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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This report analyses a retailing company, named Big Bazaar. It is a branch of the Future Group owned by Pantaloon Retail India Limited. It was pioneered by the CEO of Future Group, Mr. Kishore Biyani. It provides a wide range of commodities to its consumers at reasonable prices lower than the market prices. A brief history of Big Bazaar and its current state is initially outlined. The discussion further focuses on the situational analysis of the company. The research has been undertaken to gather the information on the basis of SWOT, PESTLE and Porters five forces analysis. In spite of Big Bazaar making good business, it faces many tribulations. So, taking into consideration all the challenges faced by Big Bazaar, they are critically analyzed. On these bases, some of the recommendations are suggested which will help in the growth of the sales of the company and it can perform exceptionally.

1. INTRODUCTION: 1.1 BRIEF HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE COMPANY: Big Bazaar is a chain of hypermarkets in India currently operating with more than 133 stores. It is a subsidiary of Future Group Limited owned by Pantaloon Retail India Limited. This concept was established by a business leader named Mr. Kishore Biyani, the CEO of Future Group. Indias first hypermarket retail Big Bazaar outlet commenced in Calcutta in 2001. These stores are presently situated only in India. It furnishes all variety of products such as department, furniture, grocery and fashion stores under one roof at prices lower than maximum retail price (MRP). The tag line of company is Is se sasta aur accha kahin nahin. It aims at quality and cost by targeting the price conscious segment of customers (Sharan 2009). 1.2 VISION AND ACHIEVEMENTS: The vision of the company is To Deliver Everything, Everywhere, Every time for Every Indian Consumer in the most profitable manner. It caters to each and every need of its customer. Its corporate credo is Rewrite rules, Retain values. It has accomplished number of awards like Indian Retail Forum Awards 2008, Coco-Cola Golden Spoon Awards 2008, the Indiastar Award 2008, Most admired retailer of the year: Hypermarket- Big Bazaar 2009 and many more. The company promotes itself by providing various offers like saal ke sabse saste 3 din, future card (discount upto 3%), shakti card, junk swap offer and many more (Sharan 2009). 1.3 CHALLENGES FACED: There are many challenges faced by the company as well. It furnishes the customers with most exclusive brands under all sorts of products (Jha et al. 2008). The customers have to wait for a long time in big queues at the billing counters. It needs to commence with attractive promotional campaigns, easily explicable by the rural population also and after sales service. It also faces inefficient merchandising due to improper structure of the store as numerous products are accumulated at the same place (Kumar 2009). 2. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS:

A situational analysis is a form of preliminary research undertaken to gather background information and gather data pertinent to the problem area that may be helpful in properly defining the problem (Burns and Bush 2006). B 2.1 SWOT analysis: The SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool for analyzing an organizations competitive position in relation to its competitors (Basu 2009). Strengths: A vast range of products of the most exclusive brands are available under one roof. It has thorough understanding of the needs of Indian consumers. The ambience of Big Bazaar is designed similarly to a traditional bazaar according to its name which making Indian customers feel comfortable. It has a leverage of early entry into the retail industry (Harsha 2009). Since the products are displayed in a huge area, there is self service for the buyers and they can check its quality before purchasing. Quality is superior especially of food products compared to kirana stores. It is a biggest value retail chain in India. It offers family shopping experience, where entire family can visit together (Giri 2010). It follows EDLP pricing strategy indicating every day low pricing that promises consumers the lowest available price along with many discount offers. Many promotional campaigns are undertaken and different kinds of offers are provided (Slideshare 2008). Weaknesses: There are time consuming long queues at billing counters. Some brands are still missing from Big Bazaars line of products like Jockey, Van heusen, etc. Some specific commodities are not available regularly. It is dependent on distribution channel of brands of various products like FMCG. It lacks a strong supply chain for its products. At some destinations, there is not enough parking space for the customers (Giri 2010). There is high attrition of employees. Customer retention is less. It earns very thin margin of profit. It is unable to meet store opening targets. There is high cost of operation due to large fixed costs (Harsha 2009). There is general perception amongst some consumers that low price means low quality (Slideshare 2008). Opportunities: There is lot of scope in Indian organized retail as it stands at approximately 4.15% (Slideshare 2008). It can keep a track on changing preferences of customers by a proper feedback system and accordingly provide them service. It can target the rural markets as they are more prone to development (Harsha 2009). The mall culture in India is increasing. More people these days prefer big stores where they find large variety under one roof. It can also expand globally. It can add more brands to its list by tie ups with the once not included (Giri 2010). Threats: There are many competitors like Shoprite, Reliance (Fresh and trends), Hypercity and D mart which are coming up to tap the market potential. Margin of business is reducing all the time as the customers have started spending less than before. There is high business risk involved (Harsha 2009). Unorganized retail also appears to be a threat to Big Bazaars business. A large population still prefers to visit local convenient stores for daily purchases. The changing government policies like complex sales and excise policies for retail industry and future economic conditions can be dangerous for its success (Slideshare

