Biology Notes          Surface area to volume ratio Mass transport systems: have branching vessels, make sure of ideal

substance direction and movement and have a medium. Dipole: slight separation of charge between oxygen and hydrogen atoms. There are weak bonds between many molecules, this gives water high surface tension Water is amphoteric: can mop up h+ and oh- to maintain PH Water can dissolve: ionic substances, polar substances (covalent) and non-polar to form colloids. Emulsions: L+L, Suspensions: S+L Cardiovascular system: carrying hormones, defence, even temp, carries away waste food, delivers food to cells.

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Blood takes food from intestines to store and from storage to cells, carries excretion, carries hormones, acts as a buffer, maintains temp Leucocytes either produce antibodies and antitoxins or engulf pathogens by phagocytosis O2 from lungs diffuses in RBC, the cytoplasm keeping the gradient stable, some O2 is then diffused into tissue, this process of oxygen disassociation gives a sigmoid curve. Carbon dioxide diffuses into plasma, reacts with water with the catalyst carbonic anhydrase, forms carbonic acid which separates into hydrogen and hydrogencarbonate ions. The haemoglobin acts as buffer, and with the hydrogen makes haemoglobinic acid, while the hydrogencarbonate ions move out the plasma to allow chloride ions in, making the chloride shift CO2+H2O↔ H2CO3↔ HCO3-+H+ Serotonin minimises blood flow by contracting vessels while thromboplastin is an enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin, forming a mesh and prothrombin into thrombin with the help of calcium ions.

Dr. similar to roads. Exceptions to blood oxygen levels appearance Notes Arteries Arterioles Aorta Carries blood away from heart to cells Deoxygenated when -pulmonary carries from heart to lungs -umbilical cord carries from fetus to placenta Elastic fibres and muscle Lumen Tough tissue -blood pressure and lumen diameter in peripheral arteries decrease with increasing distance from the heart  Enterocytes: cells of the superficial layer of the intestines . this combined with Glivec. cancer cells stimulate this to produce activator molecules. this gave blockage starves the tumour of 20% optimum results by blocking of oxygen and nutrients receptors receiving growth signals Mice’s genes can be silenced or replaced to develop diseases. by stopping this and blocking blood supply it combats cancer. takes cell’s deoxygenated blood back to heart o pulmonary: carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs. ethical issues considered.Ruoslahti-blocks blood vessels Dr Fidler-blocks receptors  Found nanoparticle peptide binds  Drug resistant Mice were given with blood clots on the endothelium traditional cancer treatment of only cancerous vessels. takes lungs oxygenated blood to heart The mass and pressure of blood is suited to the type of tube it is carried by.    Double circulation system: o Systemic: carries oxygenated blood from heart to cells. this spreads the cancer to surrounding epithelial cells. Angiogenesis is formation of blood vessels.

blood coming into capillaries from arteries oxygenated. blood is taken to the heart by semilunar valves that detect and adjust mechanically the blood flow direction by muscles contracting Capillaries Allow in waste material. when it leaves it’s deoxygenated Outer collagen layer -inferior and superior vena cava are the veins that carries blood to heart. diffuses out food and oxygen Small lumen for RBC to pass through Wall of epithelial cells . -veins carry a lot of blood at a low pressure.Veins Venules Carries blood back to heart from the cells oxygenated when -pulmonary carries from lungs to heart -umbilical cord carries from placenta to fetus Delicate structure.

2 1 6 7 3 4 8 5 1 9 .

