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Cambridge Advanced English

Unit1-What a spectacle
Step1- For a warming-up activity T may ask Ss whether they have been to a circus recently and if they answer positively, T may ask what they have seen there. In order to pre-teach vocabulary T presents pictures of various apparatuses, like trapeze, tightrope, hoops, rings, etc . T may also display pictures of acrobats, circus animals, clowns, etc in order to create the appropriate atmosphere or the discussion.

CIRCUS

ACROBATS

CLOWNS

TIGHTROPE WALKING

TRAPEZE

HOOPS

CIRCUS ANIMALS

Step2- Grammar plus: verb patterns. Ss get acquainted with the category of TRANSITIVE and INTRANSITIVE verbs. T explains what the two types of verbs are, gives examples to show the difference between them, provides Ss with list of both Transitive and Intransitive verbs and then offers exercises to help Ss learn them better as well as consolidate their knowledge.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS


1. Direct objects Most of the verbs examined so far have been in the Active Voice. When a verb is in the Active Voice, the subject of the verb refers to the person or thing performing the action described by the verb; and the object of the verb refers to the person or thing receiving the action described by the verb. In the following examples, the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. e.g. He read the book. I did not see the balloon. They ate the potatoes quickly. She rode her bicycle along the sidewalk. Do we understand it? In these sentences, the verbs read, did see, ate, rode and do understand are in the Active Voice; and the words book, balloon, potatoes, bicycle and it are the objects of the verbs. These objects are said to be direct objects, because they refer to things which receive directly the actions described by the verbs.

2. Lay and Lie, Raise and Rise, and Set and Sit Verbs which take an object are usually called transitive verbs. Verbs which do not take an object are usually called intransitive verbs. Many English verbs can be used either intransitively or transitively. For instance, in the sentence Most birds can fly, the verb to fly is intransitive, since it is used without an object. But in the sentence This pilot will fly the plane, the verb to fly is transitive, since it takes the object plane. However, some English verbs can be used only intransitively. A few pairs of verbs should be noted. The two verbs of each pair have similar meanings, but one of the verbs can take an object, and the other cannot. In the following table, the verbs labeled intransitive are those which cannot take an object.

Transitive: Intransitive: Transitive:

Infinitive to lay to lie to raise

Simple Past laid lay raised

Past Participle laid lain raised

Intransitive: Transitive: Intransitive:

to rise to set to sit

rose set sat

risen set sat

Particular care must be taken not to confuse the verbs to lay and to lie, since, as shown above, the Simple Past of the verb to lie has the same form as the bare infinitive of the verb to lay. a. To Lay and To Lie To lay is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to lay. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. e.g. I am laying the table. He laid a bet on the white horse. The hen has laid an egg. To lie is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to lie. e.g. She is lying on the sofa. We lay on the beach in the sun. He has lain in bed for a week. In these examples, it might appear that the words sofa, beach, and bed act as objects of the verb to lie. However, this is not the case. Not only verbs, but also prepositions have the ability to take objects. A few commonly used English prepositions are at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to and with. Prepositions will be discussed in detail in a later chapter. In the examples above, sofa, and beach are objects of the preposition on; and bed is the object of the preposition in. b. To Raise and To Rise To raise is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to raise. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. e.g. She is raising poodles. He raised the window. They have raised a crop of wheat.

To rise is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to rise. e.g. The moon is rising in the east. They rose to the occasion. The temperature has risen by five degrees. In these sentences, the verbs have no objects. The words east, occasion and degrees are the objects of the prepositions in, to and by. c. To Set and To Sit To set is a transitive verb, which can take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to set. The verbs are underlined, and the objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. e.g. They are setting a record. We set the jars on a shelf. Have you set the date for your trip? To sit is an intransitive verb, which cannot take an object. The following examples illustrate the use of the Present Continuous, Simple Past, and Present Perfect tenses of the verb to sit. e.g. They are sitting by the front steps. I sat at my desk for an hour. You have sat on the couch all afternoon. In these sentences, the verbs have no objects. The words steps, desk, and couch are the objects of the prepositions by, at and on.

