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1

Introduction:

This is the second course in mathematics for you in IIT. In the ﬁrst course itself you have studied some basic properties such as continuity of functions of several variables. The central theme of this course is to study thoroughly geometric objects in higher dimensions and also functions. As you know the simplest geometric objects are lines and planes. Correspondingly, the simplest of functions which have suﬃciently interesting properties (not constants!) are linear functions. Therefore, we shall start our study with that of Linear Algebra. To begin with Linear Algebra brings uniﬁed approach to certain topics which are familiar to you such as coordinate geometry and vector algebra. Apart from playing a very crucial role in the basic understanding of the calculus of several variables, Linear Algebra has its own importance with applications in almost all scientiﬁc studies. So, in the ﬁrst part of the course, let us lay a proper foundation of Linear Algebra with basic deﬁnitions of vector spaces, linear transformations, linear dependence, dimension, matrices, determinants etc. Some illustrations of applications to geometric problems will be given with the study of quadratic forms. We shall also give an elementary proof of fundamental theorem of algebra using linear algebra that you learn in this course, thus achieving a kind of poetic justice since Fundamental theorem of algebra has to be used in a non trivial fashion in Linear algebra.

1.1

The Cartesian Coordinate Space:

Today let us get familiar with our ‘working space’. Thanks to DesCarte, of the fame ‘cogito ergo sum’ (I think therefore I am), we can refer to each and every corner of our space, in a very precise manner on our ﬁnger tips! The n-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space Rn is the totality of all ordered n-tuples x := (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) of real numbers xi ∈ R. It is denoted by R × · · · × R (n factors) or, in short, by Rn . Elements of this space are often referred to as ‘n-vectors’. For n = 1 you see that R1 is nothing but the real line and a real number can also be referred to as a 1-vector. Of course, in this case, we shall not use the absurdly complicated notation (x1 ) but merely write x1 . Similarly for n = 2 and 3, we can avail of the familiar notation (x, y) ∈ R2 and (x, y, z) ∈ R3 etc., respectively. For a point x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) we refer to xi as the ith coordinate of x. This then, is the ﬁrst example of a function from Rn to R. For each i = 1, 2, . . . , n, let us denote this function by πi : Rn −→ R, πi ((x1 , . . . , xn )) = xi . It is called the ith coordinate function or the ith coordinate projection. Given any function f : A −→ Rn , where A is any set, we can compose it with the ith coordinate projection to get n functions fi := πi ◦ f. An important observation is that f is completely determined by these functions fi called the ith component function of f, viz., f (a) = (f1 (a), . . . , fn (a)), ∀ a ∈ A. Thus one can expects that the study of functions f : A −→ Rn can be eﬀectively reduced to the study of functions fi : A −→ R, n of them in number, and perhaps to the study of their inter-relations. Soon we shall see that this is in fact so. For n < m we can think of Rn as a subset of Rm in various ways. One such standard 1

Then obviously the domain of deﬁnition of f is the whole of R2 . The most important amongst them is the ‘sum’ or ‘addition. y + x2 + 2xy 2 + y 4). Consider the cartesian product of n copies of N : Nn = N × · · · × N How many elements does N n has? Next consider the set S(n) of all sequences of length n with values in {1. m. 1. . since they have been told not to help you with this problem. n} be the set of ﬁrst n natural numbers. y) = (cos(x + y). x + y). whereas that of g is R2 \ {(x. xn ) → (x1 . y) : x + y = 0}. . b ∈ R such that for all r ∈ R \ {a.. . If you have solved it you may directly contact your Instructor. 2. sin(x2 y/x + y)). . . Do not consult the tutors for the solution. b}. .way is to identify it with the set of points y of Rm whose last m − n coordinates are identically zero. composition of functions. ﬁnd a continuous function f : R2 −→ R such that f −1 (−1) = {−1} and f −1 (1) = {1}. . f −1 (r) is either ∅ or inﬁnite. if n = 1.’ Given two n-vectors x = (x1 . . xn + yn ). there are natural ways of getting one-to-one mappings of any one of these three sets into another. . we could also have chosen any other m − n coordinates to vanish identically. It is straightforward 2 . . . n}.1 (1) As a refresher. sin(x/y)). . We presume that you are familiar with basic set theory. . . In that case we have. xn ) and y = (y1 . . to get other inclusion maps. But if we restrict the domain of f to R2 \ {(x. . . then g ◦ f deﬁned. A good reference is the I volume of Apostol’s Calculus. more generally. g(x. . y) = (x + y 2 . let us consider the following example: Let f (x. . yn ) we deﬁne their sum x + y = (x1 + y1 . . Can you see any relation between N n and S(n)? Further look at the set F (N. then we get the m coordinate axes of Rm for i = 1. 2. Indeed. N) which are one-to-one. Is ψ a bijective map? (ii) (Here is an optional exercise which you can take up as a challenge. . (c) Finally construct a continuous map R2 −→ R to illustrate that improvement on this statement is not possible. . . . Is there any relation between this set and the earlier two? Indeed. In particular. neither f ◦ g nor g ◦ f is deﬁned on R2 . 2. . . inverses etc. . .2 Algebraic Structure of Rn Some of the algebraic structures of the real numbers induce similar structure on Rn . 0. y) = (x2 y. . What does it correspond to in N n and S(n)? Exercise: (i) Let ψ(x. . Example 1. Therefore. . xn . .) Let f : R2 −→ R be a continuous map. Can you determine the natural domain for f ◦ g and write down the expression for it? (2) Let N = {1. . 0) : x ∈ R}. g ◦ f (x. Explicitly. N) of all functions from N to N. the ‘inclusion map’ (x1 . Then there exist a. 0) deﬁnes such an identiﬁcation. (b) if f is surjective then f −1 (r) is inﬁnite for all r ∈ R. Hence or otherwise prove that (a) for every n there exist at least n points which are mapped to the same point by f . . Let Σ(n) denote the subset of F (N. Observe that. . y) = (cos(x2 y + x + y).