8. tendinous cords stop TV turning inside out by contracting pressure. semilunar valves stop blood flowing Back into RV. The left side is larger because it has to receive the blood form the lungs and pump it around the whole body. Here the deoxygenated blood is carried to the lung alveoli. which slows the flow down. RV fills with blood and contracts to force blood into PA. The blood from each side of the heart never mixes and the heart is made or unique non-fatiguing cardiac muscle. to gain oxygen. The LV contracts high-pressure blood to force it into the A. drugs and age can affect heart rate. the opposite goes for systole.1. 5. semilunar valves prevents backflow. 6. Cardiovascular centre: the part of the brain that receives messages about carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood from the receptors. into the LA which contacts and the BV allows blood to LV and prevents backflow. Increasing pressure forces TV to open also called atrioventicular valve. it is needed for the heartbeat to react to situations such as fear or exercise. as a result of maintained electrical excitation or impulse. The tricuspid valve has three flaps while the bicuspid valve has 2 flaps. Oxygenated blood is passing through the PV. separation of 0. when it relaxes. semilunar valves at entrance stops blood flowing back down VCs. SVC carrying carbon dioxide rich deoxygenated blood from upper body parts.8s. Systole: the contraction of the heart Atrial systole: when atria contracts together forcing blood into the ventricle Ventricular systole: when the ventricle contracts and forces blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery Diastole: between contractions when the heart relaxes and fills with blood During diastole the semilunar valves are closed and the atrioventricular valves are open. 9. ECG: electrocardiogram graph: display of electrical activity of the heart Intrinsic rhythmicity: the continuing contractions of the heart that starts before the heart is even formed. ‘LubDub’ heartbeat sound. 7. . The A carries blood away and supplies the body with blood. When the heart contracts there is high blood pressure. 4. there is low blood pressure. IVC carrying carbon dioxide rich deoxygenated blood from lower body parts. 2. 3. in turn orders nerves to slow or speed up the heart rate. Peripheral resistance: friction between blood and vessel walls.                Key: IVC: inferior vena cava SVC: superior vena cava RA:right atrium VCs: venae cavae TV:tricuspid valve PA:pulmonary artery RV:right ventricle PV:pulmonary vein LA: left atrium BV: bicuspid or mitral valve LV: left ventricle A: aorta The right side of the heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. RA collects all this blood and contracts. Hormones.

This ECG graph shows the pressure and volume changes on the left side of the heart during the human cardiac cycle .

Normal blood pressure: systolic 120 mm Hg. More convenient A professional is needed than being on arm to accurately interpret results Manual Professional A sphygmomanometer uses a cuff connected to a stethoscope and mercury manometer to stop blood supply to the lower arm. The stethoscope listens to the sound of blood passing through blood vessels at the elbow as blood is slowly allowed through the cuff. and when the blood sound appears normal. diastolic 80 mm Hg (120/80) Hypertension: a sustained high blood pressure value perhaps caused by damaged blood vessels Hypotension: a sustained low blood pressure value perhaps caused by a weakened heart CVDs: cardiovascular diseases which account for ¼ of the UK premature deaths e. but permanent changes in pressure or flow rate can cause health issues. Further damage may cause a clot that may block artery Leucocytes arrive carrying cholesterol and atheroma forms Calcium salts and fibrous tissue covers atheroma to make plaque Artery Wall is less elastic and lumen gets smaller. Diastolic blood pressure: low pressure blood that still pushes through the cuff. Cheap        Possible human error Systolic blood pressure: high pressure blood that passes the cuff first when the heart is strongly contracting. Accurate as patient is more relaxed at home Expensive Calculated professional A machine detects blood flow through thumb or wrist. Commonly caused by high blood pressure or tobacco smoke (less likely in low pressure veins).g. Artherosclerosis: the build-up of plaque in the coronary (heart) or carotid (neck) arteries which restricts or blocks blood flow. and is converted into a reading that would have been on the arm by a calculation. Temporary changes in blood pressure such as exercise. Slight damage to endothelial lining leading to formation of lipids Platelets cap lipid formation and narrows artery . Blood pressure is measured in the old unit mm Hg Automatic non-professional Automatic sphygmomanometers has a microphone in the cuff that detects the sound of blood flow and displays a reading on screen patients can readings over time at home.   Blood pressure falls due to greater distance from pulsing heart. cause arteries to constrict (narrow) or dilate (widen). increased friction of narrow vessels and loss of fluid into the tissues. strokes.

