Papaya Cultivation

Booklet No. 56 Fruit Production: FPS- 4

Contents Preface I. Introduction II. Climate III. Soil IV. Varieties V. Propagation VI. Fertilizer Application VII. Irrigation VIII. Thinning of Fruits IX. Plant Protection Measures X. Flowering and Fruiting XII. Maturity XIII. Harvesting XIV. Storage and Ripening XV. Marketing XVI. Intercrops XVII. Uses and Composition XVIII. Extraction of Papain XIXI. Economics of Cultivation Preface Papaya is one of the most nutritious and medicinally important fruits of tropical region. Recently, its industrial value has also increased because of the enzyme "papain" which has a number of industrial uses. Therefore, its cultivation has become highly paying. A farmer can easily generate an income of about Rs. 40,000 from a hectare of papaya plantation either by papain extracting or by marketing ripe fruits. Dr. K. T. Chandy, Agricultural & Environmental Education, I. Introduction Papaya (Carica papaya) belonging to the family Caricaceae was introduced in India in 16th century by the Portugese. It is one of the few plants which produces fruits throughout the year. It owes its popularity to

rich alluvial soils on the banks and deltas of big rivers of India. Acidic soils (below pH 5) are not suitable for the successful cultivation of papaya. Karnataka. it requires less area per tree. it grows well in deep. Texas. California in the USA. provides per hectare income next only to banana and has a high nutritive and medicinal value. easy to cultivate. Peurto Rico. e. It is very sensitive to frost.various simple reasons like. A rich well-drained sandy loam soil is the best for papaya cultivation. comes to fruiting in a year. Moreover it is a cheap fruit available in all seasons. Bihar. In India. It is now grown in all the tropical and sub-tropical countries. each weighing about 1 kg. Climate Papaya requires a warm and humid climate and can be cultivated up to an elevation of about 1000 metres. Pakistan. It can also grow well in the medium black soils of the Deccan-plateau as well as in the laterite soils of the Western Ghats. Varieties . about 17. Like all. in all places to all the people. Hawaii. Papaya is a native of tropical America. Florida. Maharashtra. In our country papaya is chiefly cultivated in Assam.000 hectares of land is under papaya cultivation. Peru.g. Taiwan. strong winds and water stagnation. IV. Gujarat. Regular consumption of papaya can ensure a good supply of vitamin A and C. Dry climate accompanied with little rainfall is favourable to add sweetness to the fruit. other fruit trees. II. which are essential for good health. It grows and fruits well where the summer temperature does not get below 5°C. Andhra Pradesh. Papaya does not thrive well in calcareous and stony soils since they contain little organic matter. Australia. At a time. a tree can yield 100 fruits. Bangladesh and India. Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Soil It can grow in a wide range of soils provided the soil is well drained and aerated. It requires annual rainfall of about 1500 mm. papaya does well even in warm sub-tropical climate. various parts of Central and South Africa. III. High humidity is unfavourable as the fruit quality becomes inferior. Though a tropical plant. It cannot stand high water table and water logging conditions. West Bengal.

6. Plants are dwarf with fruits round or oval in shape with golden yellow skin and orange coloured flesh. It is a good table variety and one of the best varieties for papain extraction. Trees are of medium height bearing fruits low on trunk. It is a prolific bearer. The plant is medium to tall. resulting in wide variation of varieties.A large number of varieties or types are found in papaya due to its propagation by seed and cross-pollinated nature. 5. fruits are ovate in shape. The fruits are oblong and the flesh is thick with good flavour. large in size and skin is yellowish green. through controlled pollination and selection. 1. few varieties true to the type have also been evolved. having good taste and flavour. Washington Washington is one of the oldest variety of papaya in the world. It produces only hermaphrodite and female flowers. It is a dwarf and prolific bearer. However. Honey Dew Honey Dew is best suited for cultivation in northern I India. It can be used for planting in home gardens as well as for commercial purpose. Description of some of the important varieties is given below. medium to large in size and the fruit pulp is sweet with desirable flavour. CO-3 This is a hybrid between CO-2 and Sunrise Solo. The fruit is . 4. 2. No male plants are found. CO-2 This variety was developed by selection from a local variety at Coimbatore. Fruits are elongated with few seeds. 3. This is a popular variety of western India. It is also known as Madhu Bindu due to high percentage of fruit sugar. It bears hermaphrodite and female flowers only (gynodio.ecious). CO-1 It is a selection from the progeny of the variety 'Ranchi'. Coorg Honey Dew It is a chance seedling of Honey Dew variety. The fruit is round to ovate in shape.

Pusa Dwarf Pusa Dwarf is the most suitable variety for high density orcharding. The plant is very vigo. It is suitable for home gardens both as an ornamental tree and for obtaining fruits. 13. flesh thick yellow with purple tinge. red in colour and good for table purpose. It is good for table purpose and has a good keeping quality. The plant is dwarf in stature and bears fruit very low (20-30cm above ground level). Fruits are medium in size and round. 10. Fruit is large.portation and storage. nutrition garden and kitchen garden. less prone to damages during trans. Pusa Nanha This variety has been developed through mutation ~ breeding. 11. Fruits are oval in shape and medium sized. Pusa Majesty Tills is also gynodioecius line.medium sized. 7. It is a dioecious variety and is a heavy yielder. Pusa Nahi . It can be used for vegetable and canning industry. Pusa Delicious This is also a gynodioecious variety. Pusa Giant This is a dioecious variety. 8. sweet in taste and has good keeping quality. The plant is dioecious. It is tolerant to viral diseases and is the best papain yielder. Fruit is medium sized. CO-4 This is a hybrid between CO-! and Washington. Fruits have attractive big size arid are borne at 1 m height from the ground. Suitable for roof gardening. Tolerant to strong winds. 9. It has a good keeping quality. with deep orange colour flesh and has an excellent flavour. 12. Plants are very dwarf bearing fruits at 30 crn above ground level.rous and withstands strong wind and storms. Fruits are oval in shape and medium size. very dwarf and high yielding.

Therefore.one month earlier than other varieties.N. pure seeds should be obtained from a reliable source. 15. They can be stored for months retaining their viability ~ if they are kept in clean and air-tight bottles. Treat the seeds with either Agrosan G. Duration. Due to its cross pollinated nature. The variety produces hermaphrodite and pistillate flowers (female) in a 2:1 ratio. or Thiram @ of Ig/250 g of seeds. The seeds should be rubbed with wood ash and dried before storage. The seed bed should be well raised (about 15 cm above ground level) for effective drainage and of 2 m x 1 m size. 2. The seedbed is immediately watered after sowing of seed. They are now recommended for commercial cultivation. Application of two baskets of silt and one basket each of leaf-mould and farmyard manure (FYM)~ spread equally on the top soil encourages good growth of seedlings. colour and shape. Pant Agriculture University. flesh yellow orange with good keeping quality. It bears fruits at ground level and is suitable for home gardens. The best time for raising papaya seedlings is from middle of June to the end of October. The treated seeds are sown 2-4 cm deep and 5 cm apart~ in rows 15 cm apart. The watering should be given daily except . 14. and bear good quality fruits. 3 These are selections released from G. 1. Plant Papaya-I. pear shaped. 2. Storage of seeds at 10°C is also effective for maintaining seed viability. Propagation Papaya is normally propagated by seeds. The fruit is of excellent quality weighing about 1 kg.Pusa Nahi is an extremely dwarf variety of about 1m height. Selection of seed Select the seeds from plants which are healthy and vigorous. V. Solo Solo is a famous variety of Hawaii islands. Fruits are small.B. Seeds used for raising the seedlings should be fresh as they lose their viability within 45 days. having thick flesh with attractive size. deeply ribbed. Preparation of nursery bed The site selected for seed bed is well dug or ploughed and kept as such for a week or two. the purity of varieties has to be maintained carefully.

Seedlings raised in polythene bags can stand transplanting better than those raised in seed beds.8 m distance. The pits are exposed to the sun and filled back with top soil and two to three baskets of farmyard manur~ @ 3645 kg and bonemeal @ 1.20 cm. FYM and sand in equal proportion. About 250 g seeds are sufficient to raise seedlings for one hectare. a ratio of one male to every 10 female trees. only one seedling is retained. 25 cm apart in a triangular fashion. 6. CO-3. where no male plants are found. only one . 3. Pusa Delicious and Pusa Majesty. Aftercare and transplanting of seedlings Seedlings are ready for transplanting in the main field when they are about 60 days old or have attained a height of 15. should be retained for good pollination. Seeds start germinating within 15-20 days. This practice can be repeated after 4 days~ if necessary. They should be treated with Captan 0. Seedlings should be planted with an earth ball around roots and leaves cut back. After germination. When plants flower. 3 seedlings are planted in each pit. 4. For gynodioecious varieties. ego Coorg Honey Dew.2 % after their emergence in polythene bags and can be trans.36 kg per pit. To obtain high proportion of female trees. In deoecious varieties such as CO-lor CO-2. However. Perforated polythene bags (20 x 15 cm size with 150 gauge thickness) can be used as containers. The filled up pits are marked by small pegs and left over till the planting season.2 % Captan (200 g in 100 litres of water) carried out. Planting The best season for planting papaya is the beginning of monsoon. Four to five seeds are sown in each bag filled with a mixture of sieved soil. planting can be done any time from June to November. well distributed in the field. Raising the seedlings in polythene bags Papaya seedlings are very delicate and care is needed in digging them out and transplanting them.during rains. Solo.planted into the pits by just removing the lower polythene layer. the sex can be identified leaving the healthy appearing female in the pit. 5. To prevent the damping-off of seedlings after emergence drenching the nursery bed with l 0. Land preparation for planting The site selected for planting the seedlings should be well prepared through repeated ploughing and harrowing and finally levelled pits of 1/2 x 1/2 x 1/2 m are dug at 1.

which are very harmful for the plants. The following dose of manures and fertilizers per plant has been recommended to obtain the maximum fruit yield. The ring system of irrigation is better than the bed or basin . it is important to provide it with an adequate amount of fertilizers at frequent intervals. Organic manures (basal dose) (a)Compost-20 kg (b) Cake-l kg. Planting should be done in the evening or in a cloudy day and the field should be watered regularly atleast twice a day until the seedlings are well established. Fertilizer Application Papaya is a heavy feeder fruit crop. Irrigation Papaya responds well to better water management by rapid development of fruit and supply of fruits regularly. VII. (c) Sterrameal or rallies meal 1 kg. Plants should be irrigated soon after manuring. The fertilizer should be put in the irrigation ring and mixed thoroughly with the soil.logging conditions. once in two months commencing from the second month of planting. VI. In order tomaintain a continuous supply of fruits. (c) Potassium 250-500 g. excessive water leads to water. Irrigation may be given once in 8-10 days in winter and 6 days in summer. They should be protected from excessive sunlight and heat by shading. Inorganic fertilizers (top dressing) (a) Nitrogen-200-250 kg. However. 2. since the chances of getting a male tree is too obscure and only hermaphrodite trees serve as pollen source. Application of excess nitrogen. which is a common practice among the farmers should be avoided as it increases vegetative growth and leads to poor fruiting. This dose makes a good balance between vegetative growth and fruiting. It is also necessary to have a balanced C/N (carbon :nitrogen) ratio for proper fruiting. The above fertilizer dose should be applied in six split applications. 1. (b) Phosphorus-200-250 g. Regular irrigation helps in fruit development and induces the tree to bear a number of fruits with larger size.seedling is planted per pit.

