e. modifier of art. 1 Thess.. 4 1 Cor. noun (2) (3) (4) mod. noun.. art. and the participle without the noun... 1 pp.. ipypp. The Explanatory Attributive Participle. which delivereth us from the wrath is to come. . See also the similar use of lieuter adjectives in : Rom. then limited by a geni966. tov (TtHxravTO's ij/iSs Koi KoXe'crai/Tos dyia. f any other abstract noun. b. THE MOODS.. Kara 8wa/iuv Oiov. Phil. pvofievw explanatory. mod. . It is then equivalent to an explanatory relative clause. . who saved us. In this example See also Acts 20 32 : . art. part. An attributive Adjective Participle may be used to describe a person or thing already known or identified. noun. stands in the so-called attributive posiarticle between the .166 425. this phrase may stand between the article article follow the and the noun. A neuter participle with the article It is is sometimes equivalent to an abstract noun. pp. part. Jesus. noun mod.ivq's : restrictive. . ble : It thus results that all the following orders are possi- (1) article. 7 9.. participle. Heb. 2 Tim. art. 295. i. . mod. 426. and the noun.. . Irjaovv-rbv pvop-tvov ^fi. or the participle after an article following the noun but when is limited by an adverbial phrase. 1 KXi^cr€L : Cf. 6 : 17. 4:5. 1 : 10 is . virtpi^ov t^s yvcocreojs ^purrov Itjo-oB toij pjov.. An Attributive Participle article... part. (5) noun. Heb. 427. when used to limit a noun which has the tion. part. according to the power of God. 234 f 25 . because of the excellency [superiority] of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my 2 : Lord. G. art. 294 f .

eous. mod.- aas life TTjV ij/vx^v avToHi €V€K£v ifLov tvprqarti ain^v. Ae] visiteth with wrath f il/v)(rjv Matt. in Yonge's f.. 428. vss. 42. 14) . he that fndeth his shall lose it. 3:5. cause. and behold. for thus it is becoming for us to fulfil all righteousness. that loseth his life cf. condition. 430. . 8 . 667. 3 : . ciple The Predicative Adjective Participle. The Predicative is Participle always stands in the soi. and we bring you good : tidings . and he . 2:2. 296 ff. or concession (cf. 294. noun. See also vss. of 6 . . THE ADJECTIVE PARTICIPLE. is Participle and the Adverbial Participle.. and I was unknown by face unto the churches of Judea. the promise made unto the fathers. . 427. may be used as the predicate of the verb elfii A partior other copulative verb. clause. An may Attributive Participle equivalent like a relative clause to a relative 317 convey a subsidiary idea of ff.. 37. Heb. fir/ aSucos o flcos o eTrt^epuv rijv opyqv. 2 See also Acts 12 : 10 the 26 : 4. for my sake shall find : it. Acts 13 32 : xlix. HA. a.r]V Se Gal. dyvoov/juevos tc3 irpoo'WTria Tats iKKXr/cruii's rrj^ rjp. by nature fulfils the law (cf v. and especially Rom. Rom. : . part. art. called predicative position. God unright- who \because : . pp. koI ijjmeis viiai €vayye\i^ofie9a Tfjv irpos Toiis Traripa^ iirayye\tav yevo/xevrfv. noun or after an article following the noun. 1 22 lovSaias.). 38. and I became dead. Rev. It then partakes of the nature of both the Adjective Cf. purpose. 429. aidvdiv. 464. its which between the article and Cf. 27. 15 ovtoj yap irplirav Icttiv ffpAV TrkrjpSxTai iraxrav St/caioorwiyv.. K. (6) art.. 40. 167 See Professor Charles Short's essay on The Order of Words in Attic Greek Prose. : .e. 434. 1 18 koX iyevo/jLTjv ve/cpos fcat iSov ^tov dpi cU tows atwas twv Matt. not in attributive position. 41 and Luke 14 26. I am alive for evermore. English-Greek Lexicon. koX 6 airoXf. where ij eic ^rJirecDs aKpo^vtrTla tov voiwv uncircumcision which TeXoCcra should doubtless be rendered. 10 39 6 eipaiv tt/v avrov aTroXicet avrrfv.

ttoXKA. pp. : for he was one that had great possessions. Imperfects. See also John 18 30. 71. 97 . B. Matt. form periphrastic Presents. and Puture Perfects. So probably the examples under 429. So probably Mark 10 : 22 . Under the head of the Predicative Participle belong those Present and Perfect Participles which. 20. Perfects. 18 18. yet in the nature of the case there will it occur instances which will be difficult to assign with cerSince. Luke2:26. moreover. pp. 17 km to iyevero iv tS)v ^/lepSiv koi avTos ^v 8iSa(7K<i)v. This distinction can usually be perceived by us . (&) It maybe a Predicative Participle retaining its adjec- tive force. this gives rise to a third possibility. 168 431. 9:3. 1 18 1:21.: . : 45. G. -qv yap €X<»v KTrjixara. . an Adjec- tive Participle used substantively without the article may stand in the predicate. tainty to one class or the other. 13:10. /j-iql Luke and . . : 831 . THE MOODS. To the Greek mind there was its doubtless a distinction its of thought between the participle force which retained adjective and distinctness from the copula. with the Present. 34. Pluperfects. Jas. 27 33 . 84. 131 K See Eev. and Future of the verb. 2Gor. A participle without the article standing in the predicate is therefore capable of three explanations (a) It may be an Attributive Participle used substantively. and that which was so joined with the copula as to be felt as an element of a compound tense-form. 91. 308-313 : S. especially Gal.MT. John 13:5. Futures. 432. 830. Matt. It 5 may form with . : Mark 2 18 Luke 5:15. the copula a periphrastic verb-form. Imperfect. . 1 (c) : 22. Cf . it came pass on one of those days that he was teaching.

manner. 11 29 Gal. equivalent to a temporal clause. The Adverbial Participle of Time. See also 1 Cor. it be received with thanksgiving. 2:3. and as they spake these things. ttSs ij/otels ixtjievioficOa TrjXiKavrrj^ d/ieX^a-avres o-arrrjpms.: THE ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE. art thou lie that cometh ? See also Luke 16: 15. equiva- lent to a conditional clause. ravra 8e avruiv XaXovvTiav airos €(TTr] ev /xccoi at>Tc5v. however. John 16:8. The participle without the article may be as really substantive (432. Thus we find 435. Livke 7:19. he himself stood in the midst of them. if we neglect so great salvation ? 1 Tim. 969 . kol ovBkv airo^XriTov /t£Ta evXapuTTMi Xa/jL^avofievov. for every creature of God is good. or attend- ant circumstance. and he. if . article 169 An may is Adjective Participle used substantively with the of course occur as a predicate with a copula. The presence of the article makes its use as a noun easily evident. when he come. not properly a Predicative Participle. concession. G: 1563. how shall we escape. Heb. koi iX6u)V c/cetvos iXey^ti rbv Kocr/mv. THE ADVEEBIAL PAETIOIPLE. 22:28. condition. being equiva- lent to an adverbial phrase or clause denoting time. 434. purpose. 6 : 9. The Adverbial Participle of Condition. . means. is 436. <tv el 6 ipxofievos . Luke 24 36 : . This. and nothing is to : be rejected. oTt ttSv KTtV/ua Oeov koXov. will convict the world. 4:4. 433. but is not so easily distinguished as such. The Adverbial Participle logically modifies some it other verb of the sentence in which stands. RA. a). cause.

A participle accompanying circumstance. 8:9. .iav avriav 6a.vaTov evpovTcs yTrjaavTO Xi. Col. having heard (because 1 we have heard) of your faith Tim. 10 Acts 9 26. . Acts 13 28 : . 4:8. though he was a Son. irpos iravTa iL^iXiixo^ icrnv. equivalent to a causal clause. may be antithetical.eXXova-rj's. asserted. yet he learned obedience by the things which he suffered. 439. 4 . 5:8. tfiaOtv d<^' Stv eiraOev ttjv vTraKorjv. ma-nv vfiMv iv X. THE MOODS. : 440. equiva- lent to a concessive clause. . or even condition or cause. "12s prefixed to a Participle of Cause implies that the is action denoted by the participle supposed. G. 278. godliness is profitable is to come. 1574. iTrayyekiav but iXovcra ^or^s t^s vuv kol t^s iJ.170 437. : . is It should be distinguished from the denoting which merely antithetical. Kaarep &v vids. . Acts 17 27. in Christ Jesus. The concessive force is some- times emphasized by prefixing Kaiirep or KaL je to the participle. See 1 Cor. and though they yet asked they found no cause of death in him. : Skoko/lievoi dvep^o/xeSa. The Adverbial Participle of Cause. we give thanks to God . having promise of the life which now is. and of that which See also Matt.aXa. . Gal. usually the subject of the principal verb. 1 : 3. evxapio-Tov/ixcv t<S OetS .pujTiS 'Ifjo-ov. A concessive participle refers to a fact which is unfavorable to the occurrence of the event denoted by the principal verb. Heb. or pro- fessed by some one. ij Se tuo-E^Seta for all things.Tov avaipcO^vai avTov. aKouo-avres tyjv . 2:3. 978. of Pilate that he should be slain. The Adverbial Participle of Concession. 2:3.' 2 Cor. koI iJLri8eiJ. HA. The speaker does not say whether the supposed or alleged cause actually exists. See also Matt. participle Cf. to be the cause of the action of the principal verb. 14 9 Mark 4:31. : 438. 4 12.

