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C O R E - P L U S M AT H E M AT I C S P R O J E C T

Course

A Unified Approach

Arthur F. Coxford James T. Fey Christian R. Hirsch Harold L. Schoen Gail Burrill Eric W. Hart Ann E. Watkins

with the assistance of Emma Ames, Robin Marcus, Mary Jo Messenger, Jaruwan Sangtong, Rebecca Walker, Edward Wall, and Marcia Weinhold

Project Directors Arthur F. Coxford, University of Michigan James T. Fey, University of Maryland Christian R. Hirsch, Western Michigan University Harold L. Schoen, University of Iowa Senior Curriculum Developers Gail Burrill, University of Wisconsin-Madison Eric W. Hart, Western Michigan University Ann E. Watkins, California State University, Northridge Professional Development Coordinator Beth Ritsema, Western Michigan University Evaluation Coordinator Steven W. Ziebarth, Western Michigan University Project Collaborators Emma Ames, Oakland Mills High School, Maryland Robin Marcus, University of Maryland Mary Jo Messenger, Howard County Public Schools, Maryland Jaruwan Sangtong, University of Maryland Rebecca Walker, Western Michigan University Edward Wall, University of Michigan Marcia Weinhold, Western Michigan University Editorial and Production Assistants James Laser, Western Michigan University Kelly MacLean, Western Michigan University Wendy Weaver, Western Michigan University Photo Acknowledgments Cover images: Images 1997 Photodisc, Inc. Cover Design: Oversat Paredes Design

Opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Foundation

Copyright by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN 1-57039-440-7 Printed in the United States of America. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 079 07 06 05 04 03 02 01

Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Summary and Review of Middle School Mathematics

....... Numbers and Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patterns and Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geometry and Spatial Sense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ...................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... ..................................... .....................................

5

6 21 29 37 44

Exercise Set 1 Exercise Set 2 Exercise Set 3 Exercise Set 4 Exercise Set 5 Exercise Set 6 Exercise Set 7 Exercise Set 8 Exercise Set 9 Exercise Set 10 Exercise Set 11 Exercise Set 12 Exercise Set 13 Exercise Set 14 Exercise Set 15 Exercise Set 16 Exercise Set 17 Exercise Set 18 Exercise Set 19 Exercise Set 20

51

52 54 56 58 60 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 80 83 85 87 89 91 93

......................... Practice Set 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practice Set 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

98 101 104 106 108 111 114 117 119 122

Solutions

............................................. Solutions to Check Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Solutions to Exercise Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Solutions to Practice Sets for Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

125

Introduction

Course 1 of the Contemporary Mathematics in Context (CMIC) series introduces important ideas and problem-solving skills in algebra and functions, statistics and probability, geometry, and discrete mathematics. Many of those concepts and skills will extend mathematical knowledge youve acquired in earlier study. However, in order to make use of that prior knowledge, you may need periodic reminders of key ideas and practice with the skills that put those ideas to work. This Reference and Practice (RAP) book includes information and exercises that should be very helpful in reviewing and polishing the mathematics that you will need in Course 1. This book has three main sections: Summary and Review of Middle School Mathematics, Maintaining Concepts and Skills, and Practicing for Standardized Tests. The first section, Summary and Review of Middle School Mathematics, contains summaries of key ideas in five strands:

numbers and operations patterns and algebra geometry and spatial sense measurement data analysis, statistics, and probability

INTRODUCTION

The examples in this section illustrate application of the above strands to specific problems. Summaries of each topic are followed by a short problem review set to Check Your Understanding. It is a good idea to solve the Check Your Understanding problems, then check your solutions against the answer key at the back of the book. The second section, Maintaining Concepts and Skills, contains twenty sets of review exercises from the various content strands mixed together as they might be in a cumulative examination or in a real-life problem situation. These maintenance exercise sets draw material from middle grades mathematics and should be used as periodic reviews to keep ideas from all strands fresh in your mind. Exercise Sets 110 review middle grades mathematics and can be used at any time during the course. Since Exercise Sets 1120 include some material from the first part of Course 1, they can be used any time during the second half of the course. Additional exercise sets for maintaining Course 1 concepts and skills are included in the Course 1 Teaching Resources book. The third section, Practicing for Standardized Tests, presents ten sets of questions that draw on all content strands. The questions are presented in the form of test items similar to how they often appear in standardized tests such as state assessment tests or the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT). Use these test sets any time during the school year to become familiar with the formats of standardized tests and to develop effective test-taking strategies for performing well on such tests. Because you will probably use this book when studying outside of regular mathematics class sessions, answers to the problems are given at the end of the book. It is often possible to learn a lot by studying worked examples and working back from given answers to the required solution process. However, its better to try to solve the problems on your own first, and then look at the answer key.

INTRODUCTION

This section consists of brief summaries and illustrative examples for key topics that you studied in middle school mathematics. The summaries are organized by strand: numbers and operations; patterns and algebra; geometry and spatial sense; measurement; and data analysis, statistics, and probability. As you progress through Course 1, there may be activities or problems for which you need to use previously-learned ideas that you dont completely remember. You can use this section to refresh your understanding of those ideas. Within each topic summary, you will find brief explanations of related concepts and methods together with worked examples and exercises that are intended as a reference. These dont need to be studied from beginning to end. However, you should scan through this section so that you have an idea of what mathematics is reviewed and where various topics and subtopics are located. You can then refer to this section for specific information to help you when you need it.

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

We use numbers and operations in almost all aspects of everyday life, in business, and in science. In elementary school, your study of numbers focused on whole numbers, 0, 1, 2, 3, , and the basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. In the middle grades, you probably spent a great deal of time developing skills for using integers, fractions, decimals, percents, and proportions to order, count, measure, and compare all kinds of objects and collections of objects. The following sections review the key concepts and skills required to use number system operations and properties. The Check Your Understanding problems provide an opportunity for you to practice those skills.

1.1 Integers

The set of integers includes the set of whole numbers and their opposites {, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, }. The integers can be graphed on a number line.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Integers greater than 0 are called positive, and integers less than zero are called negative. The absolute value of a number n, written | n |, is its distance from zero on the number line. EXAMPLE 1 Absolute ValueBoth | 5 | and | 5 | equal 5 because 5 and are each 5 units from zero on the number line. 5

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

In mathematical problems, positive integers are often used to measure increases in a quantity. Negative integers are used to measure decreases. There are several basic rules for operations with integersoperations that combine gains and losses.

To add two integers with the same sign, add their absolute values and use the common sign. For example, 5 7 12 and 3 ( 9) 12. To add two integers with opposite signs, subtract the smaller absolute value from the larger. Use the sign of the number with the larger absolute value. For example, 12 8 4 and 5 ( 1) 4.

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

To find the difference of two integers, define the problem in terms of addition. Subtraction is the same as adding the opposite. In other words, a b a ( b). For example, 10 ( 3) 10 3 13 and 8 4 8 ( 4) 12. To multiply two integers with the same sign, multiply their absolute values. The answer will be positive. For example, ( 4)( 6) 24. To multiply two integers with opposite signs, multiply their absolute values and make the product negative. For example, ( 9)(2) 18. To divide two integers, define the problem in terms of multiplication, a b c provided a b c. For example, 8 2 4 because 8 (2)( 4).

It is helpful to think about integer addition and subtraction in terms of motion on a number line. EXAMPLE 2 Adding IntegersIf the Central High football team loses 4 yards on one play and gains 6 yards on the next play, the net gain is 2 yards because 4 6 2.

+6 4 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

EXAMPLE 3

Subtracting IntegersIf the temperature outside is 2 and it drops another 5, the new temperature is 7 because 2 5 7.

5 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EXAMPLE 4

Multiplying IntegersIn many large cities, workers use public transportation for their commute to work. If a commuter buys a $50 fare card and has a $6 commute everyday, the value of her fare card decreases by $30 each week, because 5( 6) 30.

1 N U M B E R S A N D O P E R AT I O N S

EXAMPLE 5

Dividing IntegersWhen large groups of people go out for dinner together, restaurants like to put all orders on one check. a. If the total bill for a group of 15 people is $165 and everyone agrees to split the bill equally, then each person owes $11 because 165 15 = 11. b. If the total bill for another party is $144 and each persons share is $9, then there must be 16 people in the party because 144 9 = 16.

The rules for order of operations involving integers are the same as those for whole numbers: Perform operations within parentheses first. Next, working from left to right, perform indicated multiplications and divisions. Finally, perform indicated additions and subtractions. EXAMPLE 6 Calculate: 4[6 4[6 ( 3)] ( 12) 3 ( 12). 4(9) 36 ( 12) ( 12)

( 3)]

Solve these problems to check your understanding of integers and operations on them. 1. Write the following sets of integers in order from least to greatest. a. 15, b. 10, 2, 11, 23, 7 3, 0

3. Jim has $220 in his bank account. If he writes five checks for $20 each and then deposits $75, how much will he have in his account?

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

Fractions are used to show the relationship of a part to a whole or the division of a whole into several parts. Two fractions are equivalent if they represent the same portion of a whole. EXAMPLE 1 Meanings of FractionsIf a class of 30 students has 20 girls and 10 boys, then 20 is the fraction of the whole class that 30 is girls. If five of the boys order two large pizzas, sharing equally would give 2 of a pizza to each boy. 5 Pictures of FractionsThe fraction 20 can also be written as 30 because both represent the same part of a whole.

2 3

EXAMPLE 2

20 30 EXAMPLE 3

2 3

Equivalent FractionsThe fractions 16 , 12050 , and 1 are all 64 4 equivalent because they represent the same part of a whole quantity.

16 64

25 100

1 4

Fractions can be compared in several useful ways. You can write the fractions with a common denominator, compare the fractions to benchmarks like quarters and halves, or change the fractions to decimals.

1 N U M B E R S A N D O P E R AT I O N S

EXAMPLE 4

Comparing FractionsIn Mrs. Greens class 9 out of 16 students ride the bus; in Mr. Browns class 11 out of 24 students ride the bus. Mrs. Greens class has a greater frac27 11 22 tion of students riding the bus because 196 48 and 24 48 . You can reach the same conclusion by comparing both fractions to the benchmark 1 . Since 196 is a little greater than 1 and 2 2 11 is a bit less than 1 , it is easy to see that 196 > 11 . 24 2 24 Changing the fractions to decimals shows that 11 0.4583, so 196 > 11 . 24 24

9 16

0.5625 and

To add and subtract fractions, you must write the fractions in terms of a common denominator. Once you have the common denominator, you add or subtract the numerators. EXAMPLE 5 Adding and Subtracting Fractions 2 1 7 2 4 1 a. because and 3 2 6 3 6 2 7 1 5 1 2 b. because 8 4 8 4 8

3 6

To multiply two fractions, multiply the numerators and multiply the denominators. a c ac b d bd To divide two fractions, you define the problem in terms of multiplication. a c a d b d b c EXAMPLE 6 Multiplying Fractions 5 2 5 10 a. which is equivalent to 3 8 24 12 9 9 15 135 b. (15) or 27 5 5 1 5 Dividing Fractions 2 5 2 8 a. 3 8 3 5 4 5 5 b. 5 5 1 4 16 15 25 4

EXAMPLE 7

10

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

To use fractions well, you need to recognize which fraction operations are called for in a problem. The rules for order of operations involving fractions are the same as those for whole numbers and integers. It helps to check calculations with fractions by making estimates with numbers that are rounded to nearby simple fractions or whole numbers. EXAMPLE 8 Fraction ProblemsThese examples show how operations with fractions might be used. a. Assembly and sealing of a mailing box requires

7 8 1 2 3 4

yard of tape for the bottom yard of tape for the sides yard of tape for the top

To find the total amount of tape required for each box you need to add these fractions. The answer is 187 because 1 is 2 equivalent to 4 and 3 is equivalent to 6 . 8 4 8 b. Similar boxes with dimensions

2 7 3 8 2 1 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 3

14 24 yard of tape for bottom 2 6 yard of tape for the sides 6 12 yard of tape for the top

c. If there are 25 yards of tape in a roll, this is enough for 11 boxes because: 25

17 8

25

8 17

200 17

11 13 17

As you see in Example 8 Part c, fraction problems can involve mixed numbers the sum of a whole number and a fraction between 0 and 1. To perform operations with mixed numbers, you can convert them to standard fractions and use the rules for fraction operations. With addition and subtraction, you can often treat the whole number and fraction parts separately, and then combine the results. EXAMPLE 9 Mixed Numbers a. 2 3 4 b. c.

40 3 13 4 7 2 4 1 11 4

14 4 7 4 14 4 14 4.

13 1 because 39 3

1 2

because

and

7 2

The fraction

can be rewritten as

or 3 1 . 2

1 N U M B E R S A N D O P E R AT I O N S

11

Solve these problems to check your understanding and skill with common fractions. 1. Evaluate and express your answers as equivalent fractions in simplest form. a. c.

2 5 3 10

b. d.

5 8 9 5

3 4 11 12

4 7 5 12

3 5 12 8

b.

8 12

d. 3 4 5

3. Solve these fraction problems. a. Pauline found that the amount of lemon juice added to a recipe was half the amount of sugar, and the amount of sugar was 6 times the amount of 1 salt. If she added 12 teaspoons of salt, how much lemon juice did she add? b. A school pledged $2,000 toward cancer research. After one month, the students collected 1 of the amount needed to reach half of their 4 goal. How much money had they collected? 4. In a 10 km race Samantha ran for 8 170 km and walked the rest. a. How far did she walk? b. What fractional part of the race did she run? 5. Bill won 7 out of 9 tennis matches in April and 15 out of 18 matches in June. a. In which month did he have the better record? b. What number of wins in June would have given him the same record for both months? 6. In a magic square, rows, columns, and diagonals all have the same sum. Complete the following table to make a magic square. 5 ? ? ? ? 1 3 64 84 1 ? 72

12

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

1.3 Decimals

The decimal system of writing numbers expresses each whole number as a sum of ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, ten-thousands, and so on. For example, 4,375 4(1,000) 3(100) 7(10) 5(1). In a similar way, decimal fractions express numbers between 0 and 1 as sums of tenths, hundredths, thousandths, and so on. EXAMPLE 1 Expressing Decimals as Fractions and Fractions as Decimals a. 0.254 b. 3.1415 c. d.

1 2 3 4

1 10

5 1

1 2 3 4

1 100 1 10

4 4

1 1,000 1 100

3(1)

1

5 10 .

1 1,000

1 10,000

0.5 because

70 100

is equivalent to

5 100 7 10

0.75 because

is equivalent to or

5 100 .

75 100

which is

equivalent to

It is relatively easy to convert a fraction to its equivalent decimal form by using a calculator. To find the equivalent decimal form of a fraction such as a , simply b divide a by b. In many cases, this division will give an answer requiring only a few decimal places. In some quite important cases, an infinite repeating decimal will be required. EXAMPLE 2 Finite and Repeating Decimals a. b.

5 8 1 3

0.625,

9 5 2 3

1.8, and

11 20

0.55

5 12

0.333,

0.666, and

0.41666

Operations with decimal fractions are now most often done with calculators or computers. To check your work with those tools, it helps to make mental estimates of the results. To make these estimates, use simple rounded values of the numbers involved in a calculation. EXAMPLE 3 Estimating Decimal Calculations a. 2.43 b. 23.45 c. 4.85 4.78 should be a bit more than 7. 14.9 should be a bit less than 25 1.6 should be about 4.5 1.5 3. 15 375.

Very large and very small numbers are often written in a special decimal form called scientific notation: a 10b, where 0 a < 10. This form not only makes such numbers easier to write, but it also makes calculations easier. Some important numbers are given in scientific notation form in the following chart.

1 N U M B E R S A N D O P E R AT I O N S

13

EXAMPLE 4 Significance

Scientific Notation Number 270,000,000 300,000,000 m/sec 150,000,000,000 m 0.0000000001 m 3.0 1.5 1 Scientific Notation 2.7 108 108 m/sec 1011 m 10

10

Approximate population of the USA in 1998 Speed of light 1 AU: The mean distance between the Sun and Earth 1 Angstrom: Unit used to measure wavelengths

Solve the following problems to check your understanding of decimals. 1. Write each decimal as a sum of common fractions and as a single fraction. a. 0.128 b. 0.0205 c. 3.142

2. Write the decimal equivalents to these fractions and mixed numbers. 3 9 2 9 a. b. c. 4 d. 5 12 5 5 3. For every 40 hours Simon works, he earns 2.5 hours of leave. Simon wants to save 60 hours of leave to travel to Mexico. If he has worked 142.5, 170, and 163.5 hours in September, October, and November, how many more hours does he need to work until he has enough leave to make his trip? 4. Calculate the number of seconds in a year and express your answer in scientific notation. Use 365.25 as the number of days per year as you make your calculations. 5. Write each number in decimal form and identify which are finite and which are infinite repeating decimals. 5 7 2 a. b. c. 6 8 7

14

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

Whenever it makes sense to compare two numbers, there are two calculations to considerfinding the difference of the two numbers or finding the ratio of the two numbers by division. Ratios are often expressed as common fractions or as decimal unit rates. Two ratios are equivalent when the corresponding fractions are equivalent or when they give the same unit rates. EXAMPLE 1 Ratio Comparison a. In both swimming pools pictured below, the length and width differ by 10 feet. However, in one pool the ratio of length to width is 20 to 10 or 2 to 1; in the other pool the ratio of length to width is 40 to 30 or 4 to 3.

40

20 30 10

b. In one school homeroom there are 18 girls and 12 boys; in another there are 12 girls and 8 boys. The difference between the number of girls and boys in the first homeroom is greater than the difference in the second homeroom. But the ratio of girls to boys is the same in both rooms a ratio of 18 to 12 is equivalent to a ratio of 12 to 8 because both are equivalent to a ratio of 3 to 2 or three girls for every two boys. c. If a van travels 400 miles on a 25-gallon tank of gasoline and a car travels 360 miles on a 12-gallon tank, the van travels farther on a full tank of gas. But the best comparison of fuel economy is to find the rates of miles per gallon of gasoline. For the van it is 16 miles per gallon; for the car it is 30 miles per gallon.

1 N U M B E R S A N D O P E R AT I O N S

15

EXAMPLE 2

Comparing Ratios and RatesCrackers are sold in medium or large boxes. The net weight of the medium box is 10.5 ounces, and it costs $2.49. The large box has a net weight of 16 ounces, and it costs $3.99. To determine which box is the better buy, it is helpful to find the unit rate for each size box: 2.04.9 0.237 dollars per ounce 1 5 3.99 for the medium box and 16 0.249 dollars per ounce for the large box. Therefore, since the unit price for the medium box is less than the unit price for the large box, the medium box is the better buy.