3. Indirect objects In addition to taking direct objects, some verbs also take indirect objects. In the following examples, the direct objects are printed in bold type, and the indirect objects are underlined. e.g. We gave the child a toy. I sent the man the information. In these examples, the words child and man are said to be the indirect objects of the verbs gave and sent. Indirect objects refer to things which receive indirectly the actions described by the verbs. In the above examples, the words toy and information are the direct objects of the verbs. Indirect objects usually refer to living things.

It is possible for a sentence containing an indirect object to be rewritten by placing a preposition before the indirect object. When this is done, the original indirect object can be regarded either as the indirect object of the verb, or as the object of the preposition. For example, the sentence We gave the child a toy, can be rewritten as follows: We gave a toy to the child. In the rewritten sentence, child can be regarded either as the indirect object of the verb gave, or as the object of the preposition to. The following examples illustrate the position of the indirect object in a sentence. The direct object, toy, is printed in bold type, and the indirect object, child, is underlined. e.g. We gave the child a toy. We gave a toy to the child. When an indirect object is not preceded by a preposition, the indirect object must be placed before the direct object. Thus, in the sentence We gave the child a toy, the indirect object child is placed before the direct object toy. However, when an indirect object is preceded by a preposition, the indirect object must be placed after the direct object. In the sentence We gave a toy to the child, the indirect object child is preceded by the preposition to. Therefore, the indirect object, child is placed after the direct object toy. The object which is placed last in a sentence tends to receive greater emphasis than the object which is placed first. Thus, the word order of a sentence can be varied in order to give greater emphasis to one object or the other. For instance, in the sentence We lent the teacher a book, the direct object book is slightly emphasized. However, in the sentence We lent a book to the teacher, the indirect object teacher is emphasized. A few English verbs, such as to describe, to distribute, to explain and to say, can take an indirect object only when the indirect object is preceded by a preposition. In the following examples, the direct objects are printed in bold type, and the indirect objects are underlined. e.g. He described his experiences to the reporters. They distributed the leaflets to their friends. We explained the situation to the participants. She said something to her teacher. These verbs cannot take an indirect object which immediately follows the verb. One reason for this may be to avoid creating sentences which are ambiguous or confusing. For instance, a sentence which began with the words He described the reporters... would create the impression that it was the reporters who were being described. When the reporters is preceded by the preposition to, there is no ambiguity.

EXERCISES:

In each of the following sentences, underline the direct object of the verb. For example: She forgot the pencils. She forgot the pencils. Was he writing a letter? Was he writing a letter? You did not answer the question. You did not answer the question. 1. I watched the birds. 2. He did not close the window. 3. She rang the bell. 4. Did you find the answer? 5. I opened the door. 6. Did she play the violin? 7. You will need an umbrella. 8. They are not carrying the parcels. 9. You organized the race. 10. Were they using the blankets? (ANSWERS-IN THE ANSWER WORD DOC.) 2. In the following sentences, the direct objects of the verbs are printed in bold type. In addition, each sentence contains an adverb or adverb phrase indicating time. Depending upon whether or not there is a direct object, complete each sentence using either to lay or to lie, as appropriate. Use the Present Continuous tense if the action takes place in the present, and use the Simple Past tense if the action took place in the past. For example: They __________ the bricks now. They are laying the bricks now. I _______ the money on the counter last night. I laid the money on the counter last night. Right now, the dogs _________ in the middle of the road. Right now, the dogs are lying in the middle of the road. Yesterday, he ___ in bed until ten o'clock. Yesterday, he lay in bed until ten o'clock. 1. Now I ______________ too close to the fire. 2. Last night he _____________ twenty dollars on top of the bookcase. 3. Right now she _______________ a fire. 4. Until last year, the treasure ______________ hidden under the earth.