20 . and which of you by being anxious can add one cubit unto his stature ? See also Acts 16 16 . Acts 8 27 : . (^as : <oi /xr) ipXo/iivov 8e /xov n-pos ijnas i<t>v<nu>6ri<7a. trepoL Se Siax^^vdi^ovTes tXeyov.e. 27 30 28 : 19 . This usually. but not invariably. Acts 3 26 . as though I were not coming to you. the use of us indicating that the phrase describes the opinion or assertion of the subject of the sentence rather than of the speaker. be: cause they suppose) I . Such phrases in clj^ssical Greek or in the New Testament are. as they stand and without the addition of other words. 1 Cor.e. you punish me as having done evil. as you -allege. See also Acts 23 15. you punish me because. ijXi/ctav : : 444. : .THE ADVBKBIAL PAETICIPLE. am : not coming. 6 27 rts 8e ii vfmv jnepi/ivolv SwaToi Trpoa-Oeivai iirl Trjv avTov Trrjxw eva. 4 sisting of 441. as you punish one who has (or because he has) done evil. equivalent is to a final clause.v Tivcs. : others mocking said. to Jerusalem : worship. 2 KaKoiroi'^aavTa. expressions of cause. 171 4:18. Heb. he sent Mm to 443. you punish me. Yet it is not to be supposed that the Greek any more than the English required the supplying of a finite verb after us. in the Future tense. but some are puffed up. The origin of this idiom is probably in a clause of manner con(Js and a finite verb. This can- not usually be resolved into a clause. i. Acts 2:13. 12. the latter modified by a Participle of Cause. 1 Pet. [os] eXrjXvOa irpoo-Kw^trcDV to eis 'lepovcraXTJii. describing by the verb is done. . who had come bless you. 442. airiarraXev outov evXayavvTa vixaa. The Adverbial in Participle of the manner which the action denoted Manner. I have done evil^ may have its origin in such a sentence as KoXdfeiS /xe ws KoXifeis Tt. Thus KoKiias lie o/s KaKoiroi-^aavra. but See also Luke 19 48. i. The Adverbial Participle of Purpose. Matt. The Adverbial Participle of Means.

so fight I as not heat- ing the air. See Mark 1 22 probable from : above 6 34 : . Sepiov. 445). Mark Luke 22 : 26. scribes. though God were intreating by us. he Yet in neither case is it to be plying of a finite verb after felt as supposed that the Greek. for he taught them as one having authority. the partimay he either an Adjective Participle used substantively or an Adverbial Participle of Manner. the participle being either the subject of tX"" such a verb or an adverbial (or other) limitation of it. or diSda-Kci teaches as one teaches having authority. The phrase as it stood was an expression of manner. any more than the English. . . we are ambassadors therefore on behalf of Christ. <os THE MOODS. as : . ciple itself When w's with the participle is used to express manner. That the participle. its In this case the participle as respects tense a (Present or Aorist) Participle of (cf. however. while as respects its modal function it is a participle of manner or means. 2 Cor. and of. 5 : 20 (see above. in either case. Thus SiSda-Ka oSs i^ov<Tlav is equivalent to Sidda^Kei us e^uv i^ovslav Si. also 1 Cor.Sd<rKei. required the supw's. but that the sometimes adverbial is evident from such cases as 2 Cor. he teaches as one having authority teaches. Identical Action 120. 27. was in some cases still a substantive (Adjective Participle used substantively) seems its being used oorrelatively with an adjective or noun and from the occasional use of the participle with the article.172 445. 2 Cor. outcos TrvKTCuo) ovk aipa. 6 : 9. 9 : 26 . describing is it from a different point of view. 1 : Mark 22 . participle itself is That this is not always the case. and not as <os the 1 Cor. 447. The manner of an action is frequently expressed by with the participle. 10 . The participle expressing manner or means often denotes the same action as that of the principal verb. 446. ijj/ yap SiSdcrKoiv avrovi <is i^ovcriav e)(o>v koI ov\ ois ot ypafifjMTeii. in a clause of manner consisting of us and a finite verb similar to the principal verb. The origin of such expressions is doubtless. 5 20 virkp XpioToC avv Trpecr/Scuomev ms tov Oeov TrapaKoXmivTos &' -q/iutv. us ns diddrxei ^x"'" Hovalav. 1 Pet. 7 : 25 . 139). 2 : 16 .

354 f blessing Heb. In quotations from the Old Testament a participle arises is sometimes placed before a personal form of the same verb. . The action of a Participle of Attendant Circumstance may precede the action . . koI avv avTiS Upia-KiXXa Kal 'AKvXas. a B. Mark and 450. 445 f . and he taught in their synagogues. pp. The idiom from an imitation of the Hebrew construction with the Infinitive Absolute. force of the participle . 4 : 11 . : 448. efcTrXei o 8e naSXos Acts 18 18 : choose men out of their com- . take See also Luke 5:7. 2 Tim. 5 21. Acts 15 22 : koX clvto's eSt'SacTKCv iv Taw (Tvvayuryais juevos iiro irdvTwv.8vr£pois it . and with him Priscilla and A guila . and they went forth preached everytohere. 28. but the logical relation. eKXe^afJLtvovi avSpas i^ avTu>v ets to Avtl6^€Ux. ofi/aXa^wv ay£ /x£Ta creavTov. whom ye slew by hanging him on a 9 22 10 33 1 Tim. hic^apiaaaOe. 313 f. .i^v. Lord working with them and and confirming the ovtSiv. WM. MapKov bring him with thee. . : pp. and multiplying I will multiply thee. . then seemed good to the apostles and the elders pany and send them to Antioch. /cat to1<: Trp£(r. totc eSofc rots aTroo'ToAois TTi/jitj/ai . 6 14 evkoyStv euAoy^cro) ere xat ttXtjOvvidv ttAijAwS I will bless thee. o 6eos tZv Trarepoiv etti rffjilav rjyapev 'ItjcoJc. : See also Acts 1 : . . . 11:7. . and sailed thence for Syria. The Adverbial Participle of Atteudant Circum- stance. WT. THE ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLE. tov Kvpiov crvvepycnivTos Kal tov \6yov the fie^aiorvvTO's. word. Me God of our tree. The 3. . being glorified . . Kp£/*a(ravT£s ^vAou. 449. Paul . The term "attendant" as used above does not define the temporal relation of the participle to the verb. pp. . KUpd/xevoi iv K£vXpEats rrjv Ke<l>aX. Bo^a^o- Luke 4:15. having shorn his head in Cenchreas. £is T-qv 'Svpiav. in general intensive. Acts 5 30 : 173 ov i/ncts . e/cetvot 8e efeX^ovTcs tKi^pv^av iravraxov. . is Hr. ere. of all. fathers raised up Jesus.. Mark 16 : 20 .v.

. Ghost. imperative. cases arise in to which it is impossible to assign the participle unquestionably any one of the above heads.pTvpov(Tr)% T^s crwetSiytrttos iv irvev/juxn ayiio. the two constituting a genitive absolute phrase and expressing any of the adverbial relations enumerated in 435-449. more than one of these relations may be implied by the same participle. But as respects presented merely as an accompaniment of the action of the verb. Indeed. it is THE MOODS. or even follow it.30 . the tense of the participle being determined by the conception of the action as respects its progress. . 18 : 20. cedent to that of the verb. ou /w. ij/ivSoiuu. (119).g. It does not. The Genitive Absolute.ov (Tvviw. hortatory. cause... more frequently the it latter. 1568. I lie not. principal verb. G. The various relations of time. accompany it. The instances of this last-named class are not frequent in the New Testa- ment and 451. Such a participle is usually in the Aorist tense (134). Acts 12 : 18 . being not expressed. optative. 119. 452. Cf.. e. but simply prefixes or adds an associated fact or conception. If the action of the participle is simultaneous with that of the verb. HA. 146. this being in turn governed of course to a certain extent by the order of the events.174 of the principal verb. It is of course in the If the action of the participle is Present tense subsequent to that of the princi- pal verb. define the time or the cause. the participle in such cases becomes in thought assertive. but by the order If the action of the participle is ante- of the writer's thought. Rom. of the sentence. almost invariably follows the verb. 970. 971 . are perhaps due to Aramaic influence. it may either precede or follow the verb. but not invariably. An Adverbial Participle may stand in agreement "with a noun or pronoun in the geni- tive without grammatical dependence upon any other part of the sentence. manner. 9:1. /xoi aXri$€Uiv \iyu) iv XpicrTco. See also John 8 . It is thus often equivalent to a coordinate verb logical relation. according to the function of the The position of the Participle of Attendant Circumstance with referis ence to the verb not determined by any fixed rules. the participle most commonly precedes the verb. etc. or the means of the action of the principal verb. with Kal. my conscience bearing witness : I say the truth in with me in the Holy Christ. Eem. Though grammatically not an independent element etc. but occasionally in the Present (127). but implied by the participle.

Matt. (7. ottws <f>a. pronoun. when the person or thing referred to is easily perceived from the context. i. THE SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. to fast. that they their fasting. : 455. however. 1:18. 1 18 Acts 22 17. is to may be seen of men . d. which its is between the the noun. 427. participle in the genitive absolute occasionally stands alone without an accompanying noun or. See Luke 12 36 Eom. pp. 6 : 16 . : A . and the genitive phrase may even refer to the subject of the sentence. 848.v!!>(nv tois avOpdiyiroK vrjcrTevovTCi. The Substantive Participle is employed as itself the name of an action. this principle is violated. : . Luke 5:4. but be seen. which HA. The integral part of it the subject of a verb. (Not only they. G. HA. they ceased not teaching ovk iiravovro SiSao-KOvres kcu evayyeXtJo/i. 456. 980is more commonly discharged by the Infinitive. and other examples in 972.) Acts 5 : 42 'lrj<Tovv. 457. The noun or pronoun of the genitive absolute phrase regularly mentioned in the sentence. . 315 f . Occasionally. Mark'Ot Tov -xpKTTov and preaching Jesus as the Christ. See also Matt.MT. 1568 G. .e. 972. a. See Matt. ytvo/iti/ai . THE SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. exoucra. XaAuv. : 454. HA. refers to a person or thing not otherwise 175 453. B. GMT. It thus performs a function. The Adverbial article Participle always stands in the so-called predicative position. Substantive Participle The Substantive Participle as may be used as an Subject. 984. . 9 11. the action which itself denotes being is an essential part of that of which the predicate affirmed. not in attributive position. and noun or after an article following Cf.1578-1593. This irregularity is somewhat more frequent in the New Testament than in classical Greek. 850.