EXAMPLE 3

Solving Proportions a. For a typical television screen, the ratio of width to height is about 3 to 2. To determine the height of a large screen that has a width of 24 inches, write and solve the proportion 3 2x4 . Since 24 is 8 times 3, x must be 8 times 2. So 2 the height will be about 16 inches. b. On a map of Washington, D.C. with a scale of 1 inch 3 miles, the distance from the Lincoln Memorial to the U.S. Capitol Building measures 1.25 inches. This means that the actual distance would be (1.25)(3) 3.75 miles.

Check your understanding and skill with ratios and proportions by solving the following problems. 1. Solve these problems using proportional reasoning if it is appropriate. If proportional reasoning is not appropriate, explain why. a. It took Jan 6 hours to fly from Baltimore to San Francisco, a distance of 2,464 miles. How long will it take her to fly from Chicago to San Francisco, a distance of 1,863 miles? b. If Tony pays $1.98 for 2 pounds of apples, how much will he have to pay for 5 pounds of apples? c. The price of a pizza depends on the area of the pizza. If a 6-inch-diameter pizza costs $4.50, then a 9-inch-diameter pizza should cost how much?

16

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

2. A company that does market research for radio stations found that 50 people out of a sample of 400 people listened to radio station WXKR. Of the 50 people, 30 were 25 years old or younger. Based on this information, a. If 600 people had been contacted, how many would you expect to listen to WXKR? b. How many of those listeners would you expect to be 25 years old or younger? 3. A rectangular tank contains 250 mL of water when filled to a height of 12 cm. If the tank is filled to a height of 18 cm, how much water will it contain? 4. Which is the better buy on Pix cerealthe super-size box containing 14 ounces for $3.85 or the large-size box containing 9.5 ounces for $2.59?

1.5 Percents

The most common way to describe the relation of a part to a whole is using the language of percents. To describe a part as some percent of a whole, imagine the whole divided into 100 equal size pieces and ask how many of those pieces would be in the part that you are interested in. EXAMPLE 1 Meaning of Percent a. A quarter is 25% of a dollar because there are 100 cents in a dollar and 25 cents in a quarter. b. A centimeter is 1% of a meter because there are 100 centimeters in a meter. c. If a school year is 9 months long, it takes up 75% of the calendar year. The fraction 192 is equivalent to 17050 . Since percents are special kinds of fractions, they can be expressed in several equivalent forms. It is often helpful to write percent information using common fraction and decimal equivalents.

1 N U M B E R S A N D O P E R AT I O N S

17

EXAMPLE 2

Representing PercentsThe fraction 35% is equivalent to 13050 and to 0.35. This percent is also shown in the following diagram.

The most common percents are those that represent the most frequently occurring fractions like: 1 1 1 1 1 50% 33 % 25% 20% 2 3 3 4 5 1 2 1 1 16 % 12.5% 10% 6 3 8 10 When problems involve reasoning with percents, the questions usually require finding a missing number or percent in a statement like A is B% of C. EXAMPLE 3 Percent Calculations a. To find 45% of 300, you can convert the percent to a fraction or decimal and multiply: 14050 (300) or 0.45(300). Both give a result of 135. b. To find the percent of 80 represented by 32, you can write the common fraction 32 and find an equivalent fraction 80 with denominator 100. It is generally easier to do the division and convert the resulting decimal to a percent (32 80 0.40 or 40%). c. If 90 is 30% of some number, to find the unknown number you need to solve the equation 90 0.30x. That means x 90 0.30 or x 300. Problems involving percents often ask questions about the percent increase or decrease in some measurement.

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S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

EXAMPLE 4

Percent of Increase and Decrease a. If the $48 price of a sweater is reduced by 35%, the new price will be $31.20 because 0.35(48) 16.80 and 48 16.80 31.20. You could arrive at the same result by observing that the new price is 65% of the original and .65(48) 31.20. b. If the rent on an apartment is now $600 per month and next month will increase by 7%, the new rent will be $642. You can figure that amount by calculating 0.07(600) 42 and 600 42 642 or 1.07(600) 642. c. In 1992, the longest bungee jump was made in France using an 820-foot-long bungee cord. The cord stretched to a length of 2,000 feet during the jump. To determine the percent of increase, you compare the increase in length to the original length. In this case, that gives 1,180 820 1.44, so the cord length increased by approximately 144%.

Solve the following problems to check your understanding and skill with percents. 1. Complete this chart by filling in the missing fractions, decimals, and percents. Fraction Decimal Percent

3 4

a. b. c. d. e.

0.1 0.875

2 3 17 20

2. Find the unknown numbers or percents. a. What is 38% of 200? b. 25 is what percent of 40? c. 20 is 65% of what number?

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19

3. A local department store advertised a special 4th of July sale with discounts of 25% on clearance merchandise that was already 50% off the regular price. If a clearance item regularly sold for $50, how much would it cost during this sale? This price represents a discount of what percent of the original price? 4. The following chart shows unit shipments (in thousands) of U.S. consumer telecommunications products for 1987 and 1996. Complete the column of percent increase for shipments of each product. Product Corded phone Cordless phone Answering machine Fax and/or fax modem 1987 13,335 9,900 14,716 1,907 1996 21,700 22,800 20,050 4,700 Percent Increase

Source: 1999 New York Times Almanac. New York, NY: Penguin Reference, 1998.

5. Future population relates directly to the total fertility rate (TFR). The world population will remain constant when the TFR is 2.1. Complete the chart to show the percent decrease in TFR as world population moves toward becoming constant.

Region World Less-Developed Countries More-Developed Countries 1990 3.4 4.7 1.9 1998 Percent Decrease 2.9 3.2 1.6

Source: www.overpopulation.com/tfr.html

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S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

Number patterns often occur in mathematics and its applications. Tables, graphs, and symbolic expressions can be used to represent and study those patterns.

To discover number patterns in problems, it helps to organize data in a table or diagram and then look for a rule that connects the elements. EXAMPLE 1 Numerical PatternsJamie is saving money to buy a bike. She has $10 at the start of the summer and plans to save $20 of her baby-sitting money each week. This table shows the growth in Jamies savings: Week Savings 1 10 + 20 2 10 + 20 + 20 3 10 + 20 + 20 + 20

Jamie begins with $10 and adds $20 each week, so after w weeks, she will have a total of 10 20w dollars. EXAMPLE 2 Geometric PatternsThree stages of a geometric pattern are shown below. This pattern is made of square tiles and triangular tiles.

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

You could continue the pattern and generate a table showing the number of triangles, the number of squares, and the total number of tiles at each stage.

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1 2 2 4

2 3 4 7

3 4 6 10

4 ? ? ?

At each stage after the first, two triangles and one square are added. At Stage 4, there will be 5 squares and 8 triangles, for a total of 13 tiles. The sketches and the table of tile numbers could be extended to account for any stage of the pattern. But that strategy would not be helpful for finding the number of tiles needed to build Stage 100 of the pattern! Symbolic expressions for the number patterns would be more efficient. EXAMPLE 3 Symbolic ExpressionsAs a pattern emerges in the table for Example 2, you can probably see ways to express the numbers of tiles in terms of the pattern stage number n. 1 1 1 2(1) 2 2 2 2 1 2(2) 3 4 3 3 1 2(3) 4 6 n (n 2n 1) n 1 2n

The total number of tiles at Stage n could be expressed another way by examining the pattern of the numbers in the last row, rather than as the sum of the number of squares and the number of triangles. Stage Number Total Number of Tiles EXAMPLE 4 1 4 2 7 3 10 n 3n 1

Order of OperationsThe symbolic expressions of algebra give rules for arithmetic calculations. Expressions for multiplication, like a b are often written without the multiplication sign as ab. To write and use symbolic rules as intended, you need to follow the mathematical standards for order of operations. The key order of operations conventions for linear expressions are

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Do calculations within parentheses first. Working from left to right, do multiplication and division before addition and subtraction.

As you learn about new kinds of algebraic expressions, youll learn more order of operations guidelines. If x a. 5 b. 4(5 3, then: 7x 5 8x) ( 21) 4(5 16. ( 24)) 4(29) 116.

Check your understanding and skill in expressing patterns by completing the following problems. 1. Louis weighs 280 pounds and has just joined a weight loss program that guarantees he will lose 10 pounds per month until he reaches his target weight. Write an expression for Louis weight after m months. 2. The first three stages of a geometric pattern are shown below.

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

a. Sketch the next stage of the pattern. b. Complete the following table: Stage Number Number of Squares 1 2 3 4 5 n

3. Use order of operations rules to evaluate the following expressions. a. 7x 12 when x 5(8 4 5 b. 3(4x d. 2L 13) when x 2W when L 2 10 and W 6

c. 13

2x) when x

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2.2 Graphs

Numerical information is very often presented in graphs. Solving problems often requires reading the stories told by those graphs. EXAMPLE 1 Reading Points on GraphsJamie started saving for a new bike with $10 and plans to save $20 each week from summer babysitting earnings. You could show the pattern of growth in Jamies savings toward a bike using a graph like the one below.

Savings Balance (in $) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

The point (3, 70) indicates that after 3 weeks, Jamie will have saved $70. EXAMPLE 2 Rates of Change in GraphsThe next graph shows the scheduled trip of an express train from Washington, D.C., to New York City. The train makes only two short stopsin Baltimore and Philadelphia.

300 Distance Traveled (in miles) 250 200 150 100 50 0 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00

Time of Day

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From the graph you can deduce the following facts. Trip Leg Washington to Baltimore Baltimore to Philadelphia Philadelphia to New York EXAMPLE 3 Distance 50 miles 100 miles 100 miles Time 0.5 hours 1 hour 1.5 hours Speed 100 mph 100 mph 67 mph

Trends in GraphsThe next graph shows the operating cost for an airplane on trips of different lengths. From the graph you can see that operating cost increases as trip length increases. However, as trips get longer the cost per mile actually decreases.

Operating Cost (in $) 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 0 200 400 600

The point (200, 2,000) shows that for a trip of 200 miles, the cost is $2,000 to operate the plane. The point (600, 2,500) shows that for a trip of 600 miles, the cost is $2,500 to operate the plane. The cost per mile for a trip of 200 miles is $10; the cost per mile for a trip of 600 miles is $4.17.

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Complete the following problems to check your understanding of tables and graphs. 1. The chart below shows the cost of parking in a garage. Time Up to 1 hour Up to 2 hours Up to 3 hours Up to 4 hours Up to 5 hours Maximum Cost $2.00 $3.50 $4.50 $5.00 $5.50 $6.00

a. If you park your car in the garage at 8:00 A.M., how much will parking cost if you leave at 8:45 A.M.? At 11:48 A.M.? At 3:20 P.M.? b. Sketch a graph showing the cost of parking in this garage for times between 0 and 8 hours.

Distance Covered (in meters)

2. Rachel and her younger brother, Micah, ran a 100-meter race. Their distances covered at various times in the race are shown in the following graph.

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5

Rachel

Micah

Use the graph to answer the following questions. a. Who won the race? By how much time and by how much distance? b. At what distance in the race (if any) were Rachel and Micah tied? c. How many seconds from the start (if ever) were Rachel and Micah tied? d. Who was ahead after 20 seconds? By how much? e. What was each runners average speed for the race?

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Equations and inequalities compare values and/or expressions. When equations and inequalities are used to represent conditions of a problem, their solutions usually give helpful information. EXAMPLE 1 Solving Linear EquationsJamie started a saving plan for a new bike with $10 and plans to save $20 each week. If Jamie wants to purchase a mountain bike that costs $170, shell certainly wonder how long shell have to work and save in order to have enough money to buy the bike. To answer this question, you can write and solve the equation 10 20w 170. You might reason that since she already has $10, Jamie needs to save $160 more. At $20 per week, it would take her 8 weeks to save $160. Therefore, Jamie could afford the bike in 8 weeks. You can also reason algebraically to solve such equations. To solve a linear equation algebraically, undo the operations of an expression in the reverse order that you would perform them to calculate the value of the expression. EXAMPLE 2 Algebraic Reasoning a. To solve Jamies equation with algebraic reasoning you can think: If 10 20w 170 then 20w 160 (subtract 10 from both sides) then w 8 (divide both sides by 20) The order of operations indicates that in 10 20w you would first multiply w by 20, then add 10. Therefore, in solving, first undo the addition, then undo the multiplication. b. To solve 2(a If 2(a then a so 5) 5) 5 a 8, reason like this: 8 4 (divide both sides by 2) 9 (add 5 to both sides)

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You can check any proposed solution for an equation by substituting it in the original equation. In Example 2 Part b, since 2(9 5) 8, you know that a 9 is a solution. Some problems lead to a different type of comparison called an inequality. Linear inequalities are solved by the same process as equations, with one caution. When you multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a negative number, you must reverse the direction of the inequality. EXAMPLE 3 Solving Inequalities a. To solve 5b 20, divide both sides by 5 to get b 4. b. To solve 1 3y < 13, subtract 1 from both sides to get 3y < 12. Then divide both sides by 3 and reverse the direction of the inequality sign to get y > 4. You can make an informal check of the solution to an inequality by testing various numbers from the proposed solution set in the original inequality. However, in general there will be infinitely many solutions to inequalities.

Check your understanding of equations and inequalities by solving the following problems. 1. Solve each of the following equations for x and check your solution. a. 4x 3 17 b. 3(x 1) 15

b. 5n

3. Renting a video at a local store costs $3.50 for the first day and $2.50 for each additional day. a. Write an equation for the cost C of renting a video for d days. b. Write and solve an equation with a solution that answers the question, How long have you kept a video if the bill is $16?

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From flower blossoms and spider webs to cereal boxes and kitchen floors, geometric figures surround us in our daily lives. The mathematical properties and relationships of geometric figures have applications in art, science, and everyday life.

Different shapes have unique properties that may make them practical choices for particular applications. Circles appear as wheels and jar lids, while rectangles appear as windows, and triangles appear in the trusses of bridges. Various polygon shapes appear in street signs such as those shown below.

ONE WAY

STOP

MEN AT WORK

YIELD

SCHOOL ZONE

Polygons are classified by properties such as the number of sides. Triangles (polygons with three sides) may be further classified by angle type or by the number of congruent sides. A polygon having all sides the same length and all angles the same measure is called a regular polygon.

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EXAMPLE 1

This is an isosceles triangle because exactly two sides (and two angles) are of equal measure:

This is an equilateral triangle because all of the sides (and all of the angles) are of equal measure:

Another property that distinguishes various polygons is the number of pairs of parallel sides. Parallel lines are straight lines that never meet, no matter how far they are extended. Quadrilaterals, polygons with four sides, may be further classified according to the number of parallel sides.

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EXAMPLE 2

Special QuadrilateralsThis figure is a trapezoid because it has exactly 1 pair of parallel sides. You should recognize the notation for the pair of parallel sides in this figure, AB and CD, as AB || CD.

A B

This figure is a parallelogram because both pairs of opposite sides are parallel. AB || CD and AD || BC

A B

Special angle relationships hold when parallel lines are crossed by another line (which is then called a transversal). Many pairs of angles formed by the parallel and crossing lines have equal measure. EXAMPLE 3 Angles Formed by Parallel Lines and a TransversalIn the diagram below, line l is parallel to line m, (l || m), and m 5 65. These facts imply the measures of all remaining angles.

l

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

m 5 m 5 m 2 m 2

m 8 m 4 180 m 3

65 m 1 65 m 6 65 m 7 115 115

These angle relationships imply other properties of polygons. One you have probably learned is that the sum of the measures of the angles in any triangle is 180.

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EXAMPLE 4

Angle Measures in Any TriangleIn the triangle below, you can use the given facts to find m B.

B

m A 45

m B m B 95.

m C 40 180

180

So, m B

45

40

Another very important geometric principle, the Pythagorean Theorem, relates the side lengths of any right triangle: a2 b2 c2

a c b

In this equation, a and b are the lengths of the legs, and c is the length of the hypotenuse. EXAMPLE 5

Scott let out all 50 yards of string on his kite. His sister, Katie, stood directly under the kite, 30 yards from Scott. Assuming that the kite string was a straight line, about how high above the ground was the kite? Using the Pythagorean Theorem you can write the equation: 302 So, 900 h2 h2 h2 h or h 40 502 2,500 1,600 1,600

S

30 50

If Scott was holding the kite string about 1 yard above the ground, then the kite was about 41 yards above the ground.

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Complete the following problems to check your understanding of shapes and their properties. 1. Can two sides of a triangle be parallel to each other? Explain why or why not. 2. Name the polygons that describe the shapes of the street signs shown on page 29. Identify those that are regular polygons. 3. Use the given information to find the measure of each labeled angle in the following parallelogram with one diagonal drawn from vertex A to vertex C.

A a

30 45

b D

d C

Hint: Line AC is a transversal between parallel lines AB and DC and also a transversal between parallel lines AD and BC.

A B

5 cm

12 cm

Symmetry is a very important property of shapes and designs. Symmetry is usually explained by describing motions of a figure that will leave its image unchanged. A figure that has line symmetry can be folded along a line so that one half of the figure exactly matches the other half.

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EXAMPLE 1

Line SymmetryThe figures below have line symmetry, and the dotted lines indicate the lines or axes of symmetry.

A figure that has rotational symmetry can be turned less than a full turn about its centerpoint and appear unchanged. EXAMPLE 2 Rotational SymmetryThe figures below have rotational or turn symmetry.

The first figure can be turned through 180 (a half-turn) and appear unchanged. The second figure can be turned through 90 (a quarter-turn), 180, or 270 and appear unchanged. There are three basic motions or transformations that change the position of a figure without changing its size or shape. The informal names for those motions are flips, turns, and slides. EXAMPLE 3 Rigid Motions are special transformations that move a shape in a plane without changing its shape or size. Consider this simple shape and its images under various rigid motions.

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a. When a shape is transformed by a flip (or reflection) over a line, the shape and its image are symmetric with respect to the line.

b. A turn (or rotation) turns a shape about a point (called the center of the turn) through a specified angle. Turns are usually measured in a counterclockwise direction.

c. A slide (or translation) moves a figure a specified distance in a specified direction without turning it. As in your work with integer addition, a slide can be described by an arrow.

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Complete these problems to check your understanding of symmetry and transformations. 1. Describe the symmetries of a regular octagon. 2. Describe the symmetries of each figure below. Indicate any lines of symmetry and angles of turn symmetry. a. b. c.

3. For each part, identify the figure on the right that can be obtained from the figure on the left by the indicated transformation. a. A flip I II III IV

b. A turn

c. A slide

d. A flip

e. A turn

f. A slide

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4 Measurement

Measurement uses numbers to describe the size of things. Rulers measure the length of line segments, clocks measure periods of time, scales and balances measure weights and masses, and protractors measure angles. In each case, measurement compares the size of a given object or time period to some standard unit like a meter, a second, a gram, or a degree. In many figures, it is possible to use basic measurement data and arithmetic calculations to derive other size information. The following sections review the key concepts and skills required to answer measurement questions. They also provide some further problems to check your understanding and practice your skills.

