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According to Hunziker and Krapf, (1941) Tourism is travel for recreational or leisure purposes. The Tourism Society of England's (1976) defined "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people from their daily living place to different outside places. The International Association of Scientific Experts (1981) defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. Tourist means people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for a day, week, month or year for leisure, business and other purposes. During the year 1994, The United Nations classified the tourism in to three types, 1. Domestic tourism, the residents of a particular country travel only within the country; 2. Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country; and 3. Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country. The UN also derived different categories of tourism by combining the three basic forms of tourism: Internal tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and inbound tourism; National tourism, which comprises domestic tourism and outbound tourism; and International tourism, which consists of inbound tourism and outbound tourism. Intrabound tourism is a term coined by the Korea Tourism Organization and widely accepted in Korea. Intrabound tourism differs from domestic tourism in that the former encompasses policymaking and implementation of national tourism policies.

Most visited countries

The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in 2007 by number of international travelers. When compared to 2006, Ukraine entered the top ten list, surpassing Russia, Austria and Mexico. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European continent.
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country France Spain United states China Italy United kingdom Germany Ukraine Turkey Mexico UNWTO Regional Market Europe Europe North America Asia Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe North America International tourist arrivals (2007) 81.9 million 59.2 million 56.0 million 54.7 million 43.7 million 30.7 million 24.4 million 23.1 million 22.2 million 21.4 million International tourist arrivals (2006) 79.1 million 58.5 million 51.1 million 49.6 million 41.1 million 30.7 million 23.6 million 18.9 million 18.9 million 21.4 million

Tourism is a major phenomenon of modern world and is one of the worlds highest priority industries and employers.


Tourism to Kerala is what apple growing is to Himachal Pradesh. Both these regions

offer all the pre-conditions for the sustained and successful growth of the respective activities. The factors stimulating a flourishing tourism sector include; scenic splendour, moderate climate, clean environment, a friendly and peace-loving people with high tolerance for cultural diversity and the potential for creating unique tourism products 9.2 The country offers much scope for promoting differentiated tourism products like beach resorts, the one-ofa kind products woven around Backwaters, health tourism, plantation tourism etc. 9.3 The State Government realizing the enormous potential of the tourism sector for creating productive employment opportunities matching the lifestyle aspirations of the educated Keralites, has been designing and implementing smart strategies jointly with the private entrepreneurs. These pro-active efforts have now started yielding handsome dividends. 9.4 Kerala is increasingly rated as one of the must-visit destinations not only by the highly discerning foreign tourists but also by the domestic tourists. The strategy which heavily focuses on class tourism (as opposed to mass tourism) leveraging the product differenciation possibilities does seem to be the ideal option for the State. Such careful nurturing of the unique tourism resources we have is absolutely critical to ensure that our fragile ecology is safeguarded for the sustained but moderately-paced growth of the industry. 9.5 Tourism is a major phenomenon of modern world and is one of the worlds highest priority industries and employers. Kerala is today the most sought and trusted tourism brand in India. It is sought after for its breath taking natural splendors, the zillion shades of green, endless peace and innovative tourism products; trusted for its transparent quality control systems, eco-friendly practices and long-term approach to tourism as well as tourists. 9.6 Keralas tourism brand is listed among the 101 strongest brands in India by Super brands India Pvt. Ltd and has been accorded the highly coveted Super Brand Status-internationally known as the Oscars in the world of branding. Kerala Tourism enjoys the privilege of being the only tourism destination in the listing which is being done for the first time in the country. 9.7 Foreign tourist arrivals to Kerala are showing an increasing trend for the last few years. In 2004, it recorded 17.28% growth over the last year. During 2004 the foreign exchange earnings from tourism in the State was Rs. 1266.77 crores which shows an increase of 28.82% over 2003.The total revenue generated from tourism to the State in the year 2004 is worked out at about Rs. 6829 crores. 9.8 According to World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) report, Travel and Tourism in Kerala is expected to grow at the rate of 11.4% per annum in real terms between 2004 and 2013.