Angina: when the arteries struggles to supply enough oxygenated blood during exercise and resorts to anaerobic respiration. it may burst and cause internal bleeding and very low blood pressure. Strokes: sometimes can be caused by a clot formed in another part of the body. resulting in high pressure bulges.     Aneurysm: when the artery is weakened by blood build-up behind the plaque. it causes chest pain. causing severe pain or death. then transported by the blood into an artery where it becomes lodged. effects include slurred speech or general paralysis on one side of the body. Myocardial infarction: heart attack where the heart is starved of oxygen by a blocked artery or coronary thrombosis. the worse place for this to occur is in the bicuspid valve. the kidneys (if proteins are forced out walls and found in urine) and the brain (where capillary bleeding may cause a stroke). High blood pressure can affect organs such as the eye (blindness if the retina is starved of oxygen). can be helped by improved lifestyle. (sweet) (sweet) (Not sweet) . if it occurs in a smaller artery it is more treatable. drugs that dilate arteries and lower heart rate or heart bypass surgery.

Two monosaccharides join by covalent glycosidic bond after condensation reaction wherein H2O is removed. olive oil and butter=lipids. while amylose keeps you going longer Glycogen: the only carbohydrate found in animal starch. Starch is insoluble and are what sugars from photosynthesis are converted to so glucose can be rapidly produced. and is in higher quantities (1. so H2O is added. it is made up of these compounds o Amylose: unbranched spiral polymer that releases its 200-5000 glucose molecules by enzymes (1. esterification where H2O is taken and an ester bond is made between the carboxyl group of a fatty acid and a hydroxyl group of a glycerol. Through hydrolysis. Mono-. it occurs during digestion in the gut where polysaccharides are broken down into simpler sugars. lipids dissolve in organic substances but not water.4 glycosidic bonds) o Amylopectin: branched polymer that have lots of terminals (ends) that release glucose molecules at a faster rate. lipids have +oxygen than carbohydrates Fatty acids and glycerol=fats and oils Fatty acids have a long hydrocarbon chain (15-17 Cs) and a carboxyl group at the end. hydrogen and oxygen atoms. polysaccharides convert to monosaccharides because their own structure is inactive and insoluble in water which is needed in water relations like osmosis.6 glycosidic bonds) During respiration. these can form a protective fat layer on organs.6 glycosidic bonds) Hydrolysis is the reversible reaction of a condensation reaction. this is the result of the condensation reaction. sometimes in a tetrahedral shape. the amylopectin helps when outbursts of energy is needed quickly. making monomers or polymers. it allows faster impulses. two or three fatty acids which forms a fat or oil. they are allowed to be complex because carbon can form 4 strong bonds. and can be saturated (single covalent bonds) or unsaturated (one-mono or many-poly double covalent bonds).           Organic compounds contain carbon.or triglyceride: when glycerol bonds with one. di. sometimes for waterproofing and plays a vital role in cell membranes. they are used in the myelin sheath because it is a good insulator. allowing it to release glucose faster(combination of 1. lipids have low density that allows floating. thus don’t interfere in cytoplasm water-based reactions. Cholesterol. . Polysaccharides can be very compact so good for storing carbohydrates during cellular respiration.4 glycosidic bonds and 1. polyunsaturates balance HDLs and LDLs ratios thus lowering cholesterol. its structure is similar to starch but it has side branches.