The common unit for measuring angles and rotations is the degree. There are 90 in a right angle or quarter-turn, 180 in a half-turn, and 360 in a full turn. Angles can be measured by a protractor. EXAMPLE 1 Using a ProtractorIn the diagram below, the measure of AOB = 45, the measure of AOC 120, and the measure of BOC 75 (since 120 45 75). The measure of DOC 60

C B

O D A

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Check your understanding of basic ideas of angle measurement by completing the following problems. 1. In the following diagram, what degree measure is indicated for each angle. a. PQR c. SQT b. PQS d. RQT

S R

T Q P

2. Without using a protractor, draw angles with the following measures. Then check your estimates using a protractor. a. 20 c. 60 b. 150 d. 110

The distance around a geometric figure is called its perimeter. For irregular figures, the perimeter can only be estimated by measuring polygonal paths that approximate the true boundary. For many standard figures, its possible to measure a few key dimensions and then calculate the total boundary length.

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EXAMPLE 1

Estimating PerimeterA trip around the lake shown in this scale drawing is about 15 kilometers because the perimeter of the drawing is about 15 centimeters and the drawing scale is 1 cm 1 km.

1 cm = 1 km

The perimeter of a rectangle can be calculated from its length (l) and width (w) by the formula P 2l 2w.

l

P = 2l + 2w

If dimensions of the rectangle are called base (b) and height (h), the formula becomes P 2b 2h. The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. The circumference of any circle can be calculated from the diameter (d) using the formula C d. The constant (pi), is approximately 3.14. Since the diameter of a circle is two times the radius (r), the circumference can also be calculated using the formula C 2 r. EXAMPLE 2

r d

C = 2r = 2d

Perimeter of Rectangles and CirclesThe perimeter of the rectangle shown here is 77.4 meters because 2(23.5) 2(15.2) 77.4. The circumference of the circle is about 47.1 meters because 15 47.1.

23.5 m 15.2 m

m 15

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EXAMPLE 3

Perimeter ProblemThe following diagram shows a soccer field enclosed by a running track. The perimeter of the soccer field is 2(120) 2(55) 350 meters. The perimeter of the running track is (55 240) 413 meters because it consists of the circumference of a circle with diameter 55 meters and two sides of the soccer field.

120 m 55 m

Check your understanding of perimeter and circumference by solving these problems. 1. The following diagram shows pools at a recreation centera square diving pool, a rectangular racing pool, and a circular pool for young children. Staff at the center have to scrub the tiles around each pool once a week to meet health department regulations.

d=8m

15 m

20 m

50 m

a. What are the perimeters of the various pools? b. If scrubbing the tiles can be done at the rate of 1.5 meters per minute, how long will the job take each week?

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4m 4m 8m 6m

10 m

3. Earths equator is a circle with a circumference of approximately 40,000 kilometers. What are the diameter and radius of that circle?

The area of a two-dimensional shape describes the size of the region enclosed by the shape. The area of any figure can be estimated by imagining a grid of unit squares covering it. With some figures it is possible to use linear measurements and arithmetic operations to calculate area. EXAMPLE 1 Estimating AreaThe centimeter grid covering the scale drawing of a lake requires about 12 squares, each matching a square kilometer on the real lake. So the area of the lake is approximately 12 square kilometers.

1 cm = 1 km

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The area of any rectangle or parallelogram is given by the formula A bh, where b and h are the base and height of the figure. The area of any triangle is given by 1 A 2 bh, where b and h are the base and height of the figure. The area of any circle with radius r is given by the formula A r 2.

r h b A = bh h b A=

1 2

bh

A = r 2

EXAMPLE 2

Areas of Rectangles and CirclesThe total area enclosed by a running track shown at the top of page 40 is 6,600 756.25 square meters. The soccer field itself has area (120)(55) 6,600 square meters. The semicircular ends have total area equal to that of a single circle with radius 27.5 meters or (27.5)2 2,376 square meters.

120 m 55 m

EXAMPLE 3

Areas of Triangles and ParallelogramsIn using formulas to calculate areas of triangles and non-rectangular parallelograms, its important to identify the base and height. a. The area of the triangle shown on the left below is 6 square centimeters because (0.5)(6)(2) 6. b. The area of the triangle in the middle is 3 square centimeters because (0.5)(3)(2) 3. c. The area of the parallelogram is 9 square centimeters because (3)(3) 9.

II

III

2.8 cm

4.4 cm 2 cm 6 cm

2 cm

4.5 cm 3 cm

3 cm

3.6 cm

3 cm

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EXAMPLE 4

Surface Area of BoxesThe box shown below has a total surface area of 62 m2 because the different visible faces have areas (3)(2) 6 m2, (3)(5) 15 m2, and (5)(2) 10 m2, and there are two identical faces of each type.

3m 5m

2m

Solve these problems to check your understanding of area measurement and calculations. 1. Look again at the top view of a swimming pool with attached diving well. a. What is the surface area of the water in the pool? b. If there are 150 people in the pool on a hot day, how much space is there for each of them? 2. The rectangular flag design shown at right has three regions, each of which is a different color. a. What is the area of the parallelogram region? b. What is the area of each triangular region?

50 cm 50 cm 4m 4m 8m 6m

10 m

60 cm

3. On many large farms, irrigation sprinklers rotate around a central pump to spray water in circular patterns on the fields. What is the area watered by such a system if the sprinkler arm has a length of 100 meters?

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To solve problems and make important decisions, we often need to collect, display, and analyze data about key variables. The best tools for these tasks come from the mathematics of statistics and probability.

It is often hard to make sense of numerical data until the numbers have been organized and displayed in a useful graphic form. The choice of graphic display usually depends on the type of data available. EXAMPLE 1 Bar and Circle GraphsThe following table shows data about the distribution of world population in the years 1950 and 2000 and a projection to the year 2050. Region North America Europe, Japan, Australia Africa Asia less Japan Latin America 1950 7% 25% 9% 52% 7% 2000 5% 15% 13% 59% 8% 2050 4% 8% 22% 57% 9%

Source: Population: A Lively Introduction, Third Edition, Volume 53, No. 3, September, 1998.

This sort of categorical data is commonly displayed with bar graphs and circle graphs like those below for the 1950 data. The heights of the various bars are proportional to the population numbers they represent. The central angles of wedges in a circle graph are fractions of 360 that correspond to the fractions of total population in each region.

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50 40 30 20 10 NA Europe Africa Asia Japan Australia LA 52% Asia Europe, 25% Japan, Australia Africa NA LA 7% 7% 9%

Region

Data that give frequencies of measurements like temperatures, test scores, heights, weights, or fuel economy for cars are often displayed in histograms or stem-and-leaf plots. The following histogram and stem-and-leaf plot display populations of the 50 United States. (Source: 1999 World Almanac and Book of Facts, Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac, 1998.) EXAMPLE 2 HistogramThe histogram below groups states with populations less than 1 million, from 1 million up to 2 million, and so on. For example, the bar of height 10 shows that there are 10 states with populations at least 1 million and less than 2 million.

10 Frequency

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EXAMPLE 3

Stem-and-Leaf PlotThis stem-and-leaf plot records each states population to the nearest tenth of a million. The stem indicates millions and the leaf indicates tenths of a million. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

17 18

3 1

30

Check your understanding of statistical graph methods by completing the following problems. 1. Use the data in Example 1 (page 44) to construct each graph. a. A bar graph showing the distribution of world population in the year 2000. b. A circle graph showing the distribution of world population projected for 2050.

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2. The following numbers are high school graduation rates (% of age group) for the 50 United States in 199596. 58, 65, 58, 75, 65, 72, 74, 66, 53, 58, 55, 75, 80, 70, 85, 76, 68, 58, 72, 74, 76, 70, 85, 57, 71, 83, 83, 65, 75, 83, 63, 62, 62, 89, 71, 73, 67, 76, 71, 54, 87, 63, 58, 78, 90, 76, 72, 76, 80, 78

Source: 1999 World Almanac and Book of Facts, Mahwah, NJ: World Almanac, 1998.

a. Display these data in a histogram, grouping the data in intervals of 10 percentage points. b. Display the data in a stem-and-leaf plot.

When you need to give quick summaries of data distributions, there are several standard statistical measures. To describe the middle or center of a data set, you can give the mean or the median. To find the mean of a data set, you add all data values and divide by the number of elements in the data set. The median of a data set is the middle value of the distribution. In the case of an even number of data points, it is the value midway between the two points that determines upper and lower halves of the distribution. EXAMPLE 1 Mean and MedianThe state populations graphed in Example 2 of section 5.1 (page 45) have been ordered (populations rounded to the nearest tenth of a million) in the list below. 0.5, 0.6, 0.6, 0.6, 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0, 1.0, 1.1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 1.8, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 4.9, 5.0, 5.0, 5.0, 5.2, 5.6, 6.0, 6.3, 6.6, 6.7, 7.7, 9.4, 10.9, 11.5, 12.0, 13.3, 17.3, 18.1, 30.4. The mean of this data set is 5.036 because the sum of all population figures is 251.8 million and there are 50 states. The median state population is 3.5 million because the state ranking 25th has a population of 3.4 million and the state ranking 26th has a population of 3.6 million. Note that the mean is much higher than the median because there are a few very populous states that pull up the mean, but not the median.

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Means and medians dont tell everything of interest about a data set. It is also useful to describe the range of values, the difference between the largest and the smallest data elements. EXAMPLE 2 Range of DataIn the case of state populations, the range is 29.9 million, from a low of 0.5 million to a high of 30.4 million. Can you guess which states are at the two extremes?

Complete the following problems to check your understanding of numerical summaries of data. 1. Reproduced below are the 199596 high school graduation rates of the 50 United States. 58, 65, 58, 75, 65, 72, 74, 66, 53, 58, 55, 75, 80, 70, 85, 76, 68, 58, 72, 74, 76, 70, 85, 57, 71, 83, 83, 65, 75, 83, 63, 62, 62, 89, 71, 73, 67, 76, 71, 54, 87, 63, 58, 78, 90, 76, 72, 76, 80, 78 a. Find the mean. b. Find the median. c. Find the range.

2. Suppose the class mean for 20 students on a 10-point test is 7.5, the median is 8, and the range is 3 points. What will happen to these summary statistics if the teacher: a. Adds 1 point to every students score? b. Multiplies each score by 10? c. Includes one new score of 6 for a student who took a makeup test?

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5.3 Probability

Many activities in science, business, and everyday life have uncertain outcomes. We cant predict with certainty the outcome of a coin toss, the gender of a coming baby, the weather at some future date, or the winning numbers in one days state lottery. However, we can make useful predictions about likely outcomes of such events. The probabilities of outcomes from random experiments can be estimated by collecting data in many trials of the experiment or, in some situations, by carefully analyzing the experiment. EXAMPLE 1 Experimental Probability EstimatesIn 100 tosses of a thumbtack, the point was facing upward 65 times and facing downward 35 times. This experience suggests estimating the probability of point up to be 0.65 and the probability of point down to be 0.35. Based on these estimates, in 500 tosses one would expect about 65% or 325 of the tosses to land point up. Probability by AnalysisIf one tosses a nickel and a dime and records the result as heads up (H) or tails up (T) for each coin, it makes sense to predict that the probability of at least one coin being a head would be 0.75.

EXAMPLE 2

This prediction follows from analysis of the situationif the coins are fair, then each has an equal chance of coming up heads or tails. There are four possible, equally likely outcomes: HnHd , HnTd , TnHd , and TnTd . Each outcome will occur about one-fourth of the time, and three of the four outcomes have at least one H.

5 DATA A NA LY S I S , S TAT I S T I C S , A N D P RO BA B I L I T Y

49

Solve the following problems to check your understanding of probability. 1. Suppose you flip a penny, a nickel, and a dime and note which come up heads and which come up tails. a. List the possible outcomes of this experiment. b. Use analysis of your answer in Part a to predict the probabilities that:

At least 2 coins will be heads up. No coins will be heads up. The value of the heads-up coins will be at least 11 cents.

2. Records over a long period of time show that the number of male and female births in a large hospital are just about equal. Based on this pattern: a. If the first baby of a new year is a boy, what is the probability that the next baby will also be a boy? b. If 100 babies are born in the hospital during one year, which of the following results is most likely to be true: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Between 40 and 60 boys Between 45 and 55 boys Between 49 and 51 boys Exactly 50 boys and 50 girls

50

S U M M A R Y A N D R E V I E W O F M I D D L E S C H O O L M AT H E M AT I C S

The following sets of exercises give you an opportunity to review the mathematical ideas and skills that you acquired in middle school mathematics and in early Course 1 units. They include questions that require knowledge of:

numbers and operations patterns and algebra geometry and spatial sense measurement data analysis, statistics, and probability

Some problems combine ideas from two or more of those strands of mathematics. In each case, you will need to determine the appropriate ideas and techniques to apply. If you need a refresher on some particular topic, look back at the reference material and examples in the first section of this guide. However, it is best to make a good effort at completing an exercise before looking for help in the reference material or in the answers that are given at the back of the book. Since practice of any skill is most effective when distributed in modest amounts throughout the school year, the practice exercises have been arranged in sets of ten items, so you could do about one set every other week throughout the school year as companion work to your study of new topics in Course 1. Exercise sets beginning with Exercise Set 11 include some questions over material you studied in early Course 1 units. You should complete those exercises during the second half of the course.

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

51

Exercise Set 1

1. Consider the following numbers: 4.2, 1, 2.3, 0, 4, 10. a. Which of the numbers are integers? b. Draw a number line and locate each of the numbers on it. 2. On the first three tests in a marking period Paula has scores of 85, 90, and 75. a. What scores can Paula get on the fourth and final unit test in order to have a mean of at least 85 for the marking period? b. What will her median score be for the marking period if she gets the lowest possible score in Part a? c. What will her range of scores be for the marking period if she gets the lowest possible score in Part a? 3. According to an article in the December 11, 1989, U.S. News and World Report, human hair grows at a rate of 1 of an inch in a week, and deer antlers grow at the 8 incredible rate of 2 3 inches per week during the spring antler season. How many 4 weeks would your hair have to grow in order to match the growth of the deer antlers during one week in the spring? 4. Rewrite each of the following numbers using scientific notation. a. 32,700 d. 0.00340 b. 42,349.1 e. 0.00006275 c. 927,000,000 f. 0.0105

5. In the high school of one city there are 1,012 male students and 1,000 female students. In the high school of a nearby city there are 1,145 female students and 1,000 male students. a. What percent of students in the first citys high school are female? b. What percent of the students in the second citys high school are female? 6. Sketch an example of each of the following. Then describe the ways in which these figures are alike and the ways in which they differ. a. A square b. A rectangle that is not a square c. A parallelogram that is not a rectangle

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 1

7. Maria solved the equation 5x solving, check her solution. 8 = 12 for x and obtained the solution x = 4. Without

8. The following rectangle has a perimeter of 18 centimeters and an area of 18 square centimeters.

6 cm

3 cm

a. What other rectangles with sides of whole number length have a perimeter of 18 cm? b. Which of the rectangles in Part a has the greatest area? c. Which of the rectangles in Part a has the smallest area? 9. Copy each shape. Then draw all lines of symmetry. a. b. c.

10. There are 197 students going on a trip. a. The trip costs $12 for every 5 students. Find the cost for this trip. b. In order to cover the cost, how much should each student be charged?

EXERCISE SET 1

53

Exercise Set 2

1. The greatest number of two-egg omelets made in any 30-minute time period at Kathys Kitchen was 427. At that rate, how long did it take to make: a. 1 omelet b. 12 omelets c. 100 omelets 2. Using a coordinate grid like the one shown at the right: a. Give the coordinates of four points that are the vertices of a rectangle. b. Give the coordinates of four points that are the vertices of a parallelogram that is not a rectangle. 3. Evaluate each expression. a. 6(3 5) 2 6 + 5 8(4) 1 b. (7 + 2) 3 6 + 5 2 c. 4 7 + 2 3 4 4. a. Find the length in centimeters of each line segment below. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) b. Find the length in millimeters of each line segment in Part a. c. Find the length in meters of each line segment in Part a. 5. The normal male adult pulse rate is approximately 74 beats per minute and an abnormal heart may beat as fast as 300 times per minute. What is the percent of increase from normal to abnormal? 6. Write each set of numbers in order from least to greatest. a. 17, 8, 9, 6 1 3 2 5 c. , , , 2 4 3 8

54

b. 43,

13,

33, 0

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 2

7. For her statistics project, Julia asked 60 people what they used their computer for most. The results are in the table below. Computer Use Internet Access Word Processing Games Spreadsheets Other Number of People 12 30 7 2 9

a. Construct and label a bar graph displaying the distribution of this data. b. Construct and label a circle graph for this data. 8. If you want to paint a wall that measures 12 feet by 8 1 feet and has a door that 2 measures 3 112 feet by 6 5 feet, you will need to buy enough paint to cover how large 8 an area? 9. Imagine arranging nine onecentimeter-square tiles in patterns so that each tile shares at least one full edge with another tile. a. What is the largest possible perimeter of the resulting figure? b. What is the smallest possible perimeter of the resulting figure?

10. Bill earns $137.70 for 25.5 hours of work. a. Find Bills hourly rate. b. How much will he make if he works 38.5 hours?

EXERCISE SET 2

55

Exercise Set 3

1. You are purchasing items that cost $45, $13, and $29, and returning an item that was $23. How much will you have to pay, assuming a 4% sales tax? 2. Suppose that a large tree has a circumference of 15 feet at its base and 10 feet at a point 20 feet above the ground. a. What is the diameter of the tree at its base and at a point 20 feet above ground? b. If the tree is cut at its base and a log is cut that is 20 feet long, what will the area of the log be at each end? 3. Determine the percent increase in each type of organ transplant from 1985 to 1995. Organ Transplants 19851995 Type Heart Liver Kidney 1985 719 602 7,695 1995 2,361 3,924 11,816 Percent Increase

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997. Washington D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997.

4. Francisco conducted a survey of people leaving the grocery store in his town. He and his friends randomly asked 800 people what foreign languages they spoke. The results are in the table below. a. How is it that the Number of People column adds up to more than 800 people? b. Approximately what percentage of the people surveyed spoke each foreign language? c. If Francisco were to survey another 150 people, approximately how many would he expect to speak each language?

5. The drug store is selling three note pads for $1.99. If you buy only one, how much will you pay?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 3

6. Express each rate as a unit rate. a. 5 pounds for $7.85 c. 8 tickets for $88.00 e. $15.00 for three hours b. 364 miles in 7 hours d. 12 feet in 8 seconds f. 10 pounds in 8 weeks

7. The following diagram shows plans for a basketball court. The floor will be made of wood costing $3 per square foot and the bold lines shown on the diagram will be painted at a cost of $0.50 per linear foot.

45

15 12 12

19

5 5

a. How much will the painting cost? b. How much will the wood flooring cost? 8. Find the surface area and volume of the rectangular prism shown.

1 2

cm

3 cm 8

1 4

cm

9. In May 1992, General Motors Corporation offered one of the biggest commonstock issues in the United States, consisting of 5.5 107 shares with a total value of 2.15 109 dollars. What was the price per share for this stock offering? (Source: Guinness Book of Records. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.) 10. How many different 3-digit numbers can be made using the digits 2, 5, and 8 if the digits are not repeated? How many of those numbers are divisible by 2? By 3? By 5?

EXERCISE SET 3

57

Exercise Set 4

1. Round each number to the indicated decimal place. a. 8.932 to tenths b. 350.068 to hundredths c. 6,740.4958 to hundredths

2. In the following diagram, lines k and m are parallel, and quadrilaterals ABCD, DBCE, and EBCF are all parallelograms.

k A D E F

a. Which parallelogram has the greatest area? b. Which parallelogram has the greatest perimeter? 3. In 1996, Svetlana Masterkova of Russia set the current womens record for running 1 mile with a time of 4:12.56. The mens record was set in 1993 by Noureddine Morceli of Algeria with a time of 3:44.39. (Source: Guinness Book of Records. New York: Bantam Books, 1999.) a. Write these times out in words. b. Determine how much faster Noureddine was than Svetlana. 4. Consider the figure at the right. a. Find the area of the figure. b. Find the perimeter of the figure.

4 5 4 8 2 6

5. Apply what you know about grouping and order of operations to complete the following. a. Evaluate 5 + 2 9 1 + 12 3. b. Use three 8s and three 15s to make 13.

c. Use two 4s and two 2s to make 8. 6. Charlene withdrew $45.00 from her savings account. The new balance was $358.71. a. Let S represent the balance in Charlenes savings account before the withdrawal. Write an equation to represent the situation described above. b. Solve your equation from Part a and check your solution in the original problem.

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Exercise Set 4

7. What percent of each row in the figure below is shaded?

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4

8. Suppose you have recorded checks you have written and deposits that you have made in your checkbook for the last week as shown below, but you have not calculated the new balance after each entry. Use your estimation skills to determine whether you can write a $78.00 check to the school to pay for your class trip.

Item Check # 101 Deposit Check # 102 Check # 103 Check # 104 Deposit Check # 105 Check # 106

Debit $129.35

Credit

Balance $372.56

9. Find the range, mean, and median of the following set of numbers: 6.72, 5.803, 3.5, 7, 8.07. 10. Compare the ratios of salaries of various types of physicians to determine which medical specialty had the greatest comparative growth between 1988 and 1994. Mean Net Income for Physicians Medical Specialty Mean Net Income, 1988 $77,900 $102,000 $155,000 $76,200 $124,300 Mean Net Income, 1994 $121,200 $174,900 $255,200 $126,200 $200,400 Ratio of Mean Net Income, 1994 to 1988

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997.

EXERCISE SET 4

59

Exercise Set 5

1. The Willard estate is being divided equally among three sons, Adam, Buckley, and Charles. Each son keeps half of his share of the estate and divides the other half among his daughters. Adam has two daughters, Diana and Erin. Buckley has three daughters, Frances, Gail, and Heather. Charles has four daughters, Ingrid, Julia, Katherine, and Lillian. What fractional part of the Willard estate does each daughter receive? 2. The following diagram shows a picture and a frame around it. The frame on the picture is 1.5 centimeters wide. Find the a. area of the picture. b. area of the picture and the frame. c. total length of wood needed to make the frame. 3. Perform the indicated operations. 1 3 1 a. 2 4 6 5 1 1 c. 3 8 2

6 cm 4 cm

1 3 + 3 4 1 1 d. 3 + 6 2 4 b. 3

3 4 3 5 8

4. In a game for two players, each player spins one of the spinners pictured below. If the results on the two spinners match, Player 1 is the winner. Otherwise, Player 2 wins.

Player 1 Spinner 1 3 2 3 Player 2 Spinner 1

a. Does each player have an equal chance of winning? b. If the game is not fair, what unequal payoffs to each player would make it fair?

60

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 5

5. While shopping at the grocery store you remember that you only brought $15.00 and some coupons with you. Use your estimation skills to determine which of the following items you can buy. Assume that the items are listed in priority order. Item Chocolate Silk Ice Cream Chicken Broccoli Beans Butter Milk Ground Sirloin Rolls Laundry Detergent Price $4.49 $2.79 $0.99 $0.53 $2.89 $1.39 $2.29 $1.49 $2.39 Coupon 60 coupon

30 coupon

50 coupon 50 coupon

6. The table below shows the growth of the average annual cost of cable TV C from 1990 to 1997. Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Cost, C 87.90 94.41 101.18 108.23 108.33 121.82 133.25 142.42

Source: Nielsen Media Research.

a. Graph the data from the table on a coordinate grid with years on the horizontal axis and the average annual cost of cable TV on the vertical axis. b. Describe the trend you see. c. Predict the average annual cost of cable TV for the year 2000. 7. Express each fraction as a terminating or a repeating decimal. 1 5 13 5 a. b. c. d. 7 9 15 8

EXERCISE SET 5

61

Exercise Set 5

8. Use >, <, or = to indicate the relationship between the pairs of items in Columns A and B. A The largest prime factor of 56 The least common multiple of 3, 2, and 7 112 The number of prime factors of 302 B The largest prime factor of 38 The least common multiple of 3, 5, and 13 2 28 The number of prime factors of 462 Relationship

10. Consider the following list of high temperatures (F) for the first two weeks of October in a city in Maryland. 65, 72, 60, 64, 75, 59, 71, 63, 60, 67, 72, 85, 86, 63 a. Make a stem-and-leaf plot of the data. b. Find the mean high temperature for this time period. c. Find the median high temperature for this time period.

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 6

1. A store bought 40 gallons of milk at $1.10 per gallon and sold the milk at a 20% profit. How much per gallon did the store charge for the milk? 2. To water a rectangular patch of grass, a landscape company can install several different kinds of sprinkler systems.

D

A

8 meters

B

8 meters

25 meters

35 meters

What percent of the grass will be watered by each of the following plans? a. Two sprinkler heads with a watering radius of 8 meters, placed at points A and B b. Sprinkler heads with a watering radius of 15 meters, placed at points C and D 3. Diet-right cookies contain 4 grams of fat for a serving of 13 cookies. This is 6% of the recommended daily amount of fat. a. What is the number of grams of fat recommended daily? b. How many cookies could you eat before exceeding the recommended daily amount of fat? 4. The quality of service by different airlines is often compared using records of ontime arrivals for their flights. The following data show the number of minutes that flights between New York and Los Angeles for two airlines were early (negative numbers) or late (positive numbers) on a sample of dates. Airline 1: 5, 10, 0, 5, 5, 50, 4, 8, 15, 12

Airline 2: 0, 5, 8, 4, 0, 10, 6,

5, 15, 7

a. Which statistic (mean, median, range) would make Airline 1 look best? b. Which statistic would make Airline 2 look best? c. What single flight distorts the statistics comparing the two airlines and why?

EXERCISE SET 6

63

Exercise Set 6

5. Replace each __ with >, <, or = to make a true statement. 10 18 27 9 a. __ b. __ 12 32 48 11 3 4 8 19 c. __ d. __ 5 7 9 21 6. The highest road in the world is in China. It reaches an altitude of 18,480 feet above sea level. The lowest road in the world is along the Red Sea in Israel. It is 1,290 feet below sea level. What is the difference in altitude between the highest and lowest roads in the world? 7. The first four stages of a pattern representing triangular numbers are shown below.

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

a. Draw Stages 5 and 6 of the pattern. b. Make a table showing the number of circles in each stage of the pattern. c. Use the table to predict how many circles will be in Stage 10 of the pattern. Explain how you arrived at your prediction. 8. You want to fence a garden plot that you need to divide into three separate sections as shown. The two end sections are each 100 feet by 100 feet, and the center section is 40 feet by 100 feet. How far apart could you place the fence posts so that they will be equally spaced on every side? What is the greatest distance that you could have between the fence posts? Remember that you must place a post at the corners of each of the three sections. 9. Fill in each blank with the appropriate number. a. 35 cm = __________ m = __________ mm b. 0.5 ft = __________ in. = __________ yd c. 1500 minutes = __________ hours = __________ days 10. A satellite travels around the Earth once every 90 minutes. How many times does it circle the Earth in one day?

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Exercise Set 7

1. You can represent multiplication of simple fractions by arrays. This array represents 3 2 2 3 4 7 . Draw an array to represent 3 5 and give the product.

2. Solve each of the following equations for x and check your solutions. x+2 a. 2x 3 = 7 b. =5 c. 3(x + 1) = 21 3 3. If the temperature drops 15F between 6 P.M. and midnight and the temperature at midnight is 62F, what was the temperature at 6 P.M.? 4. Order each set of numbers from smallest to largest. a. 4.037, 4.04, 4.13, 4.007, 4.105 3 5 1 1 2 b. , , , , 4 8 2 3 5 c. 3, 4, 0, 5, 4.2, 3.7 5. Suppose you want to tile the top of a table that is 30 inches by 18 inches. What is the largest square tile you could use if you want to use only whole tiles? 6. Suppose you are told that a bag contains 100 marbles, some red and some blue. You are to pick a marble from the bag, observe its color, and replace it in the bag. You then repeat this experiment for a total of 60 draws. a. If your experimentation produces 15 red and 45 blue marbles, what estimates about the number of each color marble in the whole bag would make most sense? b. If the bag actually contains 40 blue and 60 red marbles, how many red and blue marbles would you expect in your 60 draws? 7. Sketch and give dimensions of figures with these properties: a. A rectangle with an area of 12 square meters and a perimeter of 16 meters b. A right triangle with an area of 12 square meters c. A circle with a circumference of 10 meters 8. In constructing a circle graph, you know that a certain sector should be 6 1 % of a 2 circle. How large an angle should you measure for this sector?

EXERCISE SET 7

65

Exercise Set 7

9. The following table gives rankings for National League baseball teams in team batting and team pitching for the 1998 season. Team Colorado Houston San Francisco Atlanta Chicago Philadelphia Cincinnati Milwaukee New York St. Louis Pittsburgh San Diego Los Angeles Montreal Florida Arizona Bat Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Pitch Rank 15 2 7 1 11 14 10 12 4 8 6 3 5 8 16 13

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1999. Copyright 1998 World Almanac Education Group. All rights reserved.

a. Construct a scatterplot of these data pairs and explain what the resulting pattern of points says about the relation between the teams batting and pitching. b. Draw the line y = x on the scatterplot and explain the relationship between the teams batting and pitching shown by points above, on, and below that line. 10. A stock had the following changes in one week: 1 3 , 116 , 13 , 2, 1 . If the 4 16 2 price of the stock was $23 1 at the beginning of the week, then what was the price 8 at the end of the week?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 8

1. A submarine, starting out at sea level, dove 42 feet, then came up 15 feet, and then dove 23 feet. Where is it relative to sea level? 2. The following table shows winning speeds in the Daytona 500 stock car race at fiveyear intervals from 1960 to 1995. Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Speed 124.7 141.5 149.6 153.6 177.6 172.2 165.8 141.7

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1999. Copyright 1998 World Almanac Education Group. All rights reserved.

a. Construct a plot-over-time for these data. b. Write a short statement describing the trend in winning speeds and explain how the graph supports your statement. 3. Suppose you are preparing a newsletter for printing that is to have 1 1 -inch margins at the top and bottom, 3 -inch 2 4 margins at the right and left sides, and 3 columns with 1 4 inch between the columns. How wide will each of your columns be if the paper used for printing measures 8 1 by 11 inches? How long will each column be? 2 4. Solve each proportion. x 18 a. = 8 48 10 25 b. = 4 a 7 y c. = 16 4.8

EXERCISE SET 8

67

Exercise Set 8

5. Choose the correct angle measure for each angle below. a. b.

30 60 90 c. d.

50 80 100

90 120 150

5 20 45

6. Suppose you have $80.00 and wish to buy movie tickets that cost $6.50 each. How many tickets can you buy? 7. Evaluate each expression. a. 3 c. 3 2 (7 3(4 10) 6) b. ( 6)(7) d. ( 2)2 2(4 22 9 12)

8. Mr. Smith gets paid every 6 days, and Mrs. Smith gets paid every 15 days. If they both get paid today, how long will it be before they get paid again on the same day? 9. Solve each of the following for x and graph the solution(s) on a number line. a. 3x b. 10 5 c. x 6 5 = 2x 3x 28 13 > 3 9

10. If a man made 39 putts in his last 18 holes of golf, what is his average number of putts per hole? If he used 117 strokes for those 18 holes, what percent of his average number of strokes per hole were putts?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 9

1. Mrs. Ames had the following transactions in her checking account one week. She deposited $239, and wrote checks for $62, $78, and $250. If she started with $725, how much money did she have in her account at the end of the week? 2. Time zones are determined by lines of longitude. The table below gives time zones for certain cities. Traveling east from 0 you set your clock forward; traveling west, you set your clock back. City Montreal London Rome Hong Kong Time Difference 5 0 +1 +8

a. If it is 6 A.M. in Rome, what time is it in Montreal? b. If you are in Montreal and it is 2 P.M., what time is it in Hong Kong? 3. If you bought twelve 2-liter bottles of soda for a party and your glasses hold liter, how many glasses of soda will you be able to serve at your party? 4. Consider the two spinners pictured below.

Spinner 1 1 2 Spinner 2 1

1 8

of a

Suppose you spin both spinners and find the sum of the two numbers. a. Find the probability that the sum is 2. b. Find the probability that the sum is 4. c. If you repeated this process 60 times, approximately how many times would you expect to get a sum of 5?

EXERCISE SET 9

69

Exercise Set 9

5. The exchange rate from francs to American dollars is 6.3371 francs for each American dollar. You want to buy a souvenir that costs 8.5 francs. How much would it cost in American dollars? 6. Earths orbit around the sun is very close to a circle with a radius of 93-million miles. a. What is the total distance traveled by the Earth in a year? b. What is the average speed of the Earth in miles per day and in miles per hour along its orbit around the sun? 7. Write each decimal as a fraction. a. 0.14 b. 2.6 c. 0.3 d. 0.23 8. In figuring nine-week grades, a social studies teacher wants homework to count for 20%, quizzes to count for 20%, class participation to count for 20%, and exams to count for 40% of the grade. a. What average would a student get if her scores in those categories were 80, 70, 90, and 75 respectively? b. If a student had a homework score of 90, a quiz score of 80, and an exam score of 80, what class participation score will give a nine-week average of at least 80? 9. Draw a figure that meets each description. a. Has line symmetry but not turn symmetry b. Has turn symmetry but not line symmetry 10. Bill ran into a friend when visiting his mother in a nursing home. Bill only comes to the home every 45 days. His friend Charlie said he only comes every 50 days. They wondered why they had never met before. How many days will it be before they meet again?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 10

1. Rewrite the following numbers as percents. a. 0.25 b. 0.004 c. 2.8 d. 1 1 2 e. 3 5

2. There are 5 blue marbles, 3 yellow marbles, and 2 green marbles in a bag. Suppose you picked a marble, noted the color, and returned the marble to the bag 60 times. Estimate the number of times you would expect to pick: a. A blue marble b. A yellow marble c. A blue or green marble 3. It takes the planet Saturn about 30 years to rotate around the sun. The planet Neptune requires 165 years. Once they line up, how many years will go by before they line up again? 4. A person on a diet lost the following weights in pounds during the first six weeks of his diet program: 2 1 , 3, 4 1 , 1 1 , 2 1 , and 3 1 . If he weighed 183 pounds at the start 2 4 2 2 2 of the diet, how much did he weigh after six weeks? 5. Find the perimeter and area of the right triangle shown below.

6.5 cm 2.5 cm

6. Order each of the following sets of numbers from least to greatest. a. 0.63, 0.6, 0.067, 0.63, 0.066 5 12 b. 2.3, , 1, , 2 2 5 c. 1.035, 1.47, 0.99, 1.047, 1.009 7. A weather forecaster kept track of the temperature over a six-hour period of time. At the beginning of the period, the temperature was 9.5F. It then rose 4.1F, dropped 1.8F, dropped 2.3F, rose 2.2F, rose 7.3F, and then dropped 0.8F. What was the temperature at the end of the six hours? 8. Suppose a 2-liter bottle of cola that costs $0.95 in America sells for $23.09 in Russia. At this rate, what would an item that costs $1.00 in America sell for in Russia?

EXERCISE SET 10

71

Exercise Set 10

9. The following data show results from national mathematics tests of eighth grade students in 1996 and money spent per student in the same year in a sample of states. State AL AZ DE IN ME MI NM SC WA WI Percent Math Proficient 45 57 55 68 77 67 51 48 67 75 Cost per Student in $100 47 49 73 60 65 72 46 51 60 71

Source: The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1999. Copyright 1998 World Almanac Education Group. All rights reserved.

a. Which of the following data plots might provide the most useful picture of the relation between test scores and expenditures for schools? (i) histogram (ii) box plot (iv) stem-and-leaf plot (vi) bar graph

b. Construct the graphic display of your choice in Part a and write a brief summary explaining what the display shows about the relation of the two variables. 10. Consider all numbers x such that 0 x 10. a. List all integers in this range. 1 b. For what numbers is 1? x c. For what integers in this range is x2 < 10? d. List all prime numbers in this range.

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 11

1. The first 4 stages of a pattern are shown below:

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

a. Make a table showing the number of square tiles used for each of the first eight stages of the pattern. b. Write an equation using NOW and NEXT that describes the number of tiles in one stage given the number of tiles in the previous stage. c. Use your NOW-NEXT equation to predict the number of square tiles needed at Stage 10. d. Write an expression for the number of square tiles used at the nth stage of the pattern. e. Use your expression in Part d to check the number of square tiles that will be used in Stage 10. Compare your answer to that obtained in Part c. 2. Simplify: a. |3 | 5| 68 |

b. 60 c. | d. |

18 + 3 | 8| 2|3|

3. The greatest common factor (GCF) of two numbers is 14 and one of the numbers is 56. What is the smallest possible number the other number could be if it is greater than 20? 4. In a golf tournament, the top ten finishers had scores of 5, 4, 1, 0, 3, 3, 1, 2, 1, 3. a. Order the scores from lowest to highest. b. What was the difference between the lowest and highest scores?

