TREATMENT OF PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL DIFFUSION IN FLUID DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS by

Kang Yul Huh and Michael W. Golay Energy Laboratory Report No. MIT-EL-83-011 August 1983

TREATMENT OF PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL DIFFUSION IN FLUID DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

by

Kang Yul and

Huh

Michael W. Golav

Energy Laboratory and Department of Nuclear Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139

MIT-EL-83-011

August

1983

Sponsored by: Boston Edison Co. Duke Power Co. Northeast Utilities Service Corp. Public Service Electric and Gas Co. of New Jersey

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ABSTRACT

TREATMENT OF PHYSICAL AND NUMERICAL DIFFUSION IN FLUID DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS by Kang Y. Huh and Michael W. Golay

A computer code is developed to predict the behavior of the hydrogen gas in the containment after a loss-ofThe conservation equations for the four coolant accident. components, i.e., air, hydrogen, steam and water, are set up and solved numerically by decoupling the continuity and momentum equations from the energy, mass diffusion and turThe homogeneous mixture form is used bulence equations. for the momentum and energy equations and the steam and liquid droplets are assumed to be in the saturation state. There are two diffusion processes, molecular and turMolebulent, which should be modelled in different ways. cular diffusion is modelled by Wilke's formula for the multi-component gas diffusion, where the diffusion constants are dependent on the relative concentrations. Turbulent diffusion is basically modelled by the k-e model with modifications for low Reynolds number flow effects. Numerical diffusion is eliminated by a corrective scheme which is based on accurate prediction of cross-flow diffusion. The corrective scheme in a fully explicit treatment is both conservative and stable, therefore can be used in long transient calculations. The corrective scheme allows relatively large mesh sizes without introducing the false diffusion and the time step size of the same order of magnitude as the Courant limit may be used.

A

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research was conducted under the sponsorship of Boston Edison Co., Duke Power Co., Northeast Utilities

Service Corp. and Public Service Electric and Gas Co. of New Jersey. support. The authors gratefully acknowledge this thank all those who assisted them

The authors

during this research especially Dr. Vincent P. Manno, Mr. B.K. Riggs, Ms. Rachel Morton and Prof. Andrei Schor. work was expertly typed by Mr. Ted Brand and Ms. Hakala. Eva The

4 ADI Schemes Conservation 4.2 Truncation Error Diffusion 4.2 .3 Low Reynolds Number Flow CHAPTER 4: NUMERICAL DIFFUSION Truncation Error Diffusion 4.2 Limitations 2.1 Diffusion Convection 4.3 Tensor Viscosity Method Corrective Scheme by Huh 4.4.2 Turbuletit Diffusion 3.1 4.3.3 Discussion of Skew Differencing and Corrective Schemes Raithby's Scheme 4.4.3 Basic Assumptions and Limitations 2.3.-4TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES NOMENCLATURE CHAPTER 1: CHAPTER 2: INTRODUCTION PROBLEM STATEMENT AND SOLUTION SCHEME 2 3 4 6 12 13 16 21 21 23 25 27 28 29 29 30 30 37 37 42 43 44 45 48 48 53 57 59 62 76 79 81 82 82 83 84 86 87 88 89 91 2.1 Skew Differencing by Huh 4.1.2 Physical Constraint 4.2.2.3.1 Mesh Point Implementation Mesh Interface Implementation 4.2 Cross-flow Diffusion 4.3.5 SMAC Scheme and Compressibility CHAPTER 3: DIFFUSION MODELLING 3.1 4.3 Truncation Error Diffusion in a Two Dimensional Problem 4.2 4.3.2.1.3.2.2 Governing Equations 2.1 Derivation of Turbulence Equations 3.1 Continuity and Mass Diffusion Equations 2.1 Truncation Error Diffusion in a One Dimensional Problem Another Approach for a One Dimensional 4.4.3.1 Assumptions 2.2.2 k-e Model 3.1.2.4 Solution Scheme 2.1 Molecular Diffusion 3.4.4 4.2 Comparison of Explicit.3. Implicit and 4.1 Problem Statement 2.4.2 Energy Equation 2.4.

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Page 4.4.3 Accuracy 4.4.4 Stability 4.4.4.1 Explicit Scheme 4.4.4.1.1 One Dimensional Central Differencing of Convection Term 4.4.4.1.2 'One Dimensional Donor Cell Differencing of Convection Term 4.4.4.1.3 Two and Three Dimensional Donor Cell Differencing of Convection Term 4.4.4.1.4 Stability Condition in Terms of Cell Reynolds Number 4.4.4.2 Implicit Scheme 4.4.4.3 ADI Scheme CHAPTER 5: RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 93 94 94 98 101 106 113 117 119 119 119 123 123 125 126 126 132 132 138 158 164 164 164 . . . . 168 168 168 .. . . . 170 176 181 184 204

5.1 Natural Convection Results 5.1.1 Updating of the Reference State 5.1.2 Energy Convection 5.1.3 Heat Transfer Modelling 5.1.4 Turbulence Modelling 5.2 Numerical Diffusion 5.2.1 Truncation Error and Cross-flow Diffusion 5.2.2 Validation of Huh's Correction Formula 5.2.3 Skew Differencing Scheme 5.2.4 Corrective Scheme 5.3 ADI Scheme CHAPTER 6: 6.1 6.2 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Physical Models Numerical Schemes RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK .

CHAPTER 7: 7.1 7.2

Physical Models Numerical Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

REFERENCES APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C: APPENDIX D:

ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE PROBLEM IN FIGURE 5.3(B) . ............ ADI SCHEME.FOR MOMENTUM EQUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPUTER PROGRAMS TYPICAL INPUT FILES ...........

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LIST OF FIGURES Number 4.1 4.2 Illustration of the cross-flow diffusion in a single mesh with pure convection ... ... Illustration of the cross-flow diffusion in a row of meshes aligned in the xdirection with pure convection . ........ Geometry for explanation of the cross-flow diffusion in a two dimensional . . . Cartesian coordinate ...... . Page 63

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Geometry for explanation of the cross-flow diffusion in a rotated two dimensional Cartesian coordinate . . . . . . . ....... Comparison of the prediction formulas for cross-flow diffusion constant by De Vahl Davis and Mallinson and Huh . . . . . . . . .

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68

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Geometry for explanation of the cross-flow diffusion in a three dimensional Cartesian .. coordinate . ......... ...... A segment of the calculation domain showing grid lines, control volume and notations in Raithby's scheme . ........ Three possible flow configurations for mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme in a two dimensional ....... .. ..... . . ... problem ...

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85 92

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Profile assumptions of 0 in space and time for various differencing schemes . ....... Three distinct shapes of the parabola, f(t), according to the coefficient of second order term ................. Stability condition in the plane (C xd x ) for an explicit scheme with central differencing of convection term in a one .......... dimensional problem . ... Stability condition in the plane (C ,d) for an explicit sc'heme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a one dimensional problem ..............

. . 97

4.11

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. 99

4.12

.102

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4.13

The region in the complex plane where (al+a2 ) should exist for the stability of an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a general two dimensional problem .............. The region in the complex plane where the amplification factor, r, should exist for the stability of an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection . term in a general two dimensional probl Stability condition in the planes (C ,d ) and (C ,d ) for an explicit scheme wfthx donor elY differencing of convection term in a general two dimensional problem .

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4.14

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Stability condition in the plane (C ,d ) etc. for an explicit scheme with doiorx cell differencing of convection term in a general three dimensional problem . ..... . .108 Stability condition in the plane (Rx,C ) and (Ry,Cy ) for an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a general two dimensional problem . .. .111

4.17

4.18

Stability condition in the plane (Rx Cx) for an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a two dimensional problem with f=v/ u/x.... .. 112

4.19

Stability condition in the plane (Cx , d x ) for an implicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a one dimensional problem .............. Stability condition in the plane (R xCx) for an implicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a one ........... dimensional problem . ... Natural convection flow field due to heat transfer between the obstacle and air in the containment at t=10.8 sec . .

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5.2

Natural convection flow field due to heat transfer between the obstacle and air in the containment at t=62.5 sec . ..... Problem geometry for the two cases, (A) parallel flow and (B) cross flow, for evaluation of numerical diffusion . . . Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 10x10 meshes along the line CD in Fig. 5.3(A) . Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 6x6 meshes along the line CD in Fig. 5.3(A) . Comparison of the analytic solution, analytic solution with increased diffusion constant and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 10xlO meshes along . the line CA in Fig. 5.3(B) ........ Comparison of the analytic solution, analytic solution with increased diffusion constant and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 6x6 meshes along the line CA in Fig. 5.3(B) . . . . . . . . .... Problem geometry with arbitrary angles of e and 81 to compare De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's and Huh's formulas for prediction of cross-flow diffusion constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term and analytic solution with increased diffusion constant, (D+Dcf), by Huh's formula along the line BD'in Fig. 5.8 ... . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. .3(B) . 5. . ..13 139 5. .430 ... . (D+DDM). .14 140 5. . . .43* . .. . 142 5. skew differencing scheme by Raithby and skew differencing scheme by Huh in a pure convection problem with 6 = 63. . 135 5. .. by De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's formula along the line BD in Fig.-9- 5. . . . 136 5. . .11 Comparison of the true solution and solutions by donor cell scheme.12 . CA in Fig..3(B) . skew differencing scheme by Raithby and skew differencing scheme by Huh in a pure . . . 5.16 143 5.. 144 . .15 . . .. Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solutions by donor cell scheme and skew differencing scheme by Huh for 6x6 meshes along the line . problem with 6 = 63.convection problem with 6 = 450 Comparison of the true solution and solutions by donor cell scheme.8 . True solution and donor cell solutions with and without diffusion correction for a pure convection . 5. . . . numerical solution by donor cell scheme and numerical solution by corrective scheme for 10x10 meshes along the line CA in Fig. . 137 5. Donor cell solutions with various diffusion corrections for a pure convection problem with 8 = 450 .17 Comparison of the analytic solution. .10 Comparison of the numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term and analytic solution with increased diffusion constant.. .3(B) . 5. . Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solutions by donor cell scheme and skew differencing scheme by Huh for 10x10 meshes along the line CA in Fig. ..

19 ...3(B) . . 151 5.24 . . . .22 150 5.....19 . . . 148 5. ... . Recirculating flow field for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment to test the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme Detailed flow field for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment to test the mesh point and riesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme Initial steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment to test the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme . . .. . 146 5. ... . donor cell solution and solutions by the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme for the recirculating flow field given in pig. . 152 5.. ... .21 S. ..23 . .18 Comparison of the analytic solution. . 5..20 ..25 Diffusion constant corrections of the mesh point implementation of the corrective scheme for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment . .. .... ... .. . .. . Comparison of the true solution. ... Diffusion constant corrections at each interface for the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme for recirculating flow field given in Fig. . . . .147 5. .-10- 5. numerical solution by donor cell scheme and numerical solution by corrective scheme for 6x6 meshes along the line CA in Fig. . Simple recirculating flow field for test of the implementation strategies of the corrective scheme . 145 5...19 . . .. .. 5. 153 . . . . . 5. . .

. . . . ..30 for At = 1. different time step sizes Boundary conditions in terms of 4 for the problem in Fig.0 sec . . . Steam concentration distribution after one time step. . .28 . . .0 sec .. 157 159 5. ..30 5.. . . with mesh point implementation of the corrective scheme .32 161 5. .. Comparison of the explicit and ADI solutions for the profile of 4 along the line AB in Fig.. Steam concentration distribution after one time step. 1 178 . 155 5. ..cx T where 4 is given by.. .3 sec.3(B) = e. . with donor cell differencing of convection term without any diffusion correction .-1I- 5. . 5... . . . 0. Comparison of the explicit and ADI solutions for the profile of 4 along the line AB in Fig. . . . . .30 for At = 0. . . . 5. ..33 Comparison of the ADI solutions for the profile of 4 at t = 10. .5 sec and the Courant limit of 1. . Problem geometry for comparison of the explicit and ADI schemes . . 154 5.27 . . . 0. . 5. . 0. 5. .30 with .31 1i60 5.. .0 sec along the line AB in Fig. ..26 Diffusion constant corrections of the mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment ...29 Steam concentration distribution after one time step.3 sec. . . . . corrective scheme . 163 A.. . . .3 sec. with mesh interface implementation of the . 156 5.0 sec and the Courant limit of 1.

. . . .-12- LIST OF TABLES Number 4. 78 4.114 .2 . . . . . . . . . Page . .1 List of the schemes for numerical representation of advection presented at the Third Meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research. . donor cell differencing of the convection term . . . . . 2-D. . . . . 1981 . . . . . Comparison of the Von Neumann analysis and numerical experiments for the stability condition in terms of the cell Reynolds number in an explicit. .

d xy e f Gr h I Im k g M Nu P Pe p y Az Pr Q Prandtl number Heat source .D y./Imaginary (1) Turbulent kinetic energy (2) Thermal conductivity (3) Ratio of specific heats.y and z directions Diffusion numbers in x and y directions Internal energy Function of Body force vector per unit mass Drag force vector per unit mass Gravity Grashof number Enthalpy Heat transfer coefficient Imaginary unit.-13- NOMENCLATURE Letter A c c Definition Area Specific heat at constant pressure Specific heat at constant volume Courant numbers in x and y directions (1) Dimension (2) Diffusion constant (3) Divergence (4) Discriminant of a quadratic equation Binary mixture diffusion constant between air and hydrogen Binary mixture diffusion constant between air and steam Binary mixture diffusion constant between hydrogen and steam Cross-flow diffusion constants in x.C x y D D ah D as Dhs D .D d . cp/c Length Mass Molecular weight Nusselt number Peclet number Effective Peclet number (1) Pressure u u (2) L* ax or Ax Ay Ax + p v C .

-14- Letter R Re Re Rt Rx S Sc T t At u v v w Ax y Ay Az Greek Definition Universal gas constant Reynolds number Real Turbulence Reynolds number Reynolds number in x direction Source Schmidt number Temperature (1) Time (2) Parameter of a quadratic equation in Von Neumann analysis Time step size x-direction velocity y-direction velocity Velocity vector z-direction velocity x-direction mesh spacing Mole fraction in multicomponent gas y-direction mesh spacing z-direction mesh spacing a ala2 8 6ij C p v 4(1) 6 61 Thermal diffusivity or diffusion constant Parameters used in Von Neumann analysis Thermal volumetric expansion coefficient Kronecker delta Turbulent dissipation rate Density Kinematic viscosity Vpiscosity Phase change (2) Any general conserved quantity Velocity direction. 1 tan-- STime a Z Superscript (1) Vorticity (2) Amplification factor in Von Neunann analysis constant of heat transfer Traction tensor due to viscosity Summation Time step n . tan.1 v u Mesh configuration.

-15- Subscript cell cf DM f g i=l 2 3 4 L t m mix new ob old R t total US Cell Cross-flow diffusion De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's Fluid Gas Air Hydrogen Steam Liquid Droplets Left hand side Liquid Molecular Multicomponent gas mixture New time step Obstacle Old time step Right hand side Turbulent Total calculation domain Upstream .

-__ -16- CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION One of the major concerns in the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was hydrogen gas accumulation in the containment.( 1~111111-_~. The four components. The error due to decoupling is negligible in a slow transient where the . The distinct feature of the second stage is a much longer time scale in comparison with the first blowdown stage. The governing conservation equations are decoupled in order to simplify the solution procedure. the response of the containment during an accident can be divided into two stages. steam and liquid droplets are assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium and the relative humidity is assumed to be 100%. air. although it may be less than 100% when there is no liquid component present. the fast blowdown stage and the slow mixing stage. Some remedies have been proposed to deal with However. From the hydrogen transport point of view.--I~~U1-i* 11*11044~1 -1~. the fluid dynamic phenomena in the containment in order to justify those remedies. The research work reported here is primarily con- cerned with the formulation and validation of the physical models and numerical schemes in the second slow mixing stage. Some simplifying assumptions are made concerning the thermodynamic state in the slow mixing stage. hydrogen. it is necessary to understand such problems.

of each component in multi-component gas depends on the mole fraction of that component. . k. the phase change is taken into consideration to maintain 100% relative humidity. Convection and diffusion are the central issues in physical modelling efforts of hydrogen transport. The turbulent kinetic energy. The molecular diffusion constant is predicted by Wilke's formula [73) for multi-component diffusion and ChapmanEnskog formula [5) for binary diffusion. In the second step the energy and mass diffusion equations without phase change and turbulence equations are solved using the flow field obtained in the first step. resulting in the same convection velocity for the four components. c. Finally. Convection is assumed to occur as a homogeneous mixture. molecular and turbulent. The turbulent diffusion constant is predicted by the k-c model [45). Diffusion occurs by two independent mechanisms. The turbulent kinematic viscosity.-17- state change over one time step is small. and turbulent dissipation rate. and the total diffusion constant is the sum of the diffusion constants of those two mechanisms. are determined by their own transport equations. In the first step the continuity and momentum equations are decoupled from the energy and other scalar transport equations and solved by the Simplified Marker and Cell (SMAC) method in order to obtain the flow field. The diffusion constant.

Truncation error diffusion occurs in the flow direction while cross-flow diffusion occurs primarily in the direction normal to the flow. There has been much debate on the numerical diffusion and many schemes have been suggested for the past two . the term.-18- which is the diffusion constant for momentum transport can be calculated directly from k and E. Since the error usually appears as an additional diffusion. truncation error diffusion and cross-flow diffusion. The numerical diffusion has two different sources. The turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are assumed to be equal to one. the major obstacle in accurate numerical modelling of convection and diffusion has been the cross-flow diffusion error which arises in donor cell treatment of the convection term in multi-dimensional problems. numerical diffusion. The leading issue in numerical modelling of convection and diffusion is to minimize the error that occurs in the numerical solution procedures. This is because the gradient of the scalar quantity under consideration is small in the flow direction in comparison with that in the direction normal to the flow. Truncation error diffusion is a one dimensional profile error and cross-flow diffusion is a multi-dimensional operator error [68) of the finite difference equation. however the latter turns out to be the dominant error source in most convection dominant problems. has been used to describe the numerical error in general. Therefore. The effective diffusion constants of the two errors are of the same order of magnitude.

Chang's methods [16) are examples of skew differencing schemes and Huh's corrective scheme and tensor viscosity method [25] are examples of corrective schemes. Two implementation strategies for the corrective scheme.-19- decades. ADI and implicit schemes. have been tested for recirculating flow problems. skew differencing and corrective schemes. However. The corrective scheme can be implemented with any of the explicit. Raithby's [53) and S. The schemes presently being used can be divided into two categories. a recent review paper on this topic [65) shows that there is no scheme universally acceptable consistent with using reasonable mesh spacings and computation times. This situation is partly due to misunder- standing of the sources of numerical diffusion and also partly due to use of inappropriate approaches for its elimination. The mesh interface . although with different stability conditions. The corrective scheme is inherently better than the skew differencing scheme in that it is conservative and does not affect the simple solution procedure. mesh point and mesh interface implementations. The conservative property is essential in a long transient problem like the hydrogen transport in the containment. The stability conditions for each of the aforementioned schemes can be obtained by a Von Neumann analysis and turns out to be consistent with numerical experiments.

[49) includes all the Development Laboratory) [6]. . simulation results compared with experimental data.-20- implementation has always given physically reasonable solutions and may be used extensively for all diffusionconvection problems. The suggested physical models and numerical schemes have been used to simulate the LOCA experiments performed in Battelle-Frankfurt [44) and HEDL (Hanford Engineering Ref.

-21- CHAPTER 2 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND SOLUTION SCHEME 2. the hydrogen has received much attention in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants.. In addition to the pressure increase due to the primary coolant. a large amount of steam and water will come into the containment in the fast blowdown stage increasing the containment pressure.. In order to justify the design of any mitigation system. After a while the slow mixing stage follows the initial blowdown stage and continues for an extended period of time. use of flame suppressants and enhanced venting capability.1 Problem Statement Once a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in a Light Water Reactor (LWR). . Thereafter. hydrogen generation gave a serious concern about the integrity of the containment in the TMI-2 accident. The major safety concern is that of keeping the containment pressure below a certain level to prevent a large scale leakage of radioactive materials. for dealing with this problem.g. containment inerting. installation of ignition devices. e. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis and chemical reaction between water and zirconium in the cladding and may react explosively with oxygen in the air. There have been some mitigation procedures suggested. it is essential to understand the fluid dynamic phenomena in the containment.

laminar and turbulent flows. a good computational tool has been required to predict the hydrogen concentration distribution. The most difficult aspects of this analysis are the complicated geometry and chaotic post-LOCA conditions. phase change and heat transfer between the gas components and wall.g. e. . thermal nonequilibrium. etc. Therefore.._ __ _ __ _ I_ ~ -22- Since a numerical method is suitable for this purpose. some simplifying assumptions should be made to use the numerical procedure without impairing the acceptable solution accuracy.

4) Turbulence kinetic energy: Dk 1 t 3k 3 P 1 k ok x .2 Governing Equations The governing conservation equations are set up to describe the post-LOCA fluid dynamics in the containment.Vp i + 4.t = V-D.2) Energy: p[e e + V-vh] + = V-kVT + e fg (2. I+ 3x 1 .S + + t Bui P au k aui + ax~ ) x k X axk gk Pr t t 'T xk (2. The physical implications of the conservation equations will be given with their basic assumptions and limitations.5) Turbulence dissipation rate: D 1 _ 1t StE xk Dt P Txk 0E ] + C t*( 1 p k ui xk ouk au.6) Equation of state: p = f p (ii .xk k 2 v t BT -C2 + kg k Pr 3x 2k k t (2.T) (2. (2.7) . Continuity: V'v= 0 pl + V-vv ] = -Vp + -Vv = 0 (2.1) Momentum: pgI + d + V-0 (2.3) Mas s diffusion: S+ V*vp i .-23- 2.