2008). The working funds required are very high compared to the revenue and thus it is very difficult to raise this capital. The rents or lease amount are always high as these malls are opened at crowded places and famous destinations where people usually travel a lot. Lot of product delivery and other complaints are noticed. These complaints are not taken care of properly. The employees at times lack proper knowledge of the offers provided (Giri 2010). 2.2 PESTLE analysis: The PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental) analysis is an analytical tool for assessing the impact of external contexts on a project or a major operation and also the impact of a project on its external contexts (Basu 2009). Political: The changing government policies may have an adverse effect. The tax policies will also affect the profitability of the company. Political stability is essential to maintain facilitating high income (Kumar 2009). Economic: There would be a change in the inflation rate. The company might have to undergo a recession period. Monetary policy is of immense importance (Kumar 2009). Social: The company has to think about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Customer segmentation also plays a vital role (Kumar 2009). Technological: It is necessary to get adapted to new upcoming technologies to provide better service. It should make the maximum use of technology for fast billing and various other facilities provided. It should focus on advanced applications of information technology such as in store management, point of sales, supply chain management and customer relationship management (Kumar 2009). Legal: The labour and consumer laws should be practiced properly. There should be safety regulation also. There are problems of taking over real estate and properties and getting subsidy from octroi as well as on different taxes like water and land (Awasthi et al. 2011). Environmental: The location for opening a new store should be selected without harming the environment. The garbage should be dumped in a proper area (Awasthi et al. 2011). 2.3 PORTERS FIVE FORCES analysis: A key concept in Porters five forces model is the view that some industries are attractive and others are less attractive which can be characterized and evaluated by looking at, and analyzing, the following five forces: the strength of buyers and suppliers, threat of new entrants and substitutes and rivalry among the competitors (Williamson et al. 2004). Rivalry among the competitors: There are many competitors of Big Bazaar like Vishal retail, Aditya Birla group, Reliance retail and Bharti retail (Lal et al. 2009). So, to have sustained competitive advantage, Big Bazaar needs to attain customer satisfaction by providing them quality service.

Threat of entrants: Companies like Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Metro, Ikea and other international companies might plunder India. Some domestic conglomerates might also commence with retail chains (Lal et al. 2009). For smooth operation, enough of space is necessary to construct the store. Big Bazaar faces inadequate essential factors like skilled and qualified staff. These all issues can increase the threat of entrants. On other hand, being an established brand, Big Bazaar has achieved loyal customers. It operates on large scale which would be complicated for the new companies due to involvement of high costs (Sahoo et al. 2010). It has implemented these strategies for high hindrance of new entrants. Bargaining power of suppliers: Few established suppliers charge high rates. Some suppliers compel on smaller kirana stores while well-known companies force them to decrease their rates. In India, organized retail is a minor segment of retail industry. As this business expands, the suppliers will have to depend on one retailer leading to reduced bargaining power. The bargaining power of suppliers fluctuates on the basis of target segment. Big Bazaar has been succeeded in selling numerous products of its suppliers and earning profits, so many suppliers are immensely dependent on it. Many unestablished suppliers are also associated with Big Bazaar and it has assured that they acquire products at the best possible prices (Lal et al. 2009). Bargaining power of buyers: Big Bazaar reduces the bargaining power of buyers by providing the products to them less than market price. So, their tag line Is se sasta aur accha kahin nahin indicates the same, attracting many price conscious customers. It furnishes variety of products under same roof along with value added services to its buyers. It also offers good products with warranty, every day low pricing strategy, free shipping and easy returns. But, the consumers still have ample choice if they exclude Big Bazaar. These factors affect the bargaining power of buyers (Lal et al. 2009). Threat of substitutes: It deals with everyday required expendable products which cannot be substituted. Food items, clothes, toiletries and cosmetics are daily necessities of people. In order to purchase these commodities, the customers can choose unorganized retails like kirana stores which are available at every street of residential areas (Lal et al. 2009). In case of Big Bazaar, this is not possible due to large space requirement for the store. Thus, kirana stores can pose a threat as they are easily accessible for the customers. 3. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN: The implementation plan for a business is much more detailed, including times and dates, an action plan of tasks to accomplish, who is supposed to accomplish the tasks, and when they will be completed than the company objectives (Fiore 2005). Being a consultant, the challenges faced by Big Bazaar are critically analyzed and some of the recommendations are suggested: There should be proper queue system management. There are numerous sections of daily required commodities which should have separate billing counters in the same section to