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9.9 During 2004-05 the Department of Tourism has concentrated in the development of basic infrastructure, conservation of nature and heritage, development of new tourism products and ensuring its quality, focused promotion in targeted markets both domestic and international, effective use of Information Technology etc. Government has acted as facilitator and catalyst in encouraging private sector investment in the development of tourism infrastructure.

Awards and Recognition

9.10 Kerala Tourism continued to win worldwide awards and recognitions, few of them are;

2003 PATA Gold award for marketing as well as for its CD-ROM titled Kerala The Green Symphony Kerala is the only tourism destination selected for super brand in India World Tourism Organisation (WTO) selected Thenmala Eco-Tourism Project as one of the best 64 eco-friendly tourist destinations, spread over 47 countries. Kerala Tourism won best debut destination award at otdykh leisure 2003, Moscow Kerala bagged PATA grand Award for Heritage for Fort Kochi project Kerala won PATWA International Award for Leisure Tourism Kerala Tourism bagged the National Award for best performing State for 4 times during the last 5 years. Six National Awards from Government of India during 2003-04 consisting of Best performing State, Most effective use of information Technology, Best Practices by State Government. The Best Eco-friendly Projects ; Zero Waste Kovalam and Thenmala,The Best Eco-Friendly tourism organization and the Best Maintained Tourist Friendly Wild Life Sanctuary : Tiger Reserve Thekkady. Kerala bagged PATA Grand Gold Award for Heritage for the East Fort Conservation Project, Best CD-ROM Niramaya Best Eco-tourism Project, in the year 2004. During the current year Kerala Tourisms seven-brochure kit, Life in a new light and CDs, where the Season Never Ends Malabar Mystique and A Day with the Masters won the Indian Association of Tour Operators (IATO) awards for the best brochure and the best CD. Six National Awards during 2004-05 consisting of Best maintained Tourism friendly monument (East Fort), Innovative most unique tourism product (Kalamandalam), Best publication in English (Panchakarma), Best Tourism promotional collateral materials, Best Audio-Visual-Symphony celestial by Invis, Award for best promotion and marketing. BOX-9.1 WTTCs Projection Tourism demand of Kerala to grow by 11.6% per annum over the next decade (This is the highest recorded growth in the world, surpassing Turkeys 10.2% as well as Indias 9.7%) A record growth of 23.5% is also predicted in terms of external account earnings from travel and tourism over the next 10 years (Indias estimates for this period are 14.3% while the world average is only 6.5%) Tourism employment to be 2 million by 2012.

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Tourist Statistics Foreign and DomesticTourist Arrivals 9.11 In 2004, 345546 foreign tourists visited Kerala as against 294621 in 2003, showing an

increase of 17.28%, which constitute 10.26% of total foreign tourists, visited India. The details of foreign tourist arrivals from 2000 to 2004 and share of Kerala in tourism market is given in Appendix 9.1. 9.12 Domestic tourist arrivals during 2004 are estimated to be 5972182 as against 5871228 in 2003, showing an increase of 1.72%. Appendix 9.2 gives the domestic tourist flow to Kerala during the last five years and percentage variation over the previous 5 years.The growth of foreign and domestic tourist arrivals from 2000 to2004 is given in fig 9.1 Fig 9.1

Foreign and Domestic Tourists

0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Foreign tourists Domestic tourists

District wise arrival of foreign and domestic tourists in Kerala. 9.13 Appendix 9.3 gives the comparison of district wise arrival of foreign and domestic tourists in Kerala during 2003 and 2004. Ernakulam is the leading district on the basis of foreign tourist arrivals and Thrissur is the leading district on the basis of domestic tourist arrivals to Kerala. Income and Employment from Tourism 9.14 The foreign exchange earning from tourism during 2004 is Rs. 1266.77 crores. When compared to 2003, there is an increase of 28.82%. The earnings from domestic tourists during 2004 is Rs.3881.92 crores. Total revenue generated from tourism (directly and indirectly) in the State are worked out as about Rs. 6829 crores. Tourism employs about 8 lakh persons in the State. The investment in tourism is about Rs. 500 crores per year. The details of earnings from tourism are given in Appendix 9.4 and shown in fig.9.2