Thinning of Fruits Thinning of fruits becomes essential in papaya when several fruits set in a cluster instead of a single fruit at each node. Badly affected plant should be uprooted and burnt. Plant Protection Measures Plant protection includes the disease control. Fruits also shrivel and drop off. A.crowding and their competition for nutrients and fruit drop. Stem is girdled at the base. Waterlogging should be avoided. ii. Spraying of 1 % Bordeaux mixture or any copper oxychloride @ 2 g per litre of water will check further spread of the disease. Roots deteriorate and decay. VIII. Simultaneously the terminal leaves turn yellow. Symptoms: Water soaked lesions appear on the bark just above the ground level. leaving not more than two fruits at each node. Trenches . Control 1. iii. iv. 1. weed control and protection from unfavourable environmental conditions.system as it prevents collar rot disease. Its causal organism is Pythium aphanidermatum. a. and finally drop down. Use well drained field for papaya plantation. may be dug between plant rows during monsoon to avoid j water stagnation in the field. the fungal diseases and the viral diseases are prevalent. Fungal diseases Some of the important fungal diseases are discussed here. . IX. Collar rot or stem rot This is a serious disease that occurs in the nursery as well as main field. pest control. The operation is performed immediately after fruit set and involves thinning or removal of the fruit clusters. This prevents the damages of fruits due to over. Disease control Among the diseases.

2%) at 10 days interval are recommended. resulting in very poor fruiting or no fruiting at all. Root rot Its causal organism is Phytophthora pa/mivora. d. Control: In the nursery the disease can be controlled by: i. How. 2.1 %) at 20 days intervals or Dithane M-45 or Daconil (0. In the initial stage. this disease of the young seedlings in the nursery is caused by Rhizoctonia so/ani and Fusarium spp. spraying of 40 % formaldehyde two weeks before sowing.b. The disease occurs in damp climate of heavy rainfall area where water stagnates in the subsoil. Young infected leaves dry up prematurely and drop down. seed treatment with fungicides like Cap tan and Ceresan. and iv. c. moderate tempera.ever. Necrotic spots are produced on leaves and stems. sljghtly sunken areas. application of 100g CuSO4 and I kg lime along with organic manures in the pits as a basal dose. which results in severe yield reduction.ture and cloudy weather and js a serious disease in south India. Infection at early stage of fruit growth results in mummification and deformation. fruits show spots which first appear as brown superficial discolouratjon of the skin. Disease is favoured by high humidity. Gradually the lesions join together and sparse mycelial growth often appears on the margins of such spots. Powdery mildew Symptoms: White powdery growth appears on both the surfaces of leaves and white stranded patches appear on the fruits. these spots turn into circular.1%) is effective. Anthracnose Symptoms: The disease affects both the leaves and the fruits. Symptoms: The top roots become rotten due to stagnation of water in the subsoil and uptake of nutrients by the fibrous roots is interrupted. The disease is favoured by wet weather conditions. Control: Spraying Sulfex (0. Viral diseases .2 %) or Bavistin (0.2 %) is also effective in checking the disease. sterilization of the nursery beds by burning withdried leaves: iii. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture (5:5 :50) or Blitox (0. Later on. Control: Field spraying of Bavistin or Topsin-M (0. ii.

Leaf petioles bend down and tendril like structures are formed from the leaves. These mjtes suck the sap of the leaves and yellowish spots appear. Mite Mite is a serious pest of papaya in India. papaya mosaic and papaya leaf curl diseases are common.Among the viral disease. The leaves are severely affected and show symptoms of curling. Diseased plants yield little or no crop. Papaya leaf curl Its causal organism is tobacco leaf curl virus. leaf eating beetles and termites. The affected plants become stunted in growth. Spray 1 % groundnut oil to inhibit the vector transmission. ii. Spread of the mites can be prevented by removing the infested leaves and burying them. B. Control: a. a. Uproot and destroy the infected plants at the early stage of disease development. Remove the diseased plants in the mainfield. Collateral hosts of the virus such as tomato. scales. Spraying with 0. All these development ultimately lead to the death of the plant. iii. b. show yellow mottling and distortion of leaves. stem borer. Papaya mosaic This disease is of common occurrence in almost all parts of India. aphids and white-flies. Thoroughly screen the nursery bed for the infected seedlings and rogue them carefully so that others are not affected. they are occasionally attacked and damaged by grasshopper. on the dorsal side of the infested leaves which finally dry up and fall off prematurely. However. iv. crinkling and distortion of leaves accompanied by vein clearing and reduction in leaf size. . defoliation occurs and plant growth is arrested.1 % Malathion or Metasystox at an interval of 10 to 12 days will control the insect vector. mealybugs. Pest control The major pests of papaya includes mites. The disease is transmitted through grafting and by white fly (Bemisea tabaci). 1. fruit flies. The affected plants either do not flower or bear a few fruits only. Transplant only healthy seedlings. tobacco and zinnia should not be grown in the vicinity of papaya plantation. Control i. Several species of aphids act as vector in transmitting the disease. Control i. In advanced stages. ii. iii.

