First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury.

It is usually performed by non-expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points:[5]

 

Preserve life: the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives Prevent further harm: also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. Promote recovery: first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound

First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, and the treatment phases.

Migraine Headache Overview
Migraine headaches are one of the most common problems seen in emergency departments and doctors' offices. Migraines are due to changes in the brain and surrounding blood vessels. Migraine headaches typically last from 4-72 hours and vary in frequency fromdaily to fewer than 1 per year. Migraine affects about 15% of the population. Three times as many women as men have migraines. More than 80% of people with migraines (called migraineurs) have other members in the family who have them too.

Different types of migraine headaches

Migraine Headache Symptoms Symptoms vary from person to person and from migraine to migraine. especially chocolate. Women may have migraines at the end of the pill cycle as the estrogen component of the pill is stopped. cheese. Birth control pills are a common trigger. Stress and tension are also risk factors. or lose vision on one side (hemianopsia). inability to eat.) Missing a meal may bring on a headache. colorful lights. This phase may last 4-72 hours. and MSG." irritable. though experts believe they are due to a combination of the expansion of blood vessels and the release of certain chemicals. Different people may have different triggers:      Certain foods. feeling "high. nuts. The chemicals dopamine and serotonin are among those involved in migraine. Various triggers are thought to bring about migraine in certain people prone to developing migraine. There is no "aura" before a common migraine. More than 80% of migraineurs feel nauseated. Classic migraines are usually much more severe than common migraines. Headache termination: Even if untreated. These chemicals are found normally in the brain and can cause blood vessels to act abnormally if they are present in abnormal amounts or if the blood vessels are unusually sensitive to them. People often have migraines during times of increased emotional or physical stress. an aura is a visual disturbance (outlines of lights or jagged light images). (MSG is a food enhancer used in many foods including Chinese food. and somevomit. Most often. People with classic migraines experience an aura before their headaches. see geometric patterns or flashing. bring on headaches in some people. problems with concentration. About 70% become sensitive to light (photophobia) and sound (phonophobia).o o Common migraine accounts for 80% of migraines. Some migraineurs develop blind spots (called scotomas). or depressed) or a subtle change of sensation (for example. which causes inflammation and pain. Status migrainosus is a migraine that does not go away by itself o Migraine Headache Causes The exact cause of migraine headaches is not clearly understood. Headache: Although migraine pain usually appears on one side of the head. or fatigue) may linger after the pain has disappeared.     Migraine Headache Treatment . the pain usually goes away with sleep. alcohol. Throbbing pain may be present. These may consist of a change in mood (for example. This is called an estrogen-withdrawal headache. Postdrome: Other signs of the migraine (for example. Five phases can often be identified:  Prodrome: A variety of warnings can come before a migraine. 30-40% of migraines occur on both sides. Fatigue and muscle tension are also common Aura: This is commonly a visual disturbance that precedes the headache phase. a funny taste or smell). Smoking may cause migraines or interfere with treatment.

If not. Drowning Treatment Call 911 if: Someone is drowning. Stomach ulcers and bleeding are serious potential side effects. Aleve). About half of migraineurs stop seeking medical care for their headaches because they are dissatisfied with therapy. 1. even with a history of stomach ulcers or bleeding. ibuprofen (Motrin. menstruation. This type of medication should not be taken by anyone with a history of stomach bleeding. Advil). Combination medications: Some over-the-counter pain relievers have been approved for use with migraine. Taking acetaminophen by itself is usually safe. Migraines can be treated with 2 approaches: abortive and preventive. as a wafer that melts on the tongue. sound. and they work quickly. A similar effect can be achieved by taking 2 aspirin or acetaminophen tablets with a cup of black coffee. andketoprofen (Orudis). These forms of medication are especially useful for people who vomit during a migraine. The triptans are used only to treat headache pain and do not relieve pain from back problems.  Abortive: The goal of abortive therapy is to prevent a migraine attack or to stop it once it starts. others. o o o o Medical Treatment Despite medical advances. Abortive treatment medications include the triptans. Acetaminophen (Tylenol): Acetaminophen may be safely taken with NSAIDs for an additive effect. or other conditions. . Acetaminophen should not be taken if the migraineur has liver problems or has 3 or more alcohol drinks a day. Get Help  Notify a lifeguard. The prescribed medications stop a headache during its prodrome stage or once it has begun and may be taken as needed. Some can be administered as a self-injection into the thigh. They are all very similar in their action and chemical structure. odors) Withdrawing from stressful surroundings Sleeping Drinking a moderate amount of caffeine Trying certain over-the-counter headache medications Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS): These include medications like aspirin. migraines can be difficult to treat. arthritis. if one is close. which contains acetaminophen and aspirin combined with caffeine. These include Excedrin Migraine. A doctor or pharmacist should be asked about possible medicine interactions if the migraineur is taking other drugs. which specifically target serotonin.naproxen (Naprosyn.Self-Care at Home Most migraineurs can manage mild-to-moderate attacks at home with the following strategies:              o Using a cold compress to the area of pain Resting with pillows comfortably supporting the head or neck Resting in a room with little or no sensory stimulation (light. ask someone to call 911.

place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. press down about 1 and 1/2 inches. Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Let the chest rise completely between pushes. For an adult or child. Check to see if the person has started breathing. follow the steps below. Do 30 chest compressions. 4. If There is No Pulse. cover the victim's mouth with yours to create an airtight seal. and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise. Check Pulse  Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds. Make sure not to press on end of breastbone. Check for Breathing   Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. If the Person is Not Breathing. you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. 5. 6. Move the Person  Take the person out of the water. Repeat if Person Is Still Not Breathing     If you've been trained in CPR. Do you feel air on your cheek? Look to see if the person's chest is moving.     For an adult or child. For an infant. at the rate of 100 per minute or more. place two fingers on the breastbone. 2. Start CPR Carefully place person on back. 3. For an infant. If you are alone. press down about 2 inches. Take a normal breath. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. Make sure not to press on ribs. . Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency help arrives. Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions.

or sleeping too much  poor appetite or overeating  increased restlessness or irritability  thoughts that you are worthless  thoughts of suicide The symptoms of depression can interfere with your ability to perform at your best and can make it difficult for you to fully participate in the campus community. including your academic performance. FIRST AID FOR M ANAGI NG YOUR MOOD There are several strategies you can use to care for yourself. However. Develop a sustaining lifestyle and practice self-care When your mood is low it is especially important to pay attention to maintaining a balance of regular exercise. [2] Set small. They are especially important when your mood is low. as well as loss of interest or pleasure in ordinary activities. and realistic goals When your mood is low you are more likely to feel overwhelmed by your responsibilities. and adequate sleep (seven to eight hours a night). you will maximize your likelihood of success. Avoid alcohol and other substances Alcohol or other substances can be tempting when your mood is low. Depression is a persistent low mood that lasts for more than two weeks. using alcohol or other substances as a coping strategy can exacerbate a low mood and make problems worse in the long run. staying asleep. depression is more than just feeling down and it can have an impact on many aspects of your life. However. Having fun is also important. Regular activities that you enjoy go a long way to managing your mood. Meeting your goals has a positive impact on your mood. specific. If you are depressed you may also experience:  difficulties with concentration and retaining information  loss of energy and motivation  trouble falling asleep. . By prioritizing what needs to be done and setting clear doable goals.Dealing with depression: First aid for your mood What's in your mental health first aid toolkit? THE BLUES OR DEPRESS ION? Did you know that depression is one of the most common mental health concerns reported by UBC students? [1] Everyone experiences changes in their mood and it is normal to have days where you feel sad or blue. You may struggle with simple daily activities and feel reluctant to reach out for support. healthy eating. It is characterized by feelings of sadness and hopelessness.

Fever        Fever is higher-than-normal body temperature (Normal temparature-370C or 98. distorted lens. you tend to view situations through a negative. Connect socially and reach out for support Staying connected with supportive others makes you less vulnerable to depression. To think more positively.Challenge negative thinking with self-supportive thoughts How you feel and how you act depends to a large degree on how you think.80F to 100. Check out more helpful options for managing your mood by using the Antidepressant Skills workbook.80F Mild to moderate:1010F to 1030F High fever:1040F and above           Causes Hot weather Childhood immunization Bacterial/viral infection Spending much time in sun Allergy to medication / food Symptoms Hot flushed face Lack of interest in food Nausea Vomiting Head and body ache . or other self-help guides at COMH . Get more good ideas Many students feel particularly concerned about their mood at one time or another. and helps you to recover from episodes of low mood faster.Self-Management Resources.60F) Indicates an abnormal process in the body Fever is a symptom and not disease Also called 'pyrexia' Low fever:98. When you are feeling down. When your mood is low. enhances your self-esteem. Developing and repeating realistic self-supportive thoughts (such as “everyone makes mistakes”) can help you to counter negative thinking and regain a more balanced perspective. imagine putting on a pair of blue-tinted glasses. talk to people who care about you.