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Earnings from Tourism
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Foreign ExchangeEarning s

Earnings From Domestic Tourists Total Revenue Generated from Tourism

Accommodation 9.15 The number of classified rooms available in hotels during 2004 was 7011 as against 5049 in 2003. The number of classified hotels increased to 204 in 2004 from 142 in 2003. The details of availability of Accommodation facility is given in Appendix 9.5 9.16 The table 1 gives the preference of foreign tourists in choosing accommodation in the year 2004. 81.72% of tourists preferred Hotel Accommodation as shown in fig.9.3. Table -9.1 Classification of foreign tourists according to Accommodation during 2004 Sl.No. Type of Accommodation used % of tourists to total 1 Heritage 6.78 2 Ayurveda Centre 10.86 3 Home Stay 1.09 4 Hotels and Others 81.27 Total 100.00
Source : Dept. of Tourism

Fig. 9.3
Accommodation of Foreign Tourists Home Stay 1% Ayurveda Centre 11% Heritage 7% Hotels and Others 81%

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Major Tourism Destinations

9.17 Triruvananthapuram City, Kovalam, Poovar, Ponmudi, Varkala, Palaruvi, Paravoor, Alappuzha, Kuttanadu, Erumeli, Thekkady, Munnar, Vagamon, Kumarakom, Kochi City,

Aluva, Kalady, Cherai Beach, Maradu, Guruvayoor, Chalakudy, Athirappalli, Parambikulam, Nelliyampathi, Malampuzha, Nilambur, Kozhikode City, Kappad, Wayanad, Kadalundinagaram, Muzhupilangad and Bekal are the Identified Tourist Destinations of Kerala.
9.18 The art forms of Kerala are embodiments of Keralas culture. Beaches, backwaters, hill stations, waterfalls, wild life, Ayurveda, year round festivals and the diverse flora and fauna make Kerala quite distinct from the other Indian States. The pleasant climate is also a positive factor. Box 9.2 Tourism Products and Destinations Major Beaches Kovalam, Varkala, Fort Kochi, Kappad and Bekal Major Wild Life Sanctuaries Thekkady (Periyar), Parambikulam, Wayanad, Silent Valley, Aralam, Peechi-Vazhani, Chimani, Shenduruny, Idukki, Chinnar, Peppara, Neyyar Bird Sanctuary Thattekad, Kumarakom Major Hill Stations Ponmudi, Peerumade, Thekkedy, Munnar and Wayanad Art Forms Kadhakali,Koodiyattom,Kalarippayattu, Mohiniyattom,Chakkiyarkoothu etc. Promotion And Publicity 9.19 Department of Tourism has taken various innovative initiatives in Promotion and Publicity. The result is evident from the very high growth rate of tourist arrivals, to Kerala The major initiatives include Overall Strategy for marketing Initiatives in Promotion Kerala Travel Mart (KTM) India International Boat Show (IIBS) Mystiques of Malabar Exclusive Biennial Travel MART Unveiled North Kerala: Nishagandhi Dance & Music Festival: Keralas Initiative in Promoting South India: International Television Campaign Extended to New Channels New Advertisement Film for Kerala Tourism Kerala becomes theme State in Dubai Shopping Festival 2004 Participation in International and National Tourism Marts 9.20 In addition to the above the Department of Tourism participated in the following National tourism fairs; Travel and Tourism Fair Bangalore, Travel and Tourism Fair Chennai, Travel and Tourism Fair Hyderabad, Travel and Tourism Fair Kolkata, Travel and Tourism Fair New Delhi,

Travel and Tourism Fair Mumbai, India International Travel Mart Banglore, India International Travel Mart, Chennai, India International Travel Mart Hyderabad, India International Trade Fair New Delhi, South Asia Travel and Tourism Exchange New Delhi, IATO Conference Agra, TAAI

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Conference Calcutta, FHRAI Meeting Dubai, FICCI Conference New Delhi, Arogya Fest Chennai. Focus on Use of Information Technology : 9.21 More than half of the world is connected to the world wide web and the desceming traveler surfing the web for the latest information on tourism destinations and facilities, the Government of Kerala taps the potential of information technology as an effective communication medium. Stress is therefore on the electronic media & the use of latest devices in IT to promote tourism. This includes website, CD-ROMs, VCDs, DVDs, VHSs etc. Infrastructure Developments at Tourist Destinations and creation of en-route facilities: 9.22 Department of tourism has initiated various projects for the development of basic infrastructure at tourist destinations, improvement of tourism attractions at the destinations, creation of new tourism products and creation of en-route facilities. Department make use of various schemes offered by State and Central Government to implement these projects. The projects are either executed directly by Department of Tourism or through Line departments or other government agencies. Thrust has been given to the development of basic infrastructure along the backwaters for tourism promotion. Projects under implementation are Construction of houseboat terminals are being taken up at major backwater nodes such as Alappuzha, Kumarakom, Thanneermukkom, Chettuva, Vadikkal and Neeleswaram. The construction of the terminal at Kumarakom is completed and other are in progress. Tourism infrastructure and basic amenities are being developed along the PambaKuttanad backwater cruise routes after detailed studies through NATPAC. Tourist resorts at Pallathuruthy, Nedumudi, Kotharathode and Vattakkayal are being developed. Houseboats have been deployed at Neeleswaram, Parassinikkadavu, Kozhikode and Chettuva as part of extending backwater based activities to the Malabar area. Valliyaparamba is already developed as a major backwater centre. At Iringal, Azhhkal, Kotti & Ayittikadavu boat jetty complexes are being developed. Eco-Tourism 9.23 Thenmala Eco-Tourism Project features a tourist facilitation centre, shop court, garden, plazas, picnic area, nature trail, rock climbing, river crossing amphitheatre, restaurant, suspension bridge, lotus pond, musical dancing fountain, sculpture garden, deer rehabilitation centre, boating, battery powered vehicles etc. 9.24 The details of the revenue generated and the number of tourists visited at Thenmala from 2000 to 2004 are furnished in Table 9.2 Table 9.2 Tourists visited in Thenmala and Revenue generated from 2000 to 2004 Year

Tourists visited (Nos) Revenue generated (Rs) 2000-01 26148 445437 2001-02 41161 1138839 2002-03 65075 2147985 2003-04 118404 4044571 2004-05 104622 3563820 Apr. 05 to Sep. 05 47853 (provisional) 1685695
Source: Directorate of Ecotourism

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Eco-tourism Initiatives Implemented Through Forest Department 9.25 The forest department is evolving modalities for developing community based ecotourism products in the already identified potential ecotourism spots through the institution of Vana Samrakshana Smithy (VSS)/Eco-Development Committees (EDC), that is, the Committee of the local dependent communities. Certain successful models of these efforts are programmes at Athirapally, Vazhachal and Thekkady. Community led ecotourism activities are already in place at Palaruvi, Kallar, Chinnar, Aralam, Thommankoothu etc. 9.26 During 2005 new initiatives have been taken to establish community led ecotourism in the following areas. 1. Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary (Thiruvananthapuram District) 2. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary (Thiruvananthapuram District) 3. Shenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary (Kollam District) 4. Konni Ecotourism (Pathanamthitta District) 5. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary (IdukkiDistrict) 6. Eravikulam National Park (Idukki District)

7. Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary (Idukki District) 8. Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary (Thrissur District) 9. Nilliampathy (Palakkad District) 10. Parambikulam (Palakkad District) 11. Nilambur (Malappuram District) 12. Peruvannamuzhy (Kozhikode District) 13. Kakkayam (Kozhikode District) 14. Kuruva Islands (Wayanad District) 15. Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary (IInd Phase) (Kannur District)and 16. Pythalmala (Kannur District) Focus on Malabar Region: 9.27 Special focus is given to Malabar region by developing the tourism potential of this region. Special packages are taken up for the infrastructure development of backwaters, high ranges, development of beaches, eco-tourism etc in the Malabar Region with the financial assistance of Government of India.