Nematodes The root knot nematode and reniform nematode cause severe damage to papaya. These weeds can be controlled by two hand ' diggings. Weed control The weeds grow luxuriantly in the papaya orchard and exhaust most of the nutrients supplied.025 % Methyl demeton or 0.tional hosts. The leaves become yellowish. Aphids Aphids are known to transmit virus. 4. repeat the spray once after 15 days. Temperature below 10°C retards the process of . They also act as vectors in transmitting the virus.ate. Flowering and Fruiting The papaya starts flowering and fruiting after about 6 months under normal conditions.03 % Dimethoate or 0. b.04 % Monocrotophos should be carried out in papaya plantation. one in the beginning of rainy season and other in JanuaryFebruary every year. Necrotic spots appear on the leaves. Carbofuron) @ 0. They feed on leaves and suck the plant sap. In the main field.06% Dimetho. It produces staminate (male). D. Under high humidity and rainfall. C. maturity and ripening of fruits and to a certain extent the ! growth and setting of fruits. White flies White flies are a common pest of papaya and are destructive/active during dry season. Forate. Control a.4 % Dicofol or 0. Control: Preventive spray of 0.03 % Dimethoate or 0. 3. Preventive spray of 0.6 g per nursery polybag.b. pistillate (female) and . 25 g of Furadan may be applied per plant. If needed. Problems of unfavourable climatic conditions Papaya is very sensitive to frost and low temperature which restricts its cultivation in northern India. They also compete for light. the fruit quality is said to be inferior and the plant becomes susceptible to collar rot disease. X. Spray the plants with 0. 2. Control: In the nursery they can be controlled by spraying granular insecticides (eg. air and water resulting in poor fruiting . They suck the cell sap and are seen clustering between the veins on the ventral surface of the leaves. of papaya.04 % Monocrotophos should be carried out. Weeds should be removed which may act as an addi. wrinkle and curl downwards. which later on turn into blistered patches of green tissues.

when stored at a temperature of 10°C and treated with Apen. Maturity The papaya tree matures and produces its first fruit in 10 to 14 months after transplanting.low in colour and are 3.February. 13 on Plant Structure. a temperature of about 20°C has been found optimum for both ripening and satisfactory storage. flower stalk etc. and booklet No. fruits mature throughout the spring and the summer.I dazole applied in wax . climate and cultural practices.hermaphrodite flowers. Fruits are harvested manually by hand by giving a careful twist. However. it is better to cover the fruits with cloth or paper. yellow in colour and about 2. XIII.8-4. while in hills with cooler climate.4 cm long. To avoid damage of fruits by the birds during ripening. it is easy to distinguish the male.ing yellow should be harvested. taking care of bruising or splitting of skin. The number of fruits harvested per tree in a year varies from 24 to 30. Harvesting and Yield Mature fruits which are still hard and green but turn. For effective pollination. The harvesting period extends over a period of 45 months. The harvested fruits are wrapped in papers or in some other wrapping material for a few days to enhance the ripening of papaya fruits. Fruits allowed to ripen on the tree have better fruit quality. Male flowers are small having 1 to 1. In north India. XIV. Dry climate at the time of ripening is preferable. The post-harvest diseases of papaya are effectively controlled upto 14 days. They have a tubular base. XII. Storage and Ripening Papaya being a highly perishable fruit cannot be stored under room temperature. For more details refer booklet No.5 cm long borne singly or in a group of three in the leaf axils close to the trunk. Once the plant flowers. retaining about ten male plants for a group of about hundred female plants and bee keeping helps in good fruit setting. The fruits are borne on the trunk at the base of the leaves. 34 on Problems of Fruiting. The hermaphrodite flowers are similar to female flowers. while female flowers are large. female and hermaphrodite flowers by their size. cream or yel. fruits are available only from February-May and very little or no fruits mature in cold weather. colour.3m long stalk which hang out from the trunk. but it is generally avoided to prevent the damage caused by birds. In the milder climate like that of south India. When the latex of the fruit becomes watery. fruits mature throughout the year mostly from July. High yield is obtained in the first two years which gradually declines from the third year. the fruit is considered ready for harvesting. depending on soil.