-24- Constitutive equations: 'N = f (p .8) f (v) (2.9) D. Im + Dit it (2.17) t = C k 2/C E (2.14) m = fk (PiT) (2.k + k t m Dim = fD(Pi'T) (2.19) Note that 1.10) v = vm + Vt (2.11) k = . = D.t (2.T) (2.18) p = Epi (2.12) (2.16) kt = .15) Dt = v t (2. .T) (2. The subscript i denotes the four components as . = f (Pi.13) D.

w. air. there is one more-equation than is required.k C for a three dimensional case.-25- follows: i=l i=2 i=3 i=4 2. The turbulence equations are written in terms of the Cartesian components in tensor notation. . p. H2' steam. v. four mass diffusion and two turbulence equations with ten primary unknowns.1 Continuity and Mass Diffusion Equations The continuity equation is redundant with the four mass diffusion equations and there is'an inconsistency between them.20) i = 2 = 0 43 + 04 = 0 (2. 3.i (4). one energy. liquid droplet. The phase change occurs between steam and liquid droplets and the diffusion constant of liquid droplets is equal to zero. 2. one continuity.21) D4 = 0 (2. i=1-4. u. (2. The mass diffusion equations are summed up for the four components.22) There are eleven conservation equations. three momentum.2. T. Therefore.

Vp = 0 (2.27.) + V-(Ep Jt i = (V'D. 2.25 and Eq. 2.-26- -.) i + E 1 (2. 2. it is reasonable to assume that Eq.25 and Eq.23) The sum of the phase change terms is equal to zero.4 are consistent only if the temporal and spatial variations of the total density are very small.27) Consequently Eq.Vp. Since the concern is only for the slow mixing stage after a LOCA. Therefore. ap at S+ V-p = E(V-DiVp i ) 1 (2.26 are satisfied. at p= 0 (2. Eq. 2.26 can be reduced to the following Eq. 2.26) It is a reasonable assumption in a turbulent flow regime that the four components have the same diffusion constant. 2.25) Vp i = 0 (2.(Ep i ) a . . 2.27 remain valid throughout the transient.1 and Eq. 2.24) Now it can be seen that the continuity equation is valid if and only if the following Eq.

2. Be. Eq.30) Eq.i + V. 2. 2.-27- 2.31) The thermal equilibrium assumption is incorporated in Eq.2.i = V'kVT (2. -(p. [c pihi . . ae. (2.30 is substituted in Eq.28) The temporal term can be divided as follows.29) The second term on the left hand side of Eq. I at t + V [vp.iei) + V'[Ep.2.3.31 so that the internal energy and enthalpy can be written in terms of the temperature.ih i ] = V*kVT (2.ih.29 denotes the energy change due to the concentration change in a given control volume.2 Energy Equation The energy conservation equation. E it p + e. LeaPi LeQ.29 to give the following. is also of an approximate nature and the exact form is given in the following. 2. It is clear that the major contribution to this term will come from the latent heat of the phase change. p + £e. = V-kVT (2.

= c p1 . 2. It is necessary to clarify these assumptions and their limitations for a safe use of the given physical models and solution scheme.32 become identical by defining average internal energy and enthalpy as follows. Pic vi T c p p.T P P e Piei p ih p.3 Basic Assumptions and Limitations The governing equations are based on some simplifying assumptions about the physical phenomena in the containment after a LOCA.34) 2.c .1 = c Vl.-28- (Picvi )~ +V"[vTZpic pi] + efg 9-kVT = (2.T 1 Eq. 2.33) h (2. .T h.3 and Eq. P (2 33) (2.32) where ei i = eg4g + e 4) Sefg g e.

The four components are in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The change of the diffusion constants. The turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are equal to one. Dt and k t over one time step should be small because the turbulence equations are decoupled from the velocity field calculations.-29- 2. The temporal and spatial variations of the total density should be negligibly small because of the incompressibility assumption. . vt. 2. 4. 2.2 Limitations 1.3. The relative humidity in the containment is 100%. The four components all have the same convection The liquid droplets move with the gas components velocity. 3. 3. The phase change rate should be moderately small because the solution scheme decouples the phase change term from the energy conservation equation. with no slip. 2.1 Assumptions 1. The relative humidity may be less than 100% when there is no liquid component left.3. The four components are treated as being nearly incompressible and the phase change rate is moderately small. 5.

-30- 2. u. It solves the . 2. explained in detail in section 2. p. k. In the third step phase change is taken into consideration to maintain 100% relative humidity. Pi(4). is used to update the reference pressure and reference density which is important in calculating the buoyancy force. energy equation and two turbulence equations. 2. 2. E. The phase change is assumed to be zero in this step. In the first step the SMAC scheme is used to get the convergent velocity field with zero divergence for every mesh. T.7. .1-Eq. Eq. the relative humidity may be less than 100%. 2. continuity/momentum equations set and other scalar transport equations set. the conservation equations are decoupled into two sets.7 are a coupled set of equations with primary unknowns. The SMAC scheme is In the second step. v.4 Solution Scheme Eq.5 SMAC Scheme and Compressibility The SMAC (Simplified Marker And Cell) scheme [21J has been used for the incompressible fluid flow with Boussinesq approximation for the buoyancy force. The equation of state. .i Since it is too difficult to solve the whole system of the equations and obtain a consistent solution for all the unknowns. which are the four mass diffusion equations. When there is no liquid component left.5. the obtained velocity field is substituted in the scalar transport equations.

e.35) x-direction momentum: au au + u-+v at ax au ay 1 p ax + Pgx + a 2u 2 ax 2 2au + 2 2 (2. ay -(Eq. which can arise with net inflow or outflow boundary conditions.37): .36 and Eq. -(Eq.37) Py The vorticity conservation equation is derived from Eq. However. the divergence of the velocity field vanishes everywhere. Since the continuity equation used in the SMAC is an incompressible form.. 2.37)y (2. i. the SMAC scheme can be used only for incompressible flow calculations. 2. The continuity and momentum equations are given in two dimensional Cartesian coordinates in the following. Continuity: au ax av ay 0 (2.36) y-direction momentum: av av ua av 1 + pg + a y x2 Nv 2 (2. it is possible to modify the SMAC scheme to accommodate a slight compressibility effect.36) .1_ _~ -31- continuity and momentum equations to get the velocity and pressure field in an iterative way. 2.ax 2.37 as follows.

x ay ax 2 ay2 where au av (2.+ -y ax ay The basic idea of the SMAC scheme is to separate each calculational cycle into two parts. u n+l-u n -u At n+l At n n 1 Apn+l A + n 1 p Ax n+l + gn 1 Ap p by (2. 2. 2. In the tilde phase the approximate velocity field at time step (n+l) is obtained from Eq. .37 as follows.37 as follows.41) where fn and gn are the explicit quantities at time step n. the so-called tilde phase and pressure iteration.36) + -~(Eq. -(Eq. 2. ay 2.36 and Eq.38) =ay ax The Poisson equation for the pressure field is also derived from Eq.40) S (2.37): a2 = 2 ax 22 axay a 2 ay 2 (a2D + a2D aD +1 2 at Re ax 2 ay (2.36 and Eq. ax 2 2. 2.-32- a C 2 a2 + u+ V = v+ ) at .39) where av au D= -.

_ Pi+j-2P +P iPij+ pij f(uv) - Dn + l D n D D Ax 2y t (2.42) av . The equation of vorticity transport. V2p = f(u. the following relations hold after the tilde phase.38. Therefore.41 are still unknown. 2. au ay au av ax - (2. 2.-33- Since the pressure field in Eq.41 have the right vorticity.40 and Eq. follows. Eq. 2.44 is given in the following. 2.45) .39 that the pressure field is not right due to the fact that the divergence of the velocity field is not equal to zero. 2. The impor- tant point is that un + l and vn+l calculated from Eq.v) -D (2.39 may be rewritten as A finite difference form of Eq. 2. shows that the vorticity is independent of the pressure field.40 and Eq.43) ax ay It can be seen from Eq. a guessed pressure field or the pressure field at time step n is used to start the iteration. 2.44) Eq.O 0 (2. 2.

2.46) (2. The velocity correction formula is derived from Eq.-34- The pressure correction formula is obtained by conn+l only and putting D.36 and Eq.j) -26p(-- 1 Abx 6p = -h + _) Ay 1 At( A + 1 Ay 1 Dt D (2. The slight compressibility means that the Navier-Stokes equations may be solved safely with the incompressibility assumption. Once the zero divergence velocity field is obtained.49) .37 so that it does not change the vorticity implemented in the tilde phase. (6u) L = - pAx (6u) R = t6p pAx (2..47) ) The pressure correction is given in terms of the residual divergence for every mesh.48) The SMAC scheme can be extended to a slightly compressible fluid flow. while the continuity equation has the following compressible form. sidering the cell (i. equal to zero. no more correction will be made. 2. S+ at V"(p) = 0 (2.

: in -n =Vp v - total net inflow of mass at the boundary during the time At. D = V'v 1 p p at V p (2. 2. 2. The associated physical assumption in Eq.52 is that the pressure perturbation due to the inflow at the boundary propagates throughout the containment instantaneously and the pressure and density increase is. This can be done with the following modification of the pressure correction formula of the SMAC scheme.52) (2. 2.49 the nonzero divergence may be derived as follows. 1 . V: total volume of the containment. 2.-35- From Eq.50) The two terms on the right hand side of Eq. .p_ p at 1 min/V At n p n n (2.50 may be given from the previous time information and boundary conditions. Now the problem is how to converge to a predetermined nonzero divergence field.51 and Eq.51) v p where m.uniform over the whole containment.

48.50. 2.53) where D O is given by Eq. 2. . The velocity correction formula remains the same as Eq.6p = .(D-D 1 1 + -) 2At( Ax Ay (2.

Although turbulent diffusion is greater than molecular diffusion by a few orders of magnitude. air. air and steam. The thermal conductivity and viscosity are also diffusion constants in a broader sense for momentum and energy transport. Convection occurs as a homogeneous mixture resulting in the same convection velocity for the four components.1 Molecular Diffusion Molecular diffusion occurs by the collisions of gas molecules. proper modelling of the latter is important because the molecular diffusion of hydrogen is significantly greater than those of other gases and also because there may be a laminar flow region in the containment. the diffusion constant of each component is calculated separately by Wi~k-'s formula [73] in Eq. Diffusion occurs by two different mechanisms. components. in the containment after a LOCA. molecular and turbulent. As collisions occur more frequently. hydrogen. which should be modelled independently. It gives the diffusion constant of each component in terms of .-37- CHAPTER 3 DIFFUSION MODELLING The hydrogen. 3. 3. steam and liquid components are transported by convection and diffusion in the containment.1. the process Since there may be three gas of diffusion is also increased.

2.AB where DAB: AB Binary mixture diffusion constant in [cm /sec] .: yi: Diffusion constant of the i-th component Mole fraction of the i-th component D. 3.1) where D.2) poAB D. The property of air will be replaced The resulting diffusion con- with that of nitrogen gas. The binary mixture diffusion constants are calculated by the Chapman-Enskog formula. 1-Y A B DAB 1-Y B yA DBA 1-Y C YA CA C YC CB B YC DBC C D = C YB DCB (3. Eq.-38- the binary mixture diffusion constants and mole fraction of that component.: Binary mixture diffusion constant between the i-th and j-th components.. stants are given as follows.0018583 1 + M A MA MB (3. T3 D = 0.

----. The error range of the Chapman-Enskog formula is reported to be about 6-10% [5). For non-polar gases OAB and ODAB are calcu- lated by Eq. ap = np £ (o n + o p) E-E e (3. (3. 3. the following relations are required.UIIII ~ -II-~PI-^ICI-L1I n~s^ - -^ -39- T: p: aAB: MAMB : Temperature in [OK] [atm) Total pressure in Lennard-Jones parameter in [A] Molecular weight QD.lll~*.5) 2 n . P n ].AB: Dimensionless function of the temperature and intermolecular potential field for one molecule of A and one of B. In order to calculate the para- meters aAB and 0DAB in Eq. =n [ p n = [+ S n .2.3) CAB = AB For the pair of polar and non-polar gases a correction factor is introduced to account for the polarity.4) np = np 2 where the correction factor 4 is given by. 3. OAB = (o A + oB (3.3.

9 x 10 -25 25 -25 [cm3 3 [cm ] : N2 : an = 17. a * = a an/ : Reduced polarizability of the non-polar molecule ~ * = p p/ p co 3: a pp Reduced dipole moment of the polar molecule t * = p //8 p p For the steam component the following values will be used.9492 x 10 D ah D 1 T .-40- The parameters in Eq.6947 as .5 are defined as follows. H2 a n = 7. -5 = 4.6810 x 10 .6 T1. t* .= 1.9035 = 4.65 A The polarizability is given for the hydrogen and nitrogen (air) components. 3.6 x 10 The fitting functions for the binary mixture diffusion constants are obtained by the least-square-fit method.2 E/K = 380 0 K a = 2. The containment pressure is assumed to be-1 atm.

k.lllI_ -41- Dhs = 2.8916 x 10 where T: D: [OK1 [cm 2 /sec] -5 T 1.10) Viscosity in [poise) Temperature in [K]) Lennard-Jones parameter in [A) Dimensionless nTumber .lii-.__Li~n_~PIIII ~. = 2. i (3.67 x 10 where -: T: a: Svi : o2 2 (3. n mix = Yipi n i E j=l Yj ij (3.6) The viscosity and thermal conductivity can be considered as diffusion constants for momentum and energy transport and calculated similarly as follows [5).8144 (3.8) j=l where ij 8 Mj j ij M The viscosity of non-polar gases may be obtained by the following [5).7) k. = n i=l y.

2 n Yi umix = C 2 i=l Yi + 1. The . c (3. The k-s model sets up the transport equations with some empirical constants for the turbulent kinetic energy.12) where c P is the specific heat per mole at constant pressure. The effective diffusion constant is therefore the sum of the molecular and turbulent diffusion constants. seems to be the k-c model originally developed by Launder and Spalding [45).009 cp at 1 atm.11) for the Prandtl number of Pr = c (3.2 Turbulent Diffusion The diffusion process is greatly enhanced by the turbulence of fluid flow. Wsteam = 0. k.y RT k=l PMiDik k i There is a useful relationship non-polar polyatomic gases. There are several models suggested for Presently the best model calculating turbulence effects.[5].385 nn y.-42- The viscosity of steam is. E. and turbulent dissipation rate. 3. 200 C There is another formula suggested for the viscosity of multicomponent gas in the following [5].

u. + Pi Pi = Pi + p.' For example. 3. etc. + u. The effect of turbulence appears as the additional terms due to the product of fluctuations which do not necessarily cancel out.' j T'= a t x.13) (3. momentum and energy equations by decomposing the variables into mean and fluctuating parts and averaging the resulting equations.-- (3.1 Derivation of Turbulence Equations [15. These terms are treated by the eddy viscosity concept of Boussinesq and eddy diffusivity concept which are given in the following. u. .u.' etc.= v ( Dt + ui j u P= Dt ax x 2 k6 ij 3x_) 3 i (3. 34.15) . 29. u. = u.2.-43- turbulent viscosity is given directly in terms of k and C.14) . 45] The transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate are derived from the continuity.

3.16. -t + at r a (ruk) + (wk) = -[ p r (r oka r ) + (t ) az ok a au aw + -) r aw au 2t + 2( + -1[2(-) 3 3r p + 2- + u2 2 ] .2 k-e Model The transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate form the basis of the k-E model.2. A two dimensional cylindrical coordinate form of the k-E model is introduced in Eq. j=i. The turbulent dissipation rate equation can also be derived in a similar way and some assumptions should be made in modelling various terms that appear in the derivation.' u is transformed to the turbulent kinetic energy equation by the contraction. 3.16) .c +g t Pr v BT az Tt (rue) + + 1 r ar a(w)-= z [) [ pr ar o ar + z a ( a az + C 1 aw [ 2 au 2 t + 2(-) 2 (-) p az ar p k 2 2 + 2 2 C + ( r + -) az 2 2 k + k Pr atT zt (3.-44- The transport equation for u.

0 o 1.17.17) The suggested values of the constants are given in the following table. C 0.3 Low Reynolds Number Flow While both turbulent and laminar flows are possible in the containment after a LOCA depending on the hydrogen generation rate and geo.-45- The turbulent viscosity pt is given in terms of k and E in Eq. 3.3 The molecular effects can be included in Eq. = C pk 2/ (3. Since the k-E model is applicable to fully . 3.16 as follows.44 C2 1. it is difficult to determine whether a region under consideration is in a turbulent or laminar flow.metry.09 C1 1. 3.92 ok 1. it ak t a +it m ok lit m a E C The turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are usually assumed to be equal to one.

lit k + l ak aui i + --t (ax k + xk auk axi axk e .-46- turbulent flow. The model presently being used is just to use the sum of the molecular and turbulent contributions for every region in the containment.0.5/(l+Rt/50)] C2 =2 where R 2 0 [1.3 exp(-R2t ) (3. CP = CP0 exp[-2. D Dt p ax k [(t Dt+ ) e k + C k i + k x ) au axk C 2 E2 2 t 2. it is required to extend the model to laminar flow regime or to switch to laminar models according to some criterion.16. The following k-c model is a modified form by Jones and Launder [40. 41). A more refined model is introduced in this section because consistent treatment of laminar and turbulent flows and transition between them may be required in the future modelling efforts.19) = pk2/VE . Rt.0 a ui ( 2 p ax ax 2 ) Dk Dt 1 p ak -[(. Eq.2vak 2(-) k 2 (3.0 . 3. while C1 and C2 are to vary with turbulence Reynolds number.18) In the above equations C 1 1 ok and a retain the values assigned in the ordinary k-c model.

-47-

The C O and C2.

and C 2 0 are fully turbulent values of C

This modified form of the k-s model was developed

to cover all the laminar, transitional and fully turbulent regions. The constants were fitted to the data of a low

Re flow in a round pipe to include the effect of laminar wall boundary layer. Although its applicability to a low

Reynolds number flow in general is questionable, the model may be used with some confidence if it has the proper limit of laminar regime with the decay of turbulence. It may also

be used in the transitional regime by assuming an adequate interpolation between the two extremes. Equation 3.18

shows that k and e have the same order of magnitude with the decay of turbulence. In other words, both k2/c and

c2/k will go to zero as k and E go to zero separately. Therefore, the turbulent viscosity Vt which is proportional to k2/E will vanish with the decay of turbulence. In order

to have the proper laminar limit, the total diffusion constant should be expressed as the sum of the turbulent and laminar diffusion constants. It may also be reasonable

to assume that the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are equal to one.

-48-

CHAPTER 4 NUMERICAL DIFFUSION

The final numerical solution involves two types of errors which come from physical modelling and numerical solution procedure. The error in physical modelling is

an intrinsic error which cannot be eliminated by the solution procedure. The error in numerical solution procedure

is the difference between exact and numerical solutions of the governing equation, which usually appears as additional diffusion. It is clarified that there are two

sources of numerical diffusion, truncation error diffusion and cross-flow diffusion. This chapter is primarily con-

cerned with how to predict and eliminate these additional false diffusions to get an accurate solution.

4.1

Truncation Error Diffusion Truncation error diffusion occurs due to the approxi-

mate nature of the finite difference formulations.

The name

of the truncation error originates from the Taylor series expansion where the second and higher order terms are truncated. Although the Taylor series expansibn is not a

proper way of interpreting a finite difference equation, the name of the truncation error will be retained here. Since the truncation error exists in multidimensional problems in the same way as it exists in one dimensional problems, it can be analyzed in the following one dimensional

_I_

I~___

_L~ ~

_

I

conservation equation without any loss of generality.

at where 4: S:

-- U +

ax

a

2 ax

+ S

(4.1)

any general conserved quantity source term and diffusion constant a will be assumed

The velocity u constant. [xi, xi+

Equation 4.1 is integrated in the domain
]

and [tn

,

tn+l].

x
Xi

n+1 at dt dx + xi+ x tn+l t n aa 2 a2 ax

x

tn+1 u-- dt dx tn

dt dx + S Ax At

(4.2)

where At = t n+l -t
Ax

n xi_

=

Xi+

-

When a function f(x) is continuous, there exists a point x=c in [a,b) such that,

b b-a
1
f

a

f(x) dx =

f(c)

(4.3)

Using Eq. 4.3, we may transform Eq. 4.2 as follows.

-50-

-t

1

[

n+l
i+f n+f

+

Ax

[ n+ 9 1+h

n+g

i-

= --

S[(a4n+g Lx [ ax ) i

(--x

n+g ] + s + ax a+ i-h

(4.4) (4.4)

where <f <

0 < g-< 1 Equation 4.1 may also be reduced to Eq. 4.5. It is fully explicit and the convection term is finitely differenced by the donor scheme.

h+1 At =

n
+

Ax (Q i

-

1(4.5)

x2 Ilx

n i+

- 24P + 4i-1 ) + S 1

From Eq. 4.4 and 4.5, obtained as follows.

(4 +)EXACT

and (

)FD can be

n

n

Sn+l i

FD

n i

+

At [ -u

i

Ax

bx 2
S n+g _n+g

n

i+1

-

+

+

l 1-1 )
(4.6)

+ S]
n+l
i+f EXACT

n

i+f

At

i+h

Ax

i-1
+ Ss

+ a( n+g ) i-6 + Cx x[( i+6 _ ( ax)n+g ax

]

]

(4.7)

i+c T i+d ax where the following relations have already been used. 4.x+a) and [y.9) a + ( ) b AA B some B in the domainB ay whereinterior andpoints denote where A and B denote some interior points in the domain bounded by [x. af f(x+a. we obtain the error at time step (n+l). Eq. 4.y) + (f) af (4.a(?) ) 2(.a i- = ( nn+g n+g ax i+a - < a < n i-1 8a ( ) n i+b a 2 4n+g ax 2 i+c 2 ox n -1 < b < 0 n+g (a n+g ax i-. n+g 4 i+ Ax n i Ax 1 xji+ n i+l . n+l i+f EXACT n+l i FD n i+f - 4P n a n+g i + At [ -u( x ) i+a (4. . n .3. is for a one dimensional case.6 from Eq.y+b) = f(x.y+b]. 4.8) 3 @n + u(-)n + a( ax i+b ax 4 n+g _ n )n+g .7.-51- Subtracing Eq. -1 < c < n 2 4 + i Ax 2 1-1 4 2 -1 i+d < d < 1 The mean value theorem. It can be extended to a two dimensional form as follows.