woman's testiwhere a Sub- stantive Participle occurs after a preposition. : : . Matt. 460. of the mony. 8:9. ore eTeXccev 6 'Iijcrovs StaTao-troii/ tois SmSexa /juidrjTaK avTov. Matt. o/ioXoytt IrjiroSv Xpto-Toi' 1 irSv wviv/ia o cV (rapKi tXij- XvOoTa €K TOV fleoB i<TTiv. . 461.iv i^eXrfXvOvtav 8 46 iya> to aw e/iov. have gone out of me. Since. the action denoted by the participle being Luke itself : . when Jesus had finished commanding : his twelve disciples. See also Heb. The Submay be used as an integral part of the This occurs especially after stantive Participle object of a transitive verb. John 4 39 .. verbs of perception. : . certain of these verbs are transitive. 11 : 1 . etc. the re- action denoted by the participle must in these cases be garded as logically the object of the verb.. yap iyvtov 8vvafx. and Jos. Cf. 459.e. itive. The Substantive Pakticiple in Indirect Discourse. that which one perceives. The Substantive Participle as Object. THE MOODS. See also Luke 4 23 Acts 7 12 8 23 3 John 4. 10. cf. . A Substantive Participle forming a part of the object of a verb is sometimes equivalent John 4:2. rJKOva-av ot ^apuraloi tov ox^ov yoyyv^ovTOi. ceasing. the Pharisees heard the multitude murmuring. Ant. 4. to a clause of indirect discourse. eis auTov tw T^s yvvaxKoi papTvpovcnq'Si many of because of the word of the the Sa/iapetTuiv 8ta tov Xoyov Samaritans believed on him woman testifying. 176 458. every spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God. . With verbs ho-wever. 2. the Substantive Participle agrees grammatically with the subject of the verb. 13 : 53 . of finishing. i. The Substantive Participle as a The Substantive Participle may iroWot trntTTevcrav Iiimiting G-enbe used as an integral part of a genitive limiting phrase. see also Luke 7 45. for I per- ceived power John 7 32 : .

s. Earn. u. always stands in the so-called predicative position. 177 The Substantive Participle.. The latter designates the doer of itself.THE SUBSTANTIVE PARTICIPLE. like the Adverbial PartiCf. 455." Stevens. The Substantive Participle must be carefully distin- guished from the Adjective Participle used substantively. the former the See action "In the one 419. 463. 1. is an action. in the other. ciple. the verbal force. it is the adjective force of the word which substantivized. . 462. and 427.

cis to. pp. ovKeri. state- ments which are not restricted to said respecting the New /x^ Testament usage are to be understood as referring to both. and f"?T£. The Indicative its in an independent declaratory sentence regularly takes oi as negative. In the use of the simple negatives oiSt. The fol- lowing sections exhibit the essential features of New Testar ment usage in comparison with that of classical writers. ouSet's. New Testament Greek conforms in the main to classical usage. I. see ments of /Hi} on oi in later Greek. etc. G. John 1 : 11 . compounds. yet exhibits several important variations. 178 Cfild. On the use of negatives in later What is applies in when standing NEGATIVES WITH THE INDIOATIVE. 1020 iStot . their fjiTjKeTi.. ovre. 1608. jlhjSc. in A. iSia rjXOev. as also of the double negatives oi /A17 and /n^ oi. ' Encroach- . and they that were his own Eem.-qhf. 45 ff. 464. P.THE USE OF NEGATIVES WITH VERBS. ii.J. 465. koI 01 HA. simple negatives oi and general also to their respective compounds alone. avrbv ov vapeXa/SoVf he received him not: came unto his own. rarer and more delicate classical usages which have no analogies in New Testament usage are not mentioned classical or . oi and /ii..

469. and in conditional its relative clauses. G. 1610. ov Each negative has.r] dKowrrj irpcoTov Trap' avTov. In the clauses New Testament. In questions that can be answered affirmatively or negatively. 1021 fjirj. making the verb negative. HA. 55 . and /x. 1015 . 19. HA. however. In classical Greek. 467. is Matt. . p. a Prohibitory Future takes ovk itnadi (as ou. HA. press a prohibition sometimes has sometimes firj. 11 : 22. Ill classical 179 Greek. But this sometimes occurs in conditions of the In case ov negatives the verb of the clause or other single element rather than the supposition as such. In the New Testament kou. conditional clauses of the second class (248) are regularly negatived by In other conditional the Indicative p. t€ktovo'. Matt. 13 : ou^ ovTOi ecmv 6 Tov f firj not this the car- penter's son John 7:51. vioi. GMT. oi is used with the Indicative to imply that an /aij affirmative answer is expected. usually takes ov as negative.yj oi is state- used in rhetorical questions equivalent to affirmative ments. In Eom. ol vwOKpiTat. to imply that a negative answer is expected. 6:5. 70. 844. 1383. 69. ICf : 18.-^. the Indicative in conditional and conditional relative clauses ov is regularly negatived by first class. 1 Cor. himself f 6 vojuos -^/judv KpCva tov avOpumov iav it p. oTav 7rpo(T£vxri(T0e. 5 . 1603. G. In con- cessive clauses the Indicative takes . firj. the Future Indicative used to exoi. doth our law judge a man.NEGATIVES WITH THE INDICATIVE. 9 : 4. except first hear from 468. and when ye pray. occasionally oi. 466.^ implying that a negative answer is expected to the question thus made negative. ye shall not be as the hypocrites. its own proper force.

et p. Kem.g. 17 8 . Xpicrrov ovk €X^h outos ovk tanv avTov. Kom. though I fear not God nor regard man. save when the Son of man should have arisen from the dead. See also 1 Tim. 6 3 and Tit. 13 ifuv 1 . is usually to he explained as negativing . he could do nothing. Mark 14 21.o-to this avTi^v. 26 24 .rj in tlie sense of except is used as a fixed phrase. yet because widow troubleth me. . not worthy 1 of me. Mark 9:9. 33 . 1 6.). 8:9.rj^Evl a eiSov SnjyqcrmvTai. I will 2 Cor. 180 John 9 : THE USE OF NEGATIVES "WITH VBKBS. : Matt. SiecrTetAaTO auVots //. also Luke 14 26. on the other Yet the evidence does not M clearly establish this distinction to press it in every case is certainly John 4: 3. El p.ov ofios. See also Tit. 3. 470. . d 8i Tis ovBe. of.r] save Jesus only. John 4 4. el. is and he : that does not take his cross and follow 14 33 Luke 18 : : after me. : 5 . he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen. on 'Ii. where /j.. yet an over-refinement. 2 Th. 8ta ye to irape'j^eiv ynot tyjv XW"" Ta. 1383. it if without reference to the ellipsis mood -which would follow the were supplied. wav iri/eC/to o /lij o/JuiXoyei Thv *\7iaovv iK TOV deov oirK ^ffTiv. e.vTrjv eKSiKj. or Jesus Christ ^ ovk IviyivuMTKert kavTov<..v6piimov ivrpeiroixai. 6. koI os ov Xa/xPava tov o'ravpbv avrov Kal aKoXovOei jjLOv.crovs Xptcrros iv know ye not as to your own selves that is in you? unless indeed ye are reprobate. Cf. 1 cl : 9 . See but if any man hath not the Spirit of Christ. avenge her. In Matt. OVK i(TTiv jU.6vov. if : this man were not from God.'qn oBokl/jloC i<TT€. orvSlva etSov ci avrbv 'va 'IrjO'Ovv p. Cf. III. See also Luke 9 : 50 . 24 22. 274. £t /n^ rjv ovto^ Trapa 6cov. oTav o v(os TOV AvOpiawov Ik v€Kpu>v ava(TTy. 471. oi occurs in the protasis of a : conditional sentence of the second class. and 1 John 4 6. . See also Matt. S.^ is used after el. It is possihle that oi in conditional and conditional relative sentences in the New Testament (cf. 1 : : : quite evidently belongs to the verb rather than to the supposition as such. they saw no one el p. he is none of his. the predicate directly G. ovk r/Swaro irotav ov8ev. hand as negativing the supposition as such. 1 : : Tim. 2 Pet. 5 koI tov 6tbv ov kottov <j>o/3(rviJ. 6:3. 11. 10 owLdui : 38 . OS oifK ^(Ttlv ^k tov 6eov oiK dfcoiiei Tifiwu. p-rj Matt. ..

p. 1608. 355. In John 3 : 18 a causal clause has an Indicative with quite exceptional in the New Testament. and in simple relative clauses not expressing purpose or condition. 469. OPTATIVE. 475. ovSc is a syntactical irregularity. 1021 . wpa avrov. 349. After other final particles . . p. Mark 2 24 do they on . 1022 . Gild. : Eem. Cf. unless indeed the relative clause to be taken as conditional. 474. the Indicative is regularly- negatived by : . and in subordinate clauses is except in clauses introduced by . 1 11.ttcus ov voetre on ov irepl aproiv erirov v/uv.tiv3 of the Subjunctive both in principal fi-q. 2 : by ovSi . Rev. AND IMPEEATIVE. oi. because his hour was not yet come. 2. is it Matt. 482. behold. G. : HA. negative is ju^. and B. HA. B. NEGATIVES WITH THE SUBJUIfOTIVE. . 473. ij John 8 20 Koi owSets eTriWev avrov. The nega. In indirect discourse the negative of the direct form is retained. . In 1 John 2 22 a clause of indirect discourse depending on a verb meaning to deny contains a redundant oi. diBiffKovTes a Set is an exception to the general is rule for relative clauses. This but similar instances occur in later Greek. koI ippeOrj avrats tva fir] a^LK-^a-ovcnv tov \6pTov t^s y^s. 1021. u. how do not perceive that I spake not to you concerning bread f : Eem. on ouira ikriXijOa and no man took him . Cf. I'St ti iroioCcrtv Tots (rdfi^ao'iv o ovk tieanv. 1608. 16 that ye 11 . In clauses introduced by Indicative takes ov as its its furj 181 as a conjunction. OPTATIVE. . 1610. p. 472. 9:4. /ii) /iij. 53. 8 illustrates the rule. AND IMPEKATIVE. HA. is 1. Tit.SUBJUNCTIVE. the negative. The continuatiou of this sentence Col. and it was said unto them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth. 1033 Q.s. In causal clauses. G. why the sabbath day that which is not lawful ? Rem.

