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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

STRATEGY MANAGEMENT PROCESS

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

INTRODUCTION
Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firm in their external environments. It entails specifying

the organization's mission, vision and objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projects and programs. A balanced scorecard is often used to evaluate the overall performance of the business and its progress towards objectives. Recent studies and leading management theorists have advocated that strategy needs to start with stakeholders expectations and use a modified balanced scorecard which includes all stakeholders. Strategic management is a level of managerial activity under setting goals and over Tactics. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and is closely related to the field of organization Studies. In the field of business administration it is useful to talk about "strategic alignment" between the organization and its environment or "strategic consistency." According to Arieu (2007), "there is strategic consistency when the actions of an organization are consistent with the expectations of management, and these in turn are with the market and the context." Strategic management includes not only the management team but can also include the Board of Directors and other stakeholders of the organization. It depends on the organizational structure.

MEANING
1. STRATEGY Strategy is a plan or course of action originated from military force and done to attain the desired goal and objectives. The concept of strategy is central to understanding the process of strategic management. The term strategy is derived from Greek word STRATEGOS which means GENERALSHIP- the actual direction of military force as distinct from the policy governing its deployment. Literally therefore the word strategy means art of general. A strategy could be:1.A plan or course of action or set of decision rules making a pattern or creating a common thread.
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

2.Concerned with the resources for implementing a plan or following a course of action. EXAMPLE: Dell computers have been doing well in highly competitive personal computer in market while HP and apple has being struggling behind. Pepsico and cocacola has the same as above.

2. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic decision making is done through the process of strategic management. It is a dynamic process of formulation, implementation, evaluation and control of strategies to realize the organizations strategic intent. It is not a one time, static or mechanistic process. By being dynamic, strategic management is continual, evolving iterative process. Strategic management is an ongoing process that evaluates and controls the business and the industries in which the company is involved; assesses its competitors and sets goals and strategies to meet all existing and potential competitors; and then reassesses each strategy annually or quarterly (i.e. regularly) to determine how it has been implemented and whether it has succeeded or needs replacement by a new strategy to meet changed circumstances, new technology, new competitors, a new economic environment., or a new social, financial, or political environment.

DEFINITION
1. STRATEGY A unified comprehensive & integrated plans that relates to the strategic advantage of the firm and to the challenges of the environment; it is designed to ensure that the basic objective of enterprise are achieved through proper execution by the organization. The term strategy or the pattern of plan that integrates an organization major goals policies and actions sequences into a cohesive goal.
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

2. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT Strategic management is a continuous interactive cross functional process aimed at keeping an organization as a whole appropriately matched to its environment

NEED FOR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT


1. Due to change. 2. Provide guidelines. 3. Developed field of study by research. 4. Probability for better performance. 5. Improve communication. 6. Improve coordination. 7. Improves allocation of resources.

CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE STRATEGY


1. Security. 2. Surprise. 3. Coordinated & committed leadership. 4. Flexibility. 5. Maintaining the intuitiveness. 6. Clear deceive objectives.

PROCESS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

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1. Strategy Intent: The first phase consists of establishing the strategy intent. For the organization in this context strategic intent is the hierarchy of objective that an organization sets for itself, within this there are the vision, mission, business definition, objectives. The aim of strategic management is to help the organization to realize its strategic intent. 2. Strategy Formulation: The second phase of the formulation of strategy is concerned with the devising of strategy or few strategies. This phase is also is known as strategic planning. Essentially this is an analytical phase in which strategist think, analysis and plan strategies. 3. Strategy Implementation: The third phase of implementation is putting into action phase. The strategies that are formulated is implemented though series of administrative and managerial action. 4. Strategic Evaluation: The fourth and last step of evaluation and control involves how appropriately these strategies were formulated and how effectively they are being implemented. Depending on outcome of assessment action could be taken ranging from fine tuning implementation in a drastic reformulation of strategies.

