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july 2011 to 12th august 2011
Submitted By: Gaurav Varshney 287084 B.tech(3RD Year) Faculty of engg. & tech.(MRIU),faridabad
INDEX ACKOWLEDGEMENT BRIEF INFO PETROCHEMICALS PRODUCTS TRANSFORMER UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY COAXIAL CABLES CIRCUIT BREAKER RELAYS CAPTIVE POWER PALNTS
ACKOWLEDGEMENT In every step of achiving any concept,there is need of guidance, inspiration & help for better result. I am hereby thankful to following persons for not only their valuable instructions that they given me to prepare this project report but also for their cooperation during the training period. 1.Mr.Y.G.Rao(Sr. Training Officer) 2.Mr.M.D.Sahola 3.Mr.Sanjay kumar 4.Mr.Pawan Rawat I am equally thankful to all other workers who tried their best to help me & provided me informations required for training and my friends who directly or indirectly helped me for completion of this project report.
It processes a wide range of both indigenous and imported grades of crude oil. Denmark. Once Through Hydrocracker unit. It receives crude from Vadinar through the 1370 km long Salaya-Mathura Pipeline which also supplies crude to Koyali and Mathura Refineries of IndianOil. Bitumen blowing unit. 3868 crore (which includes Marketing&Pipelines installations). Petroleum products are transported through various modes like rail. USA. UNOCAL/UOP. USA. Resid Fluidised Catalytic Cracking unit.BRIEF INFO Panipat Refinery (Near Delhi) Panipat Refinery has doubled its refining capacity from 6 MMT/yr to 12 MMT/yr with the commissioning of its Expansion Project. The original refinery with 6 MMTPA capacity was built and commissioned in 1998 at a cost of Rs. The Refinery caters to the high-consumption demand centres in North-Western India including the . Referred as one of India’s most modern refineries. Sulphur block and associated Auxiliary facilities. road as well as environment-friendly pipelines.a Diesel Hydro Desulphurisation Unit (DHDS) was subsequently commissioned in1999. Visbreaker unit. Haldor-Topsoe. Panipat Refinery is the seventh refinery of IndianOil. and Stone &Webster. It is located in the historic district of Panipat in the state of Haryana and is about 23 km from Panipat City. In order to improve diesel quality. Panipat Refinery was built using global technologies from IFP France. The major secondary processing units of the Refinery include Catalytic Reforming Unit.
It is already operating above 100% capacity for the last four years. The LPG produced from the refinery is pumped through a dedicated pipeline to IndianOil’s Kohand Bottling plant where bottling and bulk despatches are done. Uttaranchal. Himachal.States of Haryana. and sub-Zero diesel for the Indian army. as well as parts of Rajasthan and Delhi. Chandigarh. Panipat Refinery has also developed new products like 96 RON petrol. Punjab. J &K. .
Vadodara. This SBU has five exclusive sub-groups. high-value projects such as Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and Butene-1 at Gujarat Refinery. Beginning with a low-investment. Taking this into consideration and to enhance its downstream integration. IndianOil has set up a world-scale Linear Alkyl Benzene (LAB) plant at Gujarat Refinery and an integrated Paraxylene/Purified Terephthalic Acid (PX/PTA) plant at Panipat. A Naphtha Cracker complex with downstream polymer units is also in operation at Panipat. thereby achieving better exploitation of the hydrocarbon value chain. In order to penetrate the petrochemicals market effectively. classified product wise (LAB. IndianOil is focusing on increasing its presence in the domestic petrochemicals sector besides the overseas markets through systematic expansion of customer base and innovative supply logistics. Petrochemicals have been identified as a prime driver of future growth by IndianOil.000 crore in the petrochemicals business in the next few years. both national . These projects will utilise product streams from the existing refineries of IndianOil. PTA.Petrochemicals India is amongst the fastest growing petrochemicals markets in the world. These initiatives are designed to catapult IndianOil among the top three petrochemicals players in Southeast Asia in the long term. IndianOil is a major supplier to the key players in the detergent industry. in addition to regional/field set-ups to offer reliable customer service. This SBU has already established IndianOil's LAB business both in India and abroad. Today. Polymers) and function wise (Logistics & Exports). The Corporation is envisaging an investment of Rs 30. a separate Strategic Business Unit (SBU) has been created in IndianOil for marketing of petrochemicals.