1019. G. 6.piiJ. or. In Rom. This rule holds in the exceptions. Gal. no instance of a negatived Optative in a subordinate clause occurs.7]pvvr]T€ rots KapStas harden not your hearts. (text) by the strong negative : oi /ti). In the New Testament. : : 2:5. Rom. HA. from me to glory. lest. With Optative of Wishing /jltj is used as in classical Greek. with the Subjunctive see 487. 1610. yb)' / fear. HA. iJ.vrj(TriTi ttSs tC] avoXoyija-rja-de. when I come. 476. G. according to other mss. In Matt. 1022 . 6 HA. 1021. 1610. v/xlov. New {tj Testament with very rare Luke 12 11 foj how or what ye : . 1 Cor. i/xol Se yivoiro Kavxaffdax. Mark 11 14 Rom. jjiij ayairSiixtv Xoyw. classical fi-q Greek. . Rem.e. 479. 481. p-r) : 1020 . tut far he . /uf. 477. 3 : John 18 . See also Acts 20 16. 4:7. followed by WH. 12 : /joj . I should find you not such as I would. 2 Cor. 478. In these the negative is ov. G. crKX. be not anxious shall answer. In classical Greek. yap ixrj jrws iXOi^v ou^ oiovs fitXo) eup<o Vjiias. 5 9 oi) liSvov limits a verb understood which probably to be taken as a Subjunctive. the Optative in subordinate clauses takes jxri as its negative except in indirect discourse and after ^^'. Heb. 31. 10 15.. G. 20 <^o. no instance of a negatived Potential Optative* occurs.182 THE USE OP NEGATIVES WITH VERBS. 25 9 a Subjunctive after the conjunction : ^i} is negatived by oi (^WH. the conjunction cerning ov ixri lest. HA. 1. 1608. is In .8oC/u. 488. etc. 1610. Con1019. it 14 See also : . 1033 1 . Cf. margin). oi is used with the Potential Optative with the Optative of Wishing. lest by any means. The negative of the Imperative is /i^. let «s not love in word. Rem. the In the New Testament. 3 : 4. See also under 165.

Phil. : : . So also 2 Tim. liivov occurs in John 13 9 : . but these ought have done. /aij New 23 . and this both to the Infinitive itself. 5:10. 22 : k€yovT€<. 8 10 . 13 : 5 . INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPLE. Cf.6vov. 2 18 oi /limv injunction rather than included in a prohibition. it is noticeable that elsewhere Thus /ii] limitations of the Imperative when negatived regularly take juij. 1 : 22. and not undone. 1611. 2 Cor. ff. saying that there is no resurrection. 48 on the use of In the /*?. that they strive not about words. See Eom. etc. Acts 21 13 : : 26 29 : . is When a limitation of an Infinitive or of its subject to be negatived rather than the Infinitive itself. ravra Si cSei iroi^crat KaKtiva to leave the other /ir] irapelvat. 62 . 1024. 7 6 1 Cor. 6 In 1 Pet. but see also Oild. : occurs. : in the case of the adverb least. HA. the Infinitive regularly takes as its negative in all constructions. 4 : 12. : . . Heb. Jas. /i^ dvai avda-Tacriv. 2 14. So. in 1 Cor. NEGATIVES WITH THE INFINITIVE AND PAETICIPLE. with the fornicators of this xiiorld. 480. Luke ye 11 to : 42 . . /u. the negative ov is 1 : 17 . iJi. : limitation of the Infinitive. are excluded from the to indicate that the foUovfing words. The use of o6x rather than /xi) in 1 Pet. [a thing which is} profitable for nothing. clearly. ov fiovov rather it. 1023. Of the apparent exceptions to the rule stated above (478). Phil. some are to he explained as parenthetic non-imperative phrases in the midst of imperative sentences. 481.' 183 479. 27 10 : . elsev^here u. In classical Greek. Kern. with the Infinitive in indirect discourse. . [I meant} not Itliat you should have no company] at all. Eom. 7 11 13 9. sometimes used instead of ix-q.^. G. (465. the Infinitive usually takes ov as its negative in indirect discourse .. after a participle with Imperative of the verb ehaL understood. 481. On the other hand. This principle applies especially : . Testament. perhaps as a fixed phrase. 2:12.) pp.rj In the New Testament at than /xwoi/ occurs regularly with the Infinitive.s. when the phrase as a whole belongs and when it applies rather to some See John 11 16 . 3 3 seems Kdff/Ms. Matt.

(465.) pp. otherwise it ou.e. 1615. Testament.. denying. : only in Gal. Gild. It is perhaps as a fixed phrase.r] XaAetv. 55 In the take /*?. M^ iJi. In classical Greek. in accordance with the John 5 30 ov Svvafjuai iyia woiciv aTr' ijiavTov ovSev. etc. etc. Infinitive after verbs of hindering. usually latter as the negative. The /ai. 1025. an Infinitive which would regularly usually takes ii. in A compound of oi may occur with an oi. the participle takes takes ff. G. / am not persuaded (i. . : . fjirj In the New . G.6vov is found with the Infinitive Acts 19 27. 29 1 Thess.: 26 should be translated. See also Mark 7 12 Luke 20 40 John 3 27. Such a negative . : .s. and with these sayings scarce restrained they the . but occasionally take The . Probably Acts 26. Infinitive. that «« ovOev limits XoyLo-Orjvat. ip29 G. B. unaffected by the 482.184 1 : THK USE OF NEGATIVES WITH VEKBS. 484. HA. or conditional relative clause. if it is equivalent to a conditional. 2 : : 8. /ai. See also under 402. HA.rj take /Aiy. In classical G-reek. Acts 14 18 kcu ravra A. the simple negative is in such a case. : . : / cannot 350. may take without change of meaning. 485. 1034. believe) that any of these things was hidden from him.e'yovT£S fioKis KaTeirava-av Toiis ox^-ovs Tov /joj dvuv avTOK. 4 18. u. oi when it depends on a verb which retained is itself negatived by oi. 483. : HA. cannot be translated into English. participles in all relations oi. multitudes from doing sacrifice unto them. p. Rem. Infinitive depend- ent on a principal verb limited by principle of 488. Acts 4 20 : ov ^vvd/xeOa yap ij/ieis a eiSa/iei/ Kal ^Kovcra/Jiev /j. 1616. for we cannot but speak the things which we saw and heard. 1612. / can of myself do nothing. New Testament.

Acts 17 6 fxij eipovTK 8c auVovis t<Tvpov 'Jda-ova kcu rtvas dScXi^ous em Tovs iroXirdpXo-s. 12 :15 . 1360. John 5 : 23 . See also Matt. not : Matt.iJ. Rem.SUCCESSIVE AND DOUBLE NEGATIVES. make for yourself purses which wax not old. each has its own independent force. AND DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Luke 12 33 wotj^craTe iavroli PaXXdvna firi jraXaiov/jLtva. not the Son honoreth. 4 8. Concerning /*). 22 29 Luke Acts 7:5. 13 28 26 22 Gal. the participle fj. it Cor. but even : when . Acts 13 28 yet koI alriav Oavdrov eipWTcs rJT-qaavTo Jl(. HA. 1031. 6 : 42 . 487. 172. When two simple negatives not constituting a double compound negative followed by a simple negative.ri is used with the Subjuncand more rarely with the Future Indicative. is 185 found not only -when the reference is to a matter of fact. 9 : 33 . ouSev ydp lariv KeKaXvp. 66. and not finding them they dragged Jason and certain : . Ik tov crw/uaTos. The same is also true of course when the negatives negative.tav is conditional in force. 5 : 12.rjSeij. : SUOOESSIVE 486.rov they found no cause of death in him. : dvaipcd^vai avTov. negative assertions referring to the future.iXa. The double negative ov p. 1361. he that honoreth the Father.ivov 6 ovk airoKoXvcjiOi^a'iTai. ov irapa. in emphatic Cf. 10 26 : . see 468. toIto ovk icTTW is not therefore not of the body. John 10 12 : . : . G. occur in the same clause. 1 HA. or a occur in successive clauses. See also 1 John 3 : 10 . Q. 22 11 1 eiScc iKci avOpunrov ovk ivScSvfievov evSvfux ydfwv. he saw there a man which had not on a wedding-garment. . oi in questions. Matt. 1032 . 1618. asked they of Pilate that he should be slain. o /M) Tt/iGv tov vlbv ov Tijm tov Trarepa. brethren before the rulers of the city. : . for there 1 is : nothing covered. tive. and though . : . that shall not be revealedi See also John 2 21.

jitT/Sen ixajSiv 6<f)€t\iTe. Q.ri is occasionally used with the Subjunctive or Cf. HA. Kev. Rem. Eem. 489. which tov Oava/rov rot) thrown down. : . 1030 . On Matt. Future Indicative expressing a prohibition. 18t 8 . ov Treivdaovcriv en ovSi Suj/rj(Tov<nv en. neither neither shall the sun strike upon them at all. neither will I in any wise forsake thee. he overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death. Rom. . 2. 488. o wkw ov fiiq aBiKrjdrj Ik ScvTepcni.<i>t6rj coSe XiBoi eti \l$ov os ov fxr) KwraXvOyj shall not be there shall not he left here one stone upon another. 2 : ov /j-tj a. 25 9 see thirst : 475. When a negative or compound negatives is is followed by one or more similar by the double negative ov the effect /jtrj a strengthened negation. 167. oiJ ovk rjv ouSeis ovirw KCi/jievos.^ ttecttj iir auToiis 6 qXt. ouSe ju. 7 16 . owe no man anything. 13 5 : . 67.. Ov ii. 2 that : 11 . 1. 186 Mark 13 : THE USE OP NEGATIVES "WITH VEEBS. : Kev.oi. Luke 23 53 lain. 1619. they shall hunger no more. I will no wise fail thee. where never man had in yet Heb. ov furj ere avSt ovh' ov ixri ere iyKaTakiTro}. any more.

134-138 of identical action. . fact. . 216 followed by Infinitive.. Epistolary. . after simple present and in condition conleptically. . 98 junctive in prohibitions. 132. 13 Aoristic Future. 111 Optative in indirect disImperative in . 413. 37. 47. see 114. SubDependent Moods.. 146 with Xavedvu. . collecInceptive. after future sup- expressing an unattained wish. 86. English Pluperfect. Adjectives of ability. . 110. 147 leaving time-relation undedenoting action in fined. Adverbs. . 163. ticular Infinitive. fitness. etc. 35 . 142-145 as integral part of the object of a verb pf perception. 434-455. for Subjunctive. . 52. 49 used pro. Inceptive. . 41 tive. Adverbial Participle. . 54 with . 249 with &v in past general supposition. finitive in indirect discourse. followed by clause with tva. 59. 110. 271 . etc. 162-164. 184 104-109 Infinitive after verbs signifying to hope. 87 . not time but action conceived of as a simple event. 243 after supposition contrary to . to Sections. . 144. 249 . 87. 135. . distinction between Aorist 53 and Imperfect. . readiness. 189-141 of subsequent action. under Participle. 56. 50 . with less probability. 150.'] 420-433. 263 . 187 . . limited by Participle: Infinitive. Aorist : constant characteristic. trary to fact. 40. Resultative. 52. . Infinitive after prepositions. mo. position more probable. 42. 248 in apodosis of such condition. comprehensive. 151. course. after (implied) future supposition . 48. 250. : . 265 may have two protases. Indefinite. 45 for English Perfect. 148 general simultaneous with that of principal verb. . {The Numbers refer Adjective Participle. Gnomic. past particular suppositions. 46. 54 Eesultative. 113 In. 242. equivalent to relative clause with verb in Indicative or force of Greek Perfect. 133 used of antecedent action. 167 . prohibitions. 260. 67 between Aorist and Perfect. . 39. 26. 38 . . 44 Dramatic. may be omitted. . 62 . Aoristic Perfect. mentary. 376 followed by eis with the ar. 52-54 in defined. Indicative : Historical. 80. 248. 238 force and indirect discourse. . . 315 . . 263 after past general supposition. . 43 .INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 27 English equivalents.Apodosis form of. 35. 149 with the . properly expresses Aoristic Present. see 166. 248. commands and . article. its 268 . under Participle. 376. 259 after present general supposition.