STRATEGIC INTENT

STRATEGIC FORMULATION

STRATEGIC IMPLEMENTATION

STRATEGIC EVALUATION & CONTROL


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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

CONCLUSION

In a nutshell, strategic management plays a vital role in every organization. The success or failure of the organization wholly depends on how effectively the strategy is implemented. Thus, Strategic decision making is done through the process of strategic management. It is a dynamic process of formulation, implementation, evaluation and control of strategies to realize the organizations strategic intent. It is not a one time, static or mechanistic process. By being dynamic, strategic management is continual, evolving iterative process.

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

INTRODUCTION
A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date, but can be by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives,usually to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast to business as usual (or operations),[ which are repetitive, permanent or semi-permanent functional work to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate management.

DEFINITION
A project is a one shot, time limited, goal- directed, major undertaking, requiring the commitment of varied skill and resources. Project Management Institute, USA. Project as a combination of human and non human resources pooled together in a temporary organization to achieve a specific purpose. International Project Management Year Book

EXPLANATION
Project starts from scratch with a definite mission; generate activities, involving a variety of human and non human resources all directed towards fulfillment of the mission and stops once the mission is fulfilled. Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is sometimes conflated with program management, however technically that is actually a higher level construction: a group of related and somehow interdependent engineering projects
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

Approaches
There are a number of approaches to managing project activities including agile, interactive, incremental, and phased approaches. Regardless of the methodology employed, careful consideration must be given to the overall project objectives, timeline, and cost, as well as the roles and responsibilities of all participants and stakeholders. Many industries use variations on these project stages. For example, when working on a brick and mortar design and construction, projects will typically progress through stages like PrePlanning, Conceptual Design, Schematic Design, Design Development, Construction Drawings (or Contract Documents), and Construction Administration. In software development, this approach is often known as the waterfall model, i.e., one series of tasks after another in linear sequence. In software development many organizations have adapted the Rational Unified Process (RUP) to fit this methodology, although RUP does not require or explicitly recommend this practice. Waterfall development works well for small, well defined projects, but often fails in larger projects of undefined and ambiguous nature. The Cone of Uncertainty explains some of this as the planning made on the initial phase of the project suffers from a high degree of uncertainty. This becomes especially true as software development is often the realization of a new or novel product. In projects where requirements have not been finalized and can change, requirements management is used to develop an accurate and complete definition of the behavior of software that can serve as the basis for software development. While the terms may differ from industry to industry, the actual stages typically follow common steps to problem solving "defining the problem, weighing options, choosing a path, implementation and evaluation." Chain Project Management (CCPM) is a method of planning and managing projects that puts more emphasis on the resources (physical and human) needed in order to execute project tasks. The most complex part involves engineering professionals of different fields (Civil, Electrical, Mechanical etc) working together. It is an application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) to projects. The goal is to increase the rate of throughput (or completion rates) of projects in an organization. Applying the first three of the five focusing steps of TOC, the system constraint for all projects is identified as are the resources. To exploit the constraint, tasks on the critical chain are given priority over all other activities. Finally, projects are planned and managed to ensure
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

that the resources are ready when the critical chain tasks must start, subordinating all other resources to the critical chain.

The project development stages generally include:


Initiation Planning or development Production or execution Monitoring and controlling Closing In project environments with a significant exploratory element (e.g., Research and development), these stages may be supplemented with decision points (go/no go decisions) at which the project's continuation is debated and decided.

Initiation
Initiating Process Group Processes The initiation processes determine the nature and scope of the project.[21] If this stage is not performed well, it is unlikely that the project will be successful in meeting the business needs. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them. The initiation stage should include a plan that encompasses the following areas: Analyzing the business needs/requirements in measurable goals Reviewing of the current operations Financial analysis of the costs and benefits including a budget Stakeholder analysis, including users, and support personnel for the project

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

Planning and design


Planning Process Group Activities after the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail. The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to effectively manage risk during project execution. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals.

Project planning generally consists of:


determining how to plan (e.g. by level of detail or rolling wave); developing the scope statement; selecting the planning team; identifying deliverables and creating the work breakdown structure; identifying the activities needed to complete those deliverables and networking the activities in their logical sequence; estimating the resource requirements for the activities; estimating time and cost for activities; developing the schedule; developing the budget; risk planning; gaining formal approval to begin work. For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product may be performed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities.

Executing
Executing Process Group Processes[19]Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan to accomplish the project's requirements. Execution process involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

performing the activities of the project in accordance with the project management plan. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.

Monitoring and controlling


Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan. Monitoring and Controlling includes: Measuring the ongoing project activities ('where we are'); Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, scope, etc.) against the project management plan and the project performance baseline (where we should be); Identify corrective actions to address issues and risks properly (How can we get on track again); Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented.

Project manager
A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint for projects, which is cost, time, and scope. A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing. The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized.
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Conclusion
Project is a well evolved work plan designed to achieve specific objectives within a specified objectives within a specified period of time..Hence ,project has a starting point ,and end point with specific objectives though it may differ in size,objectives,time duration and complexity. The discipline of Project Management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet the constraints

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PRODUCT MARKETING & RURAL MARKETING IN RURAL INDIA

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

Session: 2011-12

Marketing in Rural India


Introduction of Marketing in Rural India
Post the economic slowdown, policymakers and companies are busy designing strategies to sell products and services to larger markets. While boosting profits quickly is no longer the essential parameter, Atmanand, MDI Dean of Executive Post Graduate Programs, believes that revisiting age-old management theories and sticking to basics is the most cost-effective marketing tactic.

The Rural Focus The strategy taken by Hindustan Unilever Ltd. (HUL) to enter the
rural sector, which has remained insulated so far, is a good one, says Atman and. In states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi and Haryana, the company is expanding steadily by expanding their network of dealers and making themselves household names. Of course, replicating the HUL model may be difficult for a startup, but it does serve as a valuable lesson in marketing: Dont put all your eggs in one basket. The entire gamut of white and brown goods has found a place in the rural market, driving several industries to actively explore it. In the current scenario, companies should change their strategies for marketing. For market sustainability, we have to look at the rural markets. This would include products that have been especially designed for these markets at prices that will suit the sector, says Atmanand.

Tailor-made Products for Rural India


The company should provide rural folk with products and services that would meet their requirements. Take Calvin Care, for instance, which launched its shampoo in sachets. Also consider Britannia, which packaged its Tiger brand biscuits at a low price tag. Such companies
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

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obtained an understanding of the rural customers needs and provided them with the desired products. Atmanands emphasis is clearly on parameters that change the dynamics of marketing a product. Rural markets offer a great potential to help India Inc. (which has reached the plateau of its business curve in urban India) bank on volume-driven growth. With a larger market to play with, virtually any marketing initiative can be cost effective. Aspects that are seldom ignored are also key drivers in marketing. Some do not cost a penny, and the benefits are huge. Consumer satisfaction is very important. Gone are the days when products were sold solely on their brand name. Today, people want value for their money; they want the product to meet their expectations and utility. The company should focus more on quality and the consumer satisfaction index, says Atmanand. A consumer with a high level of satisfaction and a good image of your pro-duct is likely to be your best brand ambassador and proponent of your product.

Changing the Profile of Managers


Philip Kotlers theory of a short lifecycle of a product does not really hold good, as most products in India have a lifecycle of 2-3 years. Take, for example, a Maruti 800; one drives it for about three years before switching to a new car. A consumer wants a product that has resale value, Atmanand says. Understanding the preferences of the rural masses is crucial, and your company manager could be the answer. Companies should hire managers who are familiar with rural India and are in sync with the demands and preferences of people in these regions. While management graduates are conversant with strategies applicable for the western countries, their mindset and training may not allow them to understand the requirements of rural consumers.

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Marketing with the Help of Traditional Media


Traditional media would serve as a great driver to generate awareness among rural consumers. Skits, magic shows and educational drives by NGOs are among the preferred traditional media that marketers can use to good effect. These engage the interest of rural consumers and go a long way in establishing your brand in their minds. Things are certainly changing. Consumer financing schemes, insurance schemes and promotion associated with delivering products to consumers will be preferred. Says Atmanand, Understanding the needs and desires of the Indian consumer, price competitiveness, innovation and R&D form the key to unlocking the potential of this vast market.

