INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT

U.V.PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL VISIT
UKAI THERMAL & HYDRO POWER STATION & ABC BEARING
DATE:05/03/2012

UKAI HYDRO POWER STATION
TIME:10:00AM to12:00PM The Ukai Hydro Power Station is located at Ukai Dam on Tapi River in Tapi District. There are four units of hydro turbine each of 75 MW with a total installed capacity of 300 MW. All the above units are of BHEL make. It’s general layout given by below.

Hydroelectric power plants convert the hydraulic potential energy from water into electrical energy The main component of this power station were Dam,Spillway,Penstock & Tunnel, Surge Tank and Power Station.

(1)Dam Ukai Dam is structures built over Tapi rivers to stop the water flow and form a reservoir.The reservoir stores the water flowing down the river. This water is diverted to turbines in power stations. The dam collects water during the rainy season and stores it, thus allowing for a steady flow through the turbines throughout the year. Dam is also used for controlling floods and irrigation. The dam should be water-tight and should be

1

It is used to provide for the release of flood water from a dam. They are usually made of concrete and are equipped with gate systems. and when the water requirements increase. it supplies the collected water thereby regulating water flow and pressure inside the penstock. The sudden surges of water in penstock is taken by the surge tank. (3)Penstock Penstocks are pipes which carry water from the reservoir to the turbines inside power station. But in case of the controlled type. Hub with vanes and Draft tube. (2)Spillway A spillway as the name suggests could be called as a way for spilling of water from dam.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT able to withstand the pressure exerted by the water on it.Water under high pressure flows through the penstock. 2 . The height of water in the dam is called head race. It is used to prevent over toping of the dam which could result in damage or failure of dams. the water turns through 900 and flow axially through the runner as shown in fig. (4)SurgeTank Surge tanks are tanks connected to the water conductor system. It is used when an obstruction is present between the dam and power station such as a mountain. regulation of flow is possible. A tunnel serves the same purpose as a penstock. The uncontrolled types start releasing water upon water rising above a particular level. Guide vanes mechanism. The water from penstock enter the scroll casing and then moves to the guide vanes. Spillway could be controlled type or uncontrolled type. From the guide vanes. (5)PowerStation Power station contains a Kaplan turbine coupled to a generator as shown in a fig. The main parts of a Kaplan turbine are Scroll casing. It serves the purpose of reducing water hammering in pipes which can cause damage to pipes.

All the above units are of BHEL make. It is a Coal Based Power Station. Now general layout of the power plant is given by below. 3 & 4) and one unit of 210 MW (Unit no. two units of 200 MW each (Unit no. UKAI THERMAL POWER PLANT DATE:05/03/2012 TIME:2:15 to4:00PM The Ukai Thermal Power Station is located near Ukai Dam on Tapi River in Tapi District.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT The water brought to the power station rotates the vanes of the turbine producing torque and rotation of turbine shaft. There are two units of 120 MW each (Unit no. 3 . 1 & 2). The used water is released through the tail race. This rotational torque is transferred to the generator and is converted into electricity. The difference between head race and tail race is called gross head and by subtracting the frictional losses we get the net head available to the turbine for generation of electricity. 5) with a total installed capacity of 850 MW.

It also eliminates the formation of water vapours during conveying of steam in pipelines and during its early flow through the turbine blades. The temperature inside the furnace where fuel is burnt is of the order of 1500°C. the water is converted into steam with the help of heat produced by the burning of coal. The modern big boilers are all water tube boilers in which water flows through the tubes and the combustion gases flow across the tubes. which may be as tall as 40 m. A modern boiler may be producing steam at the rate of 375 tonnes/hr at 14 MPa and 540°C and burning coal at the rate of 200 tonnes/hr. It is meant to raise the steam temperature above the saturation temperature by absorbing heat from flue gases. From the super-heater. The super-heating of steam makes it possible to recover more energy from steam which improves the cycle efficiency of the plant. The boiler consists of a tall chimney like structure lined with tubes. Boiler: In the boiler. The inside of boiler also contains separate set of tubes which constitute heat exchanges in which heat in the flue gases is exchanged with other mediums. the steam is led to high-pressure turbine. The maximum temperature to which steam can be heated will depend upon the metallurgy and economy in initial cost and maintenance cost of the super-heater. The present trend is to keep the steam temperature at 540°C. (b) Reheater: 4 . The boiler can be either fire tube or water-tube boiler. These are: (a) Super-heater: The super-heater is situated at the hottest part of the boiler.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT The salient features of a Ukai Thermal power plant are discussed below: 1.