278. . 233 negatives in/ 474. 188 verb INDEX OF SUBJECTS. imafter plied in the protasis. duced by. . Imperative Future. position of. . enumerated. Attendant circumstance expressed Dependent moods. 145. . 67 162-164. Future 284-287 English translation. in concessive protasis. 238 express particular distinctions. : . sense of Final clauses (pure). 67 66 in 242-265 peculiarities of. see 218. 44.English Equivalents of Greek Aorist lations. 437. forms. . : . 199. . 45. 168 . 160-162 by the Impera- Imperfect Indicative. lation to historical grammar. 191-195. 288 Indicative Predictive. 224. . 246. 53. Exhortations. Article with the participle. 198. . 266-277 third person. 180 by Infinitive. in conditional Definite Relative clauses. . . Attributive Participle. 65 with oi jkt). 427. . 1. 239. 475. 1. Rem. . 190 clauses introPresent Participle. negatived by oi fii/j. Commands: expressed by Future Indicative. 204. . Consecutive clauses. 2 211. . scope and reby oi. '354. by participle. 3 term not strictly applicable. . . . 345. 272 . ducing. Rem. : Epistolary Aorjst. 129. 278-288 general such clauses. . 255 . 188 general usage of Concessive clauses. Indicative. . 240 promissory force. 71. . . 254. 276 Deliberative Future. 215. 2. 59 Progressive. 421-428. and tenses. 52. 85. Circumstantial Participle. see Conative tenses Present Indicative. Explanatory relative clauses. 69 negatives in conditional clauses. 273 . 61-64 assertive and or general supposition. . . relative clauses. 334. three-fold function. . see under Participle Causal clauses. 283 various classes. 197-199. . 345 . 238-277 value and significance of these definition. . 60 Conditional sentences. see under clauses. . 68 Gnomic. 295. see 419. For as grammatical terms. 70.: . relative clauses of purpose. oath. English tenses. 279-282 use of moods Form and function distinguished. under Relative clauses introduced by final par11 . . 180. 166. Deliberative Subjunctive. 278 particles introparticles in detail. Complete and completed. clauses. 189 usage of several definition. with el Hebraism -with the force of by an Relative clauses. by /xi). Aoristic. Direct Quotations. 1. 3. 479. cf. Rem. 241 six classes. . 23 Final Particles. 319. with el expressing an . 119. 205. Deliberative. 335 introduced by Sti. 167 by Imperative. ticles. 488 indirectly quoted. . classification. . Relative clauses. 228-232 other Dramatic Aorist. 364 negatived tive. frequent in Nevr Testament. methods of expressing causal re. 72 in final clauses and Relative sentences. may be omitted. . 419. 58-66 participle equivalent to. Rem. expressed by the Subjunctive. 449. . . 234-236 also Result. by Subjunctive. 478 apparently negatived Exegetical grammar. 70 periphrastic See also Conditional 469.

. 98. 242. tained wish. 24. 123-126. with 315 &i> in conditional rela- tive clauses. relative clauses . 98 parti43 Future. 16J introduced by oio-tc. Rem. . in clauses of in Historical exegetical grammar.. 299. Infinitive clauses In subordinate clauses in final and clauses introduced by : defining content of action of a previous verb or noun. 237 . tion. relative 189 of desire. 298. Participle. intro- duced by 478. 248. 37 Indicative. etc. complementary 318. . . conditional Historical Present. clauses. 2. 67. in rela. 12 Aorist. relation of. 285 (o) con. 34 distinction . General and particular suppositions expressed. 160. . 237. 479. in indirect discourse relative clause. etc. .: : . 229. INDEX OP SUBJECTS. . Rem. 12 between Imperfect and Aorist. . 69 Perfect. with Future Indicative. Future Perfect Indicative. . 152 . Aorist. . 94. 308 . 261 Hortatory Subjunctive. ciple. action. 224. 56. in clauses of cause. 158. Imperfect Indicative Progressive. sent or hypothesis. 239. in condition contrary to fact. 198. for Present Indicative.. . 348 . 57. Dependent moods. expressing an unat: . in relative clauses. clauses. 152. Genitive absolute. uffre. 357 . clause or Infinitive as subof iyivero. 153. 466. Indicative Hebraisms in the New Testament: El with Future Indicative with force of an emphatic assertion. translated by English Perfect. final particles. periphrastic form. 27 . of verbs of wishing. periphrastic form made 30-32 . 180 in entreaties and conditional petitions. 33 fjL^Wuv and Infinitive. 284. 254-256. Inceptive Aorist. 165. . in qualified assertions. 38 Historical 14 Historical Perfect. 159. 313 &v. 28 translated by English Pluperfect. 23 of repeated 21. Participle : represents action later relatively future. 248. 29.Imperative in commands and exthe hortations. 205. 2. in concessive clauses.. 199. . 272 ject . 240 implied in . to interpreta- Indefinite Aorist. 301. 211. 230 235. clauses. 375 intensive participle. . 157 . . 163. 182. . 248 in apodosis of such condition. 452-454. result. 285 (a) in definite relative clauses. 78. 22 phrastic form made from /iiWeiv. force tive clauses of pui-pose. in relative clauses of pur- . . In principal clauses: . 100. 2. in : to . 35. past general supposition. Gnomic tenses Present. 249 . in conditional relative 294 . 465. duced by 4xP'> 332 negatives Imperative Future. 181 expressing con. 276 in clauses referring . 79. 227 . : . in un- qualified assertions. 35. General Present : Indicative. 215. of origin than other participles. 309. Imperfect of verbs of obligation. 448. in New Testament only in periphrastic form. relation grammar. 41 dependent moods. 308. 98. 293. from . to 236 . 317 in 184. object cessive future. 183 of tenses. Grammar. with 315 . intronegative of. 137. 99 periConative.

205386 as object. prepositions. 394 . 334. introduced by Iws. 210 after verbs of fear and 210 in indirect discourse. 102. etc. two-fold function. uses. classical with with with with with tive. . by 410. . 465464 cle with imperative force. 157-184 finite by simple relatives. .112-114. 378.with the Optative 476. 360 as appositive. 351-356 . 464-489 classical and with it. 202. 360. 387-391. with content of action of a previous participles. course. 465- object. ticiple in. 174. 474 with the Subjunctive. 363 negatives used Negatives. 486-489. 341. used with it and their 407-416 force of tense. . 380-382 used ab. 405 governed by prepositions. . Tif expressing cause. 342. various metliods of expressing. 406 various prepo. . 480-484. 340 after exu. §§ 185-360. 326-332 as logical subject of iyivero. : . 475 expressing purpose. . 468 jectives and adverbs. 110. Interpretation. 486. as subject. introduced Latin tenses. TOV after nouns.258. SXTBJECTS. 339. 349 cipal clauses.. . limiting nouns. : . 362. par- 401-403 with toO as subject or object. INDEX OF in relative clauses etc. 400 399 with usage. 357Negatives with Indicative. . . . 390 . 350. New ToO after verbs that take the geni- Testament usage. 357. 473. 383. moods in subordinate clauses. 379 after 489. : negatives in. 305 104-109. . by Inin. 396 ToO expressing purpose. . 404. 393 as . 343-350 English usage compared with Greek. 390. infrequent in New Testative after Indirect Questions. 190 pose. ment. . 480-484. 395 474. : . expressed by clause introduced by Ua. . . . . . Subjunctive. . 369-372 defining the Infinitive. . 224-227 in indirect disthe tenses in indirect discourse. 354. 334-356 tion. 464. relation of. 477 with 367 as indirect object. conditional clauses sitions in. etc. 3 in prin346 introduced by Ham. dependent moods. 384. . 339-350. to gram- finitive. . Constructions with the article general effect of prefixing the article. 361 classification of Contents. 485 successive and verb or noun. Moods enumeration of. 368 cis. defini- 337 . 377 compound negatives. 375 limiting addouble negatives. 334. . in apposition.Object clauses classification. 2. . 397 Tov expressing result. 368 exthe Imperative. . 390 force of clanger. without article after Optative. in Greek. 366. 347-350. . articular Infini- mar. Indirect object. Intensive Perfect Indicative. 364. conditional relative clauses force. see Infinitive origin and stages of deIndicative. 186 solutely. . after verbs of striving. 200-204 385. how : . 376. 392 as subject. . 478. : . 77 . . . or velopment.: . after verbs of exhorting.. . Infinitive in. irplv or irplv ri.. 365 .. etc. Indirect Discourse. 340. 479 with pressing result. New Testament use in general. . Constructions without the artiwith the Indicative. 398 TOV after adjectives. 217 . . . 174. 460 . . 317-319 .