avoid long waiting queues. It can also segregate billing counters on the basis of mode of payment like cash and credit card. The damaged products, if any, should be immediately replaced as it would create negative impression on other items placed in its vicinity. Big Bazaar develops new offers and schemes frequently which the visiting customers are not aware of. Separate help desks, making people aware of the various offers and discounts to assist them in shopping are not seen in stores. All the outlets should follow this system to avoid any confusions and dissatisfaction of the customers after they purchase the products. Many branded products are excluded in its brands list. Big Bazaar should include them and make available for the brand choosy consumers. Since the stores are overcrowded on weekends, the customers face a lot of problems in respect of trolleys. Enough of trolleys should be made available for them of two to three sizes. This would help the people to choose the trolleys according to the size, depending on their purchasing quantity. So, all of them would not select the same type of trolley. People face problem of restricted sizes in the products like pressure cooker, shoes, etc. Proper measures should be taken to get rid of the problems of out of stock commodities. There should be an efficient training team for the employees to get trained and have knowledge of various schemes and discounts on the products offered. The employees should be well equipped with their salesmanship quality and should make the customers feel very comfortable. It should provide customers with some new offers on products during off peak hours as well. As many stores are a part of big shopping malls, surprise schemes and offers should be announced to drive the attention of the people moving in the mall especially on less busy days. The customer care and service department functions unconventionally and should handle complaints and queries of the customers in an efficient way. It should focus on in-house brand products to ensure their good quality. The product sections should commence from enough of space from the entrance of the store in order to control the crowd nearby the entrance. Many a times on peak hours, the signages are dislocated by customers. The employees should immediately place them on correct positions for the people to easily trace the products. Big Bazaar can promote itself by conducting free sample distribution of some of its small and less priced products.

It is suggested that Big Bazaar should introduce effective Customer Relationship Management (CRM) tool to attract more customers and to have maximum customer retention. On weekends, the number of employees should be increased as the stores are too crowded so that all the customers are handled properly. The sales of some products are very low as they are not easily noticeable or because of their high price. Such products should be placed at the centre point of the store and some discounts or scheme should be offered on them. This will gain attention of people and the sales of these items will increase. More creative and attractive advertisements must be introduced for merchandising of the products especially targeting the women ratio. Special attention should be given to the youth section as much of them are not a part of Big Bazaars customers. These advertisements should be easy enough for the rural population to understand. More hoardings can be placed in the areas uncovered. If some new products are introduced, they should be well demonstrated to bring in notice of the customers and develop faith among them regarding such new commodities. Many of the Big Bazaar stores do not provide enough of parking space for customers. The stores should be constructed in such a way that sufficient parking space is available for private vehicles of the customers. The facilities inside the stores like hygienic washrooms and drinking water should be properly maintained and the customers should be made aware of this. At times, some expired items are placed in the sections. Expiry dates of each and every product should be checked on a regular basis and replaced immediately accordingly. Consumption of expired commodities would affect on the health of customers and negative impact would be created. Nowadays retailing has become much more advanced as customers while sitting at home can login onto respective malls sites and buy products which would be delivered at the door steps with an extra cost of postage handling and delivery. Big Bazaar has also introduced retailing through internet and web based technology. It should be made more user-friendly as customers find a bit difficult to use it. The customers should be given fixed time and date for delivery of their product and ensure that it takes place within that time span by maintaining a separate delivery team of employees as it faces many issues regarding product delivery. They can maintain their prices during the recession period to attract more customers as during this span people become extra price conscious.