for which Naphtha splitter units are set up at the respective refineries. Naphtha Cracker Plant. 5. Naphtha is sourced from IndianOil’s Panipat and Mathura refineries.00. road and sea.60. The Paraxylene plant is designed to process 5.000 MTPA of heart-cut Naphtha to produce about 3. the PX/PTA plant marks IndianOil’s major step towards forward integration in the hydrocarbon value chain by manufacturing Paraxylene (PX) from captive Naphtha and thereafter. The PTA unit produces 5. Similarly. Invista) and that of the Paraxylene Unit was prepared by M/s UOP. A robust logistics model has been the key to IndianOil's success story and facilities have been put in place for seamless product dispatches to customers by rail. in PTA business.000 MTPA.000 MTPA of PX.000 MTPA of Purified Terephthalic Acid from Paraxylene. Paraxylene/Purified Terephthalic Acid (PX/PTA). Panipat: The most technologically advanced plant in the country. Panipat: .and international. all major domestic customers are catered to by IndianOil. UK (now M/s. M/s EIL and M/s Toyo Engineering were the Project Management Consultants (PMC) for executing the PTA and PX respectively.53. USA.53. achieving economy of scale. The process package for the PTA plant was prepared by erstwhile M/s Dupont. The PTA Plant is the single largest unit in India with a world-scale capacity of 5. converting it into Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA). The integrated Paraxylene/Purified Terephthallic Acid (PX/PTA) complex was built at a cost of Rs.104 crore within the Panipat Refinery in Haryana.
thermoware. automobile parts. Polyethylene is used for making injection moulded caps. Pyrolysis Fuel Oil. Mono Ethylene Glycol(MEG) plant (capacity: 325. .400 crore.000 tonnes per annum of Benzene. etc. textile bobbins. The feed for the unit is sourced internally from IndianOil's Koyali. small blow-moulded bottles. is the largest operating cracker capacity in India. and other products viz. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) (dedicated capacity: 300. pressure pipes (for gas and water). luggage and heavy duty transport containers). luggage ware. 600. The cracker will produce over 800. storage bins. high clarity random co-polymers (used for food containers and thin walled products) and super impact co-polymer grades (used for batteries. built at a cost of Rs 14. jerry cans. bins. heavy duty crates. The Polypropylene (PP) unit is designed to produce high quality and high value niche grades including high speed Bi-axially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) (used for food packaging and laminations). The Naphtha Cracker comprises of the following downstream units ..000 tonnes) and Linear Low Density Poly Ethylene (LLDPE) (350.The world-class Naphtha Cracker at Panipat. components of Gasoline and Diesel.000 tonnes).000 tonnes). containers. Panipat and Mathura refineries.000 tonnes per annum of Propylene. 125.000 tonnes Swing unit with HDPE). LPG.000 tonnes per annum of ethylene.Polypropylene (capacity: 600.
IndianOil’s leadership extends to its energy brands . Benchmarking Quality. Our continued emphasis is on providing fuel management solutions to customers who can then benefit from our expertise in efficient sourcing and least cost supplies keeping in mind their usage patterns and inventory management. reliability and service remains the core benefits to our customers. XtraMile Branded Diesel. SERVO Lubricants.Indane LPG. XtraPremium Branded Petrol. global brand at another level. IndianOil is a heritage and iconic brand at one level and a contemporary. Besides having a dominant market share. at every level ensuring the trust of over a billion Indians over the last four decades. XtraPower Fleet Card. Swagat(Highway) and Kisan Seva Kendras(Rural) are widely recognized as pioneering brands in the petroleum retail segment. IndianOil is widely recognized as India’s dominant energy brand and customers perceive IndianOil as a reliable symbol for high quality products and services. IndianOil Aviation and XtraRewards cash customer loyalty programme. our stringent checks are built into operating systems.Products IndianOil is not only the largest commercial enterprise in the country it is the flagship corporate of the Indian Nation. Autogas LPG. While quality. Quantity and Service to world-class standards is a philosophy that IndianOil adheres to so as to ensure that customers get a truly global experience in India. . Our Retail Brand template of XtraCare(Urban).
Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use coal dust as a fuel. to run construction. motorcycles. Euro IV) have necessitated oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulphur in diesel in view of the auto fuel policy brought in force by Govt of India. Important characteristics are ignition characteristics. Fuel is ignited by the heat of high compression and no spark plug is used. Automotive diesel fuel serves to power trains. and aromatic hydrocarbons (including napthalenes and alkylbenzenes). boats and locomotives.Diesel/Gas oil Petroleum derived diesel (called as petrodiesel) is a mixture of straight run product (150 °C and 350 °C) with varying amount of selected cracked distillates and is composed of saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n . flash point. Euro III. The Indian Standard governing the properties of diesel fuels is IS 1460:2005 (5th Rev). The diesel engine is high compression. . BIS has brought out specification for "Diesel with 5% Biodiesel" that may be marketed in near future. Diesel is used in diesel engines. buses. Diesel engines are used in cars. iso . and automobiles. trucks. Diesel fuel often contains higher quantities of sulphur. In India . emission standards (equivalent to Euro II. and cycloparaffins). but oil proved more effective. a type of internal combustion engine. self-ignition engine. handling at low temperature. petroleum drilling and other off-road equipment and to be the prime mover in a wide range of power generation & pumping applications.
by leveraging its inherent strengths and countrywide reach. Natural Gas has significant cost advantages too over crude oil and fuels such as Naphtha and commercial LPG. Demand for Natural gas in India is growing and cannot be met by the current indigenous production.Natural Gas Over the years. IndianOil is in the process of forming more strategic alliances for City Gas Distribution in other parts of the country. . The Corporation entered the Natural Gas business in March 2004. Within the gas business. Gas-based power plants are quicker to build and incur lesser initial capital expenditure and are better suited to meet peak power demand. Green Gas Ltd. Exploration & Production. It is steadily replacing traditional fossil fuels due to its environment friendly characteristics which help in meeting the stipulated automobile emission norms. Hence. Petrochemicals. natural gas has a low carbon footprint due to its clean combustion features. Qatar under the long term agreement.. Demand for Natural Gas in India is primarily driven by the fertiliser and power sectors. When compared with coal and oil. etc. The consortium of IndianOil and Adani Energy has been successful in securing licenses to build city gas distribution networks in several cities. IndianOil's joint venture with GAIL (India) Ltd. City Gas Distribution is a rapidly growing segment. IndianOil is in the process of sourcing more quantities of LNG to meet the increasing requirements. is already operational in Agra and Lucknow in the state of Uttar Pradesh and is further expanding to cater to the increased demand in various sectors. Since then. With 12. Drawing on its vast experience and carefully nurtured skill sets. it clocked sales of 1. IndianOil has made successful forays in diverse areas such as Natural Gas. Natural Gas has emerged as the 'fuel of choice' across the world. In the year 2009-10.. IndianOil has marketing rights for 30% quantity of the LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) procured by PLL from RasGas.5% equity in Petronet LNG Limited (PLL).683 MMTPA (million metric tonnes per annum). IndianOil has significantly enhanced its customer base. Renewable Energy. which account for almost two-third of the country’s gas consumption.
which eliminates the possibility of adulteration and pilferage. This model is used the world over wherein multiple gas suppliers operate through one transportation system. this initiative has been well received and is attracting more customers located away from the pipelines. The entire operation is concealed. Introduced in August 2007. As a committed supplier. stored in a cryogenic holding tank at the target location and re-gassified on-site through vaporizers for use as a fuel. Gas is transported through a cryogenic system. IndianOil can supply gas to customers located near those pipelines. IndianOil is completely responsible for delivery of gas to the customer’s premises. The ―LNG at Doorstep‖ initiative involves making LNG available to the customers not connected by gas pipeline. . With the expansion of the pipeline network in Southern region as well as other parts of the country.IndianOil has the capabilities to supply regassified LNG to customers presently located in the Northern and Western regions of India. The transportation services of the company engaged in transportation of gas are hired to ensure deliveries.
the larger is the increase in EMF. and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows: Induction coils Faraday's ring transformer The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer. If a load is connected to the secondary. or "voltage". Ireland in 1836. Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College. Induction . invented by Rev. the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp). He was one of the first researchers to realize that the more turns the secondary winding has in relation to the primary winding. in the secondary winding. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding.Transformer A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF). This effect is called mutual induction.
In 1878. Until about 1880. where it was adopted for an electric lighting system. by 1883. the efficiency of their open-core bipolar apparatus remained very low. slowly revealed the basic principles of transformers.The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as transformers. then sold the idea to theWestinghouse company in the United States. Italy in 1884. However. mostly by trial and error.coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get higher voltages from batteries. had installed over fifty systems in AustriaHungary. Many adjustable transformer designs were introduced to compensate for this problematic characteristic of the series circuit. the paradigm for AC power transmission from a high voltage supply to a low voltage load was a series circuit. efficient generators that produced alternating current (alternators) were available. . induction coils relied upon vibrating electrical contacts that regularly interrupted the current in the primary to create the flux changes necessary for induction. Induction coils with open magnetic circuits are inefficient for transfer of power to loads. Between the 1830s and the 1870s. including those employing methods of adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil. Their systems used alternating current exclusively and included those comprising both arc and incandescent lamps. Open-core transformers with a ratio near 1:1 were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than alternating current (AC). By the 1870s. In 1876. without an interrupter. along with generators and other equipment. Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron core called a "secondary generator" in London in 1882.They also exhibited the invention in Turin. efforts to build better induction coils. the Ganz Company in Hungary began manufacturing equipment for electric lighting and. The inherent flaw in this method was that turning off a single lamp affected the voltage supplied to all others on the same circuit. Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of alternating current and the secondary windings could be connected to several "electric candles" (arc lamps) of his own design. and it was found that alternating current could power an induction coil directly.
but within a decade the transformer would be instrumental in the "War of Currents". Induction law The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. such as iron. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer. second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts.Efficient. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The area is constant. which states that: where Vs is the instantaneous voltage. the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation for stepping up or stepping down the voltage . that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism). being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core. and. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. a position in which they have remained dominant ever since. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. Basic principles The transformer is based on two principles: first. and in seeing AC distribution systems triumph over their DC counterparts. Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. practical transformer designs did not appear until the 1880s. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability.
this may sometimes be stated as the reciprocal.Since the ideal windings have no impedance.667 or 100:150. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetizing current. In the case of step-up transformers. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit. is sometimes termed the "back EMF". . Ns/Np.This is due toLenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field. Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance. 100 and 150 turns is said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0. although still required to create the magnetic field. Turns ratio is commonly expressed as an irreducible fraction or ratio: for example.When a voltage is applied to the primary winding. Detailed operation The simplified description above neglects several practical factors. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. are equal to the corresponding EMFs. The primary EMF. a small current flows.. the magnetizing current is negligible.Np/Ns is known as the turns ratio. The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding. and is the primary functional characteristic of any transformer. they have no associated voltage drop. since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance. in particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. driving flux around themagnetic circuit of the core. a transformer with primary and secondary windings of. and so the voltages VP and VSmeasured at the terminals of the transformer. respectively.
Equivalent circuit The physical limitations of the practical transformer may be brought together as an equivalent circuit model (shown below) built around an ideal lossless transformer. and thicker wire. and hence money. Power loss in the windings is current-dependent and is represented as in-series resistances Rp and Rs. for the core. so that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on the electrical supply and a running cost. The no-load loss can be significant. the trade-off is in the additional initial and running cost of the superconducting design. Losses in transformers (excluding associated circuitry) vary with load current. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. so that there is a tradeoff between initial cost and running cost. increasing initial cost. In practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings. designing transformers for lower loss requires a larger core. Autotransformer In an autotransformer portions of the same winding act as both the primary and secondary. good-quality silicon steel. and surrounding structures.The increase in efficiency can save considerable energy. or even amorphous steel. An autotransformer can be smaller. and may be expressed as "no-load" or "full-load" loss. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 98%. Winding resistance dominates load losses.Energy losses An ideal transformer would have no energy losses. Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without contributing to the mutual coupling. Experimental transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of 99. core. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss.85%. lighter and cheaper . The winding has at least three taps where electrical connections are made. and thus can be modeled as reactances of each leakage inductance Xp and Xs in series with the perfectly coupled region. and would be 100% efficient. in a large heavily-loaded transformer. (Also see energy efficient transformer).
has a significantly higher leakage inductance than other transformers. also called a stray-field transformer. a bank of three individual single-phase transformers can be used. Consequently. Applications A major application of transformers is to increase voltage before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. sometimes increased by a magnetic bypass or shunt in its core between primary and secondary. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage (and therefore low-current) form for transmission and back again afterward.. All but a tiny fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer . to output either 110 or 120V (with taps) from 230V input. or all three phases can be incorporated as a single three-phase transformer.g. transformers enable economical transmission of power over long distances. Three-phase step-down transformer mounted between two utility poles.Such a device is often referred to by the trademark name Variac. the magnetic circuits are connected together. giving rise to different attributes a phase shifts Leakage transformers A leakage transformer. which is sometimes adjustable with a set screw. giving a variable turns ratio. transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. the core thus containing a three-phase flow of flux. A variable autotransformer is made by exposing part of the winding coils and making the secondary connection through a sliding brush. In this case. Autotransformers are often used to step up or down between voltages in the 110-117-120 volt range and voltages in the 220-230-240 volt range. e. allowing equipment from a 100 or 120V region to be used in a 230V region. Polyphase transformers.A number of winding configurations are possible. The output and input currents are low enough to prevent thermal overload under all load conditions— even if the secondary is shorted. Wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. This provides a transformer with an inherent current limitation due to the loose coupling between its primary and the secondary windings. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand.than a standard dual-winding transformer however the autotransformer does not provide electrical isolation.For three-phase supplies.
Signal and audio transformers are used to couple stages of amplifiers and to match devices such as microphones and record players to the input of amplifiers. The transformer also electrically isolates the end user from contact with the supply voltage. Audio transformers allowed telephone circuits to carry on a two-way conversation over a single pair of wires.Transformers are also used extensively in electronic products to step down the supply voltage to a level suitable for the low voltage circuits they contain. A balun transformer converts a signal that is referenced to ground to a signal that has balanced voltages to ground. such as between external cables and internal circuits. .
Redundancy is further enhanced by plugging each power supply into a different circuit (i. fatalities.Uninterrupted Power Supply An uninterruptible power supply. "N+1" means that if the load can be supplied by N modules. to a different circuit breaker). data centers. also uninterruptible power source. The on-battery runtime of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short— 5–15 minutes being typical for smaller units—but sufficient to allow time to bring an auxiliary power source on line. telecommunicationequipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system orstandby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or nearinstantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attachedbatteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users. fails. or to properly shut down the protected equipment. a single huge UPS can also be a single point of failure that can disrupt many other systems. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers. Multiple redundancy Many computer servers offer the option of redundant power supplies. typically the utility mains. a UPS is typically used to protect computers. . buildings. In this way. and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users.e. failure of one module will not impact system operation. is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source.While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment. multiple smaller UPS modules and batteries can be integrated together to provide redundant power protection equivalent to one very large UPS. This is a critical point – each power supply must be able to power the entire server by itself. one or more other power supplies are able to power the load. UPS or battery/flywheel backup. the installation will contain N+1 modules. or even cities. To provide greater reliability. so that in the event of one power supply failing. Applications N+1 In large business environments where reliability is of great importance. serious business disruption or data loss.