112. 461 its position. . restrictive attributive partiwith subject omitted. relative clause. . 428 predicate adjective participle. 115. 426 participle conveying subsidiary idea of cause. 75. 20 Immeans denoting same action as perfect. future supposition less probable. 82 used prolepti- periphrastic form. 422 with the article after 423. . 441 of of means. participle. 78. 433 noun without the article. in conditional clauses. . 86. 258 in conditional clauses. . 104. Participle tively. distinction between Perfect and 50 . . 424 . 87. Perfect Indicative: of completed action. Dependent moods denoting completed action. periphrastic form. 34. separated speaking adequate English of . event thought of as of a past from the moment (incapable of translation). 419. . 442 manner exof manner. . 81 . 259 with el expressing an object of . 76 . 476. . 434 436 439 . participle of manner or Periphrastic forms in general. . 200. Participle : of completed action . see Present. 101 . 446 431 Present Indicative. Adverbial Participle : sult. Future Indicative. 107. ciple. or Contents. 437. in indirect discourse. 298. . . 156. . . Future. 420. Adjective Participle: defined. defined. . 430 verbs. : : . 463. . 71.. 443 purpose. Gnomic. . Rem. . 460 as a limiting genitive. direct discourse. general nature. Aorist. conditional. . Substantive Participle defined. 154 periphrastic form. 110. general significance. §§ 119-156. 175-177 Potential. as object. 425 explanatory attribuattributive tive participle. 447 Hebraistic . desire. 84 . . 431 tion. of existing state. . causal with w's. 80. 462 distinction from adjective participle used substan: . 239. 20. Perfect. . 435 . pressed by ols with participle. : ing. 440. grammatical agreement. 88 in indirect discourse. cally. concessive. 452-454 position of adverbial . or existing state. 108 Optative not found in New Testament. 456 as subject. Intensive. 102 . 85 . more than one relation expressed by one participle. 116. that of the verb. . 299. Classification respecting logical force. . 449. 477. 178. Infinitive after prepositions. 485. 429 its posi. etc. Particular and general conditions: Tenses expressed. 74. Aorist. 111 Infinitive in in. 448 participle of attendant circumstance. 103 . Negatives with Optative. 240 implied in 118 use of each tense in detail. 179. probable.. 155 for a Pluperfect. 455. neuter participle for abstract noun. temporal.450. forming periphrastic . : . : . future supposition more use of the participle with intensive force. Intensive. 457 458-460 in indirect discourse. 76. In principal clauses of wishing. . 445. 79 Aoristic. 276.. 444 . INDEX OF SUBJECTS. In subordinate clauses in object clauses after verb of exhort: 191 . 418 Negatives with participle. 432. 105. Historical. 438 causal. or existing re: possible explanations of participle in the predicate. 77 . 451 genitive absolute.

Prohibitory 166. 90. 97 Perfect Subjunctive and ImFuture Participle. 103 Progressive tenses 153 Perfect Participle. 155. General or Gnomic. 242. conditional relative clauses. 11 . Predicative Participle. INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 328. : Progressive. 242iJKU). 110-112. 10.Prohibitory Future Indicative. 309. pres- fact. : . 8-11 . 65. . Indicative Present. 12 Aoristic. 278 participle equivalent to pro. perfect. used for Future. General. : : . 436. 91 in in.. 179 . in simple present and forms. . 277. 104. and referring to the present. . Subjunctive. 264 in past general supposition. Indicative most constant char. 166. 4. course. . direct discourse for Perfect. 198 . 197-199 by relative clause. Plu. Participle : Present. see 127-131. Perfect Indicative. . Dependent moods Present. Primary and Secondary tenses. 184. . 267 two protases with one apodosis. 21-23 of existing state. 247 . 256. present general cessive clauses. 91 Future Perfect. 12-3-126. used only in Aorist. 263. 270 equivalent to an oath. acteristic of. 67. after fws . . prepositions. 250-258. 84 . . . 261 . phrastic form. in future supposition less probable. . : of simultaneous of identical action. joined to an 265 apodosis of a different form. 58. of past Promissory Future. Trdpei/u. future supposition. 238 force and direct discourse. 60. 131. ImPluperfect Indicative of completed Future. 127 Conative. 13 Historical. expressed by Aorist Subjunctive or Present (rarely under Participle. 92 periphrastic form. 317 by Infinitive . past particular supposition. referring to the future. Subjunctive. . 248 . 260-262. concessive protases. . etc. 167. . expressed by clause introduced by iva. action. an appositive clause. Purpose. 272 its verb omitted. 96 . 273 containing an apodosis. 89 perfect. . 284 in . 2. 163 . supposition. . Rem. 178. 97 tive . in conditional clauses. in . . 164. 119-122. . 106-109 Opta- . 313 tws . 269 omitted. negatives vrith. 8. 9 Conative. force of tense. 213. Participle action. 130 . 14 . Dependent moods. 19 periphrastic form of. 476. still in progress. Present by Present Imperative. present particular supposition. 94 Present Infinitive and Imperative. in supposition contrary to Eem. 129 of action for the Future. 268 substitutes for. 167 . 326 . 192 72 . : 120-122.. . and Infinitive in indirect dis- tasis. 96. for the Imperfect. perative. more probable. 162-164. 301. Aorist) Imperative. . 429-432. 119 . peri- Infinitive after . 17 in in. 11 .: : . 15 . 163 by Aorist Predictive Future. . . 20 in pure final clauses. 437. 162-164. 10 action still in progress. Prohibitions. in future supposition ent particular supposition. and after . future supposition.Protasis defined. present in congeneral supposition. 165. 276 after expressions of wonder has the force of 6ti clause. . Potential Optative: force of. 348. 259 in present general supposition.

. 193 of. conditional in form but definite In subordinate clauses in pure in thought. : methods of expressing. 169 negatives with. with el. in subject. 42. ular Infinitive with els. . 161 Prohibitory. . : . . 474.oS. In- Result : several conceptions 370 370((i). 65.. referring to a past fact. . 323. 168-171. or concession. 371((i) by finitive with <Js. 167. defined. 369. also Indirect Questions. See : . . 218-220. 253 . 224 (implied). 219. 295 conditional in with 40fs or Sevpo pre160. 295. 292 use of moods and Shall and will in translating the tenses. 411 in289. troduced by relative pronouns and Resultative Aorist.: . 316 introduced by final clauses. and referring to the future. etc. fixed. 370 (c). of desire. 172. introduced by Sus. 366 . without the finitive with article. . 329. explanatory. 250 after el in conditional duced by vph. 173. 211-214 in 333. 321predicate. 371 (a) (6). 87. 171 in ticular or general supposition. 372 by Inwith ToC. . by . future supposiS. 322. . 467. after BiXu. Relative clauses introduced by etc. 328 introduced by fws fear and clanger (expressed). 225. 370 (d). 317-319.. pose. Deliberative. 296 imply parwith 8i\ei. 289. 252. 236. . 200. 330 introduced by introditional clauses. : . 409 . by articular Infinitive with els. '?«s. .s etc. 369. Relative clauses expressing puretc. 326 in object clauses after verbs of 327 . 333.xpt. of cause. . . 290. . . 162-164. prefixed. etc. and appositive clauses introduced by tva. 332 tion. complementary and epexegetic clauses introduced by iva. 35. . 397 by articular Infinitive after els. 371 (c) by 291 distinction between definite Infinitive with toC. 316. adverbs. 37. 161 form. . 235. . changed to Opta- . words meaning until. 398 by articand indefinite relative clauses. referring to a contemporaneous event. : . INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 289a<rre. 215325. 326 referring to what was in in clauses of conceived repast time a future contingency. 371 actual result expressed by <S<rre with Infinitive 414. 470. tended result (purpose). Restrictive Relative clauses. . 218. negative assertions referring to 299 six classes. future supposition. Definite Relative clauses in371 (d!). 411 conceived result expressed by clause introduced by tva. after vpis. 298. S-xpi. 324. 293 may imply relation Greek Future. after iiv in c6nov or Im Stov.. 203. expressing an object 469. Negatives in relative clauses. 468. Infinitive . . . Subjunctive 294 classified as restrictive and In principal clauses Hortatory. 370 (a) (6). result. cf 222 by Infinitive usually with Relative clauses classification. 217 sult introduced by tva. (Jfo-re. clauses. or Indicative. 300-315 clauses the future. . Questions various classes of. . 205-207. 290. in clauses after verbs of striving. . Conditional Relative sentences 166. in object 197 clauses after verbs of exhorting. 209. 331. .. 276 . : .

Rem. Indicative . In Dependent Moods: general use of each tense in detail. 260 in concessive clauses referring to the future. 110-114. see 257 . . 65. 182.. 194 tive in indirect INDEX OP SUBJECTS. 118 . 436. 475. interchange apparent. 298. Wishes: expressed by Optative. present general supposition. 322-325 oC or las 6Vou. 27. . 27. Aorist. 1751'77 by the Future Indicative. 456-463. in condi- tional relative clauses. use of each tense in detail. 104significance. . Rem. . 285 (6) in conditional . . Tenses: enumeration of. denote time relative to that of 5 speaking. dicative. . 428. 183 expressed by a participle. 5 15. 305. 7 8-94 (see Present. of. 296. 299 expressed by an Imperative. discourse. 312 Mood: general two-fold function. 303. 6 . 1. Rem. Supplementary Participle. In significance. clauses. 258 after Hv in conditional clauses. 187. etc. under Participle. detail (see Present. chief function. . future supposi- tion (with &v or Hv). 240. of the Infinitive in indirect discourse. after las [ilv]. present general supposition (with S. 7 apparent exceptions. retained in (without iv). . .). Subordinate clauses classified. Will and shall in translating the Greek Future. in complementary relative . 290. Imperfect. 331 after 333. 297 general. Rem. Negatives with Subiunctive. expressed by the Imperfect or Aorist In- in . 307 .v). Substantive Participle. Aorist. 95 . 186. 109 . M^XP'i etc. . 96-114 tenses of the Infinitive after prepositions. 330 . Im after irplv. indirect discourse. . 304. not real. .. particular and 289. tion of. 4 primary and secondary. 318. use of each tense and general. 4 two-fold func. . Perfect). 5. 2 unattainable. see 419. . relative clauses. Of the Participle : : general sig- Suppositions particular distinction between nificance. Future. implied in relative clause. 319 after 4x/)i. . . 239.