A proper feedback system should be followed to understand the consumers views and their changing preferences and accordingly offer them products and services. Though there is a website for the customers to put up their complaints, there should be a separate department to handle each of these complaints and tackle them as soon as possible which are neglected. There should be ample seating arrangements for the customers as well as for the employees in the back areas. The store should be designed in an efficient way as too many products are stacked at the same place. There should be sessions of stress management exercises for employees during possible timings as they need to stand throughout their shifts. It should target the rural market as well as the areas which are more prone to development. After capturing entire Indian market, Big Bazaar should plan to expand globally. Big Bazaars revenue in FY 2007-08 was 50.53 billion (Choudhury 2009) being quite good. Taking into consideration above recommendations, it can attain more customer satisfaction by performing exceptionally good and accordingly earn higher profits. 4. CONCLUSION: The report reveals that along with the westernization, modernization and altering lifestyle, there is a huge scope for the development of organized retailing and progress of Big Bazaar which is a hypermarket. It furnishes the customers with almost all variety of products in respect to cosmetics, clothing, food, health, footwear, electronics and many more at reasonable prices. So, it becomes very convenient for the consumers to do all the shopping in the same store rather than choosing any unorganized retailing. Big Bazaar has become an established brand in India and has a strong customer base as many of them are satisfied with it. It has developed an affable relationship with its customers. It mainly caters to middle and upper middle class. The ambience of the stores gives the people a feel of traditional Indian bazaars. The biggest threats of Big Bazaar are the unorganized retailers such as kirana stores and other specialty discounted stores like Reliance retail, D mart and Hypercity. It is included in the topmost level industries when it comes to retailing in India. Big Bazaar is trying to extend to all possible areas of the society by developing a hypermarket where all the rich, middle, upper middle and lower class people can assemble together and enjoy the shopping experience. The company is well known for the various discounts and schemes it offers. People wait in long queues to enter the store and experience the advantage of these offers. This is the most successful strategy being used by Big Bazaar which has contributed immense increase in the sales of the products and keeps on attracting more and more customers. It faces many challenges as mentioned above, but the company

can work harder to overcome them and run into more profits by providing better services to its customers. 5. ANNEXURE: SWOT Analysis: STRENGTHS Exclusive brands EDLP Infrastructure Product diversity WEAKNESSES Long queues at billing counters Unable To Meet Store Opening Target Perception Amongst Consumers

OPPORTUNITIES Global Expansion Organized Retail Targeting Area More Prone To Development Understanding Consumer Preferences

THREATS Economic Conditions Government Policies Unorganized Retail Competitors

PESTLE Analysis: POLITICAL Tax policies Political stability Government policies ECONOMIC Stages of business life cycle Inflation rate SOCIAL Social responsibility Customer segmentation

TECHNOLOGICAL Facilities provided Adaptation to new technology

LEGAL Safety regulation Consumer laws Labor laws

ENVIRONMENTAL Location Dumping of waste

PORTERS FIVE FORCES Analysis: FIVE FORCES 1. Rivalry among the competitors 2. Threat of entrants ANALYSIS Vishal retail Reliance retail International players looking to foray India Domestic conglomerates looking to start retail chains Unorganised sector has a dominant position Varies as per the target segment More choice available Consumers are price sensitive Unorganized retail

3. Bargaining power of suppliers

4. Bargaining power of buyers

5. Threat of substitutes

6. REFERENCES: Awasthi, S., Singh, S. and Jain, V. 2011. Welcome to Big Bazaar. [online] Available from: [Accessed March 2 2011]. Basu, R. 2009. Implementing six sigma and lean: a practical guide to tools and techniques. UK: Elsevier Ltd. Bateman, T. and Snell, S. 2008. Management 8E (Sie). 8th ed. New Delhi: Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited. Burns, A. and Bush, R. 2006. Marketing research. 5th ed. South Asia: Pearson Education, Inc. Choudhury, S. 2009. 25 Big Bazaar stores in 2008; a stimulus for retail industry. [online] Available at: [Accessed March 20 2011]. Consumer Complaints. 2011. Big Bazaar complaints. [online] Available at: [Accessed March 14 2011]. Fiore, F. 2005. Write a business plan--in no time. United States of America: Que Publishing. Giri, S. 2010. Big Bazaar research report. [online] Available [Accessed February 27 2011]. from:

