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and masters or between masters and masters for imposing of restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and also the provision of benefits to members.” Another definition derived from Indian Trade Union Act 1926 “ A trade union is any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, between employers and employers or for imposing restrictive condition on the conduct of any trade or business and includes any federation of two or more trade unions. • Trade Union differs in structure, objectives and method of the organizations. It should be recalled that the concept of Worker’s Organization is mentioned in the Conventions No’s 87 and 98 of the ILO Trade Union • means an association of persons, whether registered or not, having as one of its objects the regulation of employment relations between workers and employers FNs of TU 1) to improve the terms of employment 2) To improve the physical environment at work 3) To achieve full employment and national prosperity 4) To achieve security of employment and income 5) To improve social security 6) To achieve fair shares in national income and wealth 7) To achieve industrial democracy 8) To achieve a voice in government 9) To improve public and social services 10) To achieve public control and planning of industry Specific fns of TU Collective Bargaining Safeguarding Jobs Co-operation with employers Political activities Provision of social services:- (provident funds, Credit Unions, legal services, convalescent and retirement homes) Provision of training, workshops, seminars Objectives as per Registry of Associations Model Rules The objectives as per model issued by Registry of Associations ( Mauritius) to regulate employment relations between workers and employers; to obtain and maintain fair and reasonable rates of remuneration, hours of work and other conditions of service and generally to protect the interest of its members; to maintain funds for these purposes and for the purpose of protecting the rights of members in relation to their contract of employment; and
to co-operate with other trade unions having for one of their objects the promotion of the interests of workers within the scope of the Employment Relations Act. Objectives of TU • to establish an order of society which is free from hindrances to an all-round development of its individual members, which fosters the growth of human personality in all its aspects, and which goes to the utmost limit in progressively eliminating social, political or economic exploitation and inequality, the profit motive in the economic activity and organization of society and the anti-social concentration of power in any form • to place industry under national ownership and control in a suitable form • to secure increasing association of workers in the administration of industry and their full participation in that control • to organize society in such a manner as to ensure full employment and the best utilization of its manpower and other resources • to promote social, civic and political interest of the working class • to establish just industrial relations • to secure redressal of grievances, without stoppage of work, by means of negotiation, conciliation, and failing these, arbitration and adjudication • to take other legislative methods, including strikes or any suitable form of manifestation, where adjudication is not applied and settlement of disputes within reasonable time by arbitration is not available for the redress of grievances • to make necessary arrangement for the efficient conduct and satisfactory and speedy conclusion of authorized strikes • to foster the spirit of solidarity, service, brotherhood, co-operation and mutual help among the workers • to develop in the workers a sense of responsibility towards industry and the community; and • to raise the worker’s standard of efficiency and discipline • to establish a socialist state • to socialize and nationalize means of production the workers, distribution and exchange • to ameliorate the economic and social conditions of the working class • to watch, promote, and further the interests, rights, and privileges of in all matters relating to their employment • to secure and maintain for the workers the freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of association, freedom of assembly, the right to strike and the right to work and maintenance • to co-ordinate the activities of the various labour unions • to abolish political or economic advantage based on caste, creed, community, race or religion • to secure and maintain for the workers right to strike States & agencies • Ministry of Labour, Employment & Industrial Relations • Ministry of Civil Service Affairs and Administrative Reforms • Pay Research Bureau • National Remuneration Board • Employment Tribunal 2
• Conciliation and Mediation Committee Confederations of unions objectives • To help resolve disputes between members of affiliated organisations and their members • To promote the interests of its members • To represent members in negotiations at industry and national level • Represent workers at industrial tribunals • Nominate representatives on statutory and consultative bodies • Taking part at international trade union organisation • Regulating relations between members and promoting inter-union co-operation • Assisting unions in dispute • Devise policies concerning industrial, economic and social matters and campaign actively for them • Provide service to members • Provide training to its members • Represent workers at disciplinary committees • Assist members in collective bargaining Collective Bargaining Advantages • Effective way of determining pay and conditions of employment. • Time savings by reaching collective agreements. • Forum to discuss wide issues concerning progress of the firm, and for presenting workers’ views to management. • Prevents disruptive consequences as absenteeism, lack of effort, non co-operation , and industrial sabotage. Advantages • Make Workers feel more secured with collective bargaining procedures and will be willing to cooperate with redeployment and alterations in working practices. • Standardization of pay structures for similar jobs and the reinforcement of team work. • Stabilization of industrial relations climate. • • • • • • • Disadvantages: Motivation and productivity of certain employees who could earn higher wages on individual negotiations are hindered. The institutions of collective bargaining supports the status quo and can be highly resistant to change. Setting of standard terms and conditions of employment to everyone prevents market forces from allocating labour resources in the most efficient manner. Management/ Labour relations become highly formal and bureaucratic, with loss of personal communications between managers and the people who work for them. The ritual that surround collective bargaining could cause union representatives to lose touch with the ‘rank and file’. Collective bargaining might encourage ‘them and us’ attitudes. 3
Arguably, collective bargaining helps promote the interests only of those who are party to it, at the expense of the welfare of the general community. Employee Participation Purpose: • The purposes of employee participation are regarded as an improvement of the quality of working life in an organization and an increase in business efficiency. Participation should enhance employee motivation and reduce industrial strife. • At the national level, governments sometimes see worker participation in management decisions as a means for improving overall corporate productivity and hence for enhancing the nation’s international competitiveness. The ILO has always supported the involvement of employee representatives in management’s decisions on the ground that it develops social cohesion, and fair treatment for labour as it acts as a counterbalance of power at the decisional level. Other purposes of participation include: • Increasing workers’ job satisfaction • Providing employees with a means for relating their own self interests to those of the firm • Inculcating the belief that management wishes to be fair and just, and that management is taking employee welfare seriously • Enhancing workers’ feelings of job security. • Acceptance of technological change with regard to equipment. • Rationalisation of decisions with regard to productivity and organisation’s vision and mission statements Conditions for EE participation • Managers and workers must both want participation to succeed. There should be a ‘mutual trust’. Hostility from either side will guarantee failure. • Employees should actually be able to influence managerial behaviour. Otherwise the situation would one of ‘communication’ rather than ‘participation’. • It must extend to significant issues that genuinely affect employees’ working lives. • It should not involve bargaining, with various parties haggling for bigger shares in the profits of the firm. • Employees need to be competent to offer sensible and useful ideas to management. • Management should make available to employees whatever information is necessary to enable them to form a considered opinion on relevant issues. • All participants should be clear about the scope and objectives of the scheme. • The institutional mechanisms for participation should be cost-effective and not absorb too much management or employee time. • Participation should only apply that the organisation and its workers can control.
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