357- 360.. Matthew Aevpo or devre prefixed to Hortatory Subjunctive. ent obligation. 385. 228. AoKet with Infinitive as subject. 316 . 32. [The Numbers refer to Sections. 'E(3owM/ii)j' without S. 47. prefixed to Subjunctive. in indirect discourse with Sub'Eyvuv with force of Perfect. concessive. with Future Insupposition. 'Edv: Conditional: with Present Indicative in present particular supposition. 312 relative clauses introduced by Iws. 279-281. 285 (6).315. 280. 406. 33) with Future Indicative in future supposition. 282. 161. Rem. in : . 303 implying present general supposition. . . Ai6ti as a causal particle. 309. 248 omitted in such apodosis. 171. in conditional clauses. Sxojs in final clauses. 'ATT^Savoi' with force of Perfect. 178. 33. 287 conditional. 304.v. construction after. With Subjunctive : in condi- tional relative clauses. 305 omitted when Subjunctive is "ESei with Infinitive denoting pres- changed to Optative. 322 after &xph 332 . inapodosis of condition contrary to fact. 26 in past general supposition.] 'Axoiw. junctive retained unchanged. . and Htpere prefixed to Hortatory Subjunctive. In definite relative clauses conditional in form. Rem. Aoristic Perfect in (Mark ?) only. 179. 249. Aid with t6 and the Infinitive. tomary past T4yova. after . Deliberative •Ap: "Axpi. With Potential Optative. . 108. Present with force of Per. 30 (cf. 331. implying 247 in . . 260 in condi.v. Kal. with Subjunctive in future supposition. 250 in present general supposition. 32. 16."A0es feet. 31. 285 (&). 344. 407. future supposition. With Concessive. 250. 406-408. 195 .: and the Infinitive. cases in which it is not to be regarded as having been omitted. . INDEX OF GREEK WORDS. 308 with Present Indicative in future supposition. 312. Boi)Xe<rSe Witli Indicative: with Imperfect and Aorist to denote a cusaction. 'AvtI with ToO 1. 372. dicative future 254 . 279. . 88. 'Eiv Infinitive. e. 332. 161. . for Hv tional relative clauses for S. 195 with present or Conditional past tense of the Indicative. retained 'Ey^KTo Si. 47.

107. . . 471. in epexegetic . . with a past tense of the 261 Indicative in condition contrary to fact. 279-281 present or past tense of the Inlowed by o5 or Stov with toS dicative. ''Evemv with toO and the Infinitive. . 374 after irplv.. 'E/teWoK with the Infinitive. 197ing except. ^ttciStJ. "H. 27. 33. 288 conditional. 103. 88. etc.. in pure final clauses. followed by indirect deliberative questions. 259 junctive. . cate. 279. 228. . 326. 20. 406. 329 indirect discourse. 324. 325 introducing a clause 276 referring to a past fact. . 333. 322. 109. . 381. troducing a clause referring to a with a contemporaneous event. 406. 415. . 215-217 in . 196 INDEX OF GREEK "WOEDS. 258 with the Optative in future supposition troducing a clause referring to with Subwhat was in past time a future conless probable. 'HffeXoy without &P. 171. Rix^f-V without Sv. 326. 286. 2. . 274. as causal particles. 1. prediEi/i( used in the formation of periphrastic verb-forms. and appositive clauses. 191. Ei S4 and 275. 340. 243 with Present Indicative in future supposition. 223 WBe in unattainable wishes. and the Infinitive. 88."EdpaKa as Aoristic Perfect. . 47. 252. 71. 282. course for Hv with Subjunctive "E«s force as a relative adverb. "H/cQ). 34. 'Ey with Tif and the Infinitive. 248 with Future Indicative in supposition referring to present intention. 272 . etc. 327 of wonder with nearly the force inof Stc. 73. Wi with t4 simple present or past particular supposition. ei di ii. 206 in subject. with Present Indicative in present general supposition. 329 how transdicative expressing an object of lated when followed by the Subdesire. 256. . 228. 346 . 97. 407. 221. Interrogative. 253 with the Optative in indirect dis. "Eo'x'jKa as Aoristic Perfect. . 321 introducing a clause referring to or el with the Indicative of the the future. complementary clauses. in future : . 409-413. in indirect questions. 88. Ei Kal concessive. 328 folConcessive. W\T](pa as Aoristic Perfect. 84. 200-203 in object clauses after verbs of striving. e^Xci! and ffiXere prefixed to Deliberative Subjunctive. 205. 285. 91. 211iiii . Ef/)i)Ka 214 as Aoristic Perfect. .. . . Infinitive after. 242. . 254.fye used elliptically. etc. E0' ((5 as a causal particle. 284 with Future Indicand the Infinitive. 318. 'Ef^ffTT)!' with force of Perfect. 406.. of exhorting. Kern. or Future Intingency. by relative oath.'iva New Testament usage. 407. : Ei without dependent verb. mean. 277. iiretS'^irep 'Eirei. and . supposition. Optative. force of Present tense. 281. .. 16. . 255 with Future . . 407. 431. 323. after expressions junctive. 88. Indicative with the force of an "Exw. 406. 246 with Future Indicative in future supposition. 199 in object clauses after verbs Rem. 155. with the Subjunctive clause of similar force. 407. 33. Eem. ative. 280.

; :


clauses of conceived result, 218, 219 ; not used to express actual


Mt) yivoiTo, 177.




post-classical usage

oi, in questions, 468 after verbs of hindering, etc., 484.

in general, 223.


as an interrogative, 349.

Kal ye with concessive




Koi Hv, concessive, 279, 281, 285
(6); conditional, 282. Koi h/ivero, construction after, 357-

199 of exhorting, 200-202 in object clauses after verbs of striving, etc.,
; ;

Testament usage, 192, in pure final clauses, 197, in object clauses after verbs


205, 207.


concessive, 279, conditional, 282.

288; "Oti as a causal
339 (a), 343

particle, 228. "Oti introducing indirect quotation,





redundant before a


direct quotation, 345.

K^Kpayev, functionally a Present, 78. AavSdvu, participle with, 147.

Oi and





New Testament

usage in general,
in inde-


fiiWeiv, etc., with Infinitive,

72, 73, 100, 153.

the Indicative:

Mertt with t6
406, 407.

and the

Infinitive, 105,

M^X/", 331. M^ as a negative, and its compounds classical and New Testament use
in general, 464. "With the Indicative

pendent declaratory sentences, 465 with Imperative Future, 466 in questions expecting an affirmative answer, 467 in conditional,
; ;

conditional relative, and concessive clauses, 469, 470 ; after ;onJ
as a conjunction, 472

in ques-

in indirect

tions expecting a negative answer,





467, 468 in conditional and conditional relative clauses, 469 ; in

simple relative clauses, 474. With the Subjunctive after
as a conjunction, 475.

causal and relative clauses, 474,

Rem. 1, 2. With the

Subjunctive, 475, 162,
of Wishing,





perative, 479.


limitations of the Infini;

With the Optative





of oi with depending on a verb 482.
vrith Pre;

With the Imperative, 478, 163. With the Infinitive, 480; redundant
after verbs of hindering,
etc., 402, 483, 484.




participles, 485.

emphatic negative


participles, 485.

M?J as a final particle ment uses, 193 ; in



with the Imperative Future, 67, Rem. 2, 488; with the Prohibitory Subjunctive, 167, 488 with the Sub;

dictive Future, 66, 487

in object clauses 199 after verbs of striving, 206, 209 in object clauses after verbs of fear and danger, 224-227.

tive, 489.




172, 173, 487

after another nega-



'1vdpx<a used in the formation of periphrastic verb-forms, 20.

'O0cXo» in expression of wishes, 27,


1, 2.

ndpei/u, force of Present tense, 16.
ne7r((7TeuKo as Intensive Perfect, 77.

as Aoristic Perfect, 88.

n^TToiSo as Intensive Perfect, 77.

n^irpaKev as Aoristio Perfect, 88.

as a final with the Infinitive denoting purpose, 372 with a causal participle, 440, 441 with the participle expressing manner,

New Testament usage

particle, 194



with a finite mood, 333 with the Infinitive, 380-382. IIp6 with ToO and the Infinitive, lOQ,

445, 446.

406, 407.

with TO and the

Infinitive, 107,

406, 407, 414. Sufi/iETOi, force of tense, 125.
T6, ToS, TV, Infinitive with, 392-417.

denoting result with IndicaInfinitive, 234, 235 with Indicative, 236, 370 (a), 371 (o) introducing principal verb, any mood, 237 with Infinitive denoting result, 369-371 with the Infinitive denoting purpose, 367.








[The numbers refer to sections. Passages referred to in Remarks are cited by the number of the section to which the Semark is appended.]


New Testament








. 10 31 34 6:25 : : ... 10:40 10:43 10:51 11 11 11 11 : 457 365 322 171 368 446 346 326 165 315 482 346 272 48... 476 : 11 11 11 11 11 11 : : : 19 23 24 : : : 25 27 28 7 210 207 315 310 269 309 14 216. 471 393 349 212 181 371 349 15 296 312 432 34 171 368 296 171 Mark 13 : : 14 16 18 .. 9:22 9:26 9:28 9:31 9:35 10 10 : 11 10:22 : 10 : 32 36 . Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark Mark 6:2 6:9 6 6 6 : .202 INDEX OF PASSAGES KEFEKKED SECTION TO... 65 161 .. 53 141 308 343 204.. : : .. 220 11:31 12 . 6:36 6:45 6:50 6:56 7 : 12 1. . 8 8 8 : 2 : 12 : 14 8:29 8:35 9:6 9:9 9 9 9 : 10 11 12 .'.. 276 176..

34 432 62 316 . . 6:11. 5 5 5 5 : : . . 449 71 5:26 : 35 . . . 7:2 7:4 7:6 7 7 : 73 318. : : : 400 397 400 57 106. : : 6 : 37 42 282 183 161. . 33. . 220 19 : 35 433 43 . . 179. 6 : Ill. [ ^^' ^1^' 3^^' 1 3^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 109. 34 .. : 35 44 49 51 : 3:9.343 360 171 12 6 6 6 : 31 32.. Luke 2-26 2. 6:4 195 37 28 22 15 168 Ill 122 109 55 404. 897 Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke 2 : 27 2 2 2 2 : . 460 371 90 358 457 5:7. 485 . 24 : : . 400 397 . 319 216. 79 Luke 2:6 Luke 2 18 Luke 2 21 Luke 2 22. 203 Luke 1 74 Luke 1 76. 77..INDEX OF PASSAGES BEFEREED SBCTtON TO.26. 405. 3 3 3 : : : 4 4 4 : : : 4 4 4 4 : 16 21 22 10 15 16 22 : : : 23 29 41 5:1. 405 449 295 57 146. . . : 10 16 17 404. 3 10 3: 15 : .