Harsha, B. 2009. Big Bazaar presentation ppt. [online] Bangalore: Surana College P.G Centre. Available from: [Accessed February 26 2011]. Jha, C., Shekhar, C., Singh, H., Sharma, M. and Prasad, S. 2008. 1 Big Bazaar. [online] New Delhi: Jamia Millia Islamia. Available from: [Accessed February 20 2011].

Kumar, G. 2009. Project on Big Bazaar. [online] Hyderabad. Available from: [Accessed February 21 2011]. Lal, S., Khushwah, S., Behera, S. and Kumar, S. 2009. Big Bazaar case study 2009. [online] Available from: [Accessed March 8 2011]. Sahoo, L., Pattanayak, S., Raj, P. and Rout, S. 2010. Big Bazaar. [online] Available from: [Accessed March 10 2011]. Sharan, S. 2009. A report on Big Bazaar - Pantaloon retail (India) ltd. [online] Karnataka: Ramaiah Institute of Management Studies. Available from: [Accessed February 20 2011]. Slideshare. 2008. Big Bazaar 2008 study. [online] Available from: [Accessed February 26 2011]. Williamson, D., Jenkins, W., Cooke, P. and Moreton, K. 2004. Strategic management and business analysis. UK: Elsevier Ltd.

Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh

B.A International Hospitality Management ITM-IHM, NAVI MUMBAI


2010 2011
Module code B3097 Module co-coordinator Ajay Meshram Matriculation Number 10009294




1. What is personal development plan.....1 2. What is a consultant.....1 3. Qualities required by a consultant 3.1 Skills...1 3.2 Knowledge... ......2 3.3 Behavior............. 2 4. Why Big Bazaar as a topic?..................................................................3 5. References.4

1. WHAT IS A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN: A personal development plan sets out the actions that people propose to take to learn and to develop themselves. They take responsibility for formulating and implementing the plan but they may receive support from the organization and their managers in doing so (Armstrong 2000). 2. WHAT IS A CONSULTANT: A consultant is someone who provides value through specialized expertise, content, behavior, skill, or other resources to assist a client in improving the status quo in return for mutually agreed-upon compensation and improves the clients condition (Weiss 2009). 3. QUALITIES REQUIRED BY A CONSULTANT: A good consultant needs to be equipped with numerous qualities. Some of them which contribute immensely to be an efficient consultant are skills, knowledge and behavior. 3.1 SKILLS: Skill means having the power to perform things and to implement attitudes, knowledge and aptitudes in the required circumstances in an effective way (Kubr 2002). Skills of a successful consultant can be further categorized as: Technical skills: It implies experience and deep information in a technical field. It is necessary for consultant to have exhaustive understanding of his area of expertise like marketing, manufacturing or general management. A consultant of any core area needs to have some important skills like plan of fundamental statistics, mathematics and questionnaires. The specific areas should contain problem examination theories, certain comprehension in employees enrolling and pecuniary study (Kolli 2000). Interpersonal skills: Providing someone with consultancy services includes handling of human beings and not equipments, so consultants should possess interpersonal skills. A technically expertise consultant but deficient of interpersonal skills, and poor manners and approach towards others cannot be successful in his task. He should possess professional attitude as well as deportment. He should be solemnly concerned in assisting his client by resolving problems faced by him (Kolli 2000). Consultancy skills: Along with technical and interpersonal skills, specific consulting skills are also needed for good consultancy. These skills are significant to recognize people and sections, to segregate vital aspects, analyze the company, evaluate the sort of politics and authority and isolate reasons and consequences. He should possess deep business

consultancy cycle knowledge. These skills help in connecting creativity and business practices for recommending innovative suggestions (Kolli 2000). Being a consultant, I acquired these skills which assisted me immensely to formulate my report. 3.2 KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge is the maintained data relating to concepts, procedures, details and relationships. It is effective for differentiating between specialized and general knowledge. The specialized knowledge in consulting is classified into two types. The first is related to the purpose of consulting. This implies technical section of intercession or particular sector of consultant. The illustrations of technical sections are job assessment, marketing, corporate strategy and production company, while illustrations of particular sectors are banking, insurance and manufacturing. The other is specialized knowledge means consulting like company, methods, procedures, techniques and its doctrine. General knowledge include political, economic, social and cultural organizations, surroundings and processes that compose a general background for consulting intercessions in particular companies (Kubr 2002). A good consultant having knowledge should not only retain it with him, but also transfer it to his clients. Several consultants choose to keep their expertise and knowledge with themselves and endeavor to defend their job security as they want the clients to call them continuously for insistent business. Certain consultants opt to educate clients with the skills and knowledge they possess, so the client need not invite the consultant regularly to execute the task. However, several clients choose to work with consultants who will educate them with what they know to the level the client desires to learn. Such consultants work with clients not only for primary engagement, but also for follow-up work (Phillips 2006). As a consultant, I developed my knowledge skills in all aspects of the company by systematic research which enhanced my report. 3.3 BEHAVIOR: The behavior of a consultant concerns his capability to be compatible with his clients. It is all about the manner in which an individual speaks through his words and performance, and not much about what he is speaking (Cohen 2001). A consultant with much knowledge but poor behavior will face the problem of his clients preferring other consultants with much less experience and ability. If he is unable to get along with client, the consultant would be unsuccessful to convince him properly and thus, the client would choose to hire some other consultant. A consultant with poor behavior reflects his negative attitude and will approach towards a thing in a wrong way. His attitude towards handling and solving the problems of clients would be improper. He would be unable to develop a strong relationship of trust with his clients. This will result in loosing of more and more customers and his business would drop down drastically. If consultant acquires a pleasant behavior, it will automatically encourage his clients to develop confidence in what he is speaking and his work accordingly (Cohen 2001). Such a consultant would make his client feel comfortable. A client happy with the behavior of consultant would suggest him to his associates, thus getting him more business. So, taking into consideration all positive aspects of behavior, a consultant along with his expertise skills and technical knowledge should also possess good behavior in order to become successful.

My behavioral skills were enhanced as a consultant, which facilitated to accumulate vast information. 4. WHY ME? Big Bazaar, a retail industry was an intriguing topic. It deals with essential commodities required on daily basis. Many customers like me prefer Big Bazaar rather than any other retail department stores. Being a hotel management graduate, it motivated me to choose Big Bazaar as the products rendered by it contribute immensely in the hotel industry as well. A hotel furnishes numerous facilities and amenities to its guests at the same place. In the same way, Big Bazaar also assists its customers with wide range of commodities under one roof with value added services. The implementation plan enhanced my skills in many aspects and availed me to discover new sales and marketing techniques which can be applicable for the hotel industry as well. Big Bazaar is one of the fastest growing chains in the retail industry. As a frequent visitor of Big Bazaar, I monitored many of the problems faced by it. So being a consultant, I analyzed these challenges and determined a lot of scope for the company in future, if it follows specific strategies which are suggested by me in the implementation plan above.

5. REFERENCES: Armstrong, M. 2000. Performance management: key strategies and practical guidelines. 2nd ed. London: Kogan Page Limited. Cohen, W. 2001. How to make it big as a consultant. 3rd ed. USA: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Gray, D. 2004. Start and Run a Profitable Consulting Business. 2nd ed. UK: Kogan Page Limited. Holtz, H. and Zahn, D. 2004. How to succeed as an independent consultant. 4th ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Kolli, S. 2000. The essentials of management consulting. United States of America: Research and Education Association. Kubr, M. 2002. Management consulting: a guide to the profession. 4th ed. Geneva: International Labour Office. Lewis, H. 2004. Consultants & advisers: a best practice guide to choosing, using and getting good value. London: Kogan Page Limited. Phillips, J. 2006. How to Build a Successful Consulting Practice. United States of America: McGraw-Hill Professional. Weiss, A. 2009. Million dollar consulting. 4th ed. United States of America: McGraw-Hill Professional.