two units. Its aim is to supply feed water (coming from the condenser) to the boiler at a high pressure. in closed recirculation cooling water system. Generator: The generator which is directly coupled to the turbine shaft. The air is drawn through the bottom of the cooling tower by induced draft fans mounted at the top of the cooling tower. to raise the temperature of the feed water coming from the condenser. (The flow of air upward through the cooling tower can also be produced either by forced draft fan or it may be natural drought). (c) Economiser: The function of an economiser in a boiler is to absorb heat from the outgoing flue gases. 7. the hot cooling water falls vertically from the top of the cooling tower./min (50 r. before the air is led to the furnace for the combustion of fuel. 4. one single flow intermediate-pressure cylinder and one double flow lowpressure cylinder. it passes through the intermediate and lowpressure turbines. Whereas. Usually. 3. In a modem steam power plant. and is called the rotor. Each pump circulates more than about 8000 tonnes of water per hour. two pumps are provided with an additional circulation water pump acting as a stand by for. Boiler Feed Pump: A boiler feed pump is like a heart to the steam power plant. It is usually located ahead of air heaters and following the super-heater and reheater in the flue gas stream.p. Here.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT The function of the reheater is to raise the temperature of steam after it has expanded in the high pressure turbine. (d) Air-Heater: The function of the air-heater in a boiler is to raise the temperature of air with the help of outgoing flue gases. Steam Turbine: The function of a steam turbine is to convert the heat energy in the steam into rotational power of the shaft on which the turbine is supported. The tower may be made of a metal or of ferro-concrete and may be as tall as a 40 storey building. The relative motion of rotor and stator generates the electricity. The condenser is a large vessel containing a large number of brass tubes through which the cold water is circulated continuously for condensing the steam flowing outside the surface of the tubes. One is mounted on the turbine shaft. 5. 2. the temperature of steam is limited to 540°C. The employment of economiser and air-heater increases the efficiency of the boiler. In reheater also. 6. It consists of two electrical windings. This is one of the most 5 .) corresponding to an alternating electric supply at 50 hertz . After being reheated. for one unit.000 tonnes of water per hour by 10°C. Condenser: The function of the condenser is to condense the steam which has been discharged from low-pressure turbine. Circulating Water Pump: A circulating water pump circulates cooling water in a closed system comprising of turbine condenser and cooling tower.s. rotating with it. before it enters the evaporative section of the boiler. the steam turbine is usually a three cylinder tendum compound machine consisting of one single flow highpressure cylinder. Cooling Towers: The function of the cooling tower is to cool the hot cooling water coming out of the condenser. converts mechanical energy of turbine shaft into electric energy.000 volts. and is called the stator. The other is arranged as a shroud around the rotor. The rotational speed of the shaft is set by the frequency of the electricity supply and is 3000 rev. The generator which is hydrogen cooled produces electricity at 11. The cold cooling water gets collected in the cooling tower basin and is pumped back through the condenser. The use of condenser increases the output of the plant by lowering the exhaust pressure of steam and provides hot feed water for the boiler. The turbine is fitted with a precise oil operated speed governor. fixed to the floor. the hot water is cooled in contact with the atmospheric air. A cooling tower may cool 18. The hot condensate-flows back to the boiler to be reconverted into steam.

From here. Each wagon tippler is capable of tippling 6 to 8 wagons of 55 tonnes each an hour. lined with fire bricks for protection of ferro-concrete against hot fuel gases. are let off to atmosphere through boiler chimney. It is a tall ferro-concrete structure. Usually. The surplus coal is carried to coal storage area by means of belt conveyors. 15. the coarser ash particles are separated by centrifugal action. Forced Draught Fans (F. 10.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT sophisticated pump and is the largest auxiliary of the power plant. Here. The ash so separated out of flue gases is collected in hoppers underneath and further disposed off in ash disposal area. Fans): The function of the induced draught fan is to exhaust ash laden flue gases through the interior of the boiler and dust extracting equipment and to the chimney. 17. the coal is crushed to a size of 10 mm. The fans are axial flow type and are driven by an electric motor. for each unit. Switch Yard: Electricity generated a 11 kV by the turbo-generator is stepped up by unit transformers to 132/220 kV for further transmission through high tension lines and fed to the regional grid. 11. 8.D. Crushing of coal is essential for its optimum pulverising and safe storage. after removal of the fly ash in the precipitators.D.D. the feed water to be used in boilers has to be chemically treated in water treatment plant. 9. Ash Precipitators: To avoid air pollution the outgoing flue gases should be freed from dust particles before these escape into the atmosphere through the chimney. blowing it along pipes to the burners of the furnace. Wagon Tippler: The coal may be transported to the plant site by rail wagons. 13. some of the air passes directly to the fuel burners and the remaining is taken through the primary air fan to the pulverising mill. two feed pumps are provided. Crusher House: Coal unloaded by wagon tippler is carried to crusher house through conveyors for crushing. In mechanical precipitators. The ash particles get ionised and are attracted towards the collecting electrodes. In electrostatic precipitator. for each unit. Fans): The aim of the forced draught fans is to draw air from the top of the boiler house and pass it through the air-preheaters. fans are provided. Coal Mill: The function of coal mill is to pulverise the raw coal into a fine powder before it is burnt in the boiler furnace. The daily make up water supply which may run into hundreds of tones is also produced in water treatment plant. two I. 14. for each unit. This is done with the help of two precipitators: Mechanical and electrical. Water Treatment Plant: To avoid any scale formation in boiler tubes and to prevent priming or foaming problems. two wagon tipplers are provided out of which one serves as a standby. Control Room: 6 . The loaded wagon is emptied by tippling it in the underground coal hopper from where the coal is carried by belt conveyor to the crusher house (in the case of pulverised fuel firing system). 12. The coal is unloaded at the plant site mechanically by means of wagon tipplers. The crushed coal is then supplied to boiler raw coal bunkers. Boiler Chimney: The flue gases from the boiler. to the hot air duct. Induced Draught (I. Usually. A protective coating of acid resistance paint is applied outside on its top 10 meters. Usually. which removes finer ash particles. The chimney of a modern thermal power plant maybe as tall as historic Qutab Minar. 16. the flue gas is made to pass through high voltage electric field. where it is mixed with the powdered coal.