5. Yesterday she ______________ her coat on the bed. 6. His books _____________ on the floor all last week. 7. Right now he _______________ low in order to stay out of danger. 8. Yesterday morning he ______________ the parcel close to the door. 9. Last night they _____________ in wait for the thieves. 10. Now they ________________ their cards on the table. Rewrite each of the following sentences, omitting the underlined preposition which precedes the indirect object, and making the necessary changes in word order. For example: I bought a rose for the singer. I bought the singer a rose. She gave an apple to the boy. She gave the boy an apple. 1. I handed the book to the student. 2. He wrote a letter to the twins. 3. She made a scarf for the girl. 4. I told the story to the audience. 5. We paid the money to the dentist. 6. He sent a reply to the doctor. 7. We offered the job to the students. 8. She told the news to her friends. Rewrite each of the following sentences, inserting the preposition to before the indirect object, and making the necessary changes in word order. For example: I wrote the president a letter. I wrote a letter to the president. They showed the visitor the garden. They showed the garden to the visitor. 1. We sent the reporters a photograph. 2. They mailed the agency a postcard. 3. I paid the manager the fee. 4. We sold the students the doughnuts. 5. You read the teacher the story. 6. She mailed the seamstress the material. 7. I sent the workers a message. 8. He offered his guest the wine.

Step3Word formation: Suffixes used to form NOUNS, ADJECTIVES and VERBS. T presents the suffixes by which Ss should recognize Nouns, Verbs and Adjectives, displays examples of the formation of the latter by means of those suffixes, and then invites Ss to practice forming those parts of speech by means of the respective suffixes. A table presenting the suffixes in question as well as a possible exemplification of that formation will prove useful.

Suffixes in English
Suffix used to make meaning -able, -ible, adjectives possible to -ble -age nouns a process or state -al -ance, -ancy, -ant, -ent -ation -ee -en -ence, -ency, -er -ese -ess -ful -hood -ian adjectives nouns nouns nouns nouns verbs nouns nouns adjectives nouns adjectives nouns nouns example acceptable, noticable, convertible, divisible, irresistible shortage, storage experimental, accidental, connected with environmental appearance, performance, an action, process or state pregnancy, constancy assistant, immigrant, a person who does it student examination, imagination, a state or action organization a person to whom employee, trainee something is done to give something a particular quality, to make to strengthen something more coincidence, patience, an action, process or state potency, presidency a person who does rider, painter, baker, something builder, teacher Japanese, Chinese, from a place Viennese a woman who does waitress, actress somthing as a job beautiful, helpful, useful, having a particular quality thankful a state, often during a childhood, motherhood particular period of time a person who does historian, comedian,

something as a job or hobby

politician

adjectives from economical, -ical nouns ending -y connected with mathematical, physical or -ics -ify verbs to produce a state or quality beautify, simplify, purify 1.describing nationality or English, Swedish, Polish language -ish adjectives 2.like something babyish, foolish longish, youngish, 3.rather, quite brownish 1.a person who has studied something or does scientist, typist something as a job -ist nouns 2.a person who believes in capitalist, pacifist, something or belongs to a feminist particular group action, connection, -ion nouns a state or process exhibition to be able to, having a -ive adjectives active, effective particular quality to magnetize, to actions producing a -ize, -ise verbs generalize, to modernise, particular state to standardise -less adjectives not having something hopeless, friendless -like adjectives similar to childlike badly, beautifully, -ly adverbs in a particular way completely development, -ment nouns a state, action or quality arrangement, excitement, achievement kindness, sadness, -ness nouns a state or quality happiness, weakness biology, psychology, -ology nouns the study of a subject zoology a person who does -or nouns actor, conductor, sailor something, often as a job dangerous, generous, -ous adjectives having a particular quality religous -ship nouns showing status membership, citizenship,

-wards -wise -y

adverbs adverbs adjectives

in a particular direction in a particular way having the quality of the thing metioned

friendship backwards, upwards anticlockwise cloudy, rainy, fatty, thirsty, greeny

Step5- Grammar check: Overview. Ss have had so far numerous opportunities to get acquainted and practise ALL English verb tenses. However, another look at them, accompanied by appropriate examples will make much sense for the revision as well as the consolidation of that category. A table containing ALL English verb tenses may be displayed on the screen by T to help SS revise them more effectively.