cauliflower. onion. should be grown. green manure crop (JuneSeptember) and potato (November-February). with straw paddings to avoid bruising during transportation. pigeon pea (June-April). depletes the soil of some essential macro and micro nutrients. Inter cropping leguminous crops after non-leguminous crops. maize (June-September). brinjal and okra) should not be grown as intercrops. 2. a suitable crop Irotation is essential. the fruits should be packed in single layers in strong bamboo baskets and wooden crates.formulation.crops reduces this problem. papaya (October. etc. This treatment will ripen the fruits within 24 hours. wheat (NovemberApril). papaya (October-May). the harvested fruits can be stored in a single layer of straw and when turned yellow they can be sent to the market.able in between two rows of papaya plantation.. Intercrops In the first year of planting. green manure crop (June-September). and wheat (November-April). Sugarcane (February-February). in which intercrops can be grown successfully. The most common storage disease of papaya fruits caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides can be controlled by immersing the fruits in hot water (50oC) for 20 minutes. These crops will keep down the growth of weeds and give an extra income to the growers. green gram and black gram should be preferred which not only control the weeds but add nitrogen to the soil. sufficient space is avail. besides increasing the incidence of pests and diseases resulting in poor production of fruits. Growing the same crop year after year. and maize (June-September). green gram (March. Papaya can be artificially rjpened by using growth regulators such as Ethephon 2000 ppm solution having few pellets of sodium hydroxide. XV. Keeping this in view. maize (June-September).June). short duration vegetable crops such as cabbage. Marketing For local consumption. radish. The crops likely to be attacked by virus (eg. For distant markets. Papaya (October-May). 3. Maize (June-September). and shallow rooted ones after deep rooted . Leguminous crops of low height like gram. A few suitable crop rotatIons are: 1. XVII. tomato. For obtaining a good crop of papaya.May). XVI. chillies. Uses and Composition . The crops selected should have no adverse effect on papaya.

d.2 mg/100g 250 mg/100g Table 1: Composition and fruit value of papaya fruit . d.U. It is used in meat industry as tenderizer. Papain is also beneficial for the treatment of stomach ulcers. ice cream flavouring./100g 0. pickles. Several processed products such as papaya jam.trial and medicinal properties of papaya are described below. The composition and food value of ripe papaya fruits are given in table 1.04 mg/100g 40 mg/100g 0.01 % 2020 I. soft-drinks are slowly gaining economic importance in the market. Industrial importance a. f. Papain. papain is used for batjng hides. spleen and digestive tract. Rich source of Vito A and Vito C. Some other indus.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Components Moisture Protein Fat Carbohydrate Calcium Phosphorus Vitamin A Vitamin B2 Vitamin C Micotinic acid Riboflavin Amount 89. In textile industry for reducing shrinkage of certain types of wool and for degumming natural silk. jelly. jelly. Papain (alkaloid obtajned from the milky latex of papaya) is an effective heart stimulant and diuretic. Medicinal value a. Sl. papain is one of the best clarifying agents. 1. e. f. Rich in enzyme papain. a dried powder obtained from the milky latex of immature papaya fruits is of great commercial significance. In tanning industry. diptheria and even cancer.The ripe fresh fruits of papaya are eaten throughout the tropics. Papaya fruits are also used for preparation of jam. crystallised fruits and are canned in syrup. It is used to remove skin blemishes and scars. b. The seeds are also used for their medicinal value. thus being useful in pharmacy for preparing digestive medicines. soft drinks. c.6 % 0. b. which helps in the digestion of proteins.5 % 0. 2. Papain is also used in preparatjon of chewing gum and cosmetics. pickles. papain is effectively used. c. candies.5 % 0. In beer industry for clarifying beer.01 % 0. Unripe fruits are used as vegetables for cooking. The ripe fruit and seed have medicinal properties against disorders of liver.1 % 9. e.