----- E ---------. D and F are time derivative terms which become negligible for slow transients. .xi+ ] and [tn tn+). 4.10 are at some appropriate points in the domain [xi .-52- Now Eq. C and E are truncation error diffusion terms while the terms B.10) The derivatives with respect to time and space in Eq. In a stable scheme the error introduced at a certain step decreases in its absolute magnitude in the following steps and most of the error occurs between neighboring time steps.10 are based on the assumption of perfect information at time step n. 4.8 to the following form.9 reduces Eq. 4.A -fAxAt axat ----------2 B -u-t-x(a+b)---- -------. Although the error terms in Eq.F (4. 2 n+l (4i ) EXACT - (4+) FD = i n+1 f )2 2fx 1-f 2 ) (f 2 2 ------.D +aAx(c-d)At--ax 2 +ag-t .tax . 4.C ax 22 +At g t ------------. they may represent the errors over many time steps in a stable scheme. The terms A.

-53- 4. u ax a2-2 (4.1. o 1 2 3 L i-1 1 i+l N 4(x=0) = 40 N Q(x=L) = NAx = L Two boundary values 0 and QN are given as constant. The analytical solution of Eq.11) ax Consider a case in which the domain is divided into N equal meshes and the mesh size is Ax.1 Truncation Error Diffusion in a One Dimensional Problem The truncation error diffusion in a one dimensional problem is analyzed for a steady-state case with no source. cL (4.12) and C 1 =N cL -1 e C2 ecL -1 . 4= Cecx + C2 where c = u/a . The results may be extended to a general one dimensional problem if the effects of the transient and source terms are not dominant in determining the profile of 4.11 is given as. 4.

where P =-u a - l -i24 + i-i (4. (4.14) The parameter P in Eq. Equation 4.15.11 is finitely differenced using donor cell scheme for the convection term in the following.15 and solved for in subsequent procedures. i+ - i = (P+l)(4) - 4)i- (4.14 may be recast to Eq. . i+l i = (P+l)( 1 .15) Equation 4.i + 4i2 Ax = a (4. 4.-54- Equation 4. 4.16) .40) .16 is easily obtained from Eq.13) where the velocity u is positive. i u x i+l2. Equation 4. 4. P(4).13 can also be solved with the given boundary conditions by reducing it to the following form.14 is the cell Reynolds number or cell Peclet number according to whether the diffusion constant a is the kinematic viscosity or thermal diffusivity.

'N-1 (1+P) N-1 - ) 0 N . i - 0 = 4. 4.1 (1+P) N 1 (4. 4.17. 2 1 = (1+P) (4 0) 4' N 92 = N-2 (1+P) 2 ( - 0) = N.I_.17) 01 can be expressed in terms of 40 and 4N N N by Eq.16. 4.~-LI LIII~.11 and Eq. 1 (1+P) i . 4. Both the analytical and numerical .(1+P) P (1+P) 0 + N .20 have been obtained without any approximation for Eq.LI II .41 = N ) (1+P) [(1+P) N-1 - 2) (4.19) (1 . we obtain the solution for 4. (1- 0 ) is ) P( N -¢0 (1+P) given as follows.20) Now the analytical solution Eq.1 Inserting Eq.13. 4. 4.19 into Eq. as.18) (l+P) + 1 Therefore.-~l*IIIIX1~~^ ~ ^I ^~Xi -55- Then.12 and numerical solution Eq. 4. (1+P) 1 .

4.+1 i + ) i-l 0 (4.25.24) It is also possible to go through the similar procedures with a central differencing form of the convection term in Eq. + -24 S i i+1- i-1 =e e l NP - 1 (e P -P 1) 2) ) ( (e 0 (421) The finite difference solution Eq.25) .1 (4. 4.21 and Eq. e (i-l)Pe (ePe-1)2 NPe . 4. 4. 4. Pe = in (1+P) (l+P) i-Ip2 N (1+P) .1 e Therefore.13. 4. 2 i-i P ( (1+P) (1+) N _ 1 N 4).22) Comparing Eq.12 is substituted for 4i Eq.20 is also substituted for 4. 4.23) (4. Eq.-56- solutions will be reinserted to the finite difference equation. i+l 2Ax i-l S S2ax 4) i+l -24i + i- 2 i- (4. The in analytical solution Eq.13.22 we can obtain the effective Peclet number Pe of the finite difference solution in terms of the real Peclet number P as follows. 4.25) (4.13. and the effective diffusion constant for the numerical solution will be obtained. in Eq. -24 j.

the transient and source terms and the mixed type of boundary conditions will not affect the numerical diffusion appreciably if they are not dominant terms in determining the profile of 4. 4. Although this approach is approximate and overpredicts the truncation error diffusion.25 can be derived as follows. Eq.27) In general. Pe = kn (2-P) 2+P (4. 4. The convection terms in . Therefore. uLx D De Pe - (4. it helps understanding the origin of the truncation error diffusion. As in the previous section the velocity u is assumed to be positive and constant.26 may be a good indication of the truncation error diffusion occurring in a general one dimensional problem.-57- The effective Peclet number for the finite difference solution of Eq.2 Another Approach For a One Dimensional Truncation Error Diffusion The truncation error diffusion in a one dimensional problem can be evaluated in a different approach.24 and Eq.26) where -2 < P < 2 The effective diffusion constant De can be readily obtained from the following relation. 4. 4.1.

It can be shown that as P goes to zero.28 and Eq. ae -u( x where 0 <f < ae + u() ax i+ - u~x a2 ) -. Therefore. the convection is dominant over the diffusion. -u i Ax i-1 -u i+ a4 -u(--) ax -u(a) ax (4.5 may be approximated as follows.( i+f 2 (4. 4.4 and Eq. Pe also goes to zero resulting in no diffusion error in Eq.e. the profile of 4 will be linear and the truncation error will be reduced to zero. i. 4.28.31) ND .-58- Eq. 4. the truncation error diffusion constant for a convection dominant problem may be given approximately as follows. the diffusion is dominant over the convection. 4.26. i..28) Ax (4.30) Both Eq. 4.29 hold only when the Peclet number is large. 4. D uAX 2 (4.e. 4. 4.29) i+ The truncation error diffusion can be quantified by subtracting Eq.24 and Eq. If the Peclet number is small.29 from Eq.

3 Truncation Error Diffusion in a Two Dimensional Problem There are two sources of numerical diffusion in a two dimensional problem. Since the gradient of 4 in the flow direction is negligible in a convection dominant problem.-59- 4. u i 6x i-lj + v i by ij_a(i+1 2 4x i + i-l1 +ij+l -2i 2 + 0iji by (4. conservation equation with no source term is given in the following. the total diffusion quantity of 4 due to the truncation error is not significant in comparison with that due to the cross-flow diffusion. 2 u + v 2 + +( ) (4.33) . two dimensional. It will be shown that the truncation error diffusion in the direction normal to the flow cancels out and there is only a flow direction component left. A steady-state.32) = x 3y Equation 4. The formulas for the truncation error and cross-flow diffusion constants derived in this chapter reveal that they are approximatly of the same order of magnitude. one is the truncation error diffusion and the other is the cross-flow diffusion.32 is finitely differenced using donor cell scheme for the convection term.1.

x[cos + (cose tane 1 + sine)- + sine tane -] ax xY (4. ij Ax 1 1x Axhy 'i-1 i Ay ij-i 1 +AxAy fj+ j i+ i axx dt + Yj+ yj+ yj- xi+4 xi+ a (v-)dx dy ay Xiih + u(t-) x i+ a =-U(ax--) )3x .33.35) .1.-60- The approach in section 4.34) where tane = Ay/Ax tane1 = v/u The coordinate (x.j+ + v(a) ly i+h.y) is by rotation. then the truncation error of the convection term is given as follows.j+ 2 2 ay 2 a2 2 A Ax U(a 2 ) + bay U( 924 )+ Ax 82 2 axay 2 ax2_-I = AX Ax A 2 axay va a yyaxa 2 ay 2 S[uAx-ax + (uAy+vbX) +v = . 4.n) ( = x cos6 + y sine I = -x sine + y cose (4.v( ay ) ij .2 is applied to Eq. transformed to the coordinate ( .

4.35. 2 (A) - [(sine tane1 + cose) 2 + a2 (-sine + cosetan6 1 ) a + (0) -4 an U" (4.34 will be transformed to the coordinate system (t. the problem is basically one dimensional and the truncation .32 is reduced to the following form. dominant truncation error diffusion occurs When only in the flow direction. 4. 4.n) given by Eq. e is equal to 0 or 7/2. y v e Sx Then Eq.36) where U = /u2v 2 Now Eq. 2 -2 2 + a = ( 2 ) (4.37) Equation 4.37 shows that the diffusion component in the n direction (normal to the flow direction) is zero and the cross differential term also vanishes when e is equal to e1 Therefore.-61- where 5 is the coordinate in the flow direction.

therefore it exists only in two or three dimensional problems when the flow direction is not aligned with the mesh configuration. which shows a single mesh with pure convection.68) and it was clarified that this is the dominant source of the error in most multi-dimensional problems.3. The hot fluid will come out of the top surface and the cold fluid out of the right surface.2 Cross-flow Diffusion Most of the confusion about the nature of numerical diffusion comes from the fact that there exists an additional source of false diffusion. tional false diffusion was explained by Patankar [52] and Stubley et al. 4. 4. [67.4. In the donor cell scheme Fig. the hot and cold fluid enters the mesh from the left and bottom surfaces at 45* angle. 4. The origin of the cross-flow diffusion is illustrated in Fig. In Fig.1(A) is transformed into . It is entirely different Recently this addi- from the truncation error diffusion. 4.l1(A). In this section the origin of the cross-flow diffusion will be illustrated and the corresponding diffusion constant will be quantified so that they can be used in the corrective scheme of section 4. that will be named here as the cross-flow diffusion. The cross-flow diffusion comes from the multi-dimensionality of the problem.1.-62- error diffusion occurs in the flow direction as in a one dimensional problem.

4.-63- Hot Mledium Hot 7 Hot Cold (A) Cold (B) Cold (C) Fig. Illustration of the cross-flow diffusion in a single mesh with pure convection .1.

in The numerical results Fig.1(B) are again interpreted as Fig. . The value of 0 at the point A should reappear at the point X because there is no physical diffusion. an appreciable amount of false program user. This is a pure convection problem Consider the fluid element The fluid with no physical diffusion. A 2 .2 which shows a row of meshes aligned in the x-direction.-64- Fig. Then homogeneous mixing occurs in the mesh. . 4. Another illustration of the cross-flow diffusion is given in Fig. of the value of 4 causes the cross-flow diffusion. and the sum of the values This distribution along the points A1 .and intermediate temperature fluid will come out of the top and right surfaces. CAB which looks like a long one-dimensional rod.1(B) where the velocity components normal to the surface are considered.3.&x u v ax Ay The effective diffusion constant for the cross-flow diffusion will be calculated in the two dimensional Cartesian coordinate in Fig. . diffusion occurs in multidimensional donor cell differencing of the convection term. . In the donor cell scheme it is distributed all . 2 (l-p)[l+p+p + . 4. at those points is exactly equal to 4.1(C) by a Therefore. ] = (l-p)4- = where u . A 3 . 4. 4. 4.

4.-65- (1-p)4' x p (1-p) 2 p (l-p) p3 (l-p)4 p4 (1-p) A5 Ay A Ax 2 4 y p t-* U where p = Ax Ay Fig.2. Illustration of the cross-flow diffusion in a row of meshes aligned in the x-direction with pure convection .

4.-66- 4. Geometry for explanation of the cross-flow diffusion in a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate . V A2 e -A.3. AY B Ax t^ t where t -t0 = tane = v/u u/Ax v P U = 3/U tane= Ly/Ax Ax by Fig.

4. In the donor cell scheme it is divided into two portions.-67- element was on the line CAB at time t in the velocity direction. The diffusion occurs both to the The diffusion to the right hand side is considered first in the following. the following right hand side diffusion constant results. k2 = Ax sine/sin(el+8) k3 = Ax sine 1 /sin(e 1 +8) After substituting appropriate expression for each term. Gradient) A /k 1 =A of 4 Current 2 2U of 4 Therefore. sine cose cos= sx Uacos61 sin(O+e ) I DRHSS . v.t 0 PA £3 (Current) 2 1 constant ) where 1 = (Gradient) = U3 Lx/cose. which shows that the value 4A diffuses out along the fluid element. and is translated The value 4A at the point A should reappear at the Point A'. Diffusion A t1 . The travel of the fluid element is analyzed in Fig. p4A and (l-p)4A and appears at the points Al and A 2 . right and left hand sides. 4.

Geometry for explanation of the cross-flow diffusion in a rotated two dimensional Cartesian coordinate . 4..-68- ti .4.ct t2 t3 Fig. Ya.

38 is the effective diffusion constant when the diffusion is confined to the one dimensional fluid element.38) Equation 4.39) Equation 4.-69- Repeating the same procedure for the left hand side we can find that the right and left hand side diffusion constants are equal to the following. The cross-flow diffusion constants are the ratios of the current and gradient of 4 in the x and y directions.39 is identical to the following simple expressions. D D = uAx(l-p) = VAy p (4. sine cose RHS LHS cos1 sin(+8) (4. 82 x 9x 2 2 By 2 2 The current on the one dimensional fluid element can be factored into the x and y components. sine cos6 D = UAx sin cos8 x sin(e+e 1 ) 1osel 2 sine cose sin 81 D = UAx y sin (8+8 ) cos1 1 (4. There are two diffusion components in a two dimensional problem as follows.40) .

38 should be differentiated with respect to 6 in order to find out the velocity direction with maximum cross-flow diffusion. 4. Now the analysis will be extended to a three dimensional case in Fig. De Vahl Davis and Mallinson [24] also derived the effective cross-flow diffusion constant and their result is given in Eq. RHS D = It can be shown that. D DDM = UAlxy sin2e= 3 3 4(by sin36 + Ax cos36) UAx tan6 1 sin26 3 4(tan8 sin6 3 + cos3) (4. 4. 3 0 when tan 6 = tan6 1 .5. 4. 4.41) Equation 4.40 and Eq. 4.6. Eq. < 6 < 81 or < .-70- where p = u Ax u v By Equation 4.42 underestimates the cross-flow diffusion as shown in Fig. (4.6 the value at the point 0 is 4 and that value should reappear at the point X where the velocity vector meets the plane ABC. When both 6 and 61 are equal to . In the donor cell p' y scheme the value 4 is divided into three portions px 0 .42 give the same result.41 shows that DRH S (or DLH S ) is maximum at an Tr7LHS angle of 61 < 6 e between 4 and e1. that is to say.42. In Fig.42) Equation 4. 4.

0t Dcf UAx de Vahl Davis & Mallinson Huh 81=8C 1. 4.0 150 300 450 600 750 900 Fig.0 0 0 .5.5 I I 0. Comparison of the prediction formulas for crossflow diffusion constant by De Vahl Davis and Mallinson and Huh . 0.5 80 \ % % 4 1.-71- Cross flow Diffusion 2.

6. 4.-72- z C V Az X 0 o a X AY Ay B y x z C p . p Fig. Geometry for explanation of the cross-flow diffusion in a three dimensional Cartesian coordinate .

£4 cosy) nB . B. BX.and nA unit vectors along those directions.43.-73- z occurring at the points A. X(£ 4cosa. along the directions XA. XB. point X is given as follows. cosa cosB cosy (4. CX which are denoted as £i' z2' k3 can be obtained as follows. This is the so-called cross-flow diffusion phenoThe currents due to the cross-flow diffusion are . and C instead of at the point X.44) 4 Therefore. the following relation holds. £1 = AX =/(x4cosa)2 + (4cos)2 4cos) 2 = Ax 2 + 42 -2Ax£ 4 cosa . n C denote The coordinate of the Any point on the plane ABC should satisfy the following Eq. menon. S= 4 + y z zAx 1 cos+ + cos Ay Ax + cosy Az (4. XC. S+ Ly Ax + Az = 1 plane ABC (4. t4 cos8. 4.43) Since the point X is on the plane ABC.45) The lengths of AX.

nB.46) -+ The unit vectors nA .OX (4. -Z 4 cos8. I (Current)xAi XAI = px Px C1 1 Lt . (Ay4 cosS). y. nB' n C can simply be given as the products of the transported quantities and velocities. (Az- 4 cosy)] (4.47) etc. 2 -o C -14cosy] = 1 -- £ 4 cosa.48) The currents in the directions nA . Therefore. z directions. - n A = XA +1A - OA .-74- k2 = BX = /( 4cos)) 2 + (Ay-_4cos) 2 + (k 4 cosy)2 = - y2 + + 42 L 4 £3 = CX = /( 4cosc) 2 + (£4cos8)2 '' + (Az-L 4 cosy) / -z + £42 -2Azi + 4 cosy (4. n C can be obtained in terms of their components in x. -4 cosy] 1 nB = [-i4cosa.

50) Now the x direction cross-flow diffusion constant may be given as the ratio of the current to the gradient of 4 in the x direction. Px D (Ax-£ + Py D + -nC-(-4 (Current)x 4 cosa) c osa) At (- 4 (cosa) (Grad)x = 4/Ax Therefore./ Ay 4/6x Q/by (Grad)z = 4/Azl (4.49) The gradients of 4 in the x./ Ax (Grad) = 4.(-4 pz x co s a ) ct 4 + at (- 4 cosa) 4 . z directions are given as follows. (4.-75- I(Current) XB = Py p2 t I(Current) XCI where At = k /U z '3 At (4. (Grad)x = 4. y.51) p Ax D x = lt (Ax-k 4 cosa) + p Ax -.

Dy = vLy(l-py) Dz = wAz(l-pz ) The rotation of (4.1 = uAx(l-px) (4. we can simplify the result as follows.52) Inserting the expression for At given by At = £4 /U.53) The cross-flow diffusion constants in the y and z directions can be obtained in the same way. This section is a review of the schemes that The have been used to eliminate the numerical diffusion. . most important ones may be the skew differencing.-76- p D x Ax At A2 At t cosa(p +p +p) 4 x y z SxA At Ax L cosa at 4 (4. although none of them has been successful enough to be accepted widely.54) 4. tensor viscosity method. p Ax D = ux[ £4cos x .3 Discussion of Skew Differencing and Corrective Schemes The origins of the numerical diffusion and their effec- tive diffusion constants have been given in the previous sections. finite element method. indices will also give the same result. etc.

In the skew differencing scheme the 5-point relationship becomes a 9-point relationship.-II1~LI1I~~ ICII--1_1___~1___*_____11__ -77- Most of the schemes in Table 4. the interpolation should be done between neighboring points to obtain the value at the upstream point. The cross-flow diffusion is not eliminated entirely in the skew differencing scheme.^ILli--. The corrective scheme is to reduce the diffusion constants in order to compensate for the additional false .. The donor cell treatment of the convection term results in a 5-point relationship in a two dimensional problem. Chang's method 1161 and Raithby's scheme 1533 are of a skew differencing type while the tensor viscosity method [25] and Huh's corrective scheme that will be introduced in section 4. Basically the inclusion of four additional corner points contributes tomore accurate numerical modelling of the convection. S.~_ 1 i-_. the interpolation between neighboring points may still give some cross-flow diffusion.. but just appreciably lower than that of the donor cell scheme.3.. However.4 fall in the category of a corrective scheme... In the skew differencing type schemes finite differencing of the convection term is done not in terms of the x and y directions.1 can be categorized into two types. skew differencing and corrective schemes. Since the upstream point in the velocity direc- tion does not necessarily fall on the mesh point where the quantity under consideration is defined. but directly along the velocity direction.

Highe cdtr upwi:nd :"'ie Cdi't.hod Lillinron Ozlandi Snd hod m u macsh? Yes Yes Yes Pc = 10' only Yes Yes Yes Pe = 10' only es mesh 23 x 11 40 x 40 65 41 21 41 x x x x 33 21 11 21 di 'frencc Gt:Iz:kin .zky Chen Rue) ct &L Schonaucr Sykes Wad ct aL 41 X 21 21 x 1 40 x 40 100 x 50 81 x41 100 x 50 41 4l 3E 80 x x x x 21 21 19 40 .ronLUD Lillinion/VUDCC Nuana. Esposito Glas and Rodi Huffenus Lnd Khali..hod Mesh *txLnsformation rr. £Ebzhau t aL/PATANKAR Lilinpion Orlandi Priddin Wada cit l. viscosity method Sel.thod of chaaceriics Fiite anuryic method Tenso.tnce Vuer:o: upwind Yes Yes Yes Yes 2) x II 21 x ]1 21 x 11 21 x 11 41 x 21 41 x 21 21 x 11 81 x 41 28 x 14 Se Tzb)t 2 Up'nd f-t(e elemmnt !. Wilkes Elbahu ct l.1QUICK t ETovh ci ./LLUE Huint/QUICK Wilkes/LUE Lillimpon/SUD LiiL-.1.thod LLx-W'en d-off - 21 x11 80 x 400 Table 4.aptjve me. List of the schemes for numerical representation of advection presented at the Third Meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research.-78- Chss' iction Cen:ered . 1981 [65) . Grandotto Hickmott Firs.j. upwind f~iite di Teretn atl.ordc.e elements Clifft Dontcl t al.-ad.inte Con-ribo:r/me.

The correction formula The diffusion con- used here is Eq. The finite difference equation for Raithby's scheme is derived on the assumption of a linear profile of 0 normal to the flow and a uniform profile in the flow direction.-79- diffusion.1 Raithby's Scheme Raithby's scheme [53] is an Eulerian type of approach.. although the validity of its correction formula is not clear.54. D.53 and Eq. the corrective scheme can give a numerical solution which is almost free from numerical diffusion.53 and Eq. 4 = C1 + C2 n = C1 + C2 ( - (4. 4.55) where n is the distance normal to the flow and U = /u 2 +v 2 . 4. and D z in Eq. 4. stants in x. Since the cross-flow diffusion is dominant over the truncation error diffusion and the effective diffusion constants for the cross-flow diffusion can be predicted theoretically. 4. 4. The tensor viscosity method is one example of the corrective scheme.54. where the balance equation is set up for a given control volume by considering convection and diffusion at the control surface. It is therefore a conservative scheme. The corrective scheme is valid only if the effective numerical diffusion constant can be predicted accurately. y and z directions will be reduced by the amounts of D .3.

-80- Fig. A segment of. 4. the calculation domain showing grid lines.7. control volume and notations in Raithby's scheme .