Box-9.3 Projects at Malabar -Views The focus in Malabar area has been increasing. In the year 2004-05, almost equal amounts were spent in Malabar and Non-Malabar area From Rs. 4 crores in 2002-03, the amount spent during 2004-05 in Malabar area reached Rs. 30 crores. Page 8 295
Human Resource Development The Kerala Institute of Tourism & Travel Studies (KITTS): 9.28 KITTS imparts quality education and training in the field of Travel & Tourism. Apart from the courses, the Institute gives importance to developing character and extra circular activities. The Institute provides opportunities to students to develop their managerial and organizing skills by encouraging them to organize various activities in and out of the campus. Courses offered at KITTS 9.29 The Institute offers various job-oriented courses, both short term and long term. The long term regular course offered at the institute is the two-year Post Graduate

Diploma in Business Administration Travel & Tourism. AICTE has granted approval for MBA (Travel & Tourism) course for the academic year 2005-06. Recognition of the course is sought from CUSAT and the inspection team from the University has already visited the institute Cambridge International Diploma in Travel & Tourism is a six-months course conducted by the Institute in association with University of Cambridge and the British Council, Chennai. The certificate courses in Customer Relations and Service Management, and Airfare Ticketing and Travel Agency Management are the other two six months courses offered from the main campus at Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala Institute of Hospitality Management Studies (KIHMS) is the hospitality wing of KITTS, operating from the Yatrinivas building at Malayattoor, Ernakulam. A short term course (one year) for training masseurs is conducted at this Institute. Two certificate courses (i) Certificate in Food Production and (ii) Housekeeping & Front Office Management are also offered from this Chapter. During 2004-05, 316 students were in roll, out of which 193 students completed their courses and 123 students continue their studies. Training Programmes 9.30 Institute develops and implements continuous training programmes to the host community to be visitor friendly so as to create a positive mindset to the concept of tourism. The Institute is actively involved in awareness campaigns in various schools and colleges in the state through training programmes for Teacher Coordinators and Student Coordinators of Tourism Clubs. Facilitating Private Sector 9.31 Ever since tourism was declared an industry in 1986, several incentives which were available to investors in other industrial sectors have been extended to the tourism sector as well by the State Government. These include subsidies, technical guidance, marketing assistance, publicity through governmental publications, help in availing loans etc. New Initiatives 9.32The new initiatives of Kerala Tourism during 2004-05 are as follows: Kerala Tourism (Conservation and Preservation of Areas) Act 2005: Government have passed the Kerala Tourism (Conservation and Preservation of Areas) Act 2005 on 9

February 2005. The Act envisages the conservation, preservation and integrated

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development of Special Tourism Zone. Special Tourism Zone is any area which is identified and declared by the notification of Government in Gazette as Special Tourism Zone. As per the act, no development activity including construction in Special Tourism Zone shall be carried except in accordance with such guidelines as may be issued by State Tourism Conservation and Preservation Committee constituted under section 4 of Act. As the first phase of implementation of the above enactment, Department of Tourism desires to declare Kovalam, Munnar, Kumarakom and Fort Kochi as Special Tourism Zones Vazhiyoram: Vazhiyoram the way side facility with minimum standardized facilities is