these properties are useful in mucus. unsaturated fats are healthier because the double bond in the chain allows the body to deal with saturated fats better. HDLs can even lower cholesterol as it takes it to where it can be broken down  To uncover the structure of proteins. sulphur and phosphorus. proteins are like the other food groups but in addition contain nitrogen.  All amino acids have a carbon atom attached to an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). this allows it to carry water and not be ingested by enzymes. protection with antibodies and transport oxygen. held by sulphur enzymes and haemoglobin proteins with cross-linkages bridges. polyunsaturated fats are the healthiest.Saturated fats can cause obesity or atherosclerosis.globular proteins.  Lipoproteins: a protein conjoined to a lipid that enables it to combine with cholesterol. which results in a structure of a dipeptide. then into a polypeptide. good for making the tendon connective tissue and muscles and matrix of bones (collagen) and also as keratin  globular proteins: have large spherical shapes that form colloids in water to give structure to the cytoplasm e. then a protein. hydrogen and ionic bonding  Denatured:when conditions makes the bonding that makes up a proteins 3-D shape are broken and proteins cannot function  fibrous proteins: tough and insoluble. contract muscle fibres. peptide primary structure e. as formed when slightly positive amino group and slightly negative carboxyl group bond.their moving depends on R-group X-ray crystallography X rays fired at protein crystal.  Ionic bonds or salt bridges: occur rarely by ionic boing between strongly negative and positive side chains in the polypeptide Primary Structure Secondary Structure Tertiary structure Quaternary structure Linear sequence of amino acids in a Hydrogen bonding that repeats the 3-D coiled secondary structure Numerous tertiary structures e. scientists use enzymes to break them down into their amino acids.g. enzymes haemoglobin and hormones.  Hydrogen bonds: occur often but are weak and can break to temperature and PH change.then ninhyrin reveals how far they travelled Electrophoresis* A PH constant solution holds amino acids in an unreactive gel and current is passed. but when there is attraction a condensation reaction occurs and a strong peptide link bond is made. synovial fluid and haemoglobin which releases oxygen with iron. antibodies  Glycoproteins: a protein that is conjoined to a carbohydrate prosthetic group. then perform one of three processes Two-way Paper chromatography (at right angle) Drops of amino acid in a solvent is put on Water-soaked Filter paper. there are low density(22 nmd) that form saturatred fats and high (8-11 nmd) density that form unsaturated fats lipoproteins.g. nails. pleated fibrous e.atoms reflect a pattern back and printed on photographicplates to be interpreted  *When interpreting chromatograms and electrophoresis apply the ratio of the distance moved by the amino acid to the distance moved by the solvent alone(Rf)using this formula . R-groups are concerned with how amino acids join into chains and depends on whether the R-group is polar or not. skin.  Proteins: air.g.g.  Sulphur bridges or disulfide link: strong covalent bond where an oxidation reaction occurs rarely between two colliding cysteine or methionine in a polypeptide.

so physical activity level(PAL. the study of this is epidemiology .eg. EAR is given for different ages and lifestyles Positive energy balance: when it is easy for people to eat above the Basal metabolic rate or recommended minimum daily intake Negative energy balance: when food is scarce and people barely cover their Basal metabolic rate or recommended minimum daily intake BMI-body mass index: now found not make allowance for the difference between fat and muscle and is not good at predicting likelihood of CVDs o ˂18. carbohydrates and fat) and RNI (reference nutrient intake e. this is an average of 1. there are LRNI (lower reference nutrient intake). increase risk of diabetes.Problems of Mal-overnutrition May lead to obesity that can reduce lifespan. men have a high BMR as more energy is need to maintain it than fat BMR falls with age as muscle is replaced with fat.5kJ/g o Proteins yield 17. However BMR does not take human activity into account thereby it is of little use.2Kj/g o Lipids yield 38. 1 Kilocalorie=4. vitamins and minerals) Energy that comes from food is released when their bonds break. when multiplied by the BMR. measured at rest and calculated by noting temperature changes over a period of time. vitamins.kJ/unit time) is used.g.g. dieases that show to correlate with several risk factors through genes or lifestyle. in the UK. EAR (estimated average intake e.5-25kg/m2-ideal range o 25-30kg/m2-overweight BMI= (Height in meters)2 o 30-40kg/m2-obese o ˃40kg/m2-morbidly obese Risk: describes the probability that a particular event will happen and is calculated by diving the whole population by past events Multifactorial disease: . minerals and vitamins. minerals. protein.2 kJ of heat energy raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1oc o Carbohydrates yield 17. the difference in temperature compares to:          o 4. this is why those with high proportion of muscle e.g.2 Kilojoules Basal metabolic rate(BMR): the energy the body needs to operate organs. this is measured by calorimetry using a calorimeter: First a quantity of food is oxidised and the energy released is transferred to the water as heat. metabolism and reactions in the cells. coronary heart disease and high blood pressure  Problems of Mal-undernutrition Reduce resistance to disease and shorten lifespan.2kJ/g Calories are actually called Kilocalories. energy.5kg/m2-underweight Weight in Kg o 18.4 (low). it makes 75% of metabolic needs BMR also relies on total body mass and lean body mass. suffer deficiency diseases due to lack of essential amino acids. muscle wastage and heart damage  The committee on medical aspects of food policy COMA reviews scientific research and advice the government and have developed dietary reference values that show the appropriate intakes for the population.