Although this scheme is nonconservative. 4. 'ij- US (4. The inclusion of the four additional points also complicates the structure of the coefficient matrix in an implicit scheme. it is much simpler than Raithby's scheme and becomes conservative in a unidirectional flow. The convection term is differ- enced in the velocity direction between mesh points. u 4 + 'v.= U ax dy SC (4.3. This should be repeated for the four control surfaces of every mesh in a two dimensional problem.56) where U = /u is the coordinate in the velocity direction and 2 +v 2 .-81- The convection quantity at the control surface is calculated from the upstream value in the flow direction and the upstream value is obtained by interpolating two neighboring points.57) where the upstream value €US may be calculated by . which may be too complicated and time consuming for a practical purpose. not in terms of the convection that occurs at mesh interfaces.2 Skew Differencing By Huh Skew differencing scheme here treats the convection term in a Lagrangian way.

the cross-flow diffusion constants D in section 4. D . D-Dx.3. y. The validity of this scheme is based on the fact that the cross-flow diffusion can be predicted accurately.3 Tensor Viscosity Method The tensor viscosity method treats the numerical dif- fusion constant as a tensor quantity.2. D-D z in x. Dx = uAx(l-px) D Yy = Ay (l-py ) The expressions for . D-D y .2. 4. D are derived . 4. Some of the results of this skew differencing scheme is given in section 5. 4.3. 4.58) t2U= Eq.58 for the numerical diffusion constant is apparently not consistent with the results in Eq.3.4 Corrective Scheme By Huh The corrective scheme is to use the reduced diffusion constants. the tensor viscosity [25) T = Lt uu u2 The expression for is given in the following. 4. z directions to compenx sate for the cross-flow diffusion effect.-82- interpolating two neighboring points.54.53 and Eq. uv (4.

1 Mesh Point Implementation The mesh point implementation is to assign the crossflow diffusion constants Dx .4. After the cross-flow diffusion constants are assigned to every mesh point.+ -.59) v u -.These two become identical when the flow field is uniform or a very fine mesh is used so that the flow change over neighboring meshes is negligible.Dz at the center of a mesh where all quantities are defined except the flow field. Two implementation strategies have been tested so far._IIU__lpULI~~I___~l--Llt i~Lli--- ~-i ~iL~p-n-~sl. Dy . . In a coarse mesh or recirculating flow field the latter implementation strategy is definitely preferred. 4. The velocities at two boundary faces are averaged to get the representative velocity.+ w Ay Lz x etc.3. they should be averaged again between neighboring mesh points to calculate the cross-flow diffusion current at mesh interfaces. the mesh point implementation and mesh interface implementation. -83- D z = wAz(l-p z ) where px = u (4. which is used with the cell dimensions to get the cross-flow diffusion constants..

For the second case the two outward velocities. U1 and U2.-84- 4.4.V2) are used to give (DxlDyl) and(Dx 2 'Dy2 ). U and V. can be directly used with cell dimensions in Eq. so that they are proportional to V1 and V2. 4. Note that the cross-flow diffusion constant for the interface with an inward velocity does not have to be considered in that mesh because it will be considered in the neighboring mesh. as shown in Fig.3. . and the resulting D x and D y will be assigned to each interface.59. The velocity U is split into two components. The third case is expected to have a flow split as shown in the figure. Dyl and Dy 2 .8. The two velocity sets (Ul. The right interface will have the cross-flow diffusion constant (Dx1+Dx2 ) and the top and bottom interfaces.Vl) and (U2. For the first two cases the cross- flow diffusion constants are zero because the velocity vector is aligned with the mesh configuration. The mesh interface implementation is always recommended although it has a more complex program logic than the mesh point implementation. There are three possible cases that should be treated independently in a two dimensional case.2 Mesh Interface Implementation The mesh interface implementation is to assign the cross-flow diffusion constants directly to the mesh interfaces where the cross-flow diffusion current should be calculated. The same logic can easily Appendix C includes be extended to a three dimensional case. 4.

4. Three possible flow configurations for mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme in a two dimensional problem .8._~I~~ _~~~~_I__~__~~ __ -85- (1) (2) (3) Ul U2 V2 VI U U V14-V2 VI+V2 V2 U2 = UV2 U = Ul + U2 TV2 Fig.

Implicit and ADI (Alternate Direction Implicit). 1.-86- the fortran program for calculating cross-flow diffusion constants in an arbitrary flow field. Explicit.61) Implicit (l-D): n+1 i n 6t At i u -( Ax n+l i - n+l i-1 ) = D A 2 n+l i+-2 i+l n+l + i n+l i i-1 ) (4. Implicit and ADP schemes There are three typical solution schemes.60.) = i-1 n D Ax ( i+1 -2i l n n + n ) + iS i-1 (4. 4. 4. 4.62) .4 Comparison of Explicit. 3. conservation physical constraint accuracy stability 2 ax 2 2 y 2 +ux +at + 7 + -T7) + S sz (4. for the general conservation equation.60) Explicit (l-D): n+l I -n i At + u -(i i x n i. which is a parabolic partial differential equation. 2. The pros and cons of the three schemes will be compared in the following four viewpoints. Eq.

. or affected only by the source term contribution (SO).4. n+ n+ + 4n+ n+l + D ij+l - 2 n+1 + 4n+l i i-1 + Ax2 ADI (2-D) : * Ay 2 (B) n *i * 1 j + 1 1- i+l - At _ S +Ax 24.-87- ADI (2-D): n+ ij (A) _n ij In+ + u ij _ cn+ in + v n ij-1 At 2 Ax Ay )n+ i+lj 24 n+ Ax 2 +n+ n -l + D j+l n ij 2 Ay n+l ij n ij-i + S n+l ij n+ ij n+ ) ij n+ i-1 n+l ij-1 At 2 Ax Ay n+ =D i+i S2. + 4).1 Conservation The conservation principle is that the total amount of 4 should be conserved (S=0).63) 4. when the net inflow or outflow at . 2 Ax n+l -2 * ij v n+l ) ij n+l Ay 13j-1 n+1 ij+l n+l 1j-1 At Ay2 + S (4.

the conservative property is as important as the stability because the error from nonconservation may accumulate over many time steps. the conservative property may not be crucial. When we are concerned with a steady state solution. In order to guarantee conservation. there are some nonconservative solution schemes like ICE (Implicit Continuous Eulerian). All the explicit. where the convection terms of momentum equations are linearized in a nonconservative way. A scheme may be both stable and nonconservative and also both unstable and conservative because the conservative property is independent of the stability.2 Physical Constraint The physical constraint is closely related with the stability in a practical sense. Although they usually give . + CI 4. Although a conservative form is preferred to a nonconservative one. the same exchange term should be used for neighboring meshes.4.-88- the domain boundary is equal to zero. implicit and ADI schemes can be made conservative by using appropriate differencing forms for the convection term. For a long time transient. however.

1 Diffusion There is a maximum net flow that can occur between neighboring meshes by diffusion. The laws of physics impose some restrictions on the numerical scheme to get physically reasonable solutions. )C - 4R Ax 6y 4R C Ax Exchanged quantity of 4) by diffusion for time At = DR Ax CAy At After the exchange of the diffusion current.4.-89- similar constraints on the time step size and mesh spacing. new values of 4 are given as follows. 4. R C AxAy = CAxy + D R Ax Ax CAy C y At At ¢4AxAy = 1RAxAy .D . The Courant condition and Hirt's stability condition [36] that the finite domain of influence should at least include the continuum domain of influence are good examples of the physical constraint condition. they are from entirely different origins.2.

we have the following physical constraint. 4.65 is used. . scheme given in Eq. 4.65) Ax Equation 4. there will be a damping oscillation in the solution when the time step size is greater than that given by Eq.64 or 4. When the physical constraint is ignored and the time step size greater than that given by Eq. should still hold.-90- Since the relationship.64) Eq. t' > Q' . the solution will be unstable or stable with damping oscillations. d 2D t < 1 (4. 4. Both of the oscillation and instaThe ADI bility should be avoided in a transient problem. however. 4.65.65 may be a too conservative criterion in a real problem.64 may be extended to a d-dimensional case as follows. R AxAy(4) C) > 2D (R Ax C-yAt 2 DAt X2 < 1 - (4.64 or 4.63 is unconditionally stable. Therefore the physical constraint should be respected in addition to the stability condition to get a meaningful transient solution.

a portion of the control volume C will cross the interface S.66) When a time step size greater than the Courant limit is used. Therefore.-91- 4. 4.4.4.2.3 Accuracy Realistic interpretation of a finite difference equa- tion comes from an integral form of the conservation . Then uAttay is no more an appropriate expression for the convection quantity during At.B 4y S The explicit and donor cell treatment of the convection term gives the convection quantity at interface S as ulAAtAy. the damping oscillation or instability may occur as in the case of diffusion. At < 'x u (4. than the Courant limit. It is based on the assumption that 4A is the repreIf At is greater sentative value of the control volume A.2 Convection C A u B C A ).

~~CIIL Is CIIII r r I I I I I! US Ds > I r I US DS Donor Cell Central Differencing Reverse of Donor Cell where US(Upstream) DS (Downstream) Fig. Profile assumptions of Q in space and time for various differencing schemes .-92- n+l n+l 4' I I. 4. I I t i r _ I I [ n n+1 n n+l -_ 0 It Explicit Implicit CrankNicholson $i+.9.

accuracy depends on how well we can compute the convection and diffusion quantities at control surfaces over the time At. The infinitesimal approximation of differential terms is not appropriate in most problems of our consideration. The Von Neumann . whether the error introduced at a certain step will increase or decrease as the calculation goes over to the following steps. The accuracy expressed in terms of O(At). The stability can be checked by the theorems about matrix eigenvalues or Von Neumann analysis. the accuracy depends on the profiles 4 in time and space because the exact profiles assumed for are not known a priori. the error propagation is suppressed and the largest error contribution will be from the previous time step.-93- equation. 0(Ax 2 ) is The also not appropriate for finitely large At and Ax. It depends on the maximum eigenvalue of the iteration matrix. appropriate schemes should be chosen according to those numbers or weighting should be done between neighboring time steps and mesh points to increase the accuracy of the solution.4. However. 4. If its absolute magnitude is less than one. In other words. the accuracy is usually the least important among the given four considerations. Since the exact profile depends on the Peclet and Strouhal numbers of the governing equation.4 Stability The stability is a mathematical problem.

n+l i n €i+i I + u i+1 n i-i 2Ax i_1 lt n n i+l .68) . lowing sections. (4. implicit and ADI schemes using the Von Neumann analysis. stability criteria will be derived for the explicit.. 1 4n = E~nei where I = . 4.4. is expanded in Fourier series as follows.-94- analysis is to expand the solution of a finite difference equation in Fourier series and check the decay of each mode separately.1 Explicit Scheme The Von Neumann stability analysis of a finite difference equation is simple in its idea.4.2 2i + D i+1 i n 2 -i i-1 (4.1. The stability is not a sufficient conIn the fol- dition for an acceptable numerical scheme.67) The solution 4.1 One Dimensional Central Differencing of Convection Term The finite difference equation is given for a one dimensional general conservation equation with central differencing of the convection term. 4. but its algebra may get complicated.4.4.

69) Dbt Dt 2 Tx.68 is substituted results. the function .2dx(-t) where t = cose -1 < t < 1 ] 2 +C 2(1-t 2) 1 (4.71) The function f(t) will be defined as follows. the following expression for = l-Cxsin xI where cx d x uAt A tx - 2d (l-cos x) (4.70) Equation 4. 4. mode to achieve stability. [i . f(t) = i 12 = (4d2_ 2 )t2 + (-Sd 2+4d )t + C 2+4d 2-4d (4. 4. 2 11 = [1 . Therefore.2dx(-cosex) 2 + [Cxsinex 2 < 1 (4.67. 4.72) In order to get the stability of Eq.67.-95- The absolute value of should be less than one for every When Eq.70 may be rewritten as follows by defining cos6 x as t. in Eq.

D(Discriminant) = (C 2 . The parabola f(t) always meets the t-axis because the discriminant is always greater than or equal to zero.75) The parabola f(t) may have three distinct shapes according to the sign of the coefficient of the second order term. f(1) = 0 (4.73 can be solved by a graphical method using the characteristics of a quadratic equation. 4.1]. f(t) < 0 (4. (1) 4d x 2 -Cx 2 > 0 x : concave upward : linear 2 (2) 4d 2 -C 2 = 0 (3) 4d x 2 -Cx 2 < 0 : concave downward.2d )2 > 0 (4.1] Equation 4. In case (1) f(t) is a parabola concave upward and f(-l) should be less than or equal to zero as shown in Fig.73) for any t in [-1. .-96- f(t) should be less than or equal to zero for any t in [-1.74) One of the two meeting points with the t-axis is the point t=l because f(l) is equal to zero. Therefore.10(1).

.- r I I t -i t -1 1 t 0. according to the sign of the coefficient of second order term . Three distinct shapes of the parabola. f(t).3 0 0 /1 i2 2 4d -2d x x 22 4d -c xx t / (1) 4d 2 -c 2 >0 x x (2) 4d 2 -c =0 x x 2 2 (3) 2 2 4d2-c2<0 x x Fig. 4.10.-97- f(t) f (t) f (t) 'I I -4..

. 4. 4.4. 4.-98- f(-l) = 8dx(2dx-1) < 0 0 < d < (4. 4. we get the following stability conditions.2d Axis of symmetry: t = 4dx dx > C 2 x > . 4. t=l as shown in Fig.4. 4.dx) is shown in Fig.2 One Dimensional Donor Cell Differencing of Convection Term The following Eq. 4d 2 -C 2 4d C > 0 < 0 : : 0 < d dx > < 2 Cx The stable region in the coordinate system (Cx.76 and Eq.10(3). 4d 2 .76) In case (2) f(t) is a straight line and f(-l) again should be less than or equal to zero.1.77) Summing up the results in Eq.C (4. In case (3) the parabola f(t) is concave downward and the axis of symmetry should be on the right hand side of the point.78 is a finite difference equation with donor cell differencing of the convection term.77.11.

11. Stability -ondition in the plane (Cx. 4.d ) for an explicit scheme with central differencing of convection term in a one dimensional problem .-99- d x 1 -1 0 1 dx = C2 x 2x C Fig.

-100-

n+l
i

n At
At i

n
+ u i Ax

n
i-i

n
= D
i+l

n
i

n
i-i

Ax

2

2

(4.78)

where the velocity u is positive. The Von Neumann analysis of Eq. 4.78 gives the following stability condition.

2
It

1-(C x +2d [

x

)(1-cose x ) 2 + [C sine ) x

1

(4.79) (479)

can be shown that the value of IC12 in Eq. 4.79 does not

change when the velocity u is less than zero, if the Courant number, Cx, is defined such that it is always positive. The function f(t) is defined as follows to make it easier to solve Eq. 4.79.

f(t)

=

12

1-

S[(C x+2d)

2-Cx

]2 t

+ [-2(C x+2d )2 -2(C +2d
) ]

+ 2(C x+2d )]t (4.80)

+ [(C +2d ) +C

The function f(t) in Eq. 4.80 should be less that or equal to zero for any t in [-1,1] for the stability of Eq. 4.78. f(t) < 0 for any t in [-1,1] (4.81)

The parabola f(t) meets the t-axis at the point, t=l. f(1) = .0 (4.82)

-101-

Equation 4.81 canbe solved by the graphical method as in the previous section. 2 2

(C +2d )

- C

> 0

:

0 < Cx +2d X -< 1 -

(4.83)

(c x +2d x)

2

-C

2
x

< 0

d

>(C 2-C ) dx x

(4.84)

The results, Eq. 4.83 and Eq. 4.84, are shown graphically in Fig. 4.12.

4.4.4.1.3

Two and Three Dimensional Donor Cell Differencing of Convection Term

The two dimensional extension of Eq. 4.78 is given in the following. n+l ij At n D . i+D 3 24
Lx

n ii

n + u ij Ax n

n i-1 n

n + vii by

n ij-i n

+ 4

A2

1i-l3

n n 4 - 24 + D2+l ,_2
ay

+

i-i
(4.85)

The Von Neumann analysis is applied to the finite difference equation, Eq. 4.85, yielding the following result.

- 1 = -C x (l-e

lex)

-

C (l-e -I
y

(l-cos8 y) _ 2d (-csex ) x x
(4.86)

- 2dy (1-cosey)

-102-

d

x

1 2

x-

1 2xx

1

d

1 2 1 C -Cx)

Fig. 4.12.

Stability condition in the plane (Cx,d x ) for an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a one dimensional problem

-103-

where
C

x

-

Ax

C

- vat

d

-

DAt2 x2

x

Y

DAt Ay2

The Courant numbers, Cx and C y , are defined so that they are always positive, independent of the directions of the velocities u and v. Equation 4.86 can be simplified

by defining al and a 2 as given in the following Eq. 4.87. = 1 + al1 where a= 1 -C x - 2d x + (Cx+dx)e x -I6
x +

a2

(4.87)

+ de x

le

x

S

=

2

-C

Y

-2d

+ (C +d )e YY Y

-I6

x

+ de Y

Iy

The stability condition is that the absolute magnitude of 5 should be less than or equal to one for any values of 8x

e and By.

From Fig. 4.13 and Fig. 4.14 it can be seen that

indea1 and a2 should satisfy the following conditions pendently. a + 1

4

(4.88)

(4.89)

13. 4. The region in the complex plane where (a +c ) should exist for the stability of an explicit conscheme with donor cell differencing of vection term in a general two dimensional problem .1 SRe -2 al +2 1+a +a 2 Fig.-104- Im \ .- .

should exist for the stability of an explicit scheme with donor convection term in cell differencing of a general two dimensional problem . Fig.-105- . .14. .. 4.Re Both al and a 2 should be in the shaded circle to ensure that Ial+a 2 +1I< i. The region in the complex plane where the amplificatior factor.

which is independent of the time step size. A three dimensional case can also be solved through the same procedures and the results are given in Fig. At. 4. 4. where the points (Cx. -I 1 2 + (1+-)e Rx Rx 2 + (1+)e a1 = Cx [1 + Ie 1 3 . Cx and d .89 can be solved by the graphical method as in the previous sections. 4.88 and 4. The stability condition is again given by Eq. 4.4 Stability Condition in Terms of Cell Reynolds Number The stability conditions in the previous three sections are in terms of the dimensionless numbers.16.91) .e Rx .88 and Eq.e Y) (4. and time step.-106- Both Eq.d) should be in the shaded region for stability. When Ax and At are already given. our usual concern is can be checked directly. At.4. the stability However. 4.1.4. The stable region shrinks on a linear scale with dimensionality.89 and al and a2 may be rewritten as follows. 4.90) a 2 = C [-1 y R R Y + R (4. the stable time step size for a given mesh spacing.15. Therefore. Ax. the stable range of Cx should be determined in terms of the cell Reynolds number Cx/dx'. The results are given in Fig.dx) and (C y. which depend on both the mesh spacing.

idition in the planes (Cx.dy) fcr an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a general two dimensional problem.15. 4.dx) and (Cy. . Stability cc.-107- d (d ) d -= x 2 1 x + -1 4 C x(C ) 16 d= C2_ C x 2x x Fig.

16.dx) etc. for an explicit scheme with donor cell differconvection term in a general three encing of dimensional problem .(C Cx x y or Cz) z d ) Fig. Stability condition in the planes (Cx. 4.-108- d xy(d or d z ) Cx d- dx + 1 1 Cx (C d! S3 2 .

(1) Cx 2 K2 -1) > 0 concave upward .94 ) D(Discriminant) = C 2 (K-2C ) 2 > 0 (4. and has distinct shapes for the Following three cases.92) Equation 4. f(t) = C (1+K) 2 (l-t) . 4.95 ) The function f(t) satisfies Eq.R and x t = cosex The stability condition is now that f(t) should be less than or equal to zero for any t in [-1.90.94 and Eq. 4.95. [ .1] f(l) = 0 (4.C K(l-t) + C ( l_1-t = (C 22 K-C 2 2 )t2 + (2C 2 22 22 K +C K)t + C 22 K - C K + C 2 < 0 (4.93) ) where 2 K = 1 +.C (+2x . 4.92 can be simplified as follows.88 and Eq.) RX (1-cose )) x + [C sine] x x < (4.__LI___IIII__LI*X__ ID I-- -109- The following condition for Cx and Rx can be derived from Eq. 4.

-110- (2) C 2(K 2-1) = 0 linear (3) 22 C 2(K 2_-1) < 0 concave downward For case (1) and (2). solution procedure is similar to those in the previous sections and the results are given in the following as. The same result will be obtained for the y-direction.97) The results in Eq.98) Ax . 4. f(-l) should be less than or equal For case (3) the axis of symmetry of the parabola The should be on the right hand side of the point.17. V f . to zero.17. therefore the subscript x may be replaced with the subscript y in Fig.97 are shown in Fig. 4. (4. although it can be relaxed if there is a constraint on the velocity direction and mesh spacings such that the following' relation is satisfied.yu < 1 (4. The stability condition in Fig. t=l.96 and Eq.17 is applicable to all general 2-D problems. R > 0 x : 0 < C < x- 2 2 2(1+-) x and (4. 4.96) R -1 x < 0 < C x < (1+2-) Rx . 4. 4.

Cy) for an explicit scheme with donor cell ditferencing of convection term in a general two dimensional problem .-111- x (C y C x - 2 1 2 (1+ L) R x C = 2(1+ ) x -2 0 R (R x y Fig. Stability condition in the plane (Rx.17.Cx) and (Ry. 4.

18.-112- 1 1 x CX x 1 (l+f) (1+ x ) 1+f -1- 1 f 0 x V where f =-y u Ax Fig. 4.Cx) for an explicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a two dimensional problem with f v u/Lx . Stability condition in the plane (Rx.

20.17 should be Table 4. 4. (4. 4. 4. n+l n t n+l n+l n+l n+l n+l S i + u i +xu i -i= D i+l D i Lx 2 i-i (4. 4.99) (4.C Y- y .4. 4.18.Cx d > . the stability condition is found to be the following.99 is a fully implicit finite difference equation for a general one dimensional problem and the Von Neumann analysis will be applied in the same way as in the explicit scheme. parison between the analytical result in Fig.102) dx > .2 shows the com- 1 l+f in Fig.uLx.100) For a general two dimensional problem.2 Implicit Scheme The following Eq.19 and Fig. and it can be seen that the implicit scheme is unconditionally stable if the diffusion constant is than .101) (4.17 and numerical experiments.4. 4. d > - greater Cx (4. 4.99) The stability condition is shown in Fig.-113- Then the number replaced with on the C -axis in Fig.