The first type is a miniaturized regular UPS that is made small enough to fit into a 5. it should have some specific features that guarantee that it can tolerate weather with a 'minimal to none' effect on performance. so that continued operation is assured. or extreme heat. Outdoor use When a UPS system is placed outdoors. humidity. If the budget does not allow for two identical UPS units then it is common practice to plug one power supply into mains power and the other into the UPS. and snow among others should be considered by the manufacturer when designing an outdoor UPS system. The other type are re-engineered switching power supplies that utilize dual power sources of AC and/or DC as power inputs and have an AC/DC built-in switching management control units. ground (pedestal). This configuration is also referred to as 2N redundancy. Internal systems UPS systems can be designed to be placed inside a computer chassis. rain.Redundant protection can be extended further yet by connecting each power supply to its own UPS. This provides double protection from both a power supply failure and a UPS failure. There are two types of internal UPS. in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a fan system or an air conditioning system. Factors such as temperature. . Operating temperature ranges for outdoor UPS systems could be around −40 °C to +55 °C. or host mounted. Outdoor UPS systems can be pole. Outdoor environment could mean extreme cold. in which case the outdoor UPS system should include a battery heater mat.25-inch CD-ROM slot bay of a regular computer chassis.
in that the dimensions of the cable are controlled to give a precise. is an electrical cable with an inner conductor surrounded by a flexible. Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. The advantage of coaxial design is that the electric and magnetic fields are confined to the dielectric with little leakage outside the shield. Conversely. the cable is often protected by an outer insulating jacket. computer network (Internet) connections. the shield is kept at ground potential and a voltage is applied to the center conductor to carry electrical power. such as audio signals. General Description Coaxial cable conducts electrical power using an inner conductor (usually a flexible solid or stranded copper wire) surrounded by an insulating layer and all enclosed by a shield layer. and distributing cable television signals. surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. or coax. typically a woven metallic braid. RF and microwave transmission. who patented the design in 1880. tubular insulating layer. Its applications include feedlines connecting radio transmitters andreceivers with their antennas. electric and magnetic fields outside the cable are largely kept from causing interference to signals inside the cable. Normally. constant conductor spacing. This allows coaxial cable runs to be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. and computer and instrumentation data connections. . which is needed for it to function efficiently as a radio frequencytransmission line. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the signal from externalelectromagnetic interference. This property makes coaxial cable a good choice for carrying weak signals that cannot tolerate interference from the environment or for higher power signals that must not be allowed to radiate or couple into adjacent structures or circuits. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing the same geometric axis. Coaxial cable differs from other shielded cable used for carrying lower frequency signals. Common applications of coaxial cable include video and CATV distribution. One advantage of coax over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal coaxial cable the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outer conductors. Coaxial cable was invented by English engineer and mathematician Oliver Heaviside.Coaxial cable Coaxial cable.
A controlled cable characteristic impedance is important because the source and load impedance should be matched to ensure maximum power transfer and minimum Standing Wave Ratio. and shield quality. power and voltage handling capability. .The characteristic impedance of the cable (Z0) is determined by the dielectric constant of the inner insulator and the radiuses of the inner and outer conductors. Other important properties of coaxial cable include attenuation as a function of frequency.
in low-voltage circuit breakers this is usually done within the breaker enclosure. The trip solenoid that releases the latch is usually energized by a separate battery. Unlike a fuse. current rating and type of the circuit breaker. contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit. and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting (opening) the circuit. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and. and electric motors to restore energy to the springs. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys. protection relays. Circuit breakers for large currents or high voltages are usually arranged with pilot devices to sense a fault current and to operate the trip opening mechanism. Small circuit breakers may be manually operated. although details vary substantially depending on the voltage class. silver alloys. Once a fault is detected. although some of the energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. larger units have solenoids to trip the mechanism. The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heating. some mechanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) contained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts. The circuit breaker must detect a fault condition. from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage Operation All circuit breakers have common features in their operation. . and other highly conductive materials.Circuit Breaker A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Service life of the contacts is limited by the erosion of contact material due to arcing while interrupting the current. by interrupting continuity. a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. but power circuit breakers and high-voltage circuit breakers have replaceable contacts. Miniature and molded case circuit breakers are usually discarded when the contacts have worn. to immediately discontinue electrical flow. although some high-voltage circuit breakers are self-contained with current transformers. which operates once and then has to be replaced. and an internal control power source.