414 284. 14:27 : : : : : 33 34 4 16 26 29 32 3 11 16:24 15 16 15 16 16 16 : : : : 16:4 : . 469 313 376 469 169 323.. 446 433 112. 199 176 371 384 482 112 138 209 400 93. SECTION Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke 11 11 11 11 12 12 : : : : 32 35 37 42 1 231. 472 433 . 329 23 92 179. 428. : 17 17 17 17 17 : 2 : : : 4 5 8 31 1 17:27 : 18 18 : : 18 18 18 18 18 18 : 4 6 7 : : 10 : 25 36 41 : : 19:9 19:15 19: 17 19 40 19 42 : : 384 124 59 405 214 98 181 325 331 308 107.. 242. 384 179 171 46 109 . 343 17 41. . 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 : . . : 10 16 23 13:26 : 28 1 : : : 10 26 31 .. 323. . 27 : : : : : 28 34 40 46 . 97 19:47 19 48 20: 6 20 10 : : 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 : 16 : : : : 20 22 40 41 1 : : 8 : : 22 24 9 11 254 271 34 444 84 198. 71 400 171 : : 318 106 : 15 26.276 431 30 126 303 316 109 199 266. : 16 Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke 16 16 16 17 : 17 : : 18 31 1 .. 469 469 172 366 374. . 232 209 109 480 371 368 105 308 150 308 478 415 346 55 485 309 103 454 405 94 323 17 : : 4 8 12:5 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 : : 8-10 10 11 16 17 : : : : 12:32 : 33 35 36 45 52 59 7 12:34 : 12 12 12 12 13 : : : : : 13:9 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 16 15 : : 271.. . 54 387 45 169. 390 200 200 .6 204 INDEX OP PASSAGES REFEEKED SECTION TO. 261.

INDEX OF PASSAGES EEFEKEED SECTION TO. . 378 38. 348 3:8 3 3 3 : 12 16 18 : : 3:27 4:4 4:34 4:39 4:47 4:49 313 244 236. 114. 371 474 482 30 213 461 16 380 . 205 Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke Luke John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John John 22 22 22: 22: 23 23 23 23: 23: 23: 24: 24: 24: 24: 24 24: 24: 24 24 : : : 49 61 65 67. 183 19 2: 25 : 216. 169 65 121 68 285 84 20 169 245 245 489 403 343 399 30 109 22 435 75. 390 406 157 : 15 19 : 31 35 37 53 16 23 25 26 30 32 36 46 51 : : . 250 216 299 157 106 16 2:4 2 2 2 : : 151 84 182. : 1:1 1 : 11 1 1 1 1 : 12 15 18 26 465 290. 70. . : : : 1 1 1 : : : 1 : 27 33 38 48 16 17 78 88 122.


: 8 9 9 9 : 9:3 : : Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts : 21 22 .. 423 424 119 402 146 11:15 : 109. : 14:27 : : 8:11 8 8 : : 8 8 : 20 22 23 27 31 12 . . 42 368 89 52 41 : Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts 9:34 9:39 10 10 : 13 2 1.89.. 121.INDEX OF PASSAGES REFEKEED SECTION TO. 254.. . 343 123 138 404 139. 179. 121. . : : : : : : 14 14 : 18 19 . : 3 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 : : 17 . 452 276 460 442 178.. 179. 229 343 386 121. 98 350 195 404 17 12 12 12 : : 10 18 20 16 27 13 28 13 32 13 33 13 40 14 9 : 13 13 : . 343 224 74 447 72 230 225.' 389 39 423 424 179. 122. 15:26 : 15 16 16 16 : 28 29 16 18 23 : 449 86.. 242 457 317 86 5:30 5:35 5 5 5 : : : 38 39 42 11 6:3 6 : 7:6 7:7 7 7 : : 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 : 12 18 19 485 308 460 331 398 23. 134. 138 350 217. 141 : : : : : : 26 34 35 36 42 44 52 60 161 82 37. . 447 210 439 360 131 Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 : : : : 10 12 13 14 17 : 20 21 22 24 : : : .415 98 427 452 108 138 137 437. 485 427 141 206.. 10:41 : : : 29 420 146 127 154. 120. . : : : : : 22 23 25 33 35 44 47 3 17 . 122 443 13 : : 145 .. 375 41 37. 209 400 403. . 267 415 146 89 . 483 112. 207 BEOTIOK Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts 4 32 4 34 4 35 4 37 : : : : 112 127 315 127 5:3 5:5 5 5 5 5 : : Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts : : 5 : 14 17 24 26 28 . 366. 447 151. . 23 9 26 9 32 9 33 9 : : : : 108 176.

. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : .. 440 368 404.. = Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts 17 17 : 27 18 2 18 9 18 10 18 14 18 18 18 20 18 23 19 9 19 27 19 32 20 3 20 7 20: 16 20 24 20 32 20 35 20 38 21 1 21 3 21 12 21 13 21 16 21 24 22 4 22 17 22 22 22 24 23 1 23 9 23 10 23 12 23 13 23 15 23 17.. 400 153 258..n9. 481 89.208 INDBX OF PASSAGES EEFEEEED 16 17 17 17 TO. 399. : : : : : 449 452 119 119 100. 18. : 19 .. 437 108 98.. . : . . 374 258. 368.' 390 30 485 Ill 119 17:11 : Acts 17 {l«M78. 248 ..475 194 426 374 72 138 130 404 481 319 199 122 453 32 145 137 271 224 330 146 200.. Acts Acts Acts Acts Acts : 27 3 . 440 388 . : ... SECTION 37. 164 398 153. .. 276. : : 6 13 18 21 16. 23 20 23 26 : : : : : : : : : : ... 348 153.. ..



1 Gal. 10. Col. 1 : Phil. 475 224 469 8.. . : 4 11 224. 284 . 3:1. 5:15 402 245 27 209 Col.. Eph. 1 : 3. 5:17 : Gal. 3 Gal. 2 Cor. 2 Gal. Eph. Phil. . : : : 20 21 5 . 10 18 Phil. 1 : : 23 29 60 409 60 107. 85. 3 Phil. 2:2. : 22 23 429.. . Gal. Col. 1:6 : Gal. Eph. 4 11 46. 1 Gal. 2:7... . 2 : : 28 Phil. 476 . . 177. 12 2 Cor. 1:8. 3 : Gal. 420 . 2 Gal. 11 11 12 12 : : : 16 25 9 14 17 . .. 2 Cor. 413 481 . 5 Gal. 88 88 284 376 78.. 217 394 145 479 Phil. 2:6. . 12:11 : : 2 Cor. . 176. 124. . . 2:14 : Gal. 301 55 : Col.. 2:6. 2 Cor.. 5 Gal. 285 123 486 124 176. 5 : 11 : 12 Gal. 4 Gal. 144 155. . : 20 3 4 7 . . Gal. 1 : PhU. 4 Gal. 80. 4 Gal.. 211 SECTION 2 Cor. 3 Gal.INDEX OP PASSAGES EBPEEEED SUCTION TO. 2 Gal. Eph. : . 281. . Gal. 88 224. . . Eph. 6 14 222 242 206. 4:8 : : Gal. 1:8. 2:2 2:3 : : Gal. 2:4 3 : 4 6 6 6 : 14 18 11 5:4. 1 : 1 1 : : 12 16 17 . Eph. 5 . 5 Gal. 3:8. Eph.. 6:9. . Gal. Phil. 3 10 11. : PhU. 12 : Phil. Gal. 273 39. . 1:9.. 1 : 21 2:5. 4 134. 177. Eph. 125. Gal. 3 Phil. 4 : 19 21 23 120. Gal. 2 Gal. 12 2 Cor. Phil. 1 10 11 : Gal. Eph. 1 Phil. Phil. 4 : Gal. 3 . 2 Gal.. : 4 9 13 17 217. 12 2 Cor. 439 . 4:5. 1 7 . 2 Phil. Phil. Eph. 6:6. Phil. 13 Gal.. 293 . 4:8. Gal. . Phil. . : 16 Phil. Col. 4 : 15 17 18 384. : : : 17 22 139 409 203 200 39 203 155 32 414 295 44 1:6. 34. 5:2 : Gal. 2 12 17 . 2 Cor. 136. Gal. Gal. Gal. 1 Gal. 18 6:1. 276 364 425 . 424 274 285 248 13 274 432 127 227 438 199 385 236 343 242 243 387 411 332 176 406 293 485 227 249 198 481 33 250 379 11 Eph. 6:13 : Gal. 5 Gal. .. . 284 44 96 425 397 253. 1 : 19 : Gal. : 21 17 3:2 : : Gal. : 278..



Rev. 2 John 6 2 John 8 2 John 10 213 206. Rev. Rev. Rev. Rev. Rev. Rev. 460 3 John 4 3 John 6 141 Jude 17 Rev.214 INDEX OF PASSAGES EEFEREED SECTION TO. Rev. Rev. Rev. Rev. Rev. 422 1:3 1 : 423 429. Rev. 209 256 213.5:5 : 5:7 7:3 7 7 : : 14 16 205 293 27 232 308 376 371 88 164. 431 18 11 2:5 2 2 : : 25 3:2 3:3 3:9 3 : 275 487 332 28 88 11 3 3 : 15 16 : 4:9 4 11 . Rev. Rev. Rev. 331 80 487 . Rev.

. . Heb. . 42 . Pet. 10 : 2. . 15 Mace. 52 Ps. . 1:1 2 : . Polye. 2 1 1 : 40 . . Sol. 4 3. 3 1 . 23 Ev. (J9e6. 88 1 1 MacG.102 16) : . 31 . 55 : 13. . 27 : : . : . 2:17 . : 18. 6:9 : . 401 375 20. Isa. 4. 404 47 177 .: . . . 4 Isa. 88 37 f. 401. . 17 404 398 167 65 6 : 14 1 . Ev. . . Sol. . : 217 461 . Jos. Ps. 406 . . III. 8 Mart. 15. Mart. 1 Esdr. 28 . Ant. . . 10 Mace. Mai. 3 13 Dan. Dan. . Pseudepigrapha. INDEX OF PASSAGES EEFEEEED SECTION TO. Apocrypha. . 3 24 Dan. 12 22 I . Etc. . . : 145 145 145 146 55 Isa. 2 26. Sol. 55 : LXX. 2 : 19 . Sol. 415 415 375. 27 Dan. Ps. . Polye. 101 Eccl.27 . Ps.13 Mace. 2 . 122 Ps. Sol. Ps. 215 8SGTI0N 78 Ps. 3 26. 10. (lxx. .n. 77 18) 376 : Jer. . 1:3. . Pet. : . 2 : 29 39. .

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