780 0. R x 0.833 8.167 -2.660 0.019 Numerical Experiments 0.380 0.-114- Maximum Stable C.660 0.629 -2.720 0. Comparison of the stability conditions in terms of the cell Reynolds number by Von Neumann analysis and numerical experiments in a two dimensional explicit scheme with convection donor cell differencing of term .2.488 0.333 -4.060 Table 4.333 833.3 -8.120 0.403 0.083 Von Neumann Analysi s 0.260 0.120 0.540 0.180 0.499 0.147 0.333 83.

-C x 2x x 2x C x dx 1(C2+C 2xx ) Fig. 4.dx) for an implicit scheme with donor cell differencing of convection term in a one dimensional problem . Stability c-ndition in the plane (Cx.19.-115- -d = - x d =.

20.-116- Cx=-1 - 2 Rx -2 -1 0 R x -R C x R +2 Fig.Cx) for an implicit scheme with donor cell differencing convection term in a one dimensional of problem . Stability condition in the plane (Rx. 4.

4.-117- 4.+d )] C ) {[1+(l-cosex +dx)) +[fsinex }{[l+(1-cosy) (+dy) + Y[siney } (4.103) jsj <1 In order for I.104) . One of the formulations has both the x and y direction components in each step. 2 _C C 2 {[(-cos )(-+d X))] C [sine I2} {(1-cos6 C 2 -)(.63.4. treating them implicitly one by one at each fractional step and the other formulation has only the x or y direction component treated implicitly in each step. the following condition should be satisfied.jto be less than or equal to one. 4. The Von Neumann analysis of the first formulation in Eq.3 ADI Scheme There are two possible formulations of the Alternate Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme given in Eq.63 gives the following stability condition.4. C d x>2 (4.

4. C d y> - 2 - 4 (4.105) The stability condition of the second formulation in Eq.107) Therefore the second formulation of the ADI scheme in Eq. 4. C d x- > 2 2x (4.63 has the same stability condition as the fully implicit scheme.63 can also be given by the Von Neumann analysis as follows.-118- The same condition should hold for the y-direction.106) C d y - > - -~ 2 (4. .

Updating of the reference state. the ADI scheme is explored to -use a time step size larger than the Courant limit to save the overall computational time.1 and Fig. 5.2. 5. 5. Natural convection occurs due to the heat transfer between the obstacle and containment air. energy convection and heat transfer models are considered and the resulting flow fields are given in Fig. For example. Finally.1.-119- CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Some calculations are performed to validate the physical models and numerical schemes in the previous chapters. density is determined by temperaSince the natural convection of air ture and pressure. occurs as a result of the buoyancy force due to density .1 Updating of the Reference State The state of air is determined by any two independent properties. The physical models are tested in a natural convection problem and the numerical schemes are tested in a simple geometry to compare numerical solutions with exact solutions. 5.1 Natural Convection Results The containment is modelled as a two dimensional rectangular compartment with an obstacle as a heat sink.

Natural convection flow field due to heat transfer between the obstacle and air in the containment at t = 10. 0. 5. = 680F air T = 580F Fig. = 677.-120- -p ).0 Btu/lbm 0F (Q ob = 208.5 ft/sec h = 1.1.29 Ibm A= 2 ft2 T.4 sec AT = 100F T .8537x10-tu/ft20 F sec (Cp) = 1.8 sec .

= 677. 5.8537x10- tu/ft2 F sec p)ob = 1.2.29 ibm (K 2 A= 2 ft T. Natural convection flow field due to heat transfer between the obstacle and air in the containment at t = 62.-121- > 0. T ab = 580 F Fig.4 sec 1 0 AT = 10 F T air = 680F . 5 ft/sec h = 1.5 sec .0 Btu/lbm OF (c )b = 208.

Pold' Pnew: . depends primarily on the temperature.cell where Pold' Pnew: Density of the fluid at old and new time steps.1) T Pnew = old + Ttotal c v M f. c : Specific heat of the fluid at constant volume. The equation of state of an ideal gas is given in the following. not on the pressure because of a high modulus of elasticity. Told' Tnew: Temperature of the fluid at old and new time steps. The density change of liquid. temperature and pressure are equally important parameters in determining the flow field. time Pressure of the fluid at old and new steps. new Pnew RT new (5.-122- gradients. however.total Pold Told new old Qcell cv Mf.

2 in terms of the dimensionless numbers.4 when internal energy is used for enthalpy in air flow.0 Monatomic. but they may also be based on the vertical height of the obstacle. Qcell total : Heat input to the fluid in one cell and in the total domain. An experimental correlation is given in Eq. 5.cell. The Nussett and Grashof numbers here are based on the axial length of one computational mesh. 5.1. Mf. . The VARR calculations 121] have shown that the magnitude of velocity can be affected by a factor two by updating the reference pressure at every time step. diatomic and polyTherefore..-123- Mf.3 Heat Transfer Modelling The heat transfer to the obstacle is modelled as a natural convection from a vertical surface. k = c /C for liquid and 1. The energy convection will be underestimated by a factor of 1. . convection energy transfer should be in terms of enthalpy instead of internal energy.4 for air. the atomic gases have different values of k.1. 5.2 Energy Convection Another difference between liquid and gas is the ratio of the Specific heats. The value of k is 1.total : Mass of the fluid in one cell and in the total domain.

25 0.021 n 0.4 lbm/ft-sec Btu/ft 2 F. .923 x 10-3 Therefore. Gr = 9.2) 3 2 Gr = gS(AT)L p 2 (5. This may be a typical value for the natural convection heat transfer in the containment without any phase change.2 ft/sec' -5 V = 1. L = 2 ft AT = 500 F p = 0.7134 x 108 Nu = 89.sec .8537 x 10 .0763 ibm/ft 3 g = 32.4 The following data are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient at the obstacle wall.-124- Nu = C(Gr-Pr) n ( 5.109 > 109 C 0. h = 1.2179 x 10 B = 1.708 (air) Gr-Pr 105 .3) Pr = 0.555 0.876 The heat transfer coefficient is given as.

Therefore. the heat .5) where M A : Mass of one computational mesh. Specific heat at constant pressure. Obstacle density.1. If the flow is turbulent. T = 677.-125- The VARR input [21) requires the time constant of the heat transfer instead of the heat transfer coefficient. 5. 5. (Mc )ob (MC) obf hApo b ob f (5.4) where -CQ is the source term in the energy equation of fluid.2. Heat transfer coefficient between the fluid and obstacle. pf Pob: c h : Fluid density. T. CQ = Cpob (T-T) (5. Heat transfer area between the obstacle and fluid over one computational mesh.4 sec.4 Turbulence Modelling Laminar flow is assumed in obtaining the results in Fig. The time constant.1 and Fig. can be obtained from heat balance between the obstacle and fluid as follows. 5.

5.3(A) is parallel with the mesh orientation so that no cross-flow diffusion occurs.3(B) is skewed at 450 to the mesh orientation and both truncation error and cross-flow diffusions are included in the solution error. is compared with De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's in predicting the magnitude of cross-flow diffusion. 5. steady-state problem in Fig. 5.5 show that the numerical solutions is close to the analytical solution and the truncation error can be neglected. The flow in Fig. The skew differencing and corrective Huh's formula schemes are tested for various problems. The corrective scheme is tested in recirculating flow problems for mesh point and mesh interface implementations. 5.6 and Fig.7 show that excessive numerical diffusion has occurred due to the . Figure 5.1 Truncation Error and Cross-flow Diffusion The truncation error diffusion is compared with the cross-flow diffusion in a two dimensional. 5. The flow in Fig.3.2.4 and Fig. 5. The results in Fig.-126- transfer.to the obstacle will be enhanced and the diffusion transport of momentum and energy will also be enhanced in the containment air.2 Numerical Diffusion The truncation and cross-flow diffusion errors are compared in a simple geometry where an analytical solution can be obtained. 5. 5.

0 a= 1.07 (B) =0.0 BT S=0. 0 ST By =0.0 ay AB=BC=5. for evaluation of numerical diffusion .-127- (A) . Problem geometry for the two cases.0 x BT - @x a( aT + 2 2 a2 ay ) Th= 10.0 B T specified Fig.3.0 u = v = 7. (A) parallel flow and (B) cross flow.0 (A) (B) AB=BC=5.0 u = 10.0 B T_ -0. 5.0.

3(A) . Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 10x10 meshes along the line CD in Fig. 5.4.-128- Analytic solution Numerical solution with Donor Cell T 10. 5. spatial coordinate Fig.

Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 6x6 meshes along the line CD in Fig.~ -129- Analytic solution Numerical solution with Donor Cell C spatial coordinate Fig.^XI ill I~LX-_L-~LI.-~l r.__LL l.-__~ . 5.3(A) .5.~ I~. 5.

Comparison of the analytic solution.-130- Analytic solution Numerical solution with Donor Cell Analytic solution with D+Df cf T 10 spatial A coordinate Fig.3(B) . 5.6. 5. analytic solution with increased diffusion constant and numerical solution with donor cell differencing convection term in 10x10 meshes along the of line CA in Fig.

1/ 5.3(B) . . 5.7. 5..J 0 I' C spatial A coordinate Fig./ Fig.-131- Analytic solution Numerical solution with Donor Cell Analytic solution with D+Dcf T 10 / I / / . Comparison cT the analytic solution. analytic solution with increased diffusion constant and numerical solution with donor cell differencing of convection term in 6x6 meshes along the line CA in Fig.3(B) s' / line CA in .

5. 5.2. 5. De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's and Huh's formulas give the same cross-flow diffusion constants for the case. Figure 5.6 and Fig.810. more diffusion has occurred in Fig. 10 x 10 meshes and Fig.53 and Eq.2.12 for a simple pure .11 and Fig. it is necessary to test them for various cases. 5. Since the corrective scheme is based on the validity of those correction formulas.7 than in Fig. Figure 5.10 by De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's for the problem in Fig. are tested in Fig. 5. Figure 5. 5.9 is the result by Huh's formula and Fig.54.8. 4. It can be seen that the former result is much better than the latter. 5. 4.8 has the arbitrary angles of 6 and 61 such that 6 = 600 and 61 76. 6 = 6 = 450.-132- cross-flow diffusion.6 are for 5.7 are for 6 x 6 It is seen that a finer mesh gives a better Since the cross-flow diffusion constant is pro- portional to the mesh spacing.7 show that the numerical solution can be reproduced by the analytical solution with increased diffusion constants by the amount given by Huh's formula.4 and Fig.2 Validation of Huh's Correction Formula The cross-flow diffusion can be predicted by Huh's formula. solution. 5. 5. 5.5 and Fig.6. 5.3 Skew Differencing Scheme Two skew differencing schemes. Eq. meshes. Raithby's and Huh's. 5. The problem geometry in Fig.

0 v = 8. 5.810 8 = 600 8 Meshes 24 Meshes Fig.335 Huh A e1 = 76.6603 DDM= 0.7674 DH u h = 3.-133- Yo 2 T=0 D a = 1. Problem geomctry with arbitrary angles of 6 and 81 to compare De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's and Huh's formulas for prediction of cross-flow diffusion constant .0267 u = 5.2406 by = 1.0 Ax = 0.8.

5.9. Comparision of the numerical solution with donor convection term and cell differencing of analytic solution with increased diffusion constant. 5 0 spatial coordinate Fig. 5.-134- Analytic solution with D+Dcf Numerical solution with Donor Cell T 10.8 . (D+Dcf). by Huh's formula along the line BD in Fig.

by De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's formula along the line BD in Fig.-135- Analytic solution with D+DDM Numerical solution with Donor Cell T 101 spatial coordinate Fig. Comparision of the numerical solution donor cell convection term and analytic differencing of with increased diffusion constant. 5. 5.10. solution (D+DDM).8 .

Comparison of the true solution and solutions by donor cell scheme.25 0 Skew differencing by Huh (True solution) 100 100 100 100 50 0 0 0.11.25 65.5 68.38 50 31.-136- Donor cell 100 100 100 100 100 93.75 81. 5. 0 100 100 100 100 100 50 100 50 0 50 0 -0 V Fig.25 18. skew differencing scheme by Raithby and skew differencing scheme by Huh in a pure convection problem with e = 45* .75 25 U 12.75 75 50 U Skew differencing by Raithby 50 100 100 100 100 50 100 100 100 50 0 100 100 50 0 0 100 50 0 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 50 34.63 87.5 0 6.

6 0 Skew differencing by Huh 100 90.5E 25.3' 40.22 -9.-137- Donor cell 100 100 100 100 50 -.50 2.88 81.47 -23.25 37.74 38. 62.25 0 0 0 .5C 100 100 50 Fig.11 0 11.11 3.91 71.25 -1.91 31.01 55.25 53.3E 21.6.A Skew differencing by Raithby 100 100 100 100 96.13 0 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 50 25 0 50 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.67 -5.1 6.52 1.56 1. skew differencing scheme by Raithby and skew differencing scheme by Huh in a pure co-vection problem with e = 63.99 10.43 7.26 80.9 33.2! 90.5 0 0 63.96 17.E 21 0 12 True solution 3.33 70.86 16.71 20.85 -0.3: 11.12.430 0 50 0 Comparison of the true solution and solutions by donor cell scheme.430 .59.83 72.89-22.70 4. 5.

4 Corrective Scheme The prediction formulas of the cross-flow diffusion constants are validated by showing that the numerical solution can be reproduced by the analytical solution with the appropriately increased diffusion constant.14 show that the analytical solution can be reproduced by Huh's skew differencing scheme for the case.3. both of them are conservative in a uni-directional flow.-138- convection problem.3.11 has a flow given in sections 4.2. method while Huh's scheme is Lagrangian. Raithby's scheme is an Eulerian Therefore. The purpose of the corrective scheme is. however. to obtain the true solution by subtracting the additional cross-flow diffusion .430 angle and neither Raithby's nor Huh's scheme can reproduce the true solution. 5. It is indicated that Raithby's scheme may give unphysical results in problems with steep gradients of the quantity under consideration. The details of those schemes are Figure 5.1 and 4. 5. former is conservative while the latter is not.12 has a flow at a 63. but less than inthe donor cell scheme. Some cross-flow diffusion has occurred in Huh's scheme. 5. Fig. at a 450 angle with respect to the mesh orientation and shows that the donor cell scheme introduces appreciable cross-flow diffusion while Raithby's and Huh's skew differencing schemes give the true solution.2. 8 = 1e= 45*. the However. Figure 5.13 and Fig.

-139- Analytic solution Numerical solution with Donor Cell Skew differencing scheme by Huh C A spatial coordinate Fig.3(B) . 5. Comparison c f the analytic solution and numerical solutions by donor cell scheme and skew differencing scheme by Huh for 10x10 meshes along the line CA in Fig.13. 5.

Comparison of the analytic solution and numerical solutions by donor cell scheme and skew differencing scheme by Huh for 6x6 meshes along the line CA in Fig.14.-140- Analytic solution Numerical solution with Donor Cell Skew differencing scheme by Huh 10 5 0 spatial A coordinate Fig. 5.3(B) . 5.

20 shows the diffusion corrections of the mesh point and mesh interface implementations at each interface.19 is a hypothetical 3 x 3 recirculating flow field where the inlet boundary values are specified on the left and bottom surfaces. 5. In Fig. donor cell solution and the solutions by mesh point aand mesh interface implementations. Both of them are tested in a recirculating flow problem with pure convection. 5. Fig.430. 5. Two implementation strategies of the corrective scheme. Figure.-141- constant from the total diffusion constant of the finite difference equation. 5. mesh point and mesh interface.3(B). are introduced in Chapter 4. The full correction of the cross-flow diffusion gives the true solution without any numerical diffusion error. Figure 5.18 show that the cross-flow diffusion can be eliminated by the corrective scheme and that a finer mesh spacing always gives a better solution. Figure 5. The corrective scheme is also tested in the problem geometry of Fig.21 gives the true solution. although not identical to the true solution. 5.17 and Fig. Fig. The flow is at a 45* angle with respect to the mesh orientation.16 has a flow with 8 = 63.15 numerical solutions are given for a simple pure convection problem with various diffusion corrections. 5. The corrective scheme gives a physically reasonable solution. The mesh point implementation gives an unphysical solution .

5 (True Solution) 9.-142- D=0.0 10 7.25 0 5.12 5.41 u=v=l Ax=Ay=l D =D =0.5 - 3.99 D=-0.0 2.0 2.92 5.88 10 5 0 2. Donor cell solutions with various diffusion corrections for a pure convection problem with e = 450 .15.71 0.01 7.1 10 8.0 1.0 2.13 7.59 7.71 5.5 0 1. 5.29 0.29 5. 0 V ________ D=-0.75 6.3 D=-0.5 x y Fig.08 5.88 5 4.0 8.

37 3.11 0.430 u=l.33 1.04 4.07 2.93 10 5.82 -0.16.10 9.56 - 2.41 0.07 10 3.59 1.430 . True solution and donor cell solutions with and without diffusion correction for a pure convection problem with e = 63.73 10 7. v=2 x= y=l 2 D =D =-- x y 3 Fig.11 True Solution V 63.-143- D=0. 0 D-2 3 0.96 3.11 6. 5.91 0.07 0.

5.-144- Analytic solution Numerical solution with donor cell Solution by corrective scheme 10 A spatial coordinate Fig. Comparison of the analytic solution. 5. numerical solution by donor cell scheme and numerical solution by corrective scheme for 10x10 meshes along the line CA in Fig.3(B) .17.

18. numerical solution by donor cell scheme and numerical solution by corrective scheme for 6x6 meshes along the line CA in Fig.-145- Analytic solution Numerical solution with donor Solution by corrective scheme 10 5 0 spatial coordinate Fig.3(B) . 5. Comparisoin of the analytic solution. 5.

3 -)- 2 3 2 Lx = Ay = 1 Fig.-146- 0 Of-r 3 ~LC~' / 10 1 1 5 0 1 3 3. Simple recirculating flow field for test of the implementation strategies of the corrective scheme . 5.19.

20. 5.2 0 0 0 mesh interface implementation Fig.19 .75 1.5 0.625 0 .75 0.75 1.2 0.625 0. 5.75 0 0 0.5 0 0 5 0 0 . Diffusion coastant corrections at each interface for the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective for the recirculating flow field given in Fig.-147- 0.75 1.125 0.25 1.25 mesh point implementation 0.

10 8.10 9.75 6.19 .51 10 5 0 Fig.16 6.82 8.18 7.26 8.16 11.21 7.08 -9.21.94 9. 5.-148- True solution Donor cell mesh point implementation -5. 5.83 6.86 12. donor cell solution and solutions by the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme for the recirculating flow field given in Fig. Comparison of the true solution.21 mesh interface implementation -0.

3 sec with the corrections in Fig. 5. The true solution cannot be reproduced because some of the information about the flow field has already been lost in Fig. the steam concentration for the new time step can be calculated in an explicit way. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5.27 and Fig. After a while a flow field is set up in the This containment by the input mass and momentum of steam. Figure 5. Another test calculation is done for a two dimensional. 0.25 and Fig. There was initially air in the containment and steam is introduced in the source mesh at the rate of 0.26 show the diffusion constant corrections of the mesh point and mesh interface implementations and Fig. 5. respectively.19. flow field is used here to test the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme. 5.25 and Fig. 5.28 is not a reasonable solution while the mesh interface implementation result in Fig.22 shows the flow field in the containment and more detailed information about the flow field is given in Fig.24 in which the source mesh has the highest steam concentration. 5.23.26. Since the steam concentration distribution and flow field are given at the start of the calculation. rectangular containment with an arbitrary recirculating flow field.-149- while the mesh interface implementation gives a physically reasonable solution. The result in Fig.28 show the steam concentration distributions after one time step. The steam concentration distribution at the beginning is given in Fig.27 is physically reasonable and even better . Figure 5.2 kg/sec.

22.-150- Ax = 0. Recirculating flow field for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment to test the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the convective scheme .5m Ay = 1. 5.0m Fig.

2435 0. 5. 0648 1.1422 2148 0.0348 0.1385 0.93 2.2159 0.1229 0. 861 1.3957 0.2190 0.34 0.4920 0 .2474 04 1379 0.5174 1. 045 0.2629 0. 5955 SOURCE 0.456 0.0492 0 . 1317 0.-151- 0.207 2.531 0. 0735 0.3074 0.0937 0 1.23.1139 0 .2216 0.7126 0. 2214 velocity [m/sec] Ax = 0.1276 0 . Detailed flow field for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment to test the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme . 3563 0.3253 0.5 m Ay = 1 m Fig.2460 0.5893 0.3 095 1.4870 0.0127 0.

0011 0.2 kg/sec of steam Fig.0031 Ax = 0.0346 0.24.0095 0. 5.1266 0.1178 0.-152- 0. Initial steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment to test the mesh point and mesh interface implementations of the corrective scheme .0007 0.0136 0.0179 0.1859 SOURCE 0.0049 0.0298 0.0305 0.1712 0.5m by = Im Source: steam concentration in Ikg/m 3 0.0358 0.0676 0.1710 0.1244 0.1750 0.0819 0.0002 0.1085 0.1420 0.0620 0.1592 0.

0.2740 0.0300 0. 0086 0.1763 0.1 389 0.3262 0. Diffusion co.1694 3106 0.0311 0.stant corrections of the mesh point implementation of the corrective scheme for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment .5m by = Im Diffusion constant in Im2/sec] Fig.25.0440 0.0348 0. 2422 0. 5.-153- 0.1854 0.0224 0.1583 0.C209 0.0794 0.1451 0.0 362 0.1279 0. 0.0937 0.1178 0.1014 258 0.0731 116 0.0 278 0.0 183 Ax = 0. 0152 0.0311 0. 0488 0.0255 SOURCE 0.0253 0.0193 0. 0396 0.0600 0.1452 0.. 0. 0227 0.0590 0.1701 0.