EXERCISE SET 11

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Exercise Set 11

5. Write the following numbers using scientific notation. a. 6,800,000,000 b. 248,000 c. 0.045 d. 0.000389 6. If you have a roll of wrapping paper that contains 40 square feet of paper and it is 2 1 feet wide, how long is the roll of paper? 2 7. Draw a figure that has exactly two lines of symmetry. a. What relationship do you notice between the lines of symmetry? b. What else must be true about the figure? 8. A rug normally costs $1,850 but is now on sale for $1,099. What is the percent markdown for the rug? 9. If a punch is made by mixing 4 liters of orange juice, 3 liters of grapefruit juice, and 2 liters of ginger ale, what percent of the punch is not juice? 10. A bag contains 4 red marbles and 2 white marbles. Without looking into the bag, one marble is pulled out. The color is noted, and then another marble is pulled out in the same way. Determine the probabilities that: a. A red marble is drawn first. b. A white marble is drawn first. c. A white marble will be followed by a red marble. d. Both marbles will be the same color. e. The two marbles will be of different color.

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 12

1. Find the perimeter and area of each figure below. a.

13 m 12 m 12 in.

b.

8 in. 3 in.

c.

6 cm 10 cm

d.

8 ft 8 ft 8 ft

c. ( 2)( 22)( 5)

3. In July 1969, the first moonwalk was made by Apollo 11 astronauts. Approximately 600 million people watched this event on TV. If this was about 1 of the worlds 5 population at the time, determine the world population in 1969. (Source: Guinness, 1999.) 4. Solve each of the following for n. a. 3n + 14 = 2 c. 3n + 4 < 1 n b. 2(5n 1) = 7(n + 1) 4 n d. +59 2

5. For each calculation, first estimate the answer by rounding the numbers to the nearest integer; second, determine the actual answer (to four decimal places); then, determine the difference between your two answers as a percent of the answer. What observations can you make about estimating? Problem a. b. c. d. 7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3 7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3 (7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3)3 4.2(7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3) Estimated Answer Answer % Error

EXERCISE SET 12

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Exercise Set 12

6. On the first five quizzes of a marking period, a student has a mean of 6 on a scale of 0 to 10. Find the students new mean quiz score if, on the next 10-point quiz, the student earned a. A score of 10 b. A score of 6 c. A score of 4 7. In 1990, the United States population over 65 years of age was 31.2 million, which was 12.6% of the total U.S. population. What was the total U.S. population in 1990? 8. Use proportions to answer each of the following questions. a. How many grams of protein are contained in 320 g of tuna if 85 g of tuna contain 24 g of protein? b. Joe exchanges 50 U.S. dollars for 70 Canadian dollars. How many Canadian dollars should he receive for 135 U.S. dollars? c. One yard is equivalent to 36 inches. How many yards are there in 207 inches? d. Jasmine used 2 1 cups of rice to serve 8 people. How much rice will she need to 4 serve 30 people? e. If 8 ounces is equal to 240 milliliters, how many ounces are in one liter? 9. Think about the meaning of percent as you answer the following questions. a. What is 25% of 40? b. 50% of what number is 80? c. 60 is what percent of 180? d. What is 10% of 20% of 500? e. 150 is what percent of 75? f. What is 0.5% of 50? 10. Every twentieth person in line for concert tickets was to be given a poster, and every fiftieth person was to be given a CD. What person in line would be the first to get both a poster and a CD?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 13

1. A legend on a map indicates that 2 inches is equal to 12 miles. How many miles is it from Baltimore, Maryland, to Washington, D.C., if the two cities are 6 1 inches 3 apart on the map? 2. The number of visitors V to a swimming pool varies with the days high temperature in degrees Fahrenheit T according to the following equation: V = 150 + 25(T 80).

If 500 people visit the pool one day, what would you predict was that days high temperature? 3. Order each set of numbers from least to greatest. a. 8, b. 3, 11, 1, 15, 0 3.2

4. The graph below shows the distance from home as time passed during a walk to a nearby store and back home.

Distance from Home

III II I Time

IV

a. Write the segments of the trip so the walking rates are in ascending order. b. Indicate the time of arrival at the store on a sketch of the graph. 5. For the numbers 680 and 1,000, find the a. prime factorization. b. greatest common factor (GCF). c. least common multiple (LCM).

EXERCISE SET 13

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Exercise Set 13

6. The following data show average class sizes in a sample of 10 states. State AL AZ DE IN ME MI NM SC WA WI Average Class Size 16.6 19.7 16.6 17.3 13.7 19.1 16.7 15.7 20.2 16.1

a. Calculate the mean and median class size of the sample. b. Calculate the mean absolute deviation (MAD) of class size in the sample and explain what that statistic tells about average class size that the measures of center dont reveal. 7. Nancy is in charge of feeding 75 volunteers who are working on a Habitat for Humanity project in Georgia. The following recipe serves 50. How much of each ingredient will she need so that she can make enough spaghetti for all of the workers?

Spaghetti for Fifty 10 pounds ground beef

1 2 1 2

cup shortening

cup flour

1 3

1 2

cup salt

3 tablespoons pepper 32 ounces each tomato paste, tomato sauce 3 tablespoons each oregano, basil, and thyme

78

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 13

8. Solve each of the following problems. a. What is 20% of 135? c. 5 is 30% of what number? 9. The following diagram shows a soccer field enclosed by a running track. The track is 6 meters wide with several lanes for runners.

112 m 56 m

a. If a runner keeps close to the inside of the track (averaging 0.5 meters off the inside edge), how far will she run in 1 lap? b. If a different runner is in the outside lane (averaging 5.5 meters off the inside edge), how far will she run in 1 lap? c. How much will it cost to lay sod over the entire infield region if sod costs $1.25 per square meter? 10. The carton pictured below has dimensions as shown.

6 cm 9 cm 6 cm

a. What length of tape would be required to tape along each edge of the carton? b. How much wrapping paper, in square centimeters, would be needed to wrap the carton? c. If the carton is to hold smaller cubical boxes that are each 3 centimeters on an edge, how many of those smaller boxes will the carton hold?

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EXERCISE SET 13

Exercise Set 14

1. The figure at the right shows a pentagon with two diagonals drawn. Find the sum of the five interior angles of the pentagon, and explain how you know your answer is correct.

E D A B

2. The figure below shows the outline of a school that is in the shape of an H and has both horizontal and vertical line symmetry.

50 feet 35 feet 100 feet 50 feet

a. What is the area of the floor of the school? b. What is the perimeter of the schools exterior wall? 3. Where should parentheses be placed so that when you evaluate the expression 6 3 5 2 6 + 5, the answer is 9.5? 4. Rank the following creatures from smallest to largest in terms of weight. Creature Largest cockroach: Macropanesthia rhinoceros Smallest mammal: Bumblebee bat Smallest bird: Male bee hummingbird Smallest non-flying mammal: Savis white tooth pygmy shrew Weight 1 1 ounces 4 0.65 ounces 0.056 ounces 0.52 ounces Rank

80

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 14

5. The golden ratio is approximately 1.618. This ratio is found in many places and is used by many artists and architects. If an artist draws a person correctly, the ratio of the distance from the top of the head to the navel compared to the distance from the navel to the feet should be equal to the golden ratio. How tall would a statue be if the artist made the distance from the navel up to the top of the head 6.8 feet? 6. The following table shows program formats of U.S. radio stations in 1998. Station Format Country Adult Contemporary News, Talk, Sports Religion Rock Oldies and Classic Hits Spanish and Ethnic Adult Standards Urban, Black Top 40 Other Number 2,393 1,562 1,356 1,075 782 975 565 563 347 379 383

a. Calculate the percent of stations in each format category. b. Construct a bar graph showing the share held by each category. c. On a circle graph, what would the degree measure be for the sector corresponding to Country music? For the sector corresponding to Rock? d. Explain why the share of radio stations with each format might not match the share of the listening audience by each format.

EXERCISE SET 14

81

Exercise Set 14

7. Draw shapes to match each description below. Indicate lengths when necessary. a. A triangle with two acute angles b. A parallelogram with equal length diagonals c. A trapezoid with a height of 2 inches d. A circle with a circumference of 16 cm e. A rectangle with an area of 14 square units f. A square with an area of 81 square units 8. What fractional part of this design is shaded?

9. The sketch below shows a cylindrical oil storage tank with a diameter of 50 feet and a height of 20 feet.

50 ft

20 ft

a. How long is each of the reinforcing bands around the tank? b. What is the surface area of the tankthe vertical wall and the circular bases? c. What is the volume of the tank? d. One cubic foot is equivalent to about 7.5 gallons. What is the capacity of the oil tank in gallons? 10. Suppose during a 25% off sale you paid $84 for a jacket before tax. What was the original price of the jacket?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 15

1. The ratio of a mans height to the length of his foot is about 7. A short teenage boy, whose feet have stopped growing, has a foot that is 10 1 inches long. How tall can 2 he hope to grow by the time he reaches his adult height? 2. Find the area of the shaded part of each diagram below. a.

5 15 5 10

b.

6

10 5 15 5

3. Frances Redmond has the longest fingernails in the United States. In the last 12 years, they have grown to be 17.25 inches long. The longest fingernails in the world belong to an Indian, Shridhar Chillal. His nails have not been cut since 1952, and in 1997 the longest one was 48 inches. Determine the difference in fingernail growth rate between the American and the Indian. (Source: Guinness Book of Records. New York: Bantam Books, 1999.) 4. The following back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot gives ratings by two different judges in an ice skating contest. Possible scores range from 0 to 6.0. Judge 1 Judge 2 3 4 66 789 554 4 23 9866 7788 54332 5 3445 9987 679 0 6 00 a. Calculate the summary statistics needed to construct box plots of the same data and draw those plots. b. Calculate the mean and the mean absolute deviation (MAD) for each judges scores. c. Based on the various summary statistics youve calculated and the box plots youve drawn, what conclusion would you reach on the question of whether the two judges give similar or different ratings overall to a group of skaters? d. What data and plot would be helpful in determining whether the two judges give similar ratings to individual skaters? 5. Suppose during a 20% off sale you buy a pair of slacks that usually costs $79. If sales tax is 5%, how much should you pay for the slacks?

83

EXERCISE SET 15

Exercise Set 15

6. Complete the table for regular polygons. Regular Polygon Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Octagon n-gon # of Lines of Symmetry Smallest Angle of Turn Symmetry # of Sides 3 4 5 6 8 n

8. The school Booster Club is planning to sell state championship T-shirts. They expect the following expenses and income. Expenses: Income: $50 art-screen fee, $5.75 per shirt $10 per shirt

a. Write an expression for the cost of n shirts. b. Write an expression for the income earned from the sale of n shirts. c. Write two equivalent expressions for the profit earned from the sale of n shirts. d. What is the minimum number of shirts that must be sold in order not to lose money? 9. The standard dimensions of high school basketball courts are 84 feet long by 50 feet wide. For a college court, the standard dimensions are 94 feet long by 50 feet wide. a. What is the difference in area of standard college and high school courts? b. What is the difference in perimeter of standard college and high school courts? 10. Sketch a graph of each line. a. y = d. y = 2x + 5 x 3 3 x 2 4 2 e. y = x 3 b. y = c. y = x + 1 f. y = 3

84

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 16

1. Suppose a frog is down in a well that is 100 feet deep. If the frog is able to leap up 9 feet but slips back 3 feet on every jump, how many jumps will it take the frog to get out of the well? 2. What are the perimeter and area of this parallelogram? Find at least two ways to make each calculation.

2 cm 3 cm 4 cm 3.6 cm

a. Which of the graphs contain an Euler circuit? Explain your answer. b. Of the graphs that do not contain an Euler circuit, which contain an Euler path? Explain your reasoning. 5. Solve each linear equation. a. 3x d. 12 = 24 8) = 3(4 b. 6x 17 = 20 9 9x c. 10 (5 2x) = 7 1 5 f. x 2 = x 10 2 2

4(2x

x) e. x = 2x

7. Suppose the scores on a 100-point test for a class of 20 students have mean 75%, median 80%, and range 40 (from 55% to 95%). How will the mean, median, and range change (if at all) if the teacher: a. Increases each student score by 5 points? b. Divides each score by 10?

EXERCISE SET 16

85

Exercise Set 16

8. Very large and very small numbers are often written in scientific notation to make calculations easier. Give the scientific notation form for the numbers in the table. Significance a. b. c. d. Population of the world in 1998 The U.S. national debt in 1998 Net worth of richest American, Bill Gates Number of page views per day to Yahoo!, the most popular web site 1 cm expressed in miles 1 foot expressed in miles Number 5,930,000,000,000 $5,543,600,000,000 $39,800,000,000 95,000,000 Scientific Notation

e. f.

0.000006214 0.0001894

Source: 1999 New York Times Almanac. New York: Penguin Reference, 1998.

9. A standard basketball hoop has an inside diameter of 18 inches. A standard basketball has a circumference of 30 inches. a. What is the circumference of a standard basketball hoop? b. If a standard basketball drops straight down through the center of the basket, how much clearance will there be between the ball and the basket hoop? 10. Complete the chart by filling in the missing fractions, decimals, and percents. Fraction a. b. c. d. e.

5 8

Percent

1 6 13 20

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 17

1. Write each fraction as an equivalent fraction in simplified form. 16 25 52 120 a. b. c. d. 64 40 26 720 2. A trapezoid is used to create a tile pattern as shown at the right. Describe the transformations that will map the shaded figure onto each of the positions 1 4.

3 4 1 2

3. Write each set of numbers in order from least to greatest. 1 4 7 a. 1 , 25%, , 0.63, 1.2 b. 82.5%, , 0.88, 1.80 7 5 9 4. Andreas parents have rented a suite at a Phoenix Mercury basketball game for her birthday party. The suite cost $180 to rent. In addition they must buy $12 tickets to the game for each person. Write and solve equations or inequalities to answer the following questions. a. How much will it cost for 8 people to be at the party? b. If Andreas parents paid $240, how many people were at the party? c. How many people can be at the party if the cost must be less than $320? 5. In a store giftwrap department, one of the standard boxes is 12 inches by 15 inches by 8 inches high. a. Ribbon to wrap such a box must goaround the box as pictured in the sketch with 20 inches extra to make a fancy bow. How many inches of ribbon will be required? b. Approximately how much wrapping paper is needed to wrap the box? 6. Two families rented a boat for $275 a week. One family used it for 3 days, and the other family used it the remaining 4 days. How much should each family pay? 7. Perform the indicated calculations. a. ( 3) ( 21) b. 14 11 32 c. ( 6)( 12) f. 18( 3) + ( 4) ( 2)

d. ( 4)( 7)(5)

e. ( 56) 4

EXERCISE SET 17

87

Exercise Set 17

8. The following table shows the distribution of beach debris, collected in an annual U.S. coastal cleanup. Paper and Paperboard Rubber Plastic Metal Glass Wood Cloth

Source: USA Today. 1992.

a. What type of graph would best display these data: line plot, stem-and-leaf plot, bar graph, histogram, circle graph, or box plot? Explain your reasoning. b. Display the data by making a graph of the type you recommended in Part a. 9. Solve each of the following problems. a. Jim has saved $620. How much money will he have after he buys a basketball for $25 and receives his two-week paycheck for $195? b. River Hill High School had a dance to raise money for band uniforms. They sold 300 tickets at $5 each. They hired three security guards at a cost of $65 each and two custodians at $75 each. How much money did they raise? c. Last year Jack saved 15% of his salary. If his salary was $29,900, how much money did he save? 10. The tiling pattern at the right consists of large and small squares. The large tiles in the arrangement are 30 cm by 30 cm, and the small tiles are 18 cm by 18 cm. Using the arrangement shown, what is the shortest length of a strip so that the right-hand end of the tiles match up?

88

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 18

1. Evaluate each expression. a. | 41 | c. | 12 | 2( 3) b. | d. 6 f. 6| 3 2 + 7(1 6(3) 2(9 8) 20)

e. ( 4)2 + 42

2. For each table below, determine whether the pattern of change is linear, exponential, or neither. If the pattern is linear or exponential, write a NOW-NEXT equation describing the pattern. a. x y 0 7 1 4 2 1 3 2 4 5

b.

x y

0 1

1 5

2 25

3 125

4 625

c.

x y

0 4

1 5

2 7

3 10

4 14

d.

x y

0 6

1 12

2 24

3 48

4 96

3. Temperature can be roughly determined by the number of times a particular species of cricket chirps per minute. At 72 Fahrenheit, one species of cricket chirps about 140 times per minute and at 80 about 172 times per minute. If this is a linear relationship, estimate the temperature when a cricket chirps 180 times a minute? 4. International Falls, Minnesota, is often the coldest spot in the lower 48 states during the winter season. During one week in January, the low temperatures in Fahrenheit were: 5, 15, 20, 35, 4, 6, and 10. a. What was the mean low temperature for that week? b. What was the range of low temperatures for that week? c. What was the median of the low temperatures for that week?

EXERCISE SET 18

89

Exercise Set 18

5. Indicate whether each inequality is true or false. a. 7> 9 3 7 d. < 5 10 b. 8 < 10 9 12 e. > 4 7 c. f. 12 > 2.16 < 4 2.75

6. One serving of Special G cereal contains 9% of the recommended daily allowance of sodium. If one serving contains 220 milligrams of sodium, what is the recommended daily allowance of sodium? 7. Box kites like the one shown below utilize spreaders (rods that form Xs inside the kite) to keep the kite open. a. If each edge along the base of the kite measures 18 inches, how long should each spreader rod be? b. The fabric on the kite shown is 6 inches wide. How long a strip of fabric is needed to make this kite? 8. An 18-ounce box of breakfast cereal has dimensions: 3 inches by 8 inches by 12 inches. a. What are the dimensions of the various faces of this box? b. What is the total surface area of the box? c. What is the volume of the box? 9. Examine the digraph for a project shown below.

A 1

Start

D 4

Finish

S 0

B 5

G 2

F 0

C 3

E 3

a. Find the length of all paths from S to F. b. Find the critical path and the earliest finish time for the project. 10. A store ran an advertisement during a sale that read Buy one CD and get a second CD for half price. If you paid $21.75 for two CDs during the sale, what was the regular price of a CD?

90

M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 19

1. Which is the better buy, a box of cookies that weighs 125 grams for $2.39 or a box that weighs 200 grams for $3.79? 2. Cindy is investigating how fast a particular bee population will grow under controlled conditions. She began her experiment with 2 bees. The next month she counted 10 bees. a. If the bee population is growing linearly, how many bees can Cindy expect to find after 2, 3, and 4 months? b. If the bee population is growing exponentially, how many bees can Cindy expect to find after 2, 3, and 4 months? c. Write an equation for the number of bees B after m months assuming linear growth. Write another equation assuming exponential growth. d. How many months will it take for the number of bees to reach 200 assuming linear growth? Assuming exponential growth? 3. Estimate each of the following to the closest integer. a. d. 102 15 b. e. 87 4+ 10 c. 139

c. 257 + 2x

d. 3(15x + 2) = 25x + 16

5. If it takes 5 seconds for the sound of thunder to travel one mile, how long does it take the sound of thunder to travel 1 of a mile? 4 6. The thinnest glass has a minimum thickness of 0.000984 inches and a maximum thickness of 0.00137 inches. It is made in Germany and used in electronic and medical equipment. (Source: Guinness Book of Records. New York: Bantam Books, 1993.) a. Rewrite these values in scientific notation. b. The thicker measurement is what percent of the thinner? 7. If a team won 6 out of 9 games in December, then won 4 games and lost 7 games during the rest of the season, what percent of their games did they win during the season?