For large scale production.etc. The latex is dried in the sun for a day. Cost of windbreaks Rs. Three more lancings can be made at intervals of three days. Cost of farm building. 4. in the morning. seed and for papain extraction. storage. Cost of fencing Rs. XIXI. Cost of clearjng.rally. 5. For papain extraction. This format is mainly meant for calculating cost of production when papaya is cultivated for fruits but it can be used for any purpose with little modifications. structure. The latex is collected in aluminium trays fixed to the trunk of the tree. a farmer can get Rs 35. The yield reduces in the subsequent years. It can be grown for plant material (seedlings).XVIII. A. drying can be done artificially at a temperature of 50 to 55°C.000 to 40. Economics of Cultivation Papaya is a profitable crop and provides an income next to bananas. 3. The dried latex is powdered and packed in polythene bags. Extraction of Papain Papain. Nearly 200 to 250 kg of papain can be obtained from one hectare of papaya plantation jn the first year. the milky latex from the three-fourth mature fruits (70 to 90 days fruit set) are selected and lanced with an ordinary razor blade to a depth of 2-3 mm.000 from one hectare of papaya plantation for fruits. Rs. levelling and bundingoftheland Rs. an alkaloid obtained from the milky latex of immature fruits of papaya is a very useful product and is of great commercial significance. Gene. fruits. 2. Given below is a format which can be used for calculating economics of produc. A small quantity of potassium metabisulphite (350 ppm) should also be added to the liquid latex to enhance the storage life of papain.tion. . The cuts are given length wise on the fruit 3 cm apart.Fixed costs 1Cost of land Rs.

Net profit=Gross income-Total recurring cost Purchase value-Junk value Depreciation = ------------------------------------ .. j. etc. k. papain. . Cost of farm labour Rs. Cost of transportation Rs. 4. h. 7. Repairs and maintenance Rs. Income 1.Training and pruning Rs. 7. etc. Cost of roads and paths Rs.Irrigation Rs.Cost of insecticides. 3. e. f. d. 2.Cost of manures and fertilizers Rs. Cost of nursery raising or getting plant material Rs. instruments and other accessories Rs. Interest on fixed cost (@ 10%) Rs. c. Total recurring cost Rs. 2. Grading and processing Rs. Diesel. C. Harvesting Rs. 10. Storing and marketing Rs. i. Yield of the fruits Rs. Other intercultural operations such as weeding. (paid and unpaid) a. 9. fungicides and weedicides Rs.. 5. b. . Farm structure Rs. Rent or revenue on the land Rs. Farm machinery Rs. b. 8. Recurring costs 1. b. B. Rs. Any other labour involvement Rs. 9. 6. Ripening Rs g. Cost of digging and filling pits Rs. Depreciatjon a. Yield of other material such as seeds. . petrol and electricity Rs. Cost of farm power a. Cost of lay-out Rs. 8. Rs.6. Gross income Rs.Land preparation Rs. thinning. Livestock and their control Rs. Application of fertilizers and manures Rs.Weeding Rs. Cost of machines.

The life span of farm building and farm machinery is 15 to 10 years respectively.Life span Note: Junk value is calculated only on those articles which are saleable after their life span. %%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% .

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