2134 0.0 923 0 0.0215 0.2317 0 0.0443 0.0287 0.0 76 0.9769 0 0 0. 0706 0. 0240 0.0 111 0 Lx = 0.0534 0.0860 0.26.0192 0 0.0518 0 0 0.-154- 0 0 0.2529 0.3694 0. 0579 0.4732 0.5m by = lm Diffusion constant in Im2/sec] Fig.1026 0 SOURCE 0 0 0.0632 0. 5.0 257 0. Diffusion constant corrections of the mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme for calculation of the steam concentration distribution in the two dimensional containment .0479 0.1149 0 0 0.

1623 0.-155- 0.0046 Lx = 0. with donor cell differencing convection term without any diffusion of correction .0195 0.0342 0.2 kg/sec of steam Fig.0735 0.0016 0.3 sec.1321 0.1706 0.1847 SOURCE 0.1243 0.0011 0.1733 0.1363 0. 0.0068 0. 5.0342 0.0233 0.0833 0.0003 0.5m Ly = Im steam concentration in [kg/m 3 ] Source: o.27.0947 0.0107 0. Steam concentration distribution after one time step.1475 0.0465 0.0448 0.1135 0.1711 0.

0355 0.2086 SOURCE 0. 0.0937 0.0250 0.1747 0.-156- 0.1493 0.0287 0. 5.1911 0. with mesh point implementation of the corrective scheme .1247 0.1729 0.0433 0.2 kg/sec of steam Source: 3 Fig.0465 0.1646 0.1334 0.0029 0.1240 0.0229 0.0092 0.3 sec.0010 0.28.0815 0.0709 0. Steam concentration distribution after one time step.5m Ly = Im steam concentration in Ikg/m 0.1797 0.0005 -0.0068 0.0042 Lx = 0.

with mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme .0100 0.1243 0.1738 0.1112 0.0010 0.0228 0.1628 0. 5.0295 0.0947 0.3 sec.1756 0.1310 0. Steam concercration distribution after one time step.0058 0.0424 0. 0.1847 SOURCE 0.1487 0.2 kg/sec of steam Fig.0360 0.0192 0.1794 0.1342 0.0722 0.29.0481 0.0039 ax = 0.0007 0.0003 0.5m by = Im steam concentration in [kg/m 3 Source: 0.0815 0.-157- 0.

which is exactly the .5 sec. the steam concentration should decrease as the flow goes up to the ceiling because most of the steam introduced in the source mesh goes upward and gets distributed by convection and diffusion. Figure 5.3 ADI Solution The ADI scheme is tested to use a time step size larger than the Courant limit.-158- than the donor cell solution. 5. Figure 5.30. 5. The ADI and explicit schemes give almost identical results during all the transient. The results of the ADI and explicit schemes are compared in the problem geometry of Fig.31 shows the profiles of 4 along the dotted line for the time step size of 0. it has the maximum time step size that can give a physically reasonable solution. =10.30 there is an inflow from the bottom surface at the velocity of v=1. 5. when the Courant limit is 1 sec.0. In the meshes at the top of the source mesh. Although the Von Neumann analysis shows that the ADI scheme is unconditionally stable.32 shows the profiles of 4 at the same loca- tion for the time step size of 1 sec.0 and the inlet boundary value of 4 is. In Fig. It is found that a wise use of the ADI scheme can reduce the overall computation time in comparison with the explicit and implicit schemes. There is a source of 4 on the right boundary over two computational meshes and the profile of Q along the dotted line is affected by that source.

~ ~ILI_~_~L--I*-L~-l-*IIIU*XI -1 9- IB Source of ' 'A Profiles of 4 = 10.0 Fig.30. 5.0 on this line are compared.0 c= 1.1I -I _--~ 1_. v = 1. Problem geometry for comparison of the explicit and ADI solution schemes .Y-XI~^-.0 Ax = Ly = 1.

5 sec 12. Comparison of the explicit and ADI solutions for along the line AB in Fig.31.0 12.0 A iatlai B 10. 5.0 sec for Lt=0.-160- 12.0A 12.0 Fig.0 11. 5.0 11.0 11.0 0.0 10. 0A Explicit -----ADI 10.0 11.0 10.0 coordinate 11.01 12.5 .0 12.30 the profile of sec and the Courant limit of 1.0 10.0 10.0 11.

Comparison of the explicit and ADI solutions for the profile of 4 along the line AB in Fig.0 11.0 12.32.0 12.0 10.0 11. 5.0 Fig.0 10.0 4 sec 11. 5.0 Explicit ADI 10. 11.-161- 1 sec 12.30 for At=1.0 .0 sec and the Courant limit of 1.0 10.0 16 sec 20 sec 12. 12.0 11.0 sec .0 10.0 ~ spatial coordinate 12.

5. The deviation for the time step size of 5 sec is expected to damp out as the calculation goes over to the next time steps because of the unconditional stability. 5.33. Initially. 5. 5.-162- the Courant limit. Fig.31. but it damps out rapidly and the ADI scheme gives almost identical results with the explicit scheme. Fig.32 and Fig.33 shows that the ADI scheme can use a time step size up to five times the Courant limit. . No cross-flow diffusion corrections are involved in the results of Fig. there is some deviation between the two results.

33.0 t spatial coordinate B Fig. Comparison of the ADI solutions for the profile of at t=10.5 sec ec 11.30 with different time step sizes .-163- 12-.0 sec along the line AB in Fig. 5.0 At =0. 5.

or superheated steam as may be appropriate. (2) The models of laminar and turbulent diffusions in Chapter 3 may be adequate for predicting the hydrogen transport in the containment. energy. and turbulence equations are solved separately using that flow field.-164- CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 6. 6. in the finite difference donor cell treatment of convection. The mass diffusion. The thermal equilibrium is assumed and the phase change occurs to maintain 100% relative humidity.2 Numerical Schemes (1) There are two numerical diffusion sources. truncation error and cross-flow diffusion.1 Physical Models (1) The solution scheme presented in Chapter 2 has been adequate for modelling the slow mixing stage in the containment after a loss-of-coolant accident. The total diffusion con- stant is the sum of the laminar and turbulent diffusion constants. The . Cross-flow diffusion occurs due to the donor cell treatment of the convection term in a multi-dimensional problem. The con- tinuity/momentum equations are decoupled from the scalar transport equations and solved by the SMAC scheme to obtain the flow field.

. convection dominant. have been tried in order to eliminate the numerical diffusion.-165- effective diffusion constants of the truncation error and cross-flow diffusion are of the same order of magnitude. The gradient of the scalar quantity under consideration is usually small in the flow direction in comparison with that in the direction normal to the flow. The inclusion of corner points complicates the matrix structure and a fully implicit scheme should be used for maintenance of stability. The truncation error diffusion occurs in the flow direction while the cross-flow diffusion occurs in the diagonal direction of neighboring mesh points. It is conservative and an explicit scheme can be used without affecting the simple solution structure. but not always. recirculating flow problem is due to the cross-flow diffusion. ~unx. The skew differencing scheme gives good results for some problems. The corrective scheme is based on the fact that the additional cross-flow diffusion can be predicted theoretically for every mesh at every time step. the corrective scheme is generally preferred to the skew differencing scheme. (2) Two types of approaches. It gives unphysical results for most recirculating flow and coarse mesh problems. Therefore. skew differencing and corrective schemes. Therefore. most of the numerical diffusion error in a multi-dimensional.

The graphical method is used to obtain the stability condition in terms of the Courant.e. The results of various sample problems show that the mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme always gives a physically reasonable solution with negligible numerical diffusion error. Implicit (ADI) scheme can be used to increase the time step size and decrease the overall computational effort. (5) The maximum time step size is limited by the Courant The Alternate Direction condition in an explicit scheme. i. the physical constraint in section 4. it has its own limitations due to the following factors. are identical in a unidirectional flow. Although the Von Neumann analysis shows that the ADI scheme is unconditionally stable. The mesh interface implementation is always preferred to the mesh point implementation in a recirculating flow problem. Cx. The results of numerical experiments are found to be consistent with the Von Neumann analysis.. (4) The Von Neumann stability analysis is applied to various finite difference forms of a general conservation equation. diffusion and cell Reynolds numbers.2 imposes a maximum time step size that can give a physically . using the characteristics of a quadratic equation. mesh point and They mesh interface. First. are tried for the corrective scheme. dx and Rx .-166- (3) Two implementation strategies.4.

a steadyThe state solution may never be reached due to the fact that one time step is composed of a few fractional steps. the ADI scheme is a fractional step method. . For example. Second. asymmetry of the given problem may give different results according to the sweeping sequence.-167- reasonable solution.

etc.. The flow regime criterion may be replaced with a model that covers all the turbulent. . multi-dimensional recirculating flow problem. to eliminate the cross-flow diffusion. velocity gradient. time step size. it is necessary to predict the flow regime in order to use appropriate physical models. previous time step information. A criterion for the flow regime should be developed in such a form that it may be implemented into a computer code.g.-168- CHAPTER 7 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 7. transitional and laminar flow regimes. They may still be improved further to get an accurate solution in a transient.1 Physical Models Since both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes are possible in a complicated geometry and flow field. The modified k-E model in a low Reynolds number flow may be a guide in this approach.2 Numerical Schemes There have been two approaches. The important parameters may be the velocity. 7. geometry (e. distance from the wall). skew-differencing and corrective schemes. The model should show proper limiting behaviors as the Reynolds number goes to infinity (turbulent) and zero (laminar).

Skew differencing scheme 1. 2. The conservative form of the skew differencing scheme is complicated and time consuming in comparison with the corrective scheme. ADI and implicit schemes although only the implicit scheme has been used up to now. The solution in Appendix A may be a useful guide in this work. The stability of the skew-differencing scheme is open to question in the explicit. .-169- Corrective scheme The corrective scheme has been successful by the mesh interface implementation strategy in the scope of this work. More tests and validation calculations are required in recirculating flow problems. It may be possible to develop a reasonably simple form that may or may not include the corner points.

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D.D. K. "Comparison of Finite Difference Journal of Computations of Natural Convection. 46. Raithby.G. J.S.W... J. No. A. R. Smith. Spalding.. Strong. D..D. "Numerical Analysis of Fluid Hammer Waves by the Method of Characteristics. 3. Wilke. 153-168 (1982). Methods in Applied Mech. and Strong. and Eng.. Raithby.D. Stubley.A. J. Tennekes. 4. 411-428 (1980). 1968). H." FATE-80-114 [73] (Jan.. 95-102 (1950). G. 1981). A First Course in Tur- [65] [66) [67] [68) [69) [70] [71] Torrance. "A Novel Finite Difference Formulation for Differential Expressions Involving Both First and Second Derivatives.B. "The Numerical Treatment of Advection: A Performance Comparison of Current Methods. D. "Diffusional Properties of Multicomponent Gases. . 3. 1974).L. A. "Simulation of Convection and Diffusion Processes by Standard Finite Difference Schemes and by Influence Schemes... 20. 551-559 (1972).. Vol. No. Phys. "Proposal for a New Discrete Method Based on an Assessment of Discretization Errors. 35.B. bulence. Trent.-175- [64] Shin.R. G.A. and Woolner. Stubley... K. M. "TEMPEST: A Three-dimensional Time-dependent Computer Program [72] for Hydrothermal Analysis.L.B." Numerical Heat Transfer.J. Budden. G.H. 411-428 (1980). Stuhmiller.. MatheResearch matical Sciences. and Lumley.. and Eyler. (Jan. Y. 2. A. 72B." of the National Bureau of Science . MIT Press (1970).." SAI-74-509-LJ. and Valentin." Chemical Engineering Progress. For Num. 4 (Oct." Numerical Heat Transfer.. 220-237 (1976)." Comp. "Development and Validation of a Two-Variable Turbulence Model. G. L.-Dec.M. Vol. R.E.. Methods in Eng. and Hutton.B.." Journal of Comp." Int. C.

1 is2 reduced to the following form. Therefore.-176- APPENDIX A ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE PROBLEM IN FIGURE 5.1) In Eq. c. pc u aT = k(-a2T + 2aT 2 x2 p x ax ay (A.3(B) A steady state two dimensional energy conservation equation without any source is given in the follbwing Eq.3(B) and the constants can be grouped into one constant. a=-- k PCp C =2 u 2A.2 is simplified further by substitution of 4 for T as follows. 2 x 2 a2 ay = c 2 (A. Eq. A.2) Equation A.3) ax . 5. The boundary conditions are specified in Fig..1. as follows.a2T aT 2 + a2 2 2c-- ax ax 2 y ay (A. A.1 convection occurs in the x direction and diffusion occurs in both x and y directions.

-177- where 4 = e-CXT (A. tively.6) dx dy The two terms on the left hand side of Eq. A. A. ables. A.a = - (A. I d2X + 1 d 2Y 1 = c2 C (A.7) d -Y c . The variable 1 is separated into two vari- X and Y.y) = X(x)Y(y) (A.5) Then Eq.4) The boundary conditions should also be expressed in terms of 4 as given in Fig.8) dy where a > c > 0 . c 2 X cx 2 = (A.3 is reduced to the following form.1. which are functions of x and y only respec- (x. Equation A.6 should be equal to some constants because they are functions of x and y only respectively and the sum of them is equal to a constant.3 can be solved by the method of separation of variables.

A.-178- .1. Boundary conditions in terms of 4 for the problem in Fig.-= YO T 0 -ii ii i h YO + co = 0 4 = 0. 5.0 0 = 0 x Fig. 4 = ec T .3(B) where 0 is given by.

11) dY dy=Y 0 = 0 (A.11. A.10) The boundary conditions in Fig. A.12) (d dx _cX) = 0 x=xO (A.12 and Eq. A. X = Cleax + C2 e-ax (A. A.9 and Eq.16) .15) ny 0 = n C2 _ n+c 2 e nX 1 n (a n 9 C) (A. dY dy y=O Y=O 0 (A. A.8 can be easily obtained as follows. C3 = 0 (A. 13) In order to satisfy the boundary conditions given in Eq.1 may be given in terms of the variables X and Y as follows. the constants in Eq. A. Eq.10 should satisfy the following relations.14) (A. 13. A.9) Y = C3sin8y + C4cosSy (A.-179- The solutions to Eq. The boundary con- dition at x=0 will be considered later.7 and Eq.

the final solution can be expressed as follows. 17) T(x. the constants A.2.y) = e cx (x. . Therefore.3 . Th 0 2.18) n n Since the boundary condition at x=0 should also be satisfied.-180- where 2 =c 2 + n (O) n 2 yO =c 2 + 8 2 .y) where nr (A. -ax = A0e + C ax Z A [e n=l n a +c n n 2a x 0 n -ea nx + ( a -c )e e ]cOSSnY n (A. nw sin-2 nO0 (n=1.) (A.19) . .1 are determined as follows.0 2 A- n Th h nr 1 n 1+( a -c )e n 1 a +c 2a x .

-- -181- APPENDIX B ADI SCHEME FOR MOMENTUM EQUATION The ADI scheme can replace the explicit scheme in the momentum equation in order to eliminate the Courant condition for the time step size.i. They are formulated for a natural convection problem where the gravity acts in the z-direction. Equations B. the computational effort for one time step is greater than that of the explicit scheme. B. there are six sweeps in a three dimensional problem and four sweeps in a two dimensional problem. B. The most important sweep should be given the first priority and most updated information. The sequence of the sweeps is arbitrary and depends on the problem under consideration.1-Eq. the time step size in the ADI should be at least two or three times the Courant limit in order to have a gain in the overall computational efforts required for a problem. Therefore. The ADI scheme is applied to a two dimeraional momentum equation in the following Eq.iillaY~i~~l_ ^YII^^~II ( -. The time step size limitation in the ADI scheme comes from the semi-implicit treatment of the nonlinear convection term.1 and B. Since there are two steps involved in solving the momentum equation in each direction.4. When the tilde phase of the SMAC scheme and other scalar transport equations are solved by the ADI scheme.3 are the z and x direction sweeps of the x direction momentum .

ui+ j At - n+l * u i+lj i+ . u n * u j -i+ Ui+D Dt j + * n i+ j+ Ui+ j .Rxi+ jui+ jui+ j RX * n+l (B.u n+l ui+2 2 n+l Ar2 +2u j n+l ui j . 2 Az + Ui+ -1 P - n -- i+j i+ jui+4j (B.1) * * n * * - ij+ At Wi+1 j+ ij+ + i+Ij+wij+ ui-j+Wi-lj+ 1 P- n~ .2ii+ Ar 2 + Wi-lj+ . ar .3) .Wi+ Az j Ui+ j 1 ui+ j+l * . Equations B.4 are the x and z direction The z direction sweeps of the z-direction momentum equation. sweep of the z direction momentum equation is treated as the last one in order to be given the most updated information.2) n+l i+j * .-182- equation.u Lr * n+1 .2 and B.P z - n * RZij+ ij+ ij+ (B.2ui+.

-183- n+l i+ * wij+ * i n+l +lWij+ * n+l zW.+ n+1 n+l Az -2wi + w _P z -P0 -zP -g z RZ n+l ij + wij+ 3wij+ (B.4) Equations B. B.2. w At n+l Wi. . and B.3. B.1.4 have given almost identical results with the explicit scheme for a time step size below the Courant limit.

Then four cross-flow diffusion constants at every interface are summed up to give a total cross-flow diffusion constant . There are When there are inflow and outflow. The file. 5. In the second part of the program the flow split is considered such that every outflow velocity is partitioned into four components in a three dimensional case in proportion to the velocities of the four neighboring surfaces in contact with the surface under consideration.2. a flow split occurs as shown in Fig. 4. Fig. the cross-flow diffusion constants can be calculated in a simple way as in the first part of the program. 'difprg fortran'. or all inflows in x. y and z directions. two different cases treated separately. are assumed to be zero. are the computer programs for calculating the numerical values of the analytical solution in the problem geometries. the calculational logic of the mesh interface implementation of the corrective scheme in section 4.-184- APPENDIX C COMPUTER PROGRAMS The files. 'prog2 fortran' and 'prog3 fortran'.4. All the inflow velocities The component velocities are used to calculate the cross-flow diffusion constants for eight subspaces in a three dimensional coordinate space. 5. 5.3(B) and Fig. is the program for testing Fig.3. y and z direction mesh interfaces.8.8.3(A). When there are two outflows in any of the x.. 'progl fortran'.

has four neighboring subspaces.-185- because one axis direction. It is used to solve a one dimensional implicit finite difference equation in the ADI scheme. the positive x direction. The total cross-flow diffusion constant can be calculated in the same way for every mesh interface. The ADI scheme for the momentum equation is given in Appendix B. A portion of the VARR program is introduced to show how the ADI scheme is implemented in the energy and momentum equations. . The subroutine 'tdm' solves tridiagonal matrix problems by forward and backward sweeps.

0 00 20 IPsi.000190 PI00O200 NY*OX YSO v PI*PI/(YO.0 44 YY I IIPI*(UJ-0.215.U.YO) CCOrrF 2.OALNOEXP(ALN.5)/NY ADD * ATOTTDCOS(YY) SUM T(d) v SUM + * ADO * DEXP(C*XO) 20 CONTINUE SUM 10 CONTINUE WRITE(G.04ALP) CSO .XO)/(ALN-C) GO TO . AAN*2.O) ALNX .4ALNX) ATOT .0 IHPI DO SUM 10 JJ-I.IALNIC)*DEXP(2.1415926536 C = U/(2.2.26 II IF - IP - I GO TO 55 ALN = DSORT(CSO*II*II*YSO) (II.3) SlOP END PRO00210 PRO00220 PROO0230 P1ZOOO240 P1I000250 PROOO260 PROOO270 PROOO200 PROOO290 P11000300 PROO0310 PRO00320 PRO00330 PROOO00340 PRO00350 PROOO360 PROOO370 PROOO300 PROOO390 PROOO400 .NY - 0.1 ) DX.O*ALNXO)/(ALN-C) COF * CCOFF/lI AAN .0*TII/PI PI/2.O-Z) T(tO) DIMENSION REAO(10.-N FILE: PROG FORrRAN A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 001 IMPLICIT REAL*0 (A-H.NY) 100 FOnMAT(IOX. C*C XO " NXOX YO * PROOOO0 PROOOO20 PROOO30 PROO0040 PRO000OOOO P14000070 PRO000OGO P11000090 POOOOT100 PROOOO10 PIIOO0120 PRO00130 PROOO140 PROOO150 PRO00160 PROO000170 PRO00100 P1.Tl.3F7.14 55 ATOT * THIODEXP(-ALN*XO)/2.EO.NX.NY.2) PI a 3.100) (T(I).5F11.I=l.ALP II FOIRMAT(F7.-COF*DSIN(II*HPI)/(1.

2) PI . GH(10). TL(10).DSIN(BEN+Y3) Y4C .DCOS(BEN*YC) .5*YO .NY2 0.O*ALN*XO)/(ALN-C) COF = CCOFF/II AAN .215.2.5)*DX = YC = (JJ.3.OTH-IH/PI 11PI = PI/2.0 X + XO/2.O.0 .0 = 0.0 .OCOS(OEN*Y4) Y4S DOSIN(3EN'Y4) ADO * AAN*(EXALO + ALNX*XALO)*YOO PROOO520 PR000530 P1OOO00540 PR000550 .XN = XN .U/(2.0 NY2 XXX NY/2.3F7 .OALP) CSO = C'C XO * PROOOO O PRO00OO20 P R000030 PROOOO40 PROO00SO POOG0050 PROOOO000 PROOOOOO PROO0090 PIR000 100 P11000110 PRO00 120 PROOO 1. GL(10).X = 1.FO. NY.5) EXAL = OEXP(ALNOX) XAL = DEXP(-ALN'X) EXALN D EXP(ALN*XN) XALN = DEXP(-ALNXN) IF(II.0 SUMO SUMI r 0.(ALN#C)*DEXP(2.11) DX.30 P1OOO 140 POOO00150 900440 PROO0170 PRO00180 PROOO 190 PROO0200 PROOO0210 PROO0220 PROOO230 PRO00O240 PRO00250 PR11000260 PRO00270 P1O00200 PR000290 PROOO300 PROO0310 PR000320 PROOO330 PROO0340 PRO00350 PROO03GO PROO0370 PROOO300 PR000390 P11000400 PROOO4 O PROOO420 PROO0430 PROO440 POO450 PI0OO0460 PR000O470 PROO0480 PR000490 PROOOSOO PR00510 DX'NX YO " DXNY VSO " rPI*P/(YOYO) CCOTF = 2.0 SjU3 " = 0. NX.5+YO 00 20 IPs1.0 X = (JJ-O. 1415926536 C . 11 FORMAT(F7. IC1l REALi0 (A-II.-COF*DSIN(II*HIPI)/(I.21 II = IP - I ALN = DSORT(CSO + IIII*YSQ) EXALO = DEXP(ALN*XOO.5) XALO = DEXP(-ALN*XO*O.0-Z) DIMENSION TII(10).0 SUM2 = 0.+ALNX) BEN 11*PI/YO YOO .O) GO TO 55 ALNX . U. ALP READ(10.0 SUM3X 0.1.0 SUMaX SUM4 XN vI Y2 Y3 Y4 • 0.p A FILE: PROG2 FORTRAN A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 001 MPI.2-1)*DX = X 4 YO/2.DCOS(BEN*YI) YI Y22 • DCOS(BENY2) OCOS(BEN*Y3) Y3C Y3S . TC(IO) TH14.0 - RTO DO = - OSORT(XXX) 10 JJ=1.0 = YO/2.