g. rare side-effect: liver or muscle damage Plant stanols and sterols have a similar structure to cholesterol but reduce the amount absorbed from the gut to the blood and reduces LDL thus if the recommended 2g is taken daily. fatigue and constipation. e. adrenaline o Sympathetic nerve inhibitors: inhibit the signals of the nerves to the arteries to constrict so that they dilate o ACE inhibitors: stops the manufacture of the hormone Angiotensin that constricts the arteries Statins: drugs that reduce risk of atherosclerosis by balancing LDLs and HDLs and blocking the enzyme in the liver that makes cholesterol. which has the forms beta casein A1(unhealthy)and A2(healthy)with a single amino acid separating them Theory: when the amino acid homocysteine is not metabolised it causes atherosclerosis. High salt intake has proven to be a factor in the risk of CVDs but people have many personal reasons they chose to have lifestyles with health risks .g. however less tested than drugs as evidence is weak Thrombosis treatment involves anticoagulants that blocks blood-clotting prothrombin and loosens blood (warfarin which needs careful dosage) and platelet inhibitor drugs which make platelets less sticky (painkiller aspirin or clopidogrel which could cause stomach or brain bleeding).    Retrospective: scientists look back at information on health and death rates collected years earlier Longitudinal studies: follow the same group of individuals over many years Metadata analysis: condensing large amounts of data Literature study: combines small and large studies in an area to give more reliable evidence than they do individually        Theory: 80% of the protein in milk is casein. swelling. o Diuretics: lowers blood volume by increasing volume of urine to get rid of excess fluids and salts o Beta blockers: block hormones that may speed up rate or make the heart contact e. it can lower risk of heart disease by 25%. this can be combated by taking folic acid and B vitamins Antihypertensives: drugs that reduce blood pressure they have side effects such as very low blood pressure.

Chargaff found equal proportions of bases in DNA. in 1951. in 1945. RNA and other proteins DNA and RNA are polymers and have similar monomer units. Pauling lead the study of DNA’s structure and proves hydrogen bonds could be broken by heating. it is used to made DNA. MacLeod and McCarty found DNA was the genetic code carrier. . which have three parts (below) Deoxyribonucleic acid pentose sugar (deoxyribose)+nitrogen base(purines=adenine and guanine=pyrimidines=cytosine and thymine)+phosphoric acid Ribonucleic acid    pentose sugar (ribose)+nitrogen base(purines=adenine and guanine=pyrimidines=cytosine and uracil)+phosphoric acid (in cytoplasm)   Nucleotides are linked by a condensation reaction producing a covalent phosphodiester bridge between the sugar and acid to make the spine of polynucleotide The two DNA stands known as 5 prime and 3 prime for carbon atoms are held by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs (10 per twist).  Genetic code is all the instructions for making cells whether by mitosis or meiosis it is found in nucleic acids stored in the chromosomes of the nucleus. Wilkins then secretly gave Franklin’s measurements to Watson and Crick whom had a breakthrough of understanding the double helix and thus the role of DNA in reproduction. where the enzyme helicase unzips the coil and new base bonds are joined to make stands by polymerase and ligase There are two types of DNA replication. conservative where the double helix remains completely intact and an entirely new double helix is formed without destroying the original copy and semiconservative where the bonds between the bases are broken and the DNA molecule "unzips" into two strands. thus the final copies are half original DNA and half new DNA. scientist then looked at the behaviour of chromosomes transferring this. In 1865 Mendel posed the concept of ‘ inherited particles’. Wilkins and Franklin were observing x-ray crystallography with difficulty that ensued rivalry. Alongside each of the two strands forms a new strand. nucleotides.

which changes genes in chromosome Point mutations: miscopying of one nucleotide. like many mutations. inversion or translocation whole-chromosome mutation: when a whole chromosome is lost or duplicated during meiosis. In 1958. making an unhealthy phenotype protein Chromosomal mutations: changes in the positions of genes in the chromosomes either by point. causing a frame shift or reshaped active site. where TAC codes for the start of a gene and methionine if within a gene Gene: a sequence of bases on a DNA molecule coding for a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. mRNA has an antisense stand of DNA and is engulfed by a ribosome. deletion. tRNA is found in the cytoplasm and deliver amino acids to make peptide bonds Mutation: changes in the arrangement of bases in an individual gene or in the structure of the chromosome. they can be inherited mutagens: ionising radiation. where Met bonds with Phe. Meselson and Stahl carried out this experiment:         A triplet code is used to form the many combinations of amino acids. duplication. x-rays and some chemicals that can increase rate of mutations occurring .