proposed to be set up along all the major roads/waterways in the State through private sector initiatives. Vazhiyoram will be located in such a way that there will be at least one facility within 10-20 kms in National Highways, major State Highways/waterways and roads leading to tourist destinations. The project will be implemented in phases after prioritizing the roads/waterways with respect to their importance. Vazhiyoram units will have typical designs and will be branded. Department will also facilitate the entrepreneurs in getting finance from the funding agencies. The construction has to be done by the entrepreneur. Approval to function the unit will be given by a committee after inspection. Clean Destination Programme: Department of Tourism has introduced a scheme for upgrading the quality of destination by upkeeping them in clean and hygienic conditions. Clean Destination Campaign. Kudumbashree is the executing agency of Clean Destination Campaign. Registration of Tourism Societies: Government Order G.O.(P) No.11/05/GAD dated 5.1.2005 have conferred the powers of Registrar of Co-operative Societies to Director of Tourism in respect of all Tourism and Hospitality Co-operative Societies. Re-structuring of DTPCs: The DTPCs are restructured inorder to undertake new responsibilities such as implementation of District Level tourism projects, co-ordination of various tourism projects being implemented by the Department of Tourism, formation and monitoring of Tourism Clubs, implementation of Tourism Awareness programme etc. Town Squares as Tourism Nodes; Department of Tourism decided to formulate a new scheme for the development of Town Squares at important centers which act as tourism nodes where sufficient open space is available to create quality facilities such as public toilets, parking area, large open space for relaxing, meeting space, information and facilitation centers within tourism important urban nodes. The scheme is proposed to be implemented in association with Local Self Governments. Pilgrim Facilitation Centres; Department of Tourism decided to formulate a new scheme for the development of Pilgrim Facilitation Centres at important pilgrim centres in association with the Temple/Church/Mosque authorities in charge of the pilgrim centre, to promote the unique cultural heritage of the State. My Village, Tourism Destination Village;Department of Tourism in partnership with Local Self Governments decided to start a new project My Village, Tourism Destination Village to ensure tourist friendly environment in the Villages. Alappuzha to be back as Venice of the East:It has been decided to develop Alappuzha as a major tourist destination. Various projects are taken up for the development of backwaters of Alappuzha, cleaning up of various canals of Alappuzha etc. Government of India have sanctioned the following projects at Alappuzha during 2005-06. Rejuvenation of heritage canal Development of Backwater Tourism Complex, Alappuzha

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Boat Terminal Complex

Backwater-front walkway, Punnamada Floating jetty at Punnamada Beach Beautification Presidents Mission 9.33 The President of India ,Dr.APJ.Abdul Kalam, in his Address to the Members of the Legislative Assembly of Kerala on 28

July 2005 discussed the missions which Kerala can undertake using the core competence of the State.Tourism including General,Spiritual,Health and Science is the first among them.According to The President Tourism is a major mission and has a tremendous potential of growth in this beautiful territory. Kerala has many tourism and pilgrim centres such as Sabarimala, Kottayam, beaches like Kovalam, hill stations like Munnar, and Wildlife sanctuaries like Eravikulam and Periyar, architectural and civilizational heritage. Kerala is one of the rare places where tropical forests, vast beautiful coast lines, mountains,water bodies,lakes, beautiful sunshine etc coexist. It is natures special manifestation. In addition to this it is endowed with number of scientific and R & D organizations of interest to scientific tourists. Suggestions 1. Clean green environment and accommodation 2. Good road, rail, air and waterways connectivity 3. Virtual Walk through on the tourists spots in the website. 4. Customise the tour to suite tourist needs through tourism portal to attract international tourism 5. Develop and train tourist friendly human resources to guide and help the converging tourists 6. With all these additional inputs implement the new tourism policy a stress on product diversification and dispersal of tourism activities in far-flung areas.

Box. 9.5 While promoting Tourism we should ensure that ecology is not disturbed and the natural environment is fully protected as in Sikkim. - President of India , Dr.APJ.Abdul Kalam
Box. 9.4 Target (within Next 3 years) Indian Tourist to 12 million /year from 6 million /Year Foreign Tourist to1 million /year from3.5 lakh/Year Additional Employment : 20 lakh people Business ; Rs. 3000 crore foreign exchange