00) (GL(I). 1OO) (TH(I).EXALN + ALNX*(C-ALN)*XALN)*Y3C EN*AAN#(EXALN .II.I WRITE(6.5 A)DO * TIHl'XALO*O.(" % FILE: PROG2 FORTRAN A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 002 ADOI w AAN*(EXAL+ALNX*XAL)*YII AD02 .0 ADOvY * 0.5) SUMI*DEXP(C*X) SUM2*DEXP(C'X) (SUM3X+SUM3Y)*DEXP(C*XN)/RTO (SUM4X+SUM4Y).NY2) WRITE(G6.tOO) (TC(I).I 1OO FORMAT(IOX.0 77 SUMI = SUMI + ADO SIIMO a SUMO + A000 SUM2 a SUM2 + A002 SUM3X = SUM3X + A00O3X SUM3Y w SUM3Y + ADD3Y SUM4X s SUM4X + AOO4X SUM4Y a SUM4Y + ADO4Y 20 CONTINUE C TC(dJ) THI(JJ) TL(J) G-i(JJ) = = GL(dJ) 10 CONTINUE C WI ITE(6.0 AOOX a 0.5 A002 * TMI-IIXAL0.NY2) WRITE(.NY2) = I.100) (GH(I). ALNX*XALN)*Y3S ADO3Y * ADD4X * AAN*((C+ALN)*EXALN + ALNX*(C-ALN)*XALN)*Y4C + ALNX*XALN)#Y4S AIDD4Y * -EN*AAN*(EXALN GO TO 77 55 AOOI = TIIH*XAL*O.NY2) = t.DEXP(COXN)/RTO PROO000560 PROO0570 PROOOS80 PROOO590 PROOO600 PROO0610 PROOOG0620 PR000G30 PROOO640 PRO0650 PRIOOOG60 PROOG0670 PROOO680 PROOOG90 PROOO700 PROOO7 O PROO0720 PROOO730 PROO00740 PROOO750 PROOO7GO 1PI000770 PROOO700 P000790 PROO000000 PROOOIO1 PIOO000120 PROOO030 PROO0040 PROO000050 PROOO060 PROOO870 PROO000 PROOO090 PRO00900 PROO0910 PROOO920 PRO00930 PR000940 I0760 00 oo I .3) STOP ENO SUMO*DEXP(C*XO0O.0 ADO3Y * 0.I-I.NY2) WRITE(6.I-I.tOO) (TL(l).AAN*(EXALALNX*XAL)*Y22 ADO3X v AAN*((C+ALN).5 ADO3X 0.SFII.

OtTIIIM/PI HIPI = PI/2.C P11000220 PROO0230 PROO0240 P1000250 PROOO2GO PROO0270 P11000200 PROO290 PR000300 PROO03 10 P 11000310 PROOO320 00 PRO00330 PR00OO340 PROO0350 00 20 IP=1. rORMAT(F7.*0RT3#NY2) Y4=YO/3.0.2) PI = 3.DCOS(UENOYC) YIl DCOS(OEN'YI) Y22 . I 1) DX.+ALNX) OEN = II'PI/YO YOO .215.SO5T(2.NY2 SUMO = 0.0 . TL(IO).N*X2)+ALNX')OEXP(-ALN*X2))*Y22 AD003XwAAN((C+ALN)*DEXP(ALN9X3)4ALNX*(C-ALN)*DEXP(-ALNtX3))Y3C PRO000410 PROO420 PR000430 1R'000440 P1100050 PR00O4GO PROO0470 PlOOO400 POO11000490 PROOOSOO 1100005 10 PROOO520 P0000520 P1OO0530 PROOO040 P1000550 .0 SUM3Y = 0.22 II IP I PR00360 PRO00370 PROOO3UO P(1000390 P000400 ALN = DSORT(CSO + II*laIYSO) GO 10 55 Ir(II. ALP PROOOO10 GL( O).0*RT3))/NY2 Y3=(JJ-O.0*NY2) X3-YO/(2.O*NY2) . NX.4) Y4S = DSIN(6ENlY4) ADDO=AAN*(DEXP(ALN*XC)4ALNX*DEXP(-ALN*XC))*YOO ADDI-AAN9(DEXP(ALN*XI)+AI.NX*DEXP(-ALNXI))*YI I ADD2-AAN*(DEXP(AI.3F7.0.0*RTJ))/NY2 YIYO/2.0 XC=Y0/(2.5)*YO/(2.0 SUM4X = 0. FILE: PROG3 FORIRAN A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 001 IMPLICIT DIMENSION C 11 REALtO (A-H.S)#(XO-YO/(2.0) PROO000120 PROO000130 PROO0140 PROOO150 PR000O160 RT3 = C SORT(3. TC(1tO) PROO0020 PROO0030 PROO0040 PnOOO050 PROOG000 READ( 10.0-2) 111(10).O*RT3)+(JJ-O.0*RT3)+(J-0.5)*(XO/RT3-YO/6. TI-Il.DCOS(iEN*tY2) YV3C = DCOS(BEN'Y3) Y3S = DSIN(BENtY3) YAC = OCOS(3EN*Y.0) DO 10 00=1.EO.0-(JJ-0.5)*(XO-YO/1r3)/NY2 YC=(J-O. ( 10).O' XO/RT3)/NY2 XI=(dJ-0.5)YO/(2 .o) ALNX = (ALNwC)tDEXP(2.0 SUM4Y = 0. U.0)/NY2 X4-XO-YO/(2.5)YO/(2.0 PR00O170 PR000100 PROO0190 PR000200 PlO00210 SUM2 = 0.-XO/RT3.0 SUMI = 0.0)/NY2 X2=(JJ-0.S)*(XO/RT3-YO/6.0+(dJ-O.RT3)+(dJ-O.5)*YO/(2.(dJ-0.5) * (YO/3.C-.0*ALP) CSOQ C*C XO = DX'NX YO = DX*NY YSO = PI*PI/(YO*YO) CCOFF = 2. NY.0 NY2 nRo P000O070 13100000 PROOOOOO PROOO0000 PRO00110 = NY/2.0*RT3#NY2) Y2=YO/2.O*ALN*XO)/(ALN-C) COF = CCOFF/II AAN = -COF*OSIN(II'HPI)/(I. G1(10).5)*(XO-YO/(2.2.1415926536 C = U/(2.0 SUM3X = 0.

3) STOP ENO .100) (TC(I).I-1.I-=. = 0.100) (GL(I).NY2) tOo rORMAT(IOX.0 ADO4Y = 0.0OEXP(CXI) PROO0670 PR000600 PROOOG90 PRO00700 PRO000710 PROO00720 PROO0730 PROO00740 PROO00750 PR 00760 PROO070 PRO00790 PRO00810 PRO00020 P'11000830 P1i000840 PROOO00OSO PRO006O PROO00070 PRO0000 PR000890 PRO00900 PROOO0910 TL(JJ)=SUM20+EXP(CX2) GL(JJ)=(SUM3X*O. 100) (GI(I).5 ADO3X PROOOSGO PROO00570 PR1000500 PROO000590 PROOOGOO P1100000.5*RT3)*DEXP(COX3) GHi(JJ)-(SUM4X#O..NY2) WRITE(6.0 ADDOX a 0. PROOO6tIO .5*RT3+SUM4YtO.100) (TH(I).OEN*AAN(DEXP(ALN*X4)4ALNX*)DEXP(-ALN*X4))*Y4S GO TO 77 55 ADDO-TIII-I*DEXP( -ALN*XC)*O.NY2) WRITE(G.I= .NY2) WRITE(6.1-1.SF11.0 77 SUM1 .5 ADD2TtII#DEXP(-ALN*X2)*O.5 ADDH11-H*DEXP(-ALN*XI)*0.SUMI + P1I000620 PROO00630 PRO00640 SUMO w SUMO + SUM2 a SUM2 + SUM3X * SUM3X SUtM3Y = SUM3Y SUM4X SUM4Y * * ADO ADO A002 + ADD3X + ADO3Y SUM4X + ADD4X SUM4Y + AO04Y 20 CONTINUE TC(JJ)=SUMO*OEXP(C*XC) TtI(JJ)=SUMI.FILE: PROG3 FORTRAN A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 002 AO3Y=BEN*AAN*(DEXP(ALN*X3)4ALNXODEXP(-ALN*X3))*Y3S ADI)4XAAN*((CALN)*DEXP(ALN.X4) ALNX*(C-ALN)*OEXP(-ALN*X4))*Y4C ADO4Y.NY2) WRITE(6.0 ADO3Y = 0.1OO) (TL(I).5)*DEXP(C*X4) 10 CONTINUE WRITE(6.5+SUM3Y*0.I=I.

O.VP.( WM W2 0.DIFRA(0)1.2.EO.WM.VELT(O).VELZ(0).0) IF(VM.EO.UM.UU*DELR*( PPZ + PPT )/PSUM DIFZ * VV*DELZ*( PPX + PPT )/PSUM DIFT .0 ) C DIFR .O 15S3 .WP 1SI * 0 152 .DIFTA(0) REA( 10O.5*( UP VI -0.0) IF(VP.IS .O 151 4 0 ISS1 O 156 O DIFOOOIO DIFOOO20 DIFOOO30 OIF0040 011:O0050 DIFOOOGO DIF00070 DIFOOOTO DIF00110 RFGRI = 0.EO.GT.L1.WW4DELTII#( PPX + PPZ )/PSUM C RiFGII .0 IF(UM.IFZA(0).EQ.4 -~ -FILE: O FI'IlG FOITIAN A VM/SP COINVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PACE 001 DIMENSION VELX(0).ISC.DIFZ'IS3 * DIFZ*IS4 RFGr GO TO 00 AOS(UM) + ABS(UP) DI F00170 DIFOO IGO DIFOO00190 DIFOOlOO ISI IS2 IS3 IS4 155 ISG .LT.O.O.0.LT.DIrn*ISI .0 OMT .0 RFGTI .DELZ.5) DELR.t = 1 = i v 1 -* .OR.) ISA .0.AOS(VM) + AOS(VP) AUS(WM) + AOS(WP) DIF00320 DIFOO00330 DIF0340 DIF00350 01F00370 D)1F0030 D roo390 DIF00400 DIFOO4 IO 1FOO00420 I) FO0430 DIFOO440 DIFOO450 DIFOO4GO )DIFOO470 D r004flO DIFOO4O DIFOO500 DIFO0510 DIOO00520 ODFOO530 DIFOO540 DIF00550 bMtt .O.GT.5+( UM U2 0.O.5*( WP C IF( ISA.5*( VP WI * -0.0 RFGCR 0.ISt + IS2 ISO IS3 + IS4 ISC ISS5 + ISG C UI = -0.GT.0) IF(WM.DIFII'IS2 rGR RfGTI .DEL'TII.0) IF(UP.2.PPX $ PPZ + PPT GO TO 500 IF( PSUM.WW/DELTII PSUM .O.I 01o00200 DIF00210 DIF00220 DIFOO230 DIFOO240 DIF00250 DIF00260 DIFO0270 DIF00200 OlFOO290 DIFOO300 DI F003 10 I'-I .VM.0 RFOT 2 0.UU/DFLR PPZ * VV/OELZ PPT .UP.5.0.O) IF(WP.OR.2) UU * UI + U2 VV .0 n I FOO 130 OMTI m 0. bt ts .5*( VM V2 0.VI + V2 WW = WI 4+ W2 PPX .

) U2 4PF Z PET 1J2'( 1.O-PFX)O( I.0 oiETA(I) .DELTH.0 PPX .PFT u i.0-PET) Vl*( 1.0O-PF Z) W2 *P FX' IF Z WI'.VEU.VELT(I)/OELTH PSUM a PPX + PVZ + PPT IE( PSUM. oi rooG to Dl F00G20 D1F00630 01F00640 Ut 'PFZ .0-PFX)*PrET V2*( 1.PFT) WI#PI'X#PFZ WI'*ix( .0 -0. Z(2) vrI-.0-PFz) W2 &1EX'&( 1.0 ) GO TO 600 DIFRA(I) .EQ.0.X(I)'DELR*( PPZ + PPT )0 'PSLJM DIFZA(1) m VELZ(I)*DELz#( rrX +.0-9'FX)#(t1.*( PPX + PPZ )/PSUM GO TO 30 600 OIFRA(I) .( .0-PFX)#(t.0-PFT) U2*PFZ*( 1.0 (Vl*V2).0-PFT) V t.0-PFX)'PFZ Wt'(I.0.I-PFZ)s( 1.0.o-PF7Z)'PFT UIs .0-PFZ)*PFT U20( 1.VELZ(I)/DELZ PPT .0-PFT.Z (3 ) VELZ(4) V EL ( 5 ) 011'00720 DIF00730o DI F00740 ui roo75o DI F007GO ui FO0llO DIF 00700 0D F00190 0117OO8OO OIFOOII10 o)1roos~o OI F001130 DI FOO 40 otrooaso 01 roooGo Dl FOOD 70 VELZ( 6) VELZ(7) V EL Z( 0) VrELT( I) VELT(2) VELT( 3) VELT(4) VELT(5) VELT (6) VELT (7) VELT (0) Dl FOODO DIFOOR90 0 fF00900 01 FO009tiO 01F-00920 DIFOO930 oDIF 00940 OlE 00950 Di FOO960 Dl F00970 0 F009-0 01 F00990 oiro0tooo W2$( t.0.FILE: DIFPRC'.0-PET) Vi*PFX*( 1.O.0.0.NC.( 1.0 oirZA(l) .0-PFX)*PFZ DO 30 1-1.0-PFT) U I PFZ (I 1.0 30 CONTINUE RFGRI RFGR RFCTI - DIFO 10 tO 011:'01020 DIFO 1030 01 FOt040 DO 1050s DI FOtOGO DIFO 1070 01000 DIFO 01 FOtO0J0 OIFOi tOO DIFRA(5) v DIFfIA(t) aDIFZA(2) + DIFRA(6) + DIFRA(2) + OIFZA(3) DIFPA(7) + OIFRA(3) + DIFZA(6) + + + OIFRA(fl) OlfRA(4) + DIFZA(7) r % I .V(LT(I).0-PFX)o( t.0-PFZ) DIFO00650 oDI roofGo oir00670 nir006s0 mrof0069 ot rooioo DIF00710o VEIX(S) VELX(6) VIELX(7) VELX(0) VEL7( I) V El.VELX( I)/I)ELR PPZ .o VELX( 1) VCL~X(7) VELX(3) VCLX(4 ) PFX i'rz PFT - - U1/(UI'U2) Vt/(VI14V2) Wl/(W14W2) r DoIooseo 01F00590 DirooGoo.NE..PFX*PFT V2* I'F X'PF T V2.0-PFZ) W20( 1.0 Ir (W1#W2).0-PET) Vt .( i.o 'FX'( 1. ronTRAN A FILE: CON4VERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM DFPRG AVM/SI' FOTRAN DI F00560 DIF00570 PACE 002 PG 0 OMT GO a 0IFT'156 TO 999 00 PFX PF Z *0.0 Pr T Ir (UI+U2).PrT )/PSUM DIFTA(I) .0-PFX)#PFT V2-( 1.NIE.0-PFZ)'$( .

OMT GO TO 200 500 WRITE(G.RrGT I.6F5.RFGR. FILE: OIFPRG FOR TRAN A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 003 RFGT OMrt OMT = DIFZA(1) * DIFZA(4) a DIFTA(3) + OIFTA(4) DIFTA(1) + DIFTA(2) DIFZA(S) + DIFZA(0) 4 OIFA(D) 4 DIFTA(5) I DIFTA(6) DIFTA(7) D 999 WIllTE(GG) RFGRI .511S ORRY) 200 STOP ENO DIFOi IfO DIFOI 120 DIFOI 130 oDIFO140 DIFO 150 DIFOI 160 DIFO 170 DIOt t0100oo oIro 190 DIFO1200 DIF01220 I I .2) 7 FORMAT( ItII .7) 5 FORMAT(9F5.2) G FOIMAT( III .2X.RFGT.20X.OMT I.I.

D.SUarIouT INE TDM(A .1O9:190 VA1109"IO() VAn0094 t VA11O0d1O '4A110943?0 VAIIW14 40 VAfl0O450 VAI*0946) VAI?94 70) VAR0O9400 VAR094 90 VAIR095C VAflfO!'j 10 VA110IJ520 .O(N).0.C(N).o(N).0t4O01 X( I ) I~) 13( ) 0(i1) NM I *N -I 00) 2 1-I.NMI 1+1 )/0( I) P( 1+I) -A( 141)#*C( I) -P( N(I+ I) 0(11-1) 3 X(N) *X(N)/0(N) DO 3 1-I.I K-N a (X(I() X(K) RE TURN END - X(K41)*COK))/O(K) VAR09Z350 VAflo9:160 VA1109370 VA11093001 VAI.NMI .XN) DIMENSION A(N) .P(400).X(N).C .

xx'..UG.) G0 TOrOOiC D'.EO.C .C "hT.KZ2))) ..NPC o1 ]F(K.K) • AVG.CR.L!S( -(]KZZ) ) . 1) GO TO 400 IF(K.-VG-RD2/(.3. C C C C U AND v LDE VELOCITY EDU.I.F2(J.LE0.E0. I O50 VI8090 K1 K12 2 KEP CONSTA'NT CLLCULATION C CRO5S-FLD'.]K . DNF.DFFUSI'O =.P.G - V RIS150 VAR.K2NC JKZ2 . DA-'' G. 1CONV.:X GO TO 40000 "0OO D.TIONS SECT ION AD !ST ]F(ICLL-].UG. I vtR I5S0 rooOT 00G2 UC- '-S(U(]K) ) VLRi 1210 vAR1E230 VAR E20 U(3KXX) ) LUGc ..P2) GO TO 40002 (U(iK)*U(-KX))) LUG = LS(O.K) a LUGDX.2D -LUG-RDX/(AUGOX +~D-G'RD)' .0 D'rF2( I .K t -KXX a jK .KBP2 " (3.S .)-K2NC " (K-i)-'NWPC .E-1O 0005 FP" * IF(.K) * 0.L..0 OOC COI~'T2]'UE C VAR P182 vLR a210 VAR E220 VAR-..S(0.E230 .1) GO T0 49998 SOLUTiON FOR SIE..5-(V( K)*:(. D2).S( 4 .ItD. iB10 .FFX ( .4 SwEEP IN X-DORECTION !KS'-= a DOR-KS VAR17980 VAR 7 990 • VAR i8000 V/R 160O0 VAR 8010 VA 18020 VAR1C030 VR180^0 vR 14BO1O VAR.0.LT.EO.K) z 0.JSP2 DO -O40000 DO 4000 K.KS 2.-FX(3.PM.I.LT.E0.O.G.

.R2CLI.0. UD( 3K) UL UR UT Uo PK) UD( 3KP) U0( 3KMS) DCR DCL D!FFCD(IKL) D) F CO( KL.C RD20 3KS-0 S3G'~ to VAR 8340: VARIS5360' RDZDRD2 VAR i !-:-0.PK-KNUO(IPK) ).I DIFFCD(3KL2) D!~FFCD(IKL-3) *0(!.5 -UODUMKS) 16D(1PK) * . VLRIE6-t0 V4RI15650 VAR 15690 ULWM'(uLLIC) ( IR-'-(L'C-4UV) VARIE *7 DO.2)GO a TO 29990VALR iS. . 3F(3~.KSPI I KL I lK z lK 1A 0..S(Uft-H)-(UC-UQ) - -VL21S660.I) -K2WC' + I-I)-K NC *K2NC "00Z-0100 K=2.E003 DO E0100O ) K GO TO50205 222. ( '(K ULH C CON'.5 )r0.]BR ( '. a uJD(2K) )-0.0.'O('.ET/TADD3 VAR IS420 VL-O IS440 3F~lDw.E..I ) I KIPC # (K-I)'tN'PCL VAR16D VAR 11510 VARi18520 !PK a 31.1.P( TJ"'. -054 (K.1 SRKSr-I a * N BUOJY a LP0-E7.5 PC) ')-. KS I KLS a3)K I KP a IK - NP 2 I N1--PC VAR 185501 YLR 15560 VAR 1C570 VARias590 VAR 86201 VARi1Es30.

(W (4I) 09O6t~u7A CA ~g0 *0 H IL~ Iun S:)o ( (dN I)an +(>(!M)Onl 'S0 06SLIA OEOG bVA 0L6O t'7A 0CS8~ 100 VA )O (dm)OoA1 0669'.'N-(t-X) + 06Md~7A 1 Et a 6-Nr -NZ At 2 SW SWA r r -).)-10 6666a 01 0 MfN i NGO 07 6 "VA ZNOO NCO ZOM-( + (Xt)0M £ ) O~t6tVA (~ ~ .7A 0060tMIA 0L6Sgv7A 0968LVA I 3a CA~ SimI) 0L96 t'7A O9S63tM7A j0 0 VA d061N-t-) AoflsaNx0As + Od.o2m.(.(on-in) M0'a(On-.8~ VA 0899tMVA (oaQN 3NC647.( (nf-1l)-(Himlss7 -(In-3n)-(uLM)S9V ) ZNQ.) .(iim1 (.onH.OSZ6 M7A OdI'N Al dN O7I~t 17A OdM -( A) ONZ Nt + 1IOZN-4(Vt) * + 3NZ)-(1-1) + t bi > >4 E A- c TA .+fl)-IdM Y(Qd.% At t x NdE ONCA + lA b + A t + OZ~N(L-t) OdAN 00gla aVA 06!..Cw'))'A. Qti 0*0 o3 a itflt NACAS dsm~rsN td3t*Z9t Oozos 00 00ZO9 00 0LL8Z!VA 0SL8dVA (Zito ZNOO YNOO0 -YO- + )- 00L3'ttVA 06L9tMVA 0 LStMVA (At)d-(Adt)d - 11 )*.--.vt Z1t0 7 Z(J~Si0(o(n-sn)(a)a (1n..uQ + + t (Nt)0ftl x = XIt)f ( oo.t) 2 td9N'Z-t oo0to oa 3flN tLNOD s0?_O3 M 6 dVA + NAcns + ZntO * (Nt)d-(dXt)d ).=OStd7A 0506LdV - ~ ~ ~ ~ -Hm )CC-7r~! Sall*~ ZN07J ±.o.(?n-On) i13-( fl-2f) unc.