EXERCISE SET 19

91

Exercise Set 19

8. Write a NOW-NEXT equation and a y = equation to match each graph below. a.

y

8 4 8 4 4 8 4 8

b.

y

8 4

4 4 8

c.

y

8 4 8 4 4 8 4 8

d.

8 4

4 4 8

9. To compare gasoline prices in two neighboring states, students in a CMIC class collected data from 10 service stations in each state. The costs per gallon (in dollars) for regular unleaded gasoline were: State 1: 1.179, 1.139, 1.089, 1.219, 1.149, 1.039, 1.129, 1.169, 1.099, 1.159 State 2: 1.089, 1.069, 1.099, 1.229, 1.159, 1.129, 1.119, 1.089, 1.389, 1.299 a. What are the mean and median prices in the sample of stations from each state? b. What is the range of prices in each state? c. One group of students claimed that it would be easier and just as accurate to deal only with data in the form 17, 13, 8, 21, 14, and so on. Could you take the mean, median, and range from their calculations and easily find the exact values for the actual data? If so how? If not, why not? d. Which state seems to have the lower gasoline prices, and what data summaries best support your conclusion? 10. Evaluate each expression 4 3 a. 3 9 4 1 1 7 d. 2 4 2 8

b. 3 e. 2 3

4 9

4 9 1 4 5 6

1 2

3 5 3 f. 4 c.

5 4 1 2

1 4

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 20

1. Write an inequality to represent each of the following situations. a. The number of people who attended the 1999 Womens World Cup Soccer final in Pasadena, California. (More than 80,000 people attended, breaking a record for attendance at any womens sporting event anywhere in the world.) b. The age of voting United States citizens. (United States citizens who are at least 18 years of age may vote.) c. The weight of riders on a waterslide at Rainbow Falls at Six Flags America has a maximum weight limit of 250 pounds. 2. Determine the percent decrease in drug use for teens from 1985 to 1995. Drug Use Decline: Percent of 12-to 17-Year-Olds Who Have Used Drugs Type Alcohol Cigarettes 1985 56.1% 50.7% 1995 40.6% 38.1% Percent Decrease

Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1997. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997.

3. Judy and George own a peanut company. They ship cans of peanuts all over the country. If the cans are 3 inches high and have a diameter of 3 inches, give the dimensions of boxes that could hold exactly 48 cans of peanuts. Explain which box you think would be best to use and why. 4. Dr. Messenger records his odometer reading and the amount of gas he puts in the car every time he fills up at the service station. He does this so that he can check for changes in gas mileage that might indicate that his car has a problem. Some entries are shown below. Estimate the gas mileage for these fill-ups. Date 4/21/99 5/4/99 5/24/99 6/6/99 6/14/99 Odometer Fuel Added Gas Mileage Reading 74,780 12.782 75,044 13.326 75,317 13.016 75,482 9.116 75,709 10.812

EXERCISE SET 20

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Exercise Set 20

5. Suppose that a spinner with three equalsize sectors is spun and a fair coin is flipped in a game of chance. What are the probabilities of these outcomes? a. 1 on the spinner and heads on the coin b. Odd number on the spinner and tails on the coin c. Even number on the spinner d. Even number on the spinner and tails on the coin 6. Solve each proportion. x 3 a. = 12 10 2.3 x c. = 1.4 4.2

3 1 2

15 9 = y 12 x 2 x d. = 2 4 b.

7. The longest space flight lasted 437 days, 17 hours, 58 minutes, and 16 seconds. It was made by a Russian doctor, Valeriy Poliyakov, on the Mir 1 space station during 1994 and 1995. Express the length of the space flight in days as a decimal rounded to 4 decimal places. 8. The standard box for 3 golf balls is like that pictured below. Each ball has a diameter of 1.75 inches. Find the dimensions of the box.

Side View of Box 9. Suppose you want to use 1 -inch grid paper to make a scale drawing of a room that 4 is 14 feet by 16 feet. You decide that each 1 inch should represent 1 foot. What are 4 2 the dimensions of your drawing?

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M A I N TA I N I N G C O N C E P T S A N D S K I L L S

Exercise Set 20

10. The following table gives the percent of eighth grade students judged proficient in 1996 national tests of mathematics and science. Data are from a random sample of 19 states. State AL AK AZ CT DE HI IN LA ME MD MI MO NM NY SC UT WA WV WI Percent Math Proficient 45 68 57 70 55 51 68 38 77 57 67 64 51 61 48 70 67 54 75 Percent Science Proficient 18 31 23 36 21 15 30 13 41 25 32 28 19 27 17 32 27 21 39

a. Construct back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots of the mathematics and science scores. b. Draw box plots for these data. c. Write a brief argument supporting your conclusion about the subject which United States students seem to know bettermathematics or science.

EXERCISE SET 20

95

96

Because you work closely with your classmates and teachers on a daily basis, they have a good idea of what you know and are able to do with respect to the mathematics that you are studying this year. However, your school district or state department of education may ask you to take tests that they use to measure the achievement of all students, classes, or schools in the district or state. External standardized tests usually contain questions in formats that can easily be scored to produce simple percent-correct ratings of your knowledge. If you want to perform well on such tests, it helps to have some practice with test items in a multiple-choice format. The following 10 sets of multiple-choice tasks have been designed to give you that kind of practice and to offer some strategic advice in working on such items. You will find helpful Test Taking Tips at the end of each of the practice sets.

P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R I Z E D T E S T S

97

Practice Set 1

1. If N is an odd integer, which of the following numbers is also an odd integer? (a) N (d) N N 1 (b) N + N (e) N + 5 (c) 3N 1

2. A T-shirt sells for $18 in a retail store. If this price is 120% of the wholesale price, what is the wholesale price? (a) $14.40 (d) $16.20 (b) $15.00 (e) $21.60 (c) $16.00

3. Which of the following figures is the result of a half-turn about point T of the figure below?

(a)

T

(b)

T

(c)

T

(d)

T

(e)

T

4. Jenny needs to pack 50 bagels in bags that hold 6 bagels each. What is the smallest number of bags Jenny will need to pack all the bagels? (a) 7 (d) 10 (b) 8 (e) 11 (c) 9

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 1

5. In a quadrilateral, two of the angles have a measure of 90 each. The measure of a third angle is 100. What is the measure of the remaining angle? (a) 70 (d) 190 (b) 80 (e) 280 (c) 170

6. Each of six faces of a cube is painted either red or white. When the cube is tossed, the probability of the cube landing with a white face up is 1 . How many faces are 3 white? (a) 1 (d) 4 (b) 2 (e) 5 (c) 3

7. If a > 0 and b < 0, which of the following must be negative? a II. III. a I. ab b (a) I only (b) II only (c) III only (e) All of them (d) I and II

8. Jane bought some peppermint patties. She gave half of them to her brother and then a third of those left to her sister. Now she has 6. How many peppermint patties did she buy? (a) 18 (d) 36 (b) 24 (e) 42 (c) 30

9. AB, CE, and DE intersect at point E and the measure of AEC is 90. The measure of BED is twice as much as the measure of CED. What is the measure of CED? (a) 15 (b) 22.5 (c) 30 (d) 45 (e) 60

B E D C A

PRACTICE SET 1

99

Practice Set 1

10. Which fraction has the greatest value? 5 5 (a) (b) 17 15 5 5 (d) (e) 9 11 (c) 5 13

Test general properties of numbers by using specific numbers. Example Look back at Item 1 on page 98. To use this strategy, choose a specific odd number such as 3 to substitute for N in each of the listed expressions. For choice (a): 3 For choice (c): 3(3) 3 = 9. 9 is an odd integer. 1 = 8. 8 is not an odd integer. For choice (b): 3 + 3 = 6. 6 is not an odd integer. Explain why choices (d) and (e) are not correct choices. So, the answer is (a).

Find, if possible, another test item in the practice set for which this strategy might be helpful. Try it. Keep this strategy in mind as you work on future practice sets.

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 2

1. What is the product of the values of the digit 2 in 13.265 and in 0.312? 4 4 (a) 4 (b) (c) 10 100 4 4 (d) (e) 1,000 10,000 2. 2 39 is not equal to (30 + 9) (40 1)

3. A librarian recorded that 10 students checked out books on Monday. Her records show the number of books each student checked out as follows: 3, 4, 5, 2, 2, 4, 3, 3, 2, 2 What is the average number of books these students checked out? (a) 2 (d) 5 (b) 3 (e) 10 (c) 4

4. Jay had 36 inches of wire. He bent the wire to form a square without any wire overlapping. What is the area in square inches of the square he formed? (a) 3 in.2 (d) 24 in.2 (b) 9 in.2 (e) 81 in.2 (c) 18 in.2

5. Which of the following is the smallest? (a) 0.5 10 (b) 0.0052 (c) 0.05 (d) 5.0 (e) 5.0 10 10 103

4

PRACTICE SET 2

101

Practice Set 2

6. If 24 out of 30 students are wearing white shirts on a given day, what percent of the students are wearing other color shirts? (a) 6% (d) 40% 7.Suppose s = 2 and t = (a) 144 (b) 10% (e) 80% 3. Find the value of 2st + (s2t). (b) 24 (c) 0 (c) 20%

(e) 144

(b) 1

2 3 2 3

(c) 7

2 3

(e) 16

9. In the figure below, what is the value of x + y + z? Note: The figure is not drawn to scale. (a) 120 (b) 150 (c) 240 (d) 270 (e) 330

x 30

90 y z

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 2

10. Jim uses 0.8% of a 24-hour day for lunch. Approximately how many minutes does he take for his lunch? (a) 2 (d) 29 (b) 12 (e) 48 (c) 19

Know and be able to use the distributive property. The distributive property is useful in simplifying algebraic expressions. You must take care, however, to recognize when to use it and to use it correctly. The distributive property for multiplication over addition states that a(b + c) = ab + ac. In particular, (b + c) = b + ( c). Example Look back at Item 2 on page 101. Equivalent expressions may be substituted for 39, as in choices (a) and (b). Applying the distributive property to the expression in choice (a) yields the expression in choice (d), not that in choice (c). Note that the expression in choice (e) can be rewritten as follows: 2

[50

(10 + 1)] = 2

(50

10

1) = 2

39

So, the answer is (c). Find, if possible, another test item in the practice set which can be simplified using the distributive property. Try it. Keep this caution in mind as you work on future practice sets.

PRACTICE SET 2

103

Practice Set 3

1. 5 6 (a) (d) 1 6 3 4 3 10 1 = 2 (b) (e) 1 4 5 12 (c) 1 6

2. Two hundred pounds of corn will feed 60 pigs for 1 day. How much corn will be needed to feed 90 pigs for 2 days? (a) 300 (d) 1,200 (b) 400 (e) 2,400 (c) 600

3. What is 10% of 25% of 600? (a) 15 (d) 150 (b) 60 (e) 210 (c) 90

4. Triangles ABC and DEF are similar. What is the length of EF? (a) 1.25 (b) 3.2 (c) 5 (d) 11 (e) 20 5.

B

8 5

F

2

D C

6. Which list contains three equivalent fractions? 2 4 6 3 5 6 (a) , , (b) , , 3 6 8 5 7 10 3 9 15 3 6 12 (c) , , (d) , , 4 12 18 9 18 36 4 8 12 (e) , , 6 14 21

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 3

7. What is the difference between the largest and smallest three-digit numbers that are divisible by 5? (a) 90 (d) 890 (b) 95 (e) 895 (c) 100

8. If the mean of a set of five numbers is 7 and one of the numbers in that set is 3, what is the average of the other four numbers? (a) 4 (d) 7 (b) 5 (e) 8 (c) 6

9. Evaluate each of the following expressions. Which has the largest value? (a) 3 2( 10) 10 (b) 3 + 4(6 (e) 3 + 4 5 4) 20 (c) (2 5)2 + 10

(d) 3 6 + 2

10. A fish tank has the shape shown below. The width is three-fourths of the length, and the height is half of the length. What is the volume of the tank in cubic feet? (a) 9 (b) 18 (c) 24 (d) 34 (e) 68

length = 4 feet

Be sure to apply arithmetic operations in the correct order: Operations within parentheses first, next exponentiation, next multiplication and division in order from left to right, and then addition and subtraction in order from left to right. Example Look back at Item 9. To evaluate the expression in choice (a), first multiply 2 by 10 giving 20, then subtract 20 from 3 to get 23.

Evaluate the expressions in choices (b) through (e) using the correct order of operations to confirm that the expression with the largest value is choice (a). Keep the correct order of operations in mind as you evaluate expressions in your future work.

PRACTICE SET 3

105

Practice Set 4

1. One pound of cherries costs $1.99. If Nina buys 2 pounds of cherries and pays with a $10 bill, how much change will she get back? (a) $3.98 (d) $8.01 (b) $6.02 (e) $9.11 A? (c) $7.12

2. A and B are numbers shown on the number line below. What is B (a) 0 1 (b) 12 1 (c) 1 12 5 (d) 1 12 1 (e) 2 12

A

0 1

B

2 3

3. To obtain a certain color of purple paint, Mike combines 4 liters of red paint, 3 liters of blue paint, and 5 liters of white paint. What portion of the purple paint was white? 5 7 7 5 12 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 12 12 5 7 5 4. In the figure below, x = (a) 23 (b) 33 (c) 67 (d) 113 (e) 157 5. Which of the following lists three fractions in ascending order? 5 4 6 5 6 4 4 5 6 (a) , , (b) , , (c) , , 6 10 12 6 12 10 10 6 12 6 4 5 4 6 5 (d) , , (e) , , 12 10 6 10 12 6 6. The price of an item last year was $100. This year the price was increased by 20% then later decreased by 10%. What is the price of that item now? (a) $101 (b) $102 (c) $108 (d) $110 (e) $118

67

106

P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 4

7. A jar contains 54 balls: some blue, some white, some red, and some green. If the probability of selecting a green ball is 2 , how many green balls are in the jar? 9 (a) 2 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 10 (e) 12

8. Which of the following is a false statement about whole numbers? (a) Every even number has 2 as a factor. (b) Every number has 1 as a factor. (c) Every odd number has 3 as a factor. (d) Every composite number has at least 3 factors. (e) Every prime number has exactly 2 factors. 9. Which of the following points can be joined to the point ( 3, 5) by a line segment that crosses neither the x-axis nor the y-axis? (a) (5, 10. 3) (b) ( 2, 3) (c) (2, 3) (d) (2, 3) (e) ( 2, 3)

(c) 0.4%

(d) 4%

(e) 40%

When feasible, use familiar benchmarks to compare fractions. Fractions are easily compared to benchmarks such as 1 or 1. These comparisons 2 may save you the time of finding a common denominator. Example Look back at Item 5 on page 106. To use this strategy, compare each fraction to 1 as shown below. 2 4 1 6 1 5 1 < , = , and > . 10 2 12 2 6 2 From these comparisons, it is easy to see how to list the given three fractions in ascending order without rewriting the fractions with a common denominator. The correct answer is (e).

Find, if possible, another test item in the practice set for which this strategy might be helpful. Try it. Keep this strategy in mind as you work on future practice sets.

PRACTICE SET 4

107

Practice Set 5

1. The price of a pack of gum drops from 75 cents to 60 cents. What is the percent decrease of the price of the gum? (a) 15% (d) 30% (b) 20% (e) 35% (c) 25%

2. Which number cannot be written as the quotient of two integers? (a) 0 (d) 2.35 (b) 4 (c) 12

(e) 0.555

3. In a school, there is one teacher for every 25 students. Which of the following statements is not true about the relationship of the number of teachers T and number of students S at that school? (a) T = 25S (b) 25T = S T 1 (c) = S 25 (d) S 25T = 0 (e) There will be 7 teachers if there are 175 students. 4. A parallelogram must be a square if: (a) It has two pairs of congruent angles. (b) Each pair of the parallel sides are congruent. (c) All angles are right angles. (d) All sides are congruent. (e) It has one right angle and all sides are congruent. 5. Pete and Andre each decided to start saving their money. Each month, Pete can save $3 and Andre can save $5. At this rate, after how many months will Andre have exactly $10 more than Pete? (a) 2 (d) 5 (b) 3 (e) 8 (c) 4

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 5

6. Ester started her trip with 14 gallons of gas in the tank of her car. Her car consumes 4.5 gallons of gas for every 100 miles driven. How many gallons of gas remained in the tank after she drove 250 miles? (a) 2.75 (d) 11.25 (b) 3.25 (e) None of the above (c) 3.75

7. If a is a positive integer and a2 = 4, what is a3? (a) 6 (d) 12 (b) 8 (e) 16 (c) 10

8. Lines AB, CD, and EF intersect at point G. What is the value of x? (a) 35 (b) 45 (c) 55 (d) 65 (e) 145

E C A

x G

55

D B

9. The circle graph below shows the distribution of grades for a mathematics test. If 250 students took the test, how many more students received a grade of C than received a grade of A? (a) 10 (b) 20 (c) 25 (d) 55 (e) 80

B 24% C 32%

A 22%

D 18% F 4%

PRACTICE SET 5

109

Practice Set 5

10. Samut drove his car to work for a week. He found that the total distance he traveled in that week was 320 miles, and he used 11.5 gallons of gas. Approximately how many miles can his car travel on one gallon of gas? (a) 24 miles per gallon (b) 25 miles per gallon (c) 26 miles per gallon (d) 28 miles per gallon (e) 30 miles per gallon

Create a table to compare quantities in a problem situation. You may find it easier to solve a problem by constructing a table of values when you are unsure of how to tackle the problem algebraically. Example Look back at Item 5 on page 108. To use this strategy, create a table like the one below showing Petes and Andres savings at the end of each month. Month 1 2 3 4 5 Petes Savings $3 $6 $9 $12 $15 Andres Savings $5 $10 $15 $20 $25

From the table, you can see that Andre has exactly $10 more than Pete after 5 months of saving. So the answer is (d).

Find, if possible, another test item from Practice Sets 1 5 for which this strategy might be helpful. Try it. Keep this strategy in mind as you work on the next practice set and in your future work.

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 6

1. What is the ratio of the length of a side of a square to its perimeter? (a) 1:1 2. 2 3 (a) 1 7 49 9 (b) 1:2 6 = 7 (b) 4 (c) 14 15 (d) 7 9 (e) 4 49 (c) 1:4 (d) 2:1 (e) 4:1

3. What is the area in square centimeters of the shaded portion of the figure below? (a) 100 (b) 100 (c) 100 (d) 40 (e) 40 100 50 25 50 25

10 cm 10 cm

4. Which of the following numbers is not a prime number? (a) 41 (b) 53 (c) 79 (d) 83 (e) 93

5. The bar graph below shows the amount of time that 30 ninth-grade students spend on homework nightly. What percent of students spends less than two hours on their homework nightly?

Number of Students

(a) 13.3% (b) 20.0% (c) 26.7% (d) 40.0% (e) 60.0%

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Less than One Hour One Hour Two Hours More than Two Hours

6. Which of the following lists is ordered from largest to smallest? 2 2 2 (a) 0.19, 0.345, , 0.7 (b) 0.7, 0.19, 0.345, (c) , 0.345, 0.19, 0.7 3 3 3 2 2 (d) 0.7, , 0.345, 0.19 (e) 0.19, , 0.345, 0.7 3 3

PRACTICE SET 6

111

Practice Set 6

7. Through what angle does the minute hand of a clock turn as it moves from 12 to 4? (a) 20 (b) 40 (c) 110 (d) 120 (e) 150

8. Which of the following graphs shows the relationship between the perimeter of a square and the length of a side? (a)

24 20

(b)

24 20

Perimeter

16 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Perimeter

16 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Side Length

Side Length

(c)

24 20

(d)

24 20

Perimeter

Perimeter

16 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

16 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Side Length

Side Length

(e)

24 20

Perimeter

16 12 8 4 0 0 2 4 6 8 10

Side Length

112

P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 6

9. The table below shows the values of two variables, P and Q. If P is proportional to Q, what are the values of m and n? P Q (a) m = 15, n =11 (d) m = 18, n = 15 3 5 9 n m 30 (c) m = 15, n = 24

10. What percent of the total area is shaded in the figure below? (a) 12.5% (b) 20% (c) 80% (d) 87.5% (e) 140%

20 8 5 4

When finding the area of a region formed by overlapping figures, subtract the smaller area from the larger area. Example Look back at Item 3 on page 111. To use this strategy, first determine the area of the square, then subtract the area of the quarter-circle. Area of the Square: Area of the Quarter-Circle: 10(10) = 100 cm2.

1 2 4 ()(10 )

= 25 cm2.

The area of the shaded region is determined by subtracting these areas to obtain the expression 100

Find, if possible, another item in the practice set for which this strategy might be helpful. Try it. Keep this strategy in mind as you work on future problems of this type.

PRACTICE SET 6

113

Practice Set 7

1. If a is a positive integer and a2 = 4, what is ( 3)a? (a) (d) 8 9 (b) (e) 9 6 (c) 6

2. Which fraction represents the largest value? 7 6 (a) (b) 9 10 4 3 (d) (e) 5 4

(c)

5 7

3. The perimeter of a rectangle is 28. The ratio of the width and length of the rectangle is 3:4. What is the length of a diagonal of the rectangle? (a) 5 (d) 22.1 (b) 10 (e) 22.8 (c) 20

4. One pound is approximately 0.454 kilograms. Sue weighs the equivalent of 55 kilograms. What is her approximate weight in pounds? (a) 25 lb (d) 121 lb (b) 108 lb (e) 150 lb (c) 110 lb

5. The table below shows the number of books that a sample of 25 students carry to school. What is the median number of books? Number of Books 3 4 5 6 7 (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 Number of Students 3 5 7 5 5 (d) 6 (e) 7

114

P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 7

6. Which of the following numbers is the smallest? (a) 3.2 (b) 3.2 (c) 3.82 (d) 3.82 (e) 3.82 10 103 10 104 10

3 4 3

7. The enrollment at Cedar Creek High School this year is 1,250 students. Last year the enrollment was 1,000. By what percent did the enrollment change between last year and this year? (a) 20% (d) 125% (b) 25% (e) 250% (c) 80%

8. A number x is multiplied by itself and the result is added to 3 times the original number. This can be expressed algebraically as: (a) x + 3 (d) x2 + 3x (b) x2 + 3 (e) 2x + 3x (c) 2x + 3

9. A shop announces a clearance sale. The price of each item is 60% off. The original price of a watch is $65. By how many dollars will the price of the watch be reduced? (a) $26 (d) $49 (b) $39 (e) $56 (c) $46

PRACTICE SET 7

115

Practice Set 7

10. Which figure has the largest area? (a)

3.5 cm 4 cm 3 cm

(b)

2 cm

6 cm

4 cm

(c)

2.5 cm 5 cm

(d)

4 cm

(e)

2.5 cm

5 cm

Ratios and proportions can be helpful in solving problems involving percents. Example Look back at Item 7 on page 115. The amount of change was 250 students. To find the percent change, use the ratio of change amount to the 0 beginning value. So the percent change is equivalent to 12500 = 12050 or 25%. ,0

Find, if possible, another test item in this practice set for which ratios and/or proportions can be used to help find a percentage. Keep this tip in mind as you work on future practice sets.

116

P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 8

1. If 19 + m = 28 + n, what is m (a) 47 (b) n? 19 (c) 9

(d) 19

(e) 47

2. What is the volume of a cube with a surface area of 24 square centimeters? (a) 4 cm3 (d) 32 cm3 (b) 8 cm3 (e) 64 cm3 (c) 16 cm3

3. The area of a circle is 64 square inches. How many inches is the circumference of that circle? (a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 16 (d) 32 (e) 64

4. Suppose the ratio of girls to boys in a class of 36 students is 5:4. How many boys are in the class? (a) 9 (d) 20 (b) 16 (e) None of the above (c) 17

5. Manie has a 60 cm 18 cm piece of poster board. She wants to cover the poster board using several sheets of colored paper. If she cuts each piece of colored paper into squares of the same size, what is the largest size square that she can use to cover the poster board without overlapping the colored paper? (a) 2 cm (d) 6 cm 2 cm 6 cm (b) 3 cm (e) 10 cm 3 cm 10 cm (c) 4 cm 4 cm

6. In which of the following lists are the numbers ordered from smallest to largest? (a) 0, (d) 0, 2, 1, 1, 7, 7, 9, 2 9 (b) 0, (e) 9, 9, 7, 7, 1, 2 1, 0, 2 (c) 1, 7, 9, 0, 2

7. 15% is equivalent to (a) 0.15 (b) 1.5 (c) 10.5 (d) 15 (e) 150

8. In a bag of chips, 1 are green, 1 are yellow, 112 are blue, 1 are white, and 1 are red. 6 4 3 6 If someone takes a chip from the bag without looking, which color is it most likely to be? (a) Green (b) Yellow (c) Blue (d) White (e) Red

PRACTICE SET 8

117

Practice Set 8

9. The length of a rectangle is 8 cm, and its perimeter is 20 cm. What is the area of the rectangle in square centimeters? (a) 16 cm2 (c) 40 cm2 (e) 160 cm2 10. ABE can be rotated onto DBC. What point is the center of rotation? (a) Point A (b) Point B (c) Point C (d) Point D (e) Point E

C B A

Be careful not to confuse perimeter and area. Perimeter is a measure of the distance around the border of a figure, while area is a measure of the region enclosed by a figure. Perimeter is measured in units of length, while area is measured in square units. The perimeter of a circle is called its circumference. Example Look back at Item 3 on page 117. The area of a circle is given as 64 square inches. If you are frequently confused as to which formula applies to the area, 2r or r 2, remember that square units are obtained by squaring the radius. Thus, in this problem r 2 = 64 in.2. Since (8 in.)2 = 64 in.2, the radius must be 8 inches. Substitute 8 inches into the formula for circumference: 2(8 in.) = 16 in. So, the answer is (c).

Look back at Practice Sets 1 8 and identify the items which require you to distinguish between perimeter and area. Keep this caution in mind as you work on future practice sets.

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 9

1. ABCD is a rectangle. AC = 10, BC = 6. What is the perimeter of ABCD? (a) 8 (b) 14 (c) 28 (d) 38 (e) 48

A B D C

2. Which digit of 0.2316 has a place value of (a) 0 (d) 3 3. 3 + 5 1 30 23 (d) 30 (a) 4 5 + = 6 6 4 30 63 (e) 30 (b) (b) 1 (e) 6

1 ? 1,000 (c) 2

(c)

13 30

12 ? 20 (c) 21 35

5. Supa has 3 ribbons of different colors and lengths. She has 3.5 meters of blue ribbon, 4.9 meters of red ribbon, and 5.6 meters of white ribbon. She would like to cut these ribbons so that all pieces of the three different-colored ribbons have the same length. What is the longest length into which she could cut the ribbons? (a) 0.3 meters (d) 0.9 meters (b) 0.5 meters (e) 1.1 meters (c) 0.7 meters

PRACTICE SET 9

119

Practice Set 9

6. In the figure shown below, m A is 75, m D is 25, and m EFC is 170. Find the degree measure of EBC. (a) 35 (b) 70 (c) 85 (d) 95 (e) 145

B C D E F A

7. If 6x (a) 2

(c)

10 3

(d)

20 3

(e) 20

8. The histogram at the right shows test scores for 40 students. What percent of the students scored at least 65? (a) 17% (b) 30% (c) 42.5% (d) 50% (e) 57.5%

Number of Students 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 35 50 65 80 Scores 95

120

P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 9

9. If x = (a) (d) 3 3 , then what is the value of 5 + 4x? 2 13.5 (b) 1 (e) 8.5 (c) 1.5

10. If the sum of three consecutive odd integers is 15, what is the largest of those three integers? (a) 5 (d) 11 (b) 7 (e) 13 (c) 9

Equivalent fractions are generated by multiplying by various forms of 1. Example Look back at Item 4 on page 119. To use this strategy, test each choice to determine if the reduced form of 12 or 3 can be multiplied by a form 20 5 of 1 to obtain the fraction in that choice. Choice (a): Choice (b):

3 1 5 1 3 5 5 5

= =

3 5 15 25 12 20

Show that choices (c) and (e) are also equivalent to by other forms of 1 to obtain each choice. Choice (d):

3 9 5 9

by multiplying

3 5

27 45

27 40 ,

so

12 20

27 40

So, the answer is (d). Find, if possible, another test item in the practice set for which this strategy might be helpful. Try it. Keep this strategy in mind as you work on future practice sets.

PRACTICE SET 9

121

Practice Set 10

1. If a = 2 and b = 3, then what is (ab)2? (a) 23 (d) 2 3 23 2 3 (b) 23 + 23 (e) 2 3 3 (c) 2 2 3

2. For five days, a student paid an average of $4 per day for lunch. How much money did the student pay for lunches for the five days? (a) $1.25 (d) $16.00 3. 32 is 16% of (a) 160 (d) 300 (b) 200 (e) 400 (c) 250 (b) $4.00 (e) $20.00 (c) $5.00

4. Which equation describes the relationship in the table shown below? x y (a) y = x (b) y = x (c) y = 2x (d) y = x 1 (e) y = x 2 5 6 5 5 5 1 7 0 5 1 3 2 1 3 1 4 3

5. The figure below consists of 6 congruent squares. The area of the entire figure is 54 square centimeters. What is the perimeter of the figure? (a) 42 cm (b) 45 cm (c) 54 cm (d) 60 cm (e) 72 cm

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P R AC T I C I N G F O R S TA N D A R D I Z E D T E S T S

Practice Set 10

6. Which of the following numbers is 86.0749 rounded to the nearest hundredth? (a) 86.07 (d) 90.00 (b) 86.08 (e) 100.00 (c) 86.10

7. Which ratio is not equivalent to 21:14? (a) 33:22 (d) 8:6 (b) 18:12 (e) 6:4 (c) 15:10

1 1 1 8. For positive integers x, y, and z, if > > , then which of the following statex y z ments is false? (a) x < y (d) x y<0 (b) x z<0 (c) y < z

(d) 75

(e) 570

10. Point A has coordinates ( 3, 5). When using the y-axis as a reflection line, the image of point A is point B. What are the coordinates of point B? (a) (3, (d) (5, 5) 3) (b) ( 3, (e) (3, 5) 5) (c) (5, 3)

Reciprocals and opposites reverse order relations. If x and y are both positive or both negative and x < y, then

1 x

> 1 , and y

x>

y.

Example Look back at Item 8. The relationships among x, y, and z are the reverse of the relationships among their reciprocals. Since 1 1 1 x > y > z , x < y < z. Choices (a) and (c) are clearly true from this observation. Choices (b) and (d) are true because subtracting a larger positive integer from a smaller positive integer will always yield a number less than 0. Choice (e) is false since the order relation should be reversed. So, the answer is (e).

Look back at Practice Sets 1 10 and identify the items for which this reminder might be helpful. Keep this fact in mind in your future work with inequalities.

PRACTICE SET 10

123

124

Solutions

Check Your Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Exercise Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Practice Sets for Standardized Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

SOLUTIONS

125

Check Your Understanding 1.1, p. 8

1. a. 7, 2, 11, 15 2. a. 16 e. 60 3. $195 b. 9 f. 5 b. 23, 3, 0, 10 c. 23 g. 7 d. 25 h. 81

1. a. 7 10 b. 1 8 c. 7 15 d. 108 55 2. There are many possible equivalent forms of each given fraction or mixed number. We give only three for each. 4 2 10 6 9 12 a. , , b. , , 6 3 15 10 15 20 6 3 15 19 38 57 c. , , d. , , 4 2 10 5 10 15 1 3. a. 4 teaspoons of lemon juice b. $250 2 3 87 4. a. 1 km b. 10 100 5. a. June 6. The table entries are: 5 3 3 4 11 1 4 1 6 4 1 1 4 1 2 3 8 4 1 7 2 2 b. 14 wins

10

126

SOLUTIONS

1. a. 0.128 = 1 2 8 128 + + = 10 100 1,000 1,000 2 5 205 b. 0.0205 = + = 100 10,000 10,000 3,142 1 4 2 c. 3.142 = 3 + + + = 10 100 1,000 1,000 b. 0.75 c. 4.4 d. 1.8

107 seconds

5. a. 0.833; infinite repeating decimal b. 0.875; finite decimal 2 c. = 0.285714285714; infinite repeating decimal 7

1. a. About 4.54 hours 2. a. 75 people 3. 375 mL 4. The large box b. $4.95 b. 45 people c. $10.13

1. a. b. c. d. e. Fraction

3 4 1 10 7 8 2 3 17 20

SOLUTIONS

127

2. a. 76

b. 62.5%

c. Approximately 30.77

3. The sale price is $18.75. This represents a total discount of 62.5%. 4. Product Corded phone Cordless phone Answering machine Fax and/or fax modem 1987 13,335 9,900 14,716 1,907 1996 21,700 22,800 20,050 4,700 Percent Increase 62.7% 130.3% 36.2% 146.5%

5.

Fertility Rates 19901998 Region World Less-Developed Countries More-Developed Countries 1990 3.4 4.7 1.9 1998 Percent Decrease 2.9 14.7% 3.2 31.9% 1.6 15.8%

1. 280 2. a. 10m

b.

1 1 63

2 3

3 5 c.

4 7 77

5 9

n 2n 1 d. 32

3. a.

128

SOLUTIONS

1. a. Charges will be $2.00, $5.00, and $6.00 respectively. b.

Parking Cost (in dollars) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Parking Time (in hours) 8

2. a. Rachel won by 5 seconds. She was ahead by about 10 meters when she crossed the finish line. b. They were tied after Rachel had run 60 meters. c. They were tied after about 15 seconds. d. Rachel was ahead by about 5 meters. e. Rachel averaged 4 meters per second. Micah averaged 2 2 meters per second. 3

1. a. x = 5 2. a. n < 9 1) for d 1 b. x = 6 b. n < 2

3. a. C = 3.50 + 2.50(d

b. 6 days

1. No two sides of a triangle can be parallel. Suppose that sides a and b meet at point C. Then the other side is determined by the endpoints of those sides and thus, because it intersects both of those sides, it is not parallel to either. 2. The one-way sign is a rectangle. The stop sign is a regular octagon. The men-atwork sign is a square. The yield sign is an equilateral triangle. The school zone sign is a pentagon. The stop sign, men-at-work sign, and yield sign are regular polygons.

SOLUTIONS

129

1. A regular octagon has 8 lines of symmetry (4 through midpoints of opposite sides and 4 through opposite vertices) and rotational symmetries of 45, 90, 135, 180, 225, 270, and 315 about the center of the octagon. 2. a. 6 lines of symmetry as shown at the right, and symmetry rotations of 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 about the center of the snowflake.

b. There is only one line of symmetry: a vertical line through the center of the figure. c. This has only half-turn symmetry. 3. a. IV d. I b. IV e. I c. II f. III

1. a. 60 2. a. b. 115 b. c. 50 c. d. 105 d.

1. a. Racing pool: 140 m; diving pool: 60 m; childs pool: 8 m b. About 150 minutes or 2.5 hours per week. 2. 64 m 3. Diameter 12,732 km; Radius 6,366 km

130

SOLUTIONS

1. a. 196 m2 2. a. 3,000 cm2 3. 10,000 31,416 m2 b. About 1.3 m2 b. 1,500 cm2 each

1. a.

Distribution of World Population Percent of World Population

60 50 40 22% 30 20 10 NA Europe Afric Japan Australia Asia LA NA 4% 57% Asia Africa LA 9% Europe, Japan, 8% Australia

2050

2000

Region

2. a.

SOLUTIONS

131

b. U.S. High School Graduation Rates 5 6 7 8 9 34 5788888 2233 555678 00111222344 5556666688 00333 5579 0

5 | 3 represents 53%

1. a. Mean = 71.02 b. Median = 72 c. Range = 37 2. a. Mean and median will increase by 1 point to 8.5 and 9 and the range will stay the same. b. Mean, median, and range will be multiplied by 10 to 75, 80, and 30. c. Mean will decrease to about 7.43. Median might decrease (depending on the distribution of the original set of scores). Range might or might not change (it could only get larger).

1. a. HpHnHd , HpHnTd , HpTnHd , TpHnHd , HpTnTd , TpTnHd , TpHnTd , TpTnTd 4 b. P(at least 2 heads) = 8 1 P(no heads) = 8 3 P(heads-up value 11) = 8 1 2. a. 2 b. The safest bet is that the number of boys will be between 40 and 60 since all the other options are included in this wide net.

132

SOLUTIONS

Exercise Set 1, p. 5253

1. a. 1, 0, 4 b.

4.2 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2.3 2 10 3.16 3 4 5

3

b. 87.5

c. 15

b. 4.23491 e. 6.275

104 10

5

c. 9.27 f. 1.05

108 10

2

5. a. Approximately 49.7% 6. a.

b. Approximately 53.4% b.

c.

