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25.05.

20052003-12-10

What do we face in the design?

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Existing Tanker Fleet

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World Oil Movements

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Oil Tanker Categories

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Principal Dimensions of Tankers I

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Principal Dimensions of Tankers II

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Principal Dimension Considerations

Breadth Limitations (Panama Canal) Draft Limitations (Trade Route)


Suez Canal Malacca Straits

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A new type of VLCC is Born MALACCA-MAX T=20.5m Cargo same as a large VLCC

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Double vs Single Hull Tankers


We have come a long way !

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Double vs Single Hull Tankers

Increased Strength Requirements Increased Stability Requirements Increased Cargo Temperature Increased Ballast Surface

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Structural Design Considerations

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Structural Design Considerations


Longitudinal Strength (Global Bending/Shear) Transverse Strength (Primary Support
Members)

Buckling (In combination with above) Fatigue (Long Term Effect) Ultimate Strength (Extreme Load/Plasticity)

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Longitudinal Strength (Beam Model)


Minimum Section Modulus (IACS
Requirement)

Static and Wave induced Bending and Shear Sagging and Hogging Sagging dominates in Full Load Hogging dominates in Ballast Load

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Transverse Strength (Local Loads)

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Typical Midship Section of a VLCC

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More Mid-ship Sections

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How to do it? Cavalry To the Rescue!

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POSEIDON ND Computer Supported Tanker Scantling Assessment


Rule Based Structural Design First Principle Structural Design Support of Plan Approval Procedure Condition Assessment

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Midship Section of a Suezmax Tanker Created by POSEIDON-Plating

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It is not over yet! 2nd Stage of Analysis

FEA

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Model of a Suezmax Tanker without Deck and Shell Plating

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FE Model 319,000 dwt VLCC

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The bad and the ugly: Sloshing and Slamming

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Sloshing Critical for: Ltank>0.1L and/or Btank>0.5B

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Slamming Critical at Low Draft Fwd-High Speed

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Fatigue Assessment Critical Areas

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Fatigue Input (In addition to Stresses) Wave Scatter

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Material Tolerance (S-N curves)

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Detailed Stress Analysis (Zooming)

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In Conclusion of Fatigue 101


Miner Damage Accumulation Model North Atlantic Wave Input Weibull Stress Distribution Proper S-N curves (depend on approach) Satisfy Target Life (>20 years)

BUT
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The Fatigue Doctor: Good Details

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Design Proper Structural Details ! Quiz:Find what is missing below

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LAST BUT NOT LEAST Operational Considerations in Design

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Ship Acoustics

Noise prediction Optimisation of engine foundations Optimisation of structure-borne


noise insulation index

Noise measurements

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Vibrations
Local Vibration Analysis Mast Vibration Analysis Shaft Vibration Analysis Vibration Level Prediction Analysis of coupled
machinery/foundation vibrations

Overall frequencyweighted r.m.s.values from1 to 80 Hz

A Passenger Cabins for instance mm/s mm/s2

Area Classification B CrewAccommo dation for instance mm/s2 mm/s

C W orking Areas for instance mm/s2 mm/s

Values above which adverse comments 143 4 214 6 286 8 are possible Values belowwhich adverse comments 71.5 2 107 3 143 4 are not probable Note: The zone between upper and lower values reflect the shipboard vibration environment commonly experienced and accepted

Vibration measurement

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The Big Enemy: Corrosion!

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Coatings do not last forever!

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Protection of Cargo Oil Tanks


Pitting corrosion caused by
sulphur components in combination with water

Formation of hydrochloric acid Sulphur reducing bacteria Susceptible areas to be


protected by coatings

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Where to Protect?

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Do not Forget : Eco-friendliness

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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