so the arc quenches when it is stretched a very small amount (<2–3 mm). the contacts are rapidly swung into a small sealed chamber. 100 times per second for 50Hz and 120 times per second for 60Hz AC) Arc interruption Miniature low-voltage circuit breakers use air alone to extinguish the arc.000 volts.Vacuum circuit breakers have minimal arcing (as there is nothing to ionize other than the contact material). . cooled. and then rely upon the dielectric strength of the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) to quench the stretched arc. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including: Lengthening / deflection of the arc Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) Division into partial arcs Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of the AC waveform. so that the gap between the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit.Gas (usually sulfur hexafluoride) circuit breakers sometimes stretch the arc using a magnetic field. oil circuit breakers rely upon vaporization of some of the oil to blast a jet of oil through the arc. insulating gas. This arc must be contained. air.When a current is interrupted. Different circuit breakers use vacuum. Circuit breakers are usually able to terminate all current very quickly: typically the arc is extinguished between 30 ms and 150 ms after the mechanism has been tripped. Air circuit breakers may use compressed air to blow out the arc. and extinguished in a controlled way. Larger ratings will have metal plates or non-metallic arc chutes to divide and cool the arc. In larger ratings. depending upon age and construction of the device. Magnetic blowout coils or permanent magnetsdeflect the arc into the arc chute.e. Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 35. or alternatively. The zero crossing occurs at twice the line frequency i. the escaping of the displaced air thus blowing out the arc. effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. or oil as the medium in which the arc forms. an arc is generated.
High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated. protecting equipment and buses from various types of overload or ground/earth fault. In substations the protective relay scheme can be complex. For the protection of loads such as semiconductor devices or measuring circuits using current transformers. The definition of high voltagevaries but in power transmission work is usually thought to be 72. above 2 In up to and including 3 In for periods in the order of tens of Z seconds. according to a recent definition by theInternational Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). High-voltage circit breakers Electrical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by highvoltage breakers. with current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers.Standard current ratings Type Instantaneous tripping current B above 3 In up to and including 5 In C above 5 In up to and including 10 In D above 10 In up to and including 20 In above 8 In up to and including 12 In K For the protection of loads that cause frequent short duration (approximately 400 ms to 2 s) current peaks in normal operation. .5 kV or higher.
Bulk oil Minimum oil Air blast Vacuum SF6 Some of the manufacturers are ABB. They are most often used for transmissionlevel voltages and may be incorporated into compact gas-insulated switchgear. High-voltage AC circuit breakers are routinely available with ratings up to 765 kV. CGL. Alstom. Tavrida Electric. ordead tank with the enclosure at earth potential. Square D (Schneider Electric). Toshiba. GE (General Electric) . where the enclosure that contains the breaking mechanism is at line potential. Mitsubishi Electric. Končar HVS. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) high-voltage circuit-breakers A sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulfur hexafluoride gas to quench the arc. most new breakers use SF6 gas to quench the arc. Pennsylvania Breaker. instead of tripping all three poles.Circuit breakers can be classified as live tank. . In cold climates. 1200KV breakers are likely to come into market very soonHigh-voltage circuit breakers used on transmission systems may be arranged to allow a single pole of a threephase line to trip. Due to environmental and cost concerns over insulating oil spills. BHEL.High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc. for some classes of faults this improves the system stability and availability. supplemental heating or de-rating of the circuit breakers may be required due to liquefaction of the SF6 gas. Siemens.
In this condition. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.Relays A relay is an electrically operated switch. but other operating principles are also used. in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called "protective relays". A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contactor. It is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. instead using a semiconductor device to perform switching. The relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits. The armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to one or more sets of moving contacts. and the other set is open. Other relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. a movable ironarmature. an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux. and one or more sets of contacts (there are two in the relay pictured). Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a lowpower signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled circuits). This ensures continuity of the circuit between the . Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts. repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed. Simple electromechanical relay A simple electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operations.