KSPI ]K = 1 + (1-1)-K2NC + (K-I)-NWPC 1X a (1-2).'-RDXDDCR D01(J) .ROT * 0.X.]K + K2NC IKP a 1MKS 1K + NWPC ]K K K2NC NWPC 1KIAS = C DCR .5-( U(IK) + U(]KP) ) ULT C a 0.SIGt.Ke1P ) VAR 19390 VAR19400 VAR 194 10 : VAR19420 VAR19430 VAR19440 VAR19450 VAR19460 VAR 19470 VAR19480 VAR19490 VAR19500 VR 19510 VAR19520 VAR 9530 VAR 19540 VAR19550 VAR19560 VAR19570 VAR19580 VARi9590 VAR19600 VAR19610 VAR19620 VAR19630 VAR19640 VAR 19650 VAR19660 VAR19670 VA2 1960O VAR 19690 VLR 19700 VAR19710O VAR19720 VARIC720 VAR197540 VARS19760 VR 197 70 VAR19780 VR 19790 VAR19800 .5-RDZ*( VRT * ASS(wRT) .( URT EAS(URT) ) .ABS(ULT) ) . C 00 l8100 I=2.DI.5-( U()]KS) * U(IMKS+NWPC) ) Ai(J) = 0.ULT * ABS(ULT) 81(J) .ABS(VRT) ) .8e1.W(1K)-RDT 82000 CONTINUE C CALL TDM(A .AeS(WRB)) .VRE + ABS(WRB) 1 * SIGMA*RDZD.IMKS IKt.X.5*RDX-( -ULT .SIGMA-RDXD*DCL ACBS(URT) .$ ]K .5*RD2-( WRT .1SP J a (K-2)]IeR * 1 .5 AI(J) a 0. VAR19310 VAR19320 VAR19330 VLR193AO VAR19350 VAR19360 VAR1S370 VARie380 IKL a C 1 + (1-)'K2NCL + (K-1)-NWPCL IPK .KBR) C DO 82100 Ka2.IBR DO 81100 K-2.( DCT + DCS ) C1(J) a 0.DIFFCO(IKL) DCL a D0FFCD(IKL+2) URT x 0.NWPC DCT 3 DIFFCO(IKL+1) DC.( DCL * DCR ) C1(J) z 0. = DIFFCD(IKL+3) WRT 3 (W(3K) + W(iPK))-O..5.IKBR) CALL TDM(A 1.0.SIGIArRDZD3DCT 01(J) a U(IK)-ROT 81000 CONTINUE C .1 ]K £ + (1]-)-K2NC + (K-i)-NWPC ) VAR 19260 VAR 19270 VAR19 280 vLRlg2O VAR 19290 VAR19300.5-RD02( -WRe .C1.K2NC .C1 .KER D00 82000 1-2.'5 WRS (W(1KMS) * W(IPK-NWPC))-O.KBR + K 81100 U(IK) a X(IX) C DO 82000 K=2.]K .KBR DO 62100 1=2.16PI 1K a 1 * (]-i)-K2NC + (K-1)NWPC IX x (K-2)-ISR + I 1 E2100 W(]K) * x(Ix) 00 823000 K2.5-RDX-( URT 1 + SIGMA-RDXD.RDX.SIGMhARDZDODCB E1(J) = RDT * 0.

Htin 0~Q0~*/'.S'Q g* -2 S = CI)' 1 C + ># O oc OZMVA ~dN OdMN -)Z' 1I A W> = S AVI + A!t d>'[ 06t0MIA M17A 0910~1VA 0C10aVA +N *) 1:)dfMN'(-)) + IONZ)A-(L-l) OdAIY-( .40 C0~7A O CO0d7A NAoC1s (A(I)a .fl.)ssv .v%4!)iS +..3nwNtJ.0xCd. )'ZQd-S50 )-Zc!-S* - a -' a - (HS.~) Al NP 1=I000ca 00 . z (r 01)~S~7~-). 3)-3QO.v4)tS -~m * io1.mNtAz + + ONA(-lt.(HL')S.(1-) L >1 * (-~-~t A4d! zz IN I s)Z-t! + Afl9nszAofl3 (SCOP 001 0OZ17A 060ZZ2A OSOOZZ17~JA 1 OdIA'Na-)) * - -AC-47-0103t1)1E 0*0 a NAC(3 a9AzsA 007 OC Idgl*Zal OOOVS 00 OLOOZ!7A 0900ZM7A * ()t(z->q) :)NN-4-1) + I a as9tz:t 001C3 + Cxt)y 2 (x)Xfl( ( 00t ES A4t cc tdaA'Z-x4 001.L 0.ZC(3a-E1~S (d~t)d - 00oo' ((HIiA)SS7 I )-'ZQZ .LG!1-CE)PA HIM.' ). ).~tSC(Hifl)ss b3(3 ).Q ( (S'feXtiM 094=J7A OSZO0t7A (>I).ycajSpo Hlfl-)bQS 00L661 dVA 096tdV'A C(S~wt)fl + (Ar4)fl )-s0o )'s0o Hlfl C(xid[)n + own)f - Htf 0OS66taVA * 0bVA I OS6J&1VA Z+1~~)41 2jE 1d)a O1'66t7A 01L61 J7A 3dI% (-) UMNN (-) >1I a SWN1 * D ).3 00 000O~d7A "L661 aVA (AI - (Ad 1) d !OSGOZi VA OG61 !VA 03661 SVA b33aXac~tjS ( 100 (Hll)SV H-~ln - - C(Hzn)sev - Ya - - ~ A +Laa Hfl )-xCi~s~o = x (r)La ()9 t ()1 2 (H.'%)SS'7 + HSA .

VAR20420.NWPC CFR = CF(1PK) CFL .NE.KSR IK IX a I + (I-1)*K2NC + (K-i)*NWPC + K .I) GO TO 55000 DCR . VAR20430 VAR20440 VAR20450 VAR204GO0 VAR20470 VAR20480 VAR20490 VAR20500 VAR20510 VAR20520 VAR20530 VAR20540 VAR20550 VLR2050O VAR20570 VAR20580 VAR20590 VAR20600 VAR20610 VAR20620 VAR20630 VAR20640 VAR20650 VAR20660 VAR20670 VAR2060 VAR20690 VAR20700 i VAR20710 VAR20720 VAR20730 VAR20740 VAR20750 VAR20760 VAR20770 VAR20780 VAR20790 VAR20800 VAR208 10 VAR20820 VAR20830 VAR20840 VAR20850 VAR20860 VAR20870 VAR20880 VAR20890 VAP20S00 .DLeS(UL) ALC = DAES(WC) 1wS * DASS(WE) = SIE(1K) S!EC SIER .DIFFCC(IKL) DCT .S) SIECO .12 J .NSEO) 33333 CONTINUE 15E0 a 0 DO 60000 K=Ki.DASS(UC) AUL .2.25*RRC CYRX = CYLO0.O.SIE(IMKS) SIET .U(JMKS) vW = W(IKMS) AUC .Ci.1CALI.LE.HDX RRC a I.0P.SIE(IKP) S]EB * SIE(]KW.1) GO TO 2040 ISEO = ISEO + 1 IF(ISEO.D1.5-(TS(IK)+TS(IPK)) .1SP1 00 84100 K-2.0.EO.SIE(IPK) S*EL .X.EO.1 (1-2)-(KER--1) 84100 W(JK) a X(lX) C 89999 CONTINUE IF(ICONV. IBR-(K-2) + I ' (1-i)-K2NC IK = i + (K-1)-NWPC IKL a 1 + (1-1)-K2NCL + (K-1)-NWPCL RC a FLOAT(I-1)bDX .CF(]MKS) UC c U(IK) WC = W(!K) UL .DIFFCO(1KL*i) DCL a D!FFCO(1KL+2) DCB * D]FFCO(JKL*3) ]PK )KP a a + K2NC * NWPC = 1K .5-RRC*RDX CFC .S]EO(]K) TSRA TSLA .IKBR) DO 84100 l=2.5-(TS(]K)+TS(lMKS)) VAR203G0 VAR20370 VAR20380 VAR20390 VAR20400 VAR20410 .K2 DO 60000 13a1.0/RC OR = CYL-0.CF(UK) IF (CFC.B.K2NC ]K IK 7]KS IKMS = IK .CALL TDM(A .

(nN*31.OSrlth7A OV7 t!VA t.NOD (L03-e.C*~ t )4* . t7) .(N t0 *090~bVA 0O0I bVA 0O'0t MVA OSOI aVA 0OP0tZSVA (Q QtlY.L. C0 r~t (r)LC 00~ttIdVA 060k ~wVA 0OLt dVA 00009 01 13t5. t :) a .. -10 + ( 0S669 01 00 (V-03VIJfl S0. -N *:dM o zi Z)q4s)4 coo 0.Q ~ 000 fl co(3 S6 .~t J -'~1f ((t0AX'1ZJANO ) C dt0* ) * N )- S 4~ I ."ai 0*0 000 09ML VA 3flNIINOD 00009 =(fil) 0O~VA 0Lt t aVA OOtZVA 06tt~7A XC-(QXC + dAO)-dQ-ZJlj + 01 0 00009 02.-+c a 21J10 to.OlI)03(r v+n .At~VA OSZI~7A clt'L fa ZAVtAZ'4 0=0i9 00 0=O9 00 -I .± 4:7) 21J3 1u L7S1L'q'l OS 60ZMVA (Slx () I s I)-SO I ((diE)l+ m1)l)'c = vzs I VIL .x)j! 2(AI1)3rS oo0t 9 06CI ~1VA' 09ZI dVA 0LI. 06C Zd7IA ZltrEzf 00 OOOL CO 0SCtLb7A NOI0t1D3JC-Z NE d33MS CNZ 0L~tZZ7A LCECE OZ :tZ7A 1 05 3 3lNTI.I vo 0009 0:9>4 I )c t a.1! Al z(IJ)L3 (NOfl'Ol V(ISJX0-1-7) Ot)t0dVA 0001ZlA N7 dlxiol ((L-1)x~JNG4(IV~~sNQ)ts0 -.(r'.

0.CF(IKt S) WS W(IKMS) WC a W(IK) VAR21570 VAR21580 VAR21590 VAR21600 VAR21610 AWB a DLeS(we) AWC DOASS(WC) TSTA a 0.0.0 C2(J) = 0.X.A2(J)-SIE(3KMS) A2(J) • 0.(A2..E0.1.NWPC C CFT = CF(IKP) CFB .I) )XMX GAMT-TSTA VAR21620 VAR21630 VAR21640 VAR21650 VAR216GO0 VAR21670 VAR21680 VAR21690 VAR2I700 VAR217 tO VAR21720 VA.K2NC IKWS VAR21460 VAR21470 VAR21480 VA021490 VAR21500 VAR215 O VAR21520 VAR2rS30 VLR21540 VAR21550 VAR21560 = ]K .k)+DNFFZ(1. 1 * 0.5-(DNFF2(3.EO.5-(DNFFZ(I.OlFFT-DCT-RDZD IF(CFB EO.K)*DNFF2( .1) GO TO 65500 D1(J) * 01(J) .12 DO 71000 KKI.0 GO TO 70000 65500 C2(j) E82(J) .IKBR) C DO 71000 ]=m1.0 DI(J) D(J) + DIFFT-DCT*RDZ GO 70 70000 65000 01( ) = SIE(]K) L2(j) a 0.11.ND.-(1-2) + K .I DI(J) a TGA..0 69950 IF(CFT.K+1))-X.LE.TTSPLL .K2 Ix = KS.0.DIFFE-DC-RD2D RDT * (DIFFTDCT+D)FFS*DC6)*A02D ..IF C DCR OCT DCL DC8 C ( CFC.21730 VAR21740 A2(J) = B2(J) = VAR21750 VAR21760 VAR21770 VAR21780 VAR21790 VAR2800 VAR21810 VAR21820 VAR21830 VAR21840 VAR21850 VAR21860 VAR21870 VAR21880 VAR21890 VAR21900 VAR2190 VAR21920 VAR21030 VAR2190 VAR21950 VAR21960 VAZR21970 VAR21980 VAIR21990 VAR22000 .X GtA.5-(WC-WC).1) GO TO e9950 Dl(J) = 01() .0 E2(J) .i) GO TO 70000 IF(CFT. .DIFFT-DCT-RDZD C2(J) a 0.B2.NNOPT.5-(TS(]K)+TS(3KP)) TSeL .DIFFCO(IKL) = D]IFFCO(IKL+1) = DIFFCO(]KL+2) .5"(ws*Aw )'RD2 .RDZ .C2(J)-SIE(IKP) C2(J) = 0.(WC*AwC-WS*iWB).01.5-(rS(lK)+TS(lKMS)) C GAT DIFFT DIFFB C C * RDTSIE(]K) .1) GO TO 65000 .5 -0.M * * IF(TS(]K).DIFFCO(IKL+3) 1PK a 1K + K2NC IKP a !K + NWPC IMKS a 1K .EO.C2.K.CO(IK)-0.0 70000 CONTINUE C CALL TDM.NE.NU) GAMT * RPRAN .5.RDZ C2(J) = 0.

1) GO TO 33333 GO TO 33339 IF(ISEQ.NE. IK=LWPC IKS212K2 4 1K SIE(IKS)=SIE(IK) U(IKS)=U(1K) W(IKS)uW( K) TO( IKS)TO( IK) TS(IKS)rTS( K) CONTINUE 12-]BPI K1=2 K2rKSP2 KK=0 KKL O0 DO 29F9 l.09 KzK1.12 DO 33335 K=KI.K2 1K 1 + (]-i)'K2NC + (K-I)*NWPC 33338 SIE(K) = 0.SIEO(IK) KIRK a i GO TO 33334 33337 CONTINUE DO 33338 1=1112 DO 33338 K=KI.11.K2 LWPC=LWPC+NWPC AT TIME-N ) .K2 IK v 1 + (1-I1)K2NC + (K-1)*NWPC STOR(I.5'( SIE(IK) + STOR(I. 12 KK=KK4K2NC KKL VAR22010 VAR22020 VAR22030 VAR22040 VAR2 2050 VAR22060 VAR?22070 VAR22080 VAR220s0O VAR22100 VAR22 110 VAR22120 VAR22130 VAR?22140 VAR22150 vLR22160 VAR22170 VAR22180 VAR22190 VAR22200 VAR222A0 VAR22220 VAR22230 VtR22240 VAR22250 VAR22260 VAR22270 VAR22280 VAR22290 VAR22300 VAR22310 VAR22320 VAR22330 VAR22340 2109 VAR22350 VAR22360 V R22370 VAR22380 VAR22390 VAR22A00 VAR22410 = KKL + K2NCL VAR22420 VAR22430 VLR2240 VAR22450 LWPCL = LWPC=I 1 VAR22460 SIE( 1)=S [(KMS) U(1)=U(!KMS) w( ) (IKVS) 0(l)-TO(IKMS) TS(i)=TS(IKMS) SIE(]K S)=SIE(KK4+ ) U(KtMS)U(KK+1) W(IKt.-S)=W(KK+) TO(KMS)=TO(KK+1) VAR22470 VAR22480 VAR22490 VLR22500 VAR22510 VAR 22520 VAR22530 VAR225ZO VAR22550 . TRANSFERS VELOCITIES TO STORAGE ARRAY( 2040 KI1 K2xKBP2 LWPC=I .NWPC DO 2.IK r 1 + (I-I)*K2NC + (K-1).K) = SIE(IK) 333335 SIE(IK) .O) 00 33335 I11i.E0.NwPC 71000 SIE(]K) = X(IX) C IF(KIRK.K) ) KIRK a 0 33329 CONTINUE C C NOTE.

7. is the input to test the stability of the ADI scheme for momentum equation. The files. 5. 'inputd HUH' and 'inputd DM'. The output The files.3(B).6 and Fig. 5. 'input mom'. The output results are in Fig. are for comparing Huh's And De Vahl Davis and Mallinson's correction formulas in the problem geometry.APPENDIX D TYPICAL INPUT FILES The file. 'inputd 3' and 'inputd 7'.2. 5. is for calculating the natural convection flow field in a Cartesian closed compartment.1 and Fig. . 5. 4. results are in Fig. Fig.8. Fig. are for calculating the numerical solution by donor cell scheme in the problem geometry. The file. 'inputn dat'. 5.

0 10.045 0.44 0.0 0.7 0.-4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.t20 1.013 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 -1.-4 0.0 0.0 1.01 0 1.0 2 l.120 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 4.rTh FILE: INPUT MOM VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 001 4 4 O STABILITY TEST FOR MOMENTUM 2.-4 1.5 6.0 10.0 0.75 10.01 0.0 0.0 4 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 2 1 3 O0 2 2 O O ADI 10.0 0.0 10.0 0 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 .0 60.0 0.9 0.0 1.0 0.0 I 3 I 16G -1.0 0.0 1.0 60.0 0.0 0.09375 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2 5 10.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 60.-4 5 1 1.0 0.0 0.2 10.

-20 2 1.-20 1.0 0.FILE: INPUTN DAT A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM 'PAGE 001 5 10 0 1 0. 20 1.0 677.0 1.0 8 2 I 3 1 3 0 3 0 1 1.-20 030 1.0 1.0 0 0 2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 1.7 1.0 6 6 50.0 1.-20 1.0 0.0 1.01 0.045 0.0 0.-5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.01 1.0 NATURAL CONVECTION IN A CARTESIAN CLOSED COMPARTMENT 1.4 0 0 0 0 O 0 0 6 2 0.2 1.-20 0.0 1.0 1.0 -32.67 1 1I 2.0 10.5 0.-20 II I 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 60.0 .0 0.44 0.0 0.751.0 2.5 5 1.+20 60.0 68.0 4.2179-5 1.0 I 43 1.0 1.90 0.

0 2 1t 1 113 5.000 0 0 0 O .09375 0. 020 2.014 ).457 -1.999 1.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 7.0 10.940 1.0 1.0 1.70711 0.0 0.0 9.O.-3 1 I -1.0 0.0 9.75 0.5 1.002 -0.204 -0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.07107 0.207 0.0 1.061 1 0.002 0.07107 1.0 0.063 -( ).003 7 1.000 -0.0 0.0 0.207 0.0 5.05.0 0.0 1.0 0.997 7 1.000 1.0 0.0 8 10.70711 1.OGI -2.0 0.0 0.0 7.974 5 1.0 9 10.0 0.0 9.+20 I 0.000 0.0 .0 0.0 0.001 0 1.000 10 1.409 1.0 7.01 0.0 60.0 1.0 0.0 2 4 2 4 1.0 1.249 3 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.009 G 1.9 0.0 7.000024 0.0 1.5 1.O 2 1.0 0.000024 60.0 2 1.0 0.0 12 11 2 121 t 5.000 10 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.000 9 1.07107 111 3 1 1 2 5.0 0.457 1.0 0.0 1.0 9.009 4 1.07107 0.948 -1.0 0 2 5 3 0 7 6 1.0 0.0 0.-47.0 0.0 0.07107 7.44 4.0 0.0 1 .063 0.01 0 0.0 0.204 0.0 0.FILE: INPUTD 3 A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 001 10 10 0 0.751 2 1.0 0.013 2.026 5 1.0 7.0 5.497 -0.5 0.511 1 1.000 0 0 O O I.0 -1.II I 11 2 2 1.0 0.07107 0.0 9.0 GO.0 0.0 0 0 NUMERICAL blFFUSION .045 1.02 1.0 0.991 6 1.0 4 I 36 -1.014 -0.911 3 4 1.07107 12 12 Ill 2 5.497 2.0 1.0 9.CASE 3 2.0 0.

0 1.0 0.0 .0 0.5 1.4 8 2 1 3 0 0.0 0.44 4.0 1.0 0.0 2 9.0 7.0 0.9 0.143 0.0 0.0 2 7 8 5.0 3 0.0 0.0 0.0.0 0.0 1.0 2 2 0.0 10.420 1.0 9.0 0.0 0.001 0.0 60.0 -1.0 10.75 2.07107 1 1 713 2 5.0 -1.374 1.0 0.0 7.0 7.633 1.0 4 1.000 0 O 0 0 0 7 1 2 7 2 5.0 1.045 1.09375 .457 -2.000 6 1.0 0.000 6 1.17051 0.0 4 2 4 1.CASE 7 0.626 1.07107 711 8 8 2 5.01 0.-47.0 7.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.4 1.0 60.990 5 1.0 NUMER ICAL DIFFUSION .000 0 0 0 1.0 7.333327 60.0 2 0.FILE: INPUTO 7 A VM/SP CONVERSATIONAL MONITOR SYSTEM PAGE 001 6 0.003 17051 1.0 1.0 0.5 1.00.0 5.333327 1.01 2.0 1.633 -1.0 -3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 2 2 1 0.07107 0.0 0.0 5.001 -0.+20 2.0 5.003 -0.0 0.0 1 9.0 0.0 1.907 3 1.00.07 07 0.0 4 I 36 1.0 1.07107 7.0 0.0 0.0 I 1.0 0.013 4 1.-3 1 1 1.0 0.014 0.167 1.143 -0.911 9.0 0.01 0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.457 2.0 0.014 0.0 1.013 -2.071107 0.002 5 1.0 1.07107 I 113 7 2 1.009 1.

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