The feed water supplied from external source is passed through the purifying plant to reduce to reduce dissolve salts to an acceptable level. Some of the steam and water are lost passing through different components of the system. This is a closed system where the water goes to the pond and is re circulated back into the power plant. At the Ukai thermal power plant it is taken from an artificial lake created near the plant. Steam is generated in a boiler. river or sea. However. (3) Feed Water and Steam Circuit: The steam generated in the boiler is fed to the steam prime mover to develop the power. The water is pumped in by means of pumps and the hot water after condensing the steam is cooled before sending back into the pond by means of cooling towers. Coal and Ash circuit 2. Ash produced due to combustion of coal is removed to ash storage through ash-handling system. the coal from the storage is fed to the boiler through coal handling equipment for the generation of steam. The control room is air-conditioned to maintain the desired temperature for proper functioning of the instruments. in practice. there are numerous modifications and improvements in this cycle with the aim of affecting heat economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. (4) Cooling Water Circuit: The quantity of cooling water required to condense the steam is considerably high and it is taken from a lake.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT The control room is the operational nerve centre of a thermal power station. The condensate is heated in the feed-heaters using the steam tapped from different points of the turbine. (1) Coal and Ash Circuit: In this circuit. The exhaust gases carrying sufficient quantity of heat and ash are passed through the air-heater where the exhaust heat of the gases is given to the air and then it is passed through the dust collectors where most of the dust is removed before exhausting the gases to the atmosphere. The dust from the air is removed before supplying to the combustion chamber. accordingly. Any adverse deviation in the parameters of the various systems is immediately indicated by visual and audio warning and suitable corrective action is taken. ► THE GENERAL LAYOUT OF THE THERMAL POWER PLANT The general layout of the thermal power plant consists of mainly 4 circuits as shown in Fig. expanded in the prime mover and condensed in condenser and fed into the boiler again with the help of pump. (2) Air and Gas Circuit: Air is supplied to the combustion chamber of the boiler either through forced draught or induced draught fan or by using both. The feed water supplied from external source to compensate the loss. The steam coming out of the prime mover is condensed in the condenser and then fed to the boiler with the help of pump. This is done when there is not adequate natural water available close to the power plant. The four main circuits are: 1. therefore. The performance of all the plant equipments is constantly monitored here with the help of sophisticated instrumentation and controllers. This purification is necessary to avoid the scaling of the boiler tubes. Air and Gas circuit 3. feed water is supplied from external source to compensate this loss. Generally open systems like rivers are more economical than closed systems. The feed heaters may be of mixed type or indirect heating type. Feed Water and Steam circuit 4. ► Working of the Thermal Power Plant: 7 . Cooling Water circuit A thermal power station using steam as working fluid works basically on the Rankine cycle.

The steam generated is passed through steam turbine where part of its thermal energy is converted into mechanical energy which is further used for generating electric power. The function of the condenser is to increase the pressure of the condensate from the condenser pressure to the boiler pressure. The function of the steam turbine is to convert heat energy into mechanical energy. air heater and feed water heaters are used in the primary circuit to increase the overall efficiency of the plant. The function of the condenser is to condense the steam coming out of the low pressure turbine. The steam coming out of the steam turbine is condensed in the condenser and the condensate is supplied back to the boiler with the help of the feed pump and the cycle is repeated. The other components like economizer. super heater. The function of the Boiler is to generate steam. ABC BEARINGS (BHARUCH) DATE:06/03/2012 8 .INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT Steam is generated in the boiler of the thermal power plant using heat of the fuel burnt in the combustion chamber.

There is a manufacturing plant of a company. races and cage. a weather cock weighing about 180 Kgs. was supported by a thrust bearing consisting rollers.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT TIME:10:00 to11:30AM The ABC Bearing ltd. Since than. high load bearing capacity.Swaraj About Bearings One of the greatest invention of all time is "WHEEL". accurate dimensions etc. it is the pioneering works of Professor Stribeck. Computers. Robots.Tafe . a German scientist. instruments. Automobiles and what not.Dana . Their valued customer are Mahindra. In Europe. is located near Narmadanagar in Bharuch District.Ashok Leyland . The most successful and practical solution for eliminating the friction was use of BEARINGS---a device which reduces friction and enhances the motion between objects. the application of such bearing was found in the late 18th Century. The use of bearing is so much prominent in today's modern life that we can see its usage in furniture's. Before "Rolling Elements" bearing. that led to development of bearings which were having less friction. Rockets. efforts were made to use plain type bearings. On top of church.Toyota . 9 . But this mobility and progress was too slow because man was not able to overcome the force called friction---Force which opposes motion.TATA.. In modern world of today.Force. The exact origin of Bearings is not known. It was wheel which gave mobility to the ancient civilization which led to the development of man kind. Since then Bearing is under constant development. but the principle on which they operate has been applied by man for thousands of years. which can minimize frictional losses. continuous efforts were made to develop suitable Bearing.

like its counterpart the inner ring. Conversely. The inner ring is mounted on the shaft and is usually the rotating element. or raceways. The outer ring is normally placed into a housing and is usually held stationery. maintaining an even and consistent spacing.The function of roller is to have a line contact load transfer taking the load from cup and transferring to cone or vice-versa as per the fitting practice. its name is derived from the position it holds. the manifolds of the bearings is justified by their various purpose of application. This surface also has the same high precision finish of the inner ring. . Technical Information About Bearings: Every form of antifriction Bearing consists of four Basic parts:An Inner Ring This is the smaller of the two bearing rings and gets its name from the position it holds. Cage may be of Steel. during rotation. Bronze. Brass. Tapered Rollers and Oil in case of Journal type of Bearings. 10 . A great variety of rolling bearing types and designs are known. Rolling Elements These are the rolling elements that separate the inner and outer ring and permit the bearing to rotate with minimal friction. to accurately guide the balls in the paths. there is a groove on its inside diameter to form a pathway for the balls. mirrorlike surface finish. or Phenolic composition. An Outer Ring This is the larger of the two rings and. It has a groove on its outside diameter to form a path for the balls. depending upon the type and application of the bearings. The surface of this path is precision finished to extremely tight tolerances and is honed to a very smooth. and to prevent the balls from falling out. Spherical Rollers. ROLLER:. Rolling elements can be either Balls.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT What is a Bearing: Bearing is a machine element. A Cage The main purpose of the cage is to separate the balls. which supports another moving machine element permitting the relative motion between the Contact surfaces with minimal friction. Cylindrical Rollers.

They are more desirable than plain bearing due to their lower friction and reduced lubrication requirement. the life of antifriction bearing is limited by the fatigue life of the material they are made of and the type of lubricant being used. Antifriction bearings can be categorized to three different configurations: axial ball. and needle roller bearings. tolerances and fits of ball and roller bearings. tapered roller bearings. The types of antifriction bearing are group by the shape of the rolling element and they are ball bearings. roller and thrust bearings.The main function of the cage/retainer is to retain the roller/ balls/Needle in the cone / inner assembly of a bearing. CAGE / RETAINER:. However. The Anti-Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association Standards (AFBMA) provides standardized dimensions. Anti Friction Bearing Antifriction bearings minimize friction by removing any possible sliding between bearing surfaces and replacing all contacts with rolling interfaces. They utilize a separator to space the hardened rolling elements apart.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT BALL:. They substitute balls or rollers for a hydrodynamic or hydrostatic fluid film to carry loads with reduced friction. 11 . There are variations within each type of bearings and only the most commonly used ones are discussed below. Retainers are made of narrow width CRCA sheets with pockets. cylindrical roller bearings.The function of roller is to have a point contact load transfer taking the load from outer ring and transferring to inner / cone or vice-versa as per the filling.

Leading OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers) supplier to the automotive industry in the country and overseas. A) Best Quality Supplier B) Quality C) Cost Performance SAP ERP system installed connecting all offices and Go-downs of the company. Best Cost Reduction Achievement award from TKAP.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT Company Profile             Produces Taper Roller Bearings. ISO/TS 16949 : 2002 and ISO 14001 : 2004 Certifications from TUV-SUD. Cylindrical Roller Bearings and Slewing Bearings. The outer ring (cup) is loose. Manufactures customized Ball Bearings. The Roller set is retained by the cage. Self Certification Status from all OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturers). Technical assistance agreement with NSK. The Tapered Rollers are guided in tapered raceways. Tapered Roller Bearings equally support radial and axial loads. Public Limited company and Listed on Mumbai Stock Exchange. ABC’s Joint Venture company NSK – ABC Bearings Limited at Chennai . RANGE Bore OD Taper Roller Bearings 15-110 mm 42-250 mm Cylindrical Roller Bearings 12-60 mm 32-160 mm Range of Products Product  Taper roller bering Tapered roller bearings are separable Roller Bearings. 12 . Long Association Award from Tata Motors. Awards received from TKM ( Toyota India). to the inner rings (cone) between guide flange and locating flange. Conforming to the stringent global quality standards.