TENSE Simple Present

POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION USE I play tennis on Mondays. They don't (do not) Does she work in know him? New York. Habitual activities States More

Actions They didn't happening She went Where did (did not) at a defined Simple Past to Paris she get that drive to moment in last week. hat? work. the past. More Decisions made at the moment about the future, future predictions, future promises More

Simple Future

I'll (will) meet you at the airport tomorrow.

He won't (will not) be able to come.

Will they visit us soon?

Actions happening at the He's (is) They aren't present Present working at (are not) What are moment. Continuous the coming this you doing? Near future moment. evening. intention and scheduling. More He wasn't I was (was not) Past watching working Continuous TV when when she you called. arrived. They won't I'll (will) be (will not) cooking Future be living in dinner Continuous Paris this when you time next arrive. year. They're He's (is) (are) not Future with going to fly going to Going to to Boston invite the next week. Browns. Present Perfect I've (have) seen Mick three times this week. She hasn't (has not) been to New York. Interrupted past action, action happening at a specific moment in time in the past. Future action at a specific moment in the future. More Future intent or planned action More 1)To express an action that was begun in the past and continues

What were you doing when I called?

What will you be doing next week at this time? Where are you going to stay? How long have you worked at Smith's?

into the present. 2) To express an action that happened in the UNspecified past. 3) To express a recent action that has a present effect. More To express She hadn't an action I'd (had) Had you (had not) that already ever seen been to happens eaten such a Rome before before crazy lady before that another they came. before that? trip. action in the past. To express what will have She won't We'll (will) How long happened or (will not) have lived will you how long have here for have lived something finished her twenty in France by will have homework years by the end of happened by the time 2005. next year? up to a we arrive. certain point in the future. More She's (has) They How long To express

Past Perfect

Future Perfect

Present

the duration of a continuous haven't have you been activity (have not) been Perfect waiting for begun in the been working on Continuous over three past and studying that hours. continuing for long. problem? into the present. More To express the duration She'd I hadn't of a (had) been (had not) How long continuous waiting for been had you Past activity three sleeping for been Perfect begun hours long when I playing Continuous before when he heard the tennis when another finally doorbell she arrived? activity in arrived. ring. the past. More He'll (will) have been Future sleeping Perfect for a few Continuous hours by the time we arrive. She won't (will not) have been working for long by 5 o'clock. To express How long the duration will you of an have been activity up driving by 6 to a point of o'clock? time in the future. More

Unit6-Speaking: Modern art. The discussion of modern art may be supported by examples of paintings , sculptures/by both Bulgarian and world modern sculptors , the Bulgarian modern artist Christo, who has wrapped the Reichstag, and other buildings, etc. Ss may think of more examples of this kind and add them in the conversation dedicated to Modern Art.

Old Guitar Player-Pablo Picasso

Woman-flower

Tragedy

A sculpture by Picasso

The Reichstag, wrapped by Christo

Unit7Speaking and Writing: Storytelling. Ss mention and try to retell the favourite tales
from their childhood. T may encourage them by displaying PICTURE TALES-showing pictures and asking Ss to retell the story, AUDIO TALES-Ss listen to audio tales and then retell them, VIDEO

TALES-Ss watch and listen, and then retell the tales. Ss may be invited to write tales o their own and read them to the class.

Then Ss listen to some stories on audio.(materials-advanced)