Metabolism: combinations of anabolic (build-up of bonds)and catabolic (break-up of bonds)reactions. used in diagnostic testing e. enzymes can be named according to what it does. lowering activation energy in anabolic reaction by bringing stuffs closer and catabolic reactions by the active affecting the bonds in the substrates making bonds easier to break. there are exceptions for thermophilic (heat loving) enzymes Enzymes. outside the range enzymes can become denatured similarly with the affect PH has on its rate of reaction at xoc weak bondage. skin cancers is mutations in somatic (body) cells. can form a metabolic chain or pathway Specificity: enzyme that works in a specific group because of the specific shape of the active site. what it works on or by a classification number. this means all of the active site are full of substrates Q10= rate of reaction at (x+10)oc Temperature co-efficient: effect of temperature on reactions. Phenotype: chemical and physical characteristics of an organism Genotype: inherited genetic information from parents Karyotype: the assortment chromosomes in the genotype of an organism organised in homologous pairs which have similar genes(except gametes) Locus: the position of a gene Alleles: different versions of genes that produce characteristic variations Homozygote or true breed: organism with the same alleles (homozygous).g. fungi and bacteria suitable for experimentation: ¬cheap and easy to raise in bulk ¬have distinguished features ¬have large offspring with short life cycles .Second filial generation F2 is the second cross round(characteristics can be ‘hidden’ in either round) Test cross: crossing organisms to deduce if they are homo or heterozygous These traits make organisms like fast plants. urine-glucose test. insects. (expressed aside) the typical range being every 10ocrise=doubling of rate. cystic fibrosis is when a membrane function can’t function and Down’s syndrome occurs by whole-chromosome duplication of chromosome 21. catalase being the fastest Enzymes can become statured by the concentration of substrates. desirable for farmers Heterozygous: organism with different alleles (heterozygous) Monohybrid cross: when one gene is considered at a time in a genetic cross First filial generation F1 is the first cross round.                      Thalassemia is when blood proteins are faulty made. small depression on the surface of a 3-D molecule Complex: formed by enzymes and substrates locking . thereafter it may break or become inactive Induced-fit hypothesis: new model where the more flexible enzyme is modified to allow substrates Molecular activity: measures number of substrate molecules transformed per minute by a single enzyme. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are useful in detecting antibodies and infections the history of enzymes include the realisation of how to extract them and the discovery of them being globular proteins enzymes that work inside the cells are intracellular and those that are secreted by cells are extracellular.

Thalassemia major or Cooley’s anaemia is severest β where chains cannot be made and Thalassemia is incurable but treated by blood transfusions or screening with side effects.g. anaemia or death. those with Thalassemia have high resistance to malaria. even some penetrate all the way through the lipid (having hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer) .because the joining of gametes is a random affair and predictions are never precise. there are varied types but common symptoms are fatigue. eyes and hair cannot form(not fatal).decreases with s-size Gregor Mendel investigated peas meticulously by predicting the results of their crosses. when tightly packed either form a monolayer (heads in water and tails in air) or a micelle (heads pointing outwards and tails hidden). some phospholipids and proteins. moral issues genetic pedigree diagrams:shows how a trait can be inherited theoretically. gene linkage and polygenic inheritance contradicts this where traits are controlled by several interacting genes Enzyme chains: to make proteins enzymes need a lot of energy. aided by genes involved an example of polygenic inheritance Incomplete dominance: neither allele is completely dominant or recessive thus both affect the phenotype polygenetic haemoglobin is made up of 574 amino acids arranged in 4 polypeptide chains either from alpha or beta chains. one allele for each trait is inherited from each parent to give two allele for each trait (segregated gametes) o Law of independent assortment: different traits are inherited independently.caused by either a recessive mutant allele which stops enzyme tyrosinase form. Some biotech companies take advantage of the free human Gerome project and develop to sell.identical twins( ) Albinism: when natural melanin pigment of the skin. Vesicles: sacks of cell secretion which fuses with membrane Each polar lipid is joