The end of war and Fall of Communism

At the end of WWII •Dashed hopes, instead the harsh order of the past returned •collectivization ofarmers didn’t like this oserfs for a long time; just assumed that they would own the land, so they aren’t allowed to own it because of ollectivization •Heavy industry o¼ of the worlds resources were destroyed ogerman repreations osweedish aide othe industrial outputs from these countries were flooded back into ussia •The marshall plan oa massive amount of American funding that went to eastern Europe after wwII oHowever Russia turned it don because if they accepted it it meant that it would become a vassal of US power. •prewar shock work did NOT occur •slave labor in the Siberian provinces was re instated •food rationing continued until 1947 •Socialist Realism odepicting the utopia of socialism onot something to express individual feelings oart worked for the state •Upsurge of nationalism oofficial nationality obased on autocracy and orthodoxy, Russian a the individual one big problemwith official nationality: a lot of people became disillusioned by the bleak nationality of Russia. they were perceived as terrorists •The doctor’s plot oa lot of doctors that were arrested for conspiring to kill the nation’s leaders oThen Stalin dies Cold war in 1945 •the Russians were realy annoyed with the british and the Americans •post war settlement •the Eurasian continene becomes bipolar : communism on the east capitalism on the west •NATO on the west and the Warsaw pact on the east

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•Cold war also required vast amount of money for the arms, space race •stalin gained control over east berlin china, north korea, Vietnam •decided to construct a shield against german military retaliation •all over e. Europe there were soviet leaders to spread soviet values 1953 Stalin Dies •Khruschev oDe-stalinization ogives a speech called the 20th party congress called stalin a monster and have to change the way we work oall about crtiscizing the cult personality ad challenging the idea that one cn be loyal to a person rather than to the state. The thaw •Ivas childhood •Reform from above starts to fail again •virgin lands project (not pragmatic) and eventually fails •beginning of the massive black market •Cuban missle project Party cadre dissatisfaction •the polutburo members did not want this sort of communism Brezhnev and developed socialsism •the idealistic form of developed socialism is that we can sort of revel in the stability of socialism •an agreement that said that if the poplulation kept the communist party in power then we’ll take care of you. •“Trust in Cadres” social normalcy stability in return for support •the average Russian could not buy a car or anything that wasn’t substiantive •to encurage citizens to accept the normalcy of the status quo, they offered advancements in society •the majority f the population was told that f they didn’t act out they wouldn’t be arrested •everyone received state pension and •food was kept subsidized •ajor investments were finally made in the consumer economy Decay and discontent •the emergence o state socialism had long roots in Russian history •even though commmunis is about everyone controlling the meands of production you have cadres which are very powerful groups of people controlling the means of productions •what it became was another system where reform from above became the ruling system again

•society reverted to a pseudo-tsarist state Goods for complacency •all of this disregards the rights of the people and made some other people fat with power and wealth and eventually led to the breakdown of the utopia of socialsm Second economy as a result of state socialism •black market became much more profitable •by 1981 there were a lot of economic problems that oiled don to the uissues with the centralized economy •by 1981 steel production fell very low people felt alienated and disenchanted large educated middle class The other big sisaster for Brezhnev was foreign policy •1968 Prague spring Russians mow people don with soviet tanks aveter Czechs uprise for democratic reform •in 1979 the soviet govt invaded Afghanistan BIG FAILURE. oRussians killed the current communist leader in Afghanistan othe new president didn’t do any better ous support was sent to Afghanistan (OBL) so the us is supporting Islamic fundamentalists against the Russian soviet war. 3,000,000 Afghanis flee the country •Brezhnev dies =( •ineffective leaders follow Gorbechev •Made the head of the communist party in 1985 •admits the problems publicly ostagnation ocommand economy increased the colume of output but doesn’t necessarily meet the demand for those goods  the economy slowed down the ened of the expansion of the economy a young educated workforce without positions for jobs ogorbechev believed in getting rid of the corrupt individuals at the top oNational defense problems ovoices of dissent grew louder oethnic nationalism •Responds ostill reform from above ochanges introduced by gorbechecv were similar to Brezhnev

obelieved in the offcial image of itself oa deep believer in communism •Glasnost oa spotlight that would expose problems and corruptions (political, cultural, economic) ocrimes and black market ochrenobyl 1986 near kiev spewing radiation into Belarussia 18 days after gorbechev inally spoke publically about it oa series of railroad disasters •Perestroikaoeconomic reforms ohift the hiuge economy from a state owned centralized to a semi market economy completely unrealistic price structure fixing the massive budget deficit olargely failed

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1/23/07 12:32 PM