PROBLEMS IN RURAL INDIA:


Electricity shortage Acute water shortage Poor availability of transport Inadequate consumer finance options

OPPORTUNITIES TO BE EXPLORED BY COMPANIES:


Can you make energy saving products? Can you provide a washing machine that consumes less water? Can you provide easy access to the product? The rural market in India is a huge unorganized market as well as much of it is still untapped in various domains. A huge scope for services exists in these markets where still major companies have directed their focus on. Since major of Indian population exists in rural segment, prospects of huge demand exists for the products offered by various companies or service
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421) providers.

Session: 2011-12

But the demand and supply pattern in the rural segment is majorly different than those in the urban segment. This difference is due to vast difference in: Income level Expenditure capacity Taste and preferences Educational level Social, Cultural and environmental These differences results in Gaps between Service provider and the consumers/customers in both the market segments. Hence a service provider clearly needs to understand these gaps and the strategies to fill these gaps effectively. Therefore the mantra for successful strategy implementation in rural markets for service delivery is Think Global Act Local Analysis of Services Requirements in Rural Markets:

Following Service areas have great potential in rural markets: 1. Agricultural consultancy: Rural customers require proper consultancy services about the best methods, timings and seasons, technology, tools, prices and best markets for selling their farming products.

2. Banking, microfinance and loan facilities:


The rural market has huge potential for banking services for providing following facilities at affordable prices:
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421) Agricultural loans Educational loans Housing loans Savings accounts and safe deposits Automobile loans Personal loans 3. Health care:

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There is a huge demand for medical and health facilities in rural markets as there is large population in India that resides in Rural areas and lack proper facilities for proper health care. The availability and location of these services is of great concern as most of the areas either do not have any or many rural and remote areas needs to be dependent on very few and distantly located Hospitals. 4. Telecomm services: Due to increased awareness and improved telecomm infrastructure across India, the demand for telecomm (Fixed and wireless) and internet services have increased drastically. Even the governments policies for reduced tariffs, call rates, lesser mobile handset prices and private participation involvement has helped in increasing the level of competition, continuous improvement in technology and thus has resulted in the growth of the rural telecomm market. Hence the rural market has now become attractive and lucrative for many National and Global telecomm companies, who now are focusing more on this huge untapped market.

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421) 5. Automobiles Services:

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There has been a huge increase in the number of two wheeler, four wheeler and Agricultural tools and vehicles in past few decades because of reduction in prices and government support to the rural population. This has give rise to a new business for providing maintenance and repair services to these vehicles with more attractive service quality, location and availability. This segment has huge potential in the upcoming trends of services to the rural markets. 6. T.V. Channels Services: Due to the increased awareness, arenas of interest, leisure requirements, and number of entertainment options like televisions and computers due to reduced & affordable prices, the demand for entertainment services like T.V. entertainment channels have increased. This provides a huge potential for cable and Direct to Home services providers to tap the rural markets to meet their demands. Many companies have already gained profits by targeting rural markets which include Airtel (DISH TV), Reliance (BIG TV), and Tata (SKY). 7. Travel and reservation Services: The travel and reservation booking and organizing services for booking train, busses, taxies and tour consultancy has also been observed to create a huge demand in last few decades as more and more rural population need to mobilize for business and personal needs. Hence these services hold a huge potential for service providers. 8. Low Cost Hotels: Due to increased mobilization because of business and personal needs, there is also increased demand for hotel and lodging services to the travellers but majorly driven by the pricing of such services and facilities. Hence provide a great platform for the service providers to focus on these demands to capture a big untapped market.