thus compensating for shaft deflections and misalignment of the bearing seats. Bearings are available with pressed steel cage or machined brass cage. The New Grease Ensures: 13 .  ABC GP3 Grease Illumination for the Automotive Segments. The close contact between the rollers and raceways yields a uniform stress distribution and a high load carrying capacity.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT  Cylindrical Roller Bearings Cylindrical Roller Bearings are separable radial roller Bearings.  Spherical roller bearings Spherical roller bearings are made for heavy-duty applications. Ideal after-market solution for Mechanics & vehicle owners looking for good OE quality. Thus the O/R and I/R can be mounted separately. The Rollers and Cage assembly is generally located on the raceway having two integral flanges and the other raceway is separable. ABC Grease is developed keeping in mind to improve the perform of our Bearings. Heavy-duty. Spherical roller bearings have a maximum number of long rollers with a large diameter. smooth. We have added cost effective cage less bearings in our range. All-purpose Grease. They feature two rows of symmetrical barrel rollers which can align freely in the spherical outer ring raceway.

The Important Measuring Instruments deployed are:  Surfcom 120A / 480A  Talysurf 10  Talyrond 100  Contour Graph  Profile Projector  ECT Hardness Checker  Waviness Meter  Anderon Meter  Universal Microscope Bearings Testing Facility Scope of Testing Facility  ABC validates its product design through the life testing at Bharuch Plant.G. Being a company servicing Automobile companies we were quick to go for TS 16949 : 2002 certificate in the year March 2006 by TUV –Germany.  2 K. Nikkon and NSK. 14 .G. .  1 K.  The Life testing machines designed with the help of NSK.  Other antifriction bearing. Bearings Inspection Facility . Facility for Taper Roller Bearings .  Cylindrical roller bearings.  5 K.  500 Grams. Specially formulated for  Taper Roller Bearings.   Manufacturing Quality Management System Quality Systems  ABC received QS 9000 in the year1998.The Measuring Instruments / Equipments are from the world renowned Taylor Hobson . Grease Available in Following sizes:  200 Grams. . Tokyo Seimitsu.  20 K. Cyclindrical Roller Bearings and Unitized Bearings.G. Enhancing the life. Subsequently recertified for another the 3 years in the year December 2008  ABC also values the environment & we got ISO 14001 : 2004 in the year April 2007.The Metrology and Metallurgical Lab is equipped with the world class Sophisticated Precision Measuring Instruments / Equipments deployed to provide zero Defect products.  Total 12 stations are in use currently for the life testing in controlled environment. It enables us to get self certified supplier to our OEM customers who use the material directly on the line.G.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT To provide protection against rusting and corrosion of lubricated parts.G.  The adherence to quality system helps us to build confidence to our customers.  180 K.G. Japan.  3 K.  Besides our customers conduct yearly audits of our plant help builds natural confidence and moves us towards continuous improvement.

LCVs.  Indicators for variable speed. 15 . Features of Testing Facility  Spring loaded Hydraulic loaded machine.  Mud Bath Testing.  Front Axle Bearings.INDUSTRIAL VISIT REPORT   This facility has been approved by the major Industrial & Automotive Manufacturers.  Variable speed. MUVs. o Standard Bearings Testing.  Radial and axial loading provision. Application This bearings are used in Cars. HCVs. Two types of life testing facility for Rigs. Tractors etc.  Rear Axle Bearings. o Application Based Test Rig.