. we need one more important ingredient viz. . y). y ∈ Rn as above. . in the proof of triangle inequality. All these properties are standard and can be veriﬁed easily.. Indeed. xy := (x1 y1 . . . In particular. we deﬁne αx = (αx1 . 3 . .. then these two operations coincide with the usual addition and multiplication. . the distance function is closely related to the dot product (x. We can of course try to deﬁne a ‘multiplication’ in Rn using the multiplication of real numbers. the distance function on Rn . we deﬁne the distance between x and y by n d(x. (d2) triangle inequality: d(x. 2. y) = d(y. we also have (d4) homogeneity: d(αx. the so called scalar multiplication. if n = 1. (Such a distance function is called a linear metric.to verify that this addition obeys all the usual laws that the addition of real numbers obey. Moreover. . . viz. for each real number α and a vector x. . x). y) ≤ d(x. For any two points x. y) → x · y := One deﬁnes the norm function by n xi yi . xn ) is (−x1 . You are already familiar with various properties of this function such as (d1) symmetry: d(x. y) = i=1 (xi − yi )2 . we also observe that. what we are presently looking for is something much simpler than this viz. and has an identity element 1x = x. y). . i x := d(x. w) + d(w. distributes with the sum: α(x + y) = αx + αy.. 0) and the negative of (x1 . y) = x − y . y) ≥ 0 and = 0 if and only if x = y. . In particular. . 0) = i x2 = i √ x · x. xn yn ). . . associative: α(βx) = (αβ)x. 1. as above.3 The Geometry of Rn Before starting of with any sort of calculus. . . (d3) positivity: d(x. −xn ). observe that the zero element for this sum is the zero vector 0 = (0. αxn ). and (α + β)x = αx + βx. It is 1. we can use the famous Cauchy-Schwarz inequality: |x · y| ≤ x y (1) The space Rn together with the two algebraic structures and the distance function d is called the n-dimensional euclidean space. However. For instance. . . 3. Then it follows that d(x. . αy) = |α|d(x. This is going to be our work-space for quite some time.

For n = 2. (d2). D satisfy properties (d1). Consider a square of side 4 units and place four coins of unit radius one in each corner so as to touch two of the sides. 9 the central ball which is kept touching all the balls in the corner lies inside the cube. (ii) On the set of 64 squares of a chess board deﬁne the distance d from one square to another to be the least number of knight moves required. (d3) above in place of d. (d3). However some caution is necessary. . Show that δ. . Determine the diameter of the chess board with respect to this distance where diameter of a space is the supremum of all values of d. Now place a coin at the center of the square so as to touch all the four coins. y) = max {|xi − yi | : 1 ≤ i ≤ n}. Prove √ this by showing that the radius of the central ball is n − 1. Exercises: (i) Deﬁne n d(x. The surprise is that for n > 9 the central ball cannot ﬁt inside the cube. (d2). Most of the concepts you have met in these two special cases have appropriate and obvious generalizations for all n. Do this inside a n-dimensional cube of side 4 units with 2n n-dimensional balls of unit radius. Check that this distance function satisfy (d1). y) = i=1 |xi − yi| and D(x. particularly while relying on ‘pictures’.You are quite familiar with the case n = 2 and n = 3. Of course each coin touches other two coins. . 4 . (iii) Here is an example to show that it is not advisable to rely too much on intuition when dealing with higher dimensions. .

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