 Constipation  Diarrhea High fevermaybe associated with  Delirium  Convulsion         Treatment Monitor temperature using a thermometer Remove the excess clothing Keep the person in a cool place Give a sponge bath in luke warm water Give plenty of fluids Give prescribed doses of acetaminophen /paracetamol Do not give aspirin to a person with fever Do not wrap the person in blankets / warm clothing Consult a Doctor in case of  Irregular breathing  Stiff neck  Confusion  Rashes  Persistent sore throat  Vomiting  Diarrhea  Painful urination  Convulsions  SPRAIN Sprain is the stretch/tear of ligament connecting bones  Occurs in both the upper & lower part of the body  Most common sites . wrapped in a towel  Use compression bandages to reduce swelling  Keep the injured leg elevated on a pillow  Take anti inflammatory pills if necessary  Take rest for the recommended period  When pain/swelling is diminished. do recommended exercises Consult a doctorIf the following occurs Severe pain/numbness .ankle/wrists/knee Causes  Trauma/accidents  Lifting heavy objects  Sporting injuries Symptoms  Pain  Swelling  Lumps other than swelling  Bruising/redness at site of injury  Numbness  Inability to move the joint Treatment  Apply a cold compress to injured area for 20 min  This may be done 4-8 times a day  Use a plastic bag with crushed ice.

like avoiding clutter Run on even surface Do not wear ill-fitting shoes STROKE                               Stroke is also called 'Cerebrovascular Accident' It is an acute neurological injury It may be due to blood clot (ischemic) or bleeding (hemorrhagic) Leads to stoppage of blood supply to a part of brain Oxygen supply is decreased This initiates 'ischemic cascade'-causes brain cell death/damage This results in a cerebral stroke Causes/Risks High Blood Pressure Diabetes Cigarette smoking Heart Disease Symptoms Numbness/weakness of an arm/leg/face/one side of body Sudden confusion in speaking/understanding speech Impaired vision in one or both eyes Sudden headache Loss of balance/co-ordination Dizziness Treatment If you suspect stroke.            Inability to move the joint Inability to assess the severity of injury Steps To Avoid Do not return to normal activities if not completely cured This could lead to the problem turning chronic Prevention Avoid exercising/sporting when tired Eat a well balanced meal-for healthy muscles Avoid unhealthy weight gain Exercise daily-particularly stretching exercises Do warm-up before exercising Practice safety measures. healthy diet Take the BP pills regularly . call emergency medical help Reassure the patient Lay the patient down with head and shoulders slightly elevated If patient is not breathing well do a CPR Place the patient on the left side if breathing/not responsive Keep the chin slightly extended Steps To Avoid Never give a suspected stroke victim anything to eat/drink Do not permit the victim to move Prevention Do regular checkups for BP Eat food with less salt Exercise regularly Eat a balanced.

PROFUNE BLEEDING Causes Symptoms Treatment Consult a doctor Steps To Avoid           Overview Severe bleeding involves loss of large amount of blood This may occur externally through natural openings. Platelet Disorder j. Cancer d. Scurvy c. Septicemia Symptoms Discharge of blood from a wound Bruising Blood in stool/urine Blood coming from other areas. Peptic Ulcer i. Hemophilia b. like mouth/ear Treatment Wash hands well before administering to patient Wear synthetic gloves Make the victim lie down Slightly elevate the legs If possible keep the affected area elevated Remove any obvious debris/particle Apply direct pressure using clean cloth/bandage Use hand if cloth is not available Apply pressure continuously for at least 20 minutes              . Hemorrhage h. like scalp wounds Tooth Extraction Certain medications Illnesses like a. like mouth A cut on the skin too can lead to bleeding Internal bleeding occurs due to an injury to blood vessel Causes Accidents/Falls Blow to the head Injuries. Liver Disease k. Thrombocytopenia e. A plastic Anemia f. Leukemia g.

Deposits of calcium / cholesterol b.                      Do not remove the cloth to check the bleeding Hold the bandage in place using an adhesive tape If bleeding seeps through bandage. Tobacco d. do not remove it Add extra bandage on top of the first one Apply direct pressure on the artery if necessary The pressure points for arm--below arm. Obesity e. Emotional stress g. Trauma / disease of heart        . ears etc Coughing up blood Vomiting Bruising/deep wounds Abdominal tenderness Fracture Shock Steps To Avoid Do not try to replace a displaced organ Just cover the wound with a clean cloth Do not try to remove an embedded object What is heart attack? Occurs when blood supply to vital organs gets blocked >50years / menopausal women at greater risk Occurs with / without chest pain Sudden arrest of breathing / heart function May result in cardiopulmonary arrest Clot in the arteries blocks blood supply Occurs due to: a. High blood pressure f. Inflammatory disease of arteries h.pit/above elbow For leg--behind knee/near groin Squeeze the artery keeping finger flat Continue applying pressure on the wound Once bleeding stops immobilize the affected part See a doctor Consult a doctor If bleeding does not stop If bleeding occurs through nose. Hereditary factors c.

see a doctor. illness or death . Give artifical respiration if required Give Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): a.Symptoms               Chest pain Shoulder/arm pain Shortness of breath Sweating Heartburn Nausea Abdominal pain First aid Try to relax Loosen tight clothes Take medicines if any Pain subsides within 3 min of medicine intake If not. By placing palm on chest to pump  15 pumps are followed by 2 artificial respiration  Continue till ambulance / doctor arrives Prevention       Routine health check-up Avoid stress Quit smoking / alcohol Eat sensibly Control blood pressure / diabetes Control weight POISONING  Poisons are substances that cause injury. If no pulse is detected b.

     These events are caused by a chemical activity in the cells Poisons can be injected. heaters Insecticides Certain cosmetics Certain household plants. inhaled or swallowed Poisoning should be suspected if a person is sick for unknown reason Poor ventilation can aggravate Inhalation poisoning First aid is critical in saving the life of victims                            Causes Medications Drug overdose Occupational exposure Cleaning detergents/paints Carbon mono oxide gas from furnace. animals Food poisoning (Botulism) Symptoms Blue lips Skin Rashes Difficulty in breathing Diarrhea Vomiting/Nausea Fever Head ache Giddiness/drowsiness Double vision Abdominal/chest pain Palpitations/Irritability Loss of appetite/bladder control Numbness Muscle twitching Seizures Weakness Loss of consciousness Treatment Seek immediate medical help .

depends on extent of injury Treatment  Clean the affected area thoroughly  Gently dry  Apply antibiotic cream over affected area  Make the patient lie down  Keep burnt body part at a raised level  Skin graft may be required  Physical therapy may be essential to aid mobility  Splints may be used to rest affected joints  Hospitalization is essential . wash it thoroughly  Position the victim on the left till medical help arrives For inhalation poisoning  Seek immediate emergency help  Get help before you attempt to rescue others  Hold a wet cloth to cover your nose and mouth  Open all the doors and windows  Take deep breaths before you begin the rescue  Avoid lighting a match  Check the patient's breathing  Do a CPR. roots or mushrooms Teach children the need to exercise caution 2ND DEGREE BURN         Second-degree burns Burns extends to middle skin layer. cleaning detergents. that ooze a clear fluid Scars may develop Restricts movement.Meanwhile. if necessary  If the patient vomits. breathing difficulty or vomiting  Induce vomiting if poison swallowed  In case of convulsions. dermis Swelling. if injury occurs at joint Dehydration may occur Healing time varies.  Try and identify the poison if possible  Check for signs like burns around mouth. protect the person from self injury  If the vomit falls on the skin. take steps to prevent choking           Steps to Avoid Avoid giving an unconscious victim anything orally Do not induce vomiting unless told by a medical personnel Do not give any medication to the victim unless directed by a doctor Do not neutralize the poison with limejuice/honey Prevention Store medicines. redness and pain observed Burnt area may turn white on touch Blisters develop. mosquito repellants and paints carefully Keep all potentially poisonous substances out of children's reach Label the poisons in your house Avoid keeping poisonous plants in or around house Take care while eating products such as berries.

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