Usually this force is provided by a spring. in a high voltage or current application it reduces arcing. instead of a solenoid. If the coil is designed to be energized with alternating current (AC). An optocoupler (alight-emitting diode (LED) coupled with a photo transistor) can be used to isolate control and controlled circuits. activated by the control signal. as in some types of modems or audio amplifiers. the armature is returned by a force. Alternatively. a contact protection network consisting of a capacitor and resistor in series (snubber circuit) may absorb the surge.moving contacts on the armature. and vice versa if the contacts were open. but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. a diode is often placed across the coil to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation. When the coil is energized with direct current. When the current to the coil is switched off. a small copper "shading ring" can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. If the set of contacts was closed when the relay was deenergized. In a low-voltage application this reduces noise. . as in the starter solenoid of an automobile. which would otherwise generate a voltage spike dangerous to semiconductor circuit components. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. and the circuit track on the printed circuit board (PCB) via the yoke. and the consequent movement of the movable contact(s) either makes or breaks (depending upon construction) a connection with a fixed contact. When an electric current is passed through the coil it generates a magnetic field that attracts the armature. Some automotive relays include a diode inside the relay case. creating a small outof-phase current which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle A solid-state relay uses a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. Control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal. Detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing circuit breakers (protection relays). then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection. to switch the controlled load. approximately half as strong as the magnetic force. Applications Relays are used to and for: Control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal. to its relaxed position. which is soldered to the PCB.
Time delay functions. For longer time periods. . A dashpot is a piston filled with fluid that is allowed to escape slowly. Current flowing in the disk maintains magnetic field for a short time. a mechanical clockwork timer is installed. lengthening release time. For a slightly longer (up to a minute) delay. Relays can be modified to delay opening or delay closing a set of contacts. adashpot is used. A very short (a fraction of a second) delay would use a copper disk between the armature and moving blade assembly. The time period can be varied by increasing or decreasing the flow rate.
In fact.g. 1150 crore from Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL) for setting up a captive cogeneration power plant in Panipat. The boiler itself burns the bark that itself cannot be used to make paper and would otherwise be a waste material. and where both are raw-materials for a related industrial process. Exhaust steam from the turbine is then used as a source of heat to dry freshly-made paper before is is finally condensed into water and returned to the boiler. . Haryana.. Also. Boilers produce steam. The contract involves project management. there must be some provision to 'bootstrap' the integrated process into operation .Captive power plants Captive power plants are those power plants which operate independent of wheeling to grid ! They are mostly meant by in-house power generation for industry and not selling the power to grid of electricty boards ! for example a DG set for a small industry is a captive power plantor a large thermal plant for a cement industry or smelter is also a captive power plant ! Captive power plants are associated with specific industrial complexes. electric power and steam). The steam passes through a turbine that spins a generator to produce electricity.often this means relying on grid power to start-up the plant following an outage. Captive power plants don't necessarily have to be islands that are disconnected from 'the grid'. procurement and construction of the power plant for IOCL's naphtha cracker project at its petrochemical complex in Panipat. the process of making pulp produces a chemical waste called "black liquor' that can also be burned as a fuel in a boiler. and power must be taken from the grid to make up the difference. Another term that may sometimes be synonymous is 'cogeneration' in which the power plant produces multiple forms of energy (e. engineering. and their output is almost entirely consumed by that industrial plant. it is often the case that the demand of the industrial process exceeds the capacity of the captive plant. and rather than throttle back the excess is sold to the grid. And it is possible that there are times when the captive plant will produce more power than can be consumed in the industrial process. Probably the most classic example is that of a paper mill. In addition. Captive Cogeneration Power Plant Project at IOCL Panipat Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) has won a large scale turnkey contract valued at Rs.
To be commissioned within 32 months. L&T bagged this prestigious order against keen competition from reputed EPC contractors on the strength of its track record in executing similar projects meeting stringent quality requirements. three steam turbines. This is the second major contract won by L&T for IOCL's Panipat Naphtha Cracker Project. Engineers India Limited. . L&T and the Toyo consortium had earlier bagged the turnkey contract for naphtha cracker and associated units. two utility boilers and sophisticated control systems to ensure uninterrupted supply of power and steam to the naphtha cracker complex. five heat recovery steam generators.The power plant comprises five gas turbines. L&T has participated in the setting up of several major power generations projects in India and abroad. the plant will have an installed capacity of 227 MW of power and over 800 tph of process steam. had invited offers under the International Competitive Bidding route. who is the Project Management Consultant to IOCL.