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421) 9. Event Managements:

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The rural population are majorly involved in celebrating and organizing festivals, which require lightning arrangements, venue decoration, food, lodging, transportation, catering and event planning etc. for: i.Family gatherings, Marriages, engagements, birthday parties, etc. ii. Festivals like Diwali, Onam,Christmas, lorhi, Eid, Dushera, Kannada Rajamahotsava, Navratri, Garba and Dandia mahotsava etc. iii.Religious/Caste based events like poojas, various ceremonies, etc. 10. Beauty Parlous: As there has been major improvement in the quality of life style and increased awareness among the rural customers (especially females), there has been great demand observed for beauty products and services. A huge increase in the demand for FMCG products like shampoos, beauty soaps, beauty creams, cosmetics, etc. has also been observed lately in rural India. This market is still dominated by unorganized and local players who lack adequate tools, methods, skills, process, technology and beauty products to meet the demand of rural population. Hence focusing on this segment would be a profitable business for any company. 11. Affordable Movie theatres: Till now the entertainment service providers for movie theatres at affordable prices in rural markets are dominated by local and unorganized players who lack proper facilities and infrastructure as well as quality delivered. Focusing on this market is a good profitable business 12. Educational and Career consultancy: The rural markets lack adequate and quality educational services which are majorly catered by government agencies and bodies. But due to lack of proper infrastructure, expertise,
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

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knowledge, talent, funds and participation of the service provider, this sector is unable to meet the desired level of service expectation of the rural customer for career building. Hence there a great business opportunity for any company if it is able to fill this gap effectively and would also be imparting its social responsibility to the growth of the society and country. With all the above mentioned arenas for Services in rural markets, there is a huge demand and growth opportunities that exists to be exploited by the companies which can make best market expansion and profitability by investing in Rural India.7 Ps analysis of Rural and Urban Marketing. The most potential among all the above described services is the Rural Banking Service. Lets us examine this sector on the basis of difference between Rural and Urban markets on the grounds of 7 Ps of Marketing. 1. Product: The Products (Services) provided to Rural customers differ from that of urban customers as rural segment have more demand for agricultural loans, lower limits for savings accounts, microfinance, lower amount of loans for education, automobiles, small & medium scale industry and personal loans. The duration for these loans, schemes and capacity also differs from that of urban customers. 2. Price: The price of these services as expected by the rural customer is lesser as compared to urban customer due to the fact that income level as well as savings pattern of the rural customer are lesser. The risk appetite and affordability is also a matter of concern for the rural markets as they are lesser as compared to urban markets. 3. Place: The place of availability is of very intense concern in rural markets due to lack of adequate and proper transportation facilities in rural India. The rural customers face major
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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421)

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problems with the availability of service location in vicinity and thus are reluctant to derive benefits due to lack of travel support. 4. Promotions: The promotional strategies in rural marketing needs to be more personalized and simple as compared to the urban markets which needs to reach more remote areas as rural markets lack more in means of communications and technology. The promotional tools also need to be customized according to the regional languages so that it clearly states the service details and benefits. 5. Physical evidence: The physical evidence provided to the rural segment differ from that of the urban markets as they need to be more simple, colourful, artistic and personalized as most of the rural customers lack adequate education or low educational background and thus need to be clearly explained about the features and benefits of the services thus provided. 6. People: The people and staff appointed for the service delivery for rural banking services needs to be properly selected, recruited and trained to properly understand the rural customers needs and requirements. They need to be made well aware of the regional, cultural, social, economic and technological needs of the customers. The employee involvement in the service delivery to the service (banking) sector is more in rural markets than urban markets as the employees need to constantly educate and assist the customers about the service process, price, product and simultaneously communicate the benefits as well as the precautions and risks involved with the services being offered.

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Seminar-II report and Viva (536421) 7. Process:

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The process of rural banking differs from that of urban banking sector as it needs to be more simple and thus less documentation involved and more customized as per the economic capacity of the customers. The process of banking in rural markets is observed to be more affected by the Government policies and rural customer psychology driven. Hence the process needs to be more frequently reviewed and flexible to accommodate the changes due to these factors. The process also need to be timely revived and revised to remove any complexity arising due to inclusion of new economic policies and changing demand & supply patterns.

CONCLUSION
The marketing mix is the combination of marketing activities that an organization engages in so as to best meet the needs of its targeted market. The Insurance business deals in selling services and there fore due weightage in the formation of marketing mix for the Insurance business is needed. The marketing mix includes sub-mixes of the 7 Ps of marketing i.e. the product, its price, place, promotion, people, process & physical attraction. The above mentioned 7 Ps can be used for marketing.

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