All three figures are alike because they are all parallelograms, opposite sides parallel and the same length. The rectangle and the square have 4 right angles and the parallelogram does not. The square has 4 equal sides and the rectangle does not. The parallelogram may or may not have 4 equal sides. 7. 5(4) 8 = 20 8 = 12 4 cm, 2 cm 7 cm c. 1 cm b. 8 cm c.

8. a. 1 cm b. 5 cm 9. a.

8 cm, 5 cm 4 cm

SOLUTIONS

133

10. a. $480.00 (Note: This assumes a minimum charge of $12 for any group of 5 or fewer students.) b. $2.44

1. a. Approximately 4.2 seconds b. Approximately 50.6 seconds c. Approximately 421.5 seconds or about 7 minutes 2. Answers will vary. 3. a. 63 b. (ii) 7.3 cm (ii) 73 mm (ii) 0.073 m 8.5 (iii) 2.5 cm (iii) 25 mm (iii) 0.025 m c. 21 (iv) 10 cm (iv) 100 mm (iv) 0.1 m

Computer Usage Number of People 40 30 20 10 Internet Access Word Processing Games Spreadsheets Other

134

SOLUTIONS

Computer Usage

Internet Access

Word Processing

Other

Games

Spreadsheets

1. $66.56 2. a. D 4.77 feet at its base; D 3.18 feet at 20 feet above its base b. A 17.9 ft2 at the bottom of the log; A 7.94 ft2 at the top of the log 3. Type Heart Liver Kidney Organ Transplants 19851995 1985 719 602 7,695 1995 2,361 3,924 11,816 Percent Increase 228% 552% 54%

SOLUTIONS

135

4. a. Some people could speak more than one language. b c. Language Percent of People Number of People Spanish 37.5% 56 French 25% 38 German 12.5% 19 Japanese 6.25% 9 Russian 10% 15 None 50% 75

5. $0.67 6. a. $1.57 per pound d. 1.5 feet per second 7. a. Approximately $244.70 8. Surface area = 195.75 cm2 Volume = 160.875 cm3 9. Approximately $39.09 per share 10. 6 numbers. Four of them are divisible by 2. All of them are divisible by 3. Two of them are divisible by 5. b. 52 miles per hour e. $5 per hour b. $18,000 c. $11 per ticket f. 1.25 pounds per week

1. a. 8.9 b. 350.07 c. 6,740.50 2. a. All three parallelograms have the same area. b. Parallelograms ABCD and BCFE have equal perimeters and that perimeter is greater than the perimeter of parallelogram DBCE. 3. a. Four minutes, twelve and fifty-six hundredths seconds Three minutes, forty-four and thirty-nine hundredths seconds b. 28.17 seconds

136

SOLUTIONS

b. 54 units b. 15 15 5 15 1 8+8 = 13 c. (4 + 4) ( 2 2) = 8 8

b. S = $403.71

7. row 1 100% 2 row 2 66 % 3 row 3 60% 1 row 4 57 % 7 8. Yes, because you have about $86. 9. Range: 4.57; Mean: 6.2186; Median: 6.72 10. Mean Net Income for Physicians Medical Specialty Mean Net Income, 1988 $77,900 $102,000 $155,000 $76,200 $124,300 Mean Net Income, 1994 $121,200 $174,900 $255,200 $126,200 $200,400 Ratio of Mean Net Income, 1994 to 1988 1.56 1.71 1.65 1.66 1.61

1. Diana and Erin each receive 112 of the estate. Frances, Gail, and Heather each receive 118 of the estate. Ingrid, Julia, Katherine, and Lillian each receive 214 of the estate. 2. a. 24 sq cm 3. a. 3 8 b. 5 2 b. 63 sq cm c. 40 9 c. 26 cm d. 4 3 8

SOLUTIONS

137

1 2 of the time and Player 2 wins of the time. 3 3 b. Player 1 should get twice the amount Player 2 gets for winning.

5. You could buy everything except the rolls and the laundry detergent. 6. a.

Average Annual Cost of Cable 19901997 150 140 Price (in dollars) 130 120 110 100 90 80 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Year

b. Except for the year 1993 1994, the cost of cable TV has steadily increased. c. About $162 7. a. 0.142857 8. a. < 1 9. 57 % 7 10. a. High Temperatures 5 6 7 8 b. 68.7F 9 0033457 1225 56 b. 0.5 b. < c. 0.86 c. = d. 0.625 d. >

138

SOLUTIONS

1. $1.32 2. a. Approximately 46% 3. a. 66.67 grams 4. Mean Median Range Airline 1 5.6 2.5 65 b. Approximately 40% b. 216 cookies Airline 2 5 5.5 20

a. The median would make Airline 1 look best. b. The range makes Airline 2 look best. c. The outlier of 50 minutes for Airline 1 distorts the statistics. If you take that out, the mean is 0.6, the median is 0, and the range is 27 minutes. 5. a. > 6. 19,770 feet 7. a. b. = c. > d. <

Stage 5

Stage 6

b.

1 1

2 3

3 6

4 10

5 15

6 21

c. 55 circlesTo get the next number in the table, take the previous number of circles and add the next stage number to that number. For example, at Stage 6 there are 21 circles, so you take 21 plus 7 to get the number of circles at Stage 7. Repeating this will give 55 circles at Stage 10.

SOLUTIONS

139

8. Posts could be placed 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, or 20 feet apart. The greatest distance between posts is 20 feet. 9. a. 35 cm = 0.35 m = 350 mm c. 1,500 minutes = 25 hours = 1 10. 16 times 1 days 24 b. 0.5 ft = 6 in = 0.16 yd

1. The product is 2 6 or . 5 15

2. a. 5 3. 77

b. 13

c. 6

b.

1 2 1 5 3 , , , , 3 5 2 8 4

2m 6m

2m 12 m 8m 6m

4m

3m

140

SOLUTIONS

c.

5m

8. 23.4 9. a.

16 14 Pitching Rank 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Batting Rank National League Batting and Pitching Rankings for 1998

The points are completely scattered so there seems to be no relation between batting and pitching. b. Points above the line have a better rank for team pitching than batting. Points on the line represent teams that have the same rank for pitching and batting. Points below the line have better ranks for batting than for pitching. 1 10. The net change is zero, so the price is still $23 . 8

SOLUTIONS

141

1. 50 feet below sea level 2. a.

180 Speed (in mph) 170 160 150 140 130 120 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 00 Year Winning Speeds in Daytona 500

b. There does not seem to be any overall trend to these data. The winning speeds increase from 1960 to 1980 and then decrease from 1980 to 1995. 3. Each column will be 2 4. a. 3 5. a. 30 6. 12 tickets 7. a. 4 8. 30 days 9. a. x = 4

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 2 4 6 3 6 4 5

b. 10 b. 80

b.

40

c.

d. 8

b. x c. x >

6

10 8 6 4 2 0 8 10

12

15 12 9 6 3 0 9 12 15

142

SOLUTIONS

1. $574 2. a. Midnight or 12 A.M. 3. 192 glasses 4. a. 1 or 0.125 8 b. 1 or 0.25 4 c. 15 times b. 3 A.M. the next day

5. $1.34 6. a. Approximately 584.34 million miles b. 1.6 million miles per day or 66,705 miles per hour 7. a. 14 7 = 100 50 b. 26 13 = 10 5 c. 1 3 d. 23 99

8. a. 78

b. 70 or higher

1. a. 25% d. 150% 2. a. 30 times 3. 330 years 3 4. 165 lb 4 5. Perimeter: 15 cm Area: 7.5 cm2 b. 0.4% e. 60% b. 18 times c. 42 times c. 280%

SOLUTIONS

143

6. a. 0.066, 0.067, 0.63, 0.63, 0.6 c. 0.99, 1.009, 1.035, 1.047, 1.47 7. 0.8F or 0.8F below zero

b.

5 , 2

12 , 5

2.3,

2,

8. $24.31 9. a. A scatterplot b.

Cost per Student in $100 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 Percent Math Proficient

This graph shows that states that spent more money tended to have higher scores. 10. a. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 c. 0, 1, 2, 3 b. x 1 d. 2, 3, 5, 7

1. a. Stage Number of Tiles b. NEXT = NOW + 4 d. S = 4n 2. a. 3. 28 4. a. 4, 3, 1, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 3, 5 b. 9 2 3 b. 8 1 1 2 5 3 9 c. 37 e. S = 4(10) c. 15 3 = 37 d. 2 4 13 5 17 6 21 7 25 8 29

144

SOLUTIONS

5. a. 6.8 6. 16 feet

109

b. 2.48

105

c. 4.5

10

d. 3.89

10

c.

4 15

1. a. Perimeter: 30 m Area: 30 m2 c. Perimeter: 26 + 3 35.42 cm Area: 60 + 4.5 74.14 cm2 2. a. 10 b. 450 b. Perimeter: 28 in. Area: 30 in.2 d. Perimeter: 24 ft Area: 4 48 27.7 ft2 c. 220 d. 474

3. 3,000,000,000 or 3 billion 4. a. n = 5. Problem a. 7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3 b. 7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3 c. (7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3)3 d. 4.2(7.9 + 2.1 + 8.7 9.3) 3 b. n = 3 c. n < Estimated Answer 10 3 1,000 40 1 d. n 4

% Error 6% 2% 20.40% 1%

Most estimates seem to have a small percentage of error, but when you cubed the estimate, the error was much greater. 6. a. 6.6 b. 6 c. 5.6

7. About 247.6 million people 8. a. Approximately 90.35 g of protein b. 189 Canadian dollars

SOLUTIONS

145

d. 8

7 cups of rice 16

b. 160 e. 200%

1 ounces 3 1 c. 33 % 3 f. 0.25 e. 33

1. 38 miles 2. 94 3. a. 11, 3, 1, 0, 8, 15 b. 3.26, 3.2, 3.2, 3.26 c. 1 1 9 5 3 , , , , 8 2 16 8 4

4. a. III, I, IV, II b. The point that corresponds to the left end of the horizontal segment III 5. a. 680 = 23 5 17; 1,000 = 23 53 6. a. Mean = 17.17, median = 16.65 b. MAD = 1.524. This statistic tells you how far away the class sizes for those states are from the mean. Since 1.5 is a small number, it says most of the states have average class sizes that are close to the mean. 7.

15 pounds ground beef

3 4

b. 40

c. 17,000

3 4

cup shortening

cup flour

1 2

3 4

cup salt

41 2

48 ounces each tomato paste, tomato sauce 4 1 tablespoons each oregano, basil, and thyme 2

146

SOLUTIONS

c. 16

2 3

c. $10,918.76

1. The sum is 540 because it is equal to the sum of the measures of the angles of all three triangles. Since each triangle has 180, then the sum must be 540. 2. a. 11,500 square feet 3. 6 3 5 2 (6 + 5) = 9.5 b. 640 feet

4. Hummingbird (0.056); pygmy shrew (0.52); bat (0.65); cockroach 1 1 4 5. 11 feet tall 6. a.

Station Format Country Adult Contemporary News, Talk, Sports Religion Rock Oldies and Classic Hits Spanish and Ethnic Adult Standards Urban, Black Top 40 Other

Percent 23.1 15 13.1 10.3 7.5 9.4 5.4 5.4 3.3 3.7 3.7

SOLUTIONS

147

b. 2,500

2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0

ul t Ne Co C ws nte oun , T mp try al or k, a O Sp ry ld ie Re orts s a lig Sp nd io Cl an R n ish ass oc Ad an ic H k ul d E its tS t h Ur tand nic ba ar n, ds Bl To ack p 4 O 0 th er

c. 83 for Country, 27 for Rock d. The shares of radio stations with each format might not match the share of the listening audience by each format because there might be many of one format that have a small listening audience. 7. a. b. c.

2 in.

d.

Ad

e.

2 8 cm 7

f.

9

8.

148

SOLUTIONS

1. 6 feet 1 1 inches 2 b. 30.9 square units 2. a. 175 square units

3. Redmond: 1.4375 inches per year; Chillal: 1.07 inches per year The difference is 0.3675 inches per year. 4. a. Judge 1 Judge 2 Min 3.6 3.4 Q1 4.5 4.2 Median 5.2 4.8 Q2 5.7 5.6

Judge 1 Judge 2 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5

b. Judge 1: Mean 5.03, MAD 0.604 Judge 2: Mean 4.9, MAD 0.705 c. The judges give very similar ratings overall to the group of skaters. d. A scatterplot of data for all skaters, paired (Judge 1, Judge 2), would be helpful in determining if the judges give similar ratings. The more closely the points are clustered to the y = x line, the more similar the individual ratings are. 5. $66.36 6. Regular Polygon Triangle Quadrilateral Pentagon Hexagon Octagon n-gon # of Sides 3 4 5 6 8 n # of Lines of Symmetry 3 4 5 6 8 n Smallest Angle of Turn Symmetry 120 90 72 60 45

360 n

SOLUTIONS

149

7. a. 88 8. a. 50 + 5.75n c. 10n 50

b.

9 b. 10n

c.

21 16

5.75n, 4.25n

50

d. 12 shirts b. 20 feet

8 4 8 4 4 8 4 8

b.

8 4

c.

8 4 4 8

4 4 8

4 4 8

d.

8 4 8 4

e.

8 4 4 8

f.

8 4 4 8

x

8 4 4 8

x

8 4 4 8 4 8

4 8

1. 17 jumps 2. Perimeter: 19.2 cm, Area: 18 cm2 3. a. 23 d. 19.5 b. 9 e. 488 c. 4

4. a. Only graph (iii) has an Euler circuit because it is the only graph with all even vertices. b. Both (i) and (ii) contain Euler paths because each has only two odd vertices. 5. a. x = 12 44 d. x = 5 37 15 e. x = 9 b. x = c. x = 1 f. x = 6

150

SOLUTIONS

6. a. Yes; fractions are another way of writing division. 1 3 b. Yes; 3 = 5 5 1 5 c. No; this would be 5 = . 3 3 1 3 d. Yes; 3 = 5 5 7. a. The mean and median are both five points higher, and the range stays the same. b. The mean, median, and range will all be divided by 10. 8. a. 5.93 d. 9.5 1012 107 b. 5.5436 e. 6.214 1012 10

6

c. 3.98 f. 1.894

1010 10

4

5 8 71 500 3 8 1 6 13 20

1. a. 1 4 b. 5 8 c. 2 1 d. 1 6 2. Position 1 Position 2 Position 3 Position 4 180 turn about the center of the shared edge Horizontal flip Horizontal flip followed by 180 turn about the center of common edge A slide 4 1 7 , 1 , 1.2 b. , 82.5%, 0.88, 1.80 5 7 9 b. 5 people b. 792 square inches c. 11 people

SOLUTIONS

151

7. a. 18 d. 140

b. e.

29 14

c. 72 f. 52

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

p Pa e rd er tic tal ss od th oa ubb las Me Gla Wo Clo rb R P

M 12% G 12% P 59% P and P 11% C 1% W 3% R 2%

p Pa

a er

nd

9. a. $790 10. 90 cm

b. $1,155

c. $4,485

1. a. 41 d. 49 b. 6 e. 38 3 (start at 7) c. f. 4 12

152

SOLUTIONS

b. True e. True

c. False f. False

b. A bit more than 144 inches of fabric 8. a. Front and back: 8 12 in. Top and bottom: 8 3 in. Right and left sides: 12 3 in. b. SA = 312 square inches 9. a. Path S-A-D-G-F S-B-D-G-F S-B-E-G-F S-C-E-G-F Length 7 11 10 8 c. V = 288 cubic inches

b. The critical path is S-B-D-G-F and the earliest finish time is 11. 10. $14.50

1. The 200-gram box is the better buy. 2. a. 18, 26, and 34 respectively b. 50, 250, and 1,250 respectively

c. B = 8m + 2 for linear growth, B = 2(5)m for exponential growth. d. After 25 months assuming a linear model, after 3 months assuming an exponential model 3. a. 10 d. 4 b. x = b. 9 e. 5 2 c. x = 20 d. x = 0.5 c. 12

4. a. x = 10

SOLUTIONS

153

5. 1.25 seconds 6. a. 9.84 7. 50% 8. a. NEXT = NOW + 2 (start at 2) y = 2 + 2x 1 c. NEXT = NOW (start at 2) 3 1 y= x+2 3 b. NEXT = 2NOW y = 2x 1 d. NEXT = NOW 2 1 x y= 2 10-4 and 1.37 10-3 b. 139.2%

9. a. State 1: mean = 1.137, median = 1.144 State 2: mean = 1.167, median = 1.124 b. State 1: range = 0.180, State 2: range = 0.320 c. Yes, you could find each value by dividing by 100 and then adding 1.009. d. State 1 has the lower gasoline prices. Both the range and the mean are smaller for State 1. 10. a. 2 7 12 5 d. 2 8 3 4 7 e. 12 b. 7 17 20 3 f. 5 4 c. 1

1. a. p > 80,000 b. c 18 c. w 250 2. Alcohol: 27.6%; Cigarettes: 24.9% 3. Dimensions in inches: 9 12 12, 6 12 18, 3 12 36, 3 48 9, 3 24 18, 3 6 72, 6 24 9, 6 6 36. The best size box to use would be 9 12 12 because it would be the easiest to hold and it has a minimum surface area. Also, the 6 12 18 size would be a good choice because it has the same minimum surface area as the 9 12 12. 4. 19.81 mpg, 20.97 mpg, 18.10 mpg, 21.00 mpg 1 1 1 5. a. b. c. 6 3 3 6. a. x = 3.6 b. y = 20 c. x = 6.9 1 6

d.

d. x = 4

154

SOLUTIONS

10. a. Percent Proficient on Test Math Science 1 35789 2 1135778 8 3 012269 85 4 1 775411 5 887741 6 7500 7 b.

| 1 | 3 represents 13%

Math Science Math Mean 60.2 26.1 Science Median 61 27 Range 26 10 15 20 2535 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

c. Looking at the stem-and-leaf plots, it is clearly evident that a much higher percent of students are proficient in mathematics than in science. The mean and median are also much higher in mathematics. Even though there is a larger range, or spread, in mathematics, it is across higher percents. The statistics shown would allow one to conclude that students seem to know mathematics better than science.

SOLUTIONS

155

Practice Set 1, pp. 98100

1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (e)

1. (e) 2. (c) 3. (b) 4. (e) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9. (b) 10. (b)

1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (e) 8. (e) 9. (a) 10. (c)

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (e) 6. (c) 7. (e) 8. (c) 9. (e) 10. (e)

156

SOLUTIONS

1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (e) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (e) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (d) 10. (d)

1. (e) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (c) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9. (b) 10. (d)

1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (e) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (b)

SOLUTIONS

157

1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (b) 7. (c) 8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (b)

1. (d) 2. (e) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (e) 9. (b) 10. (e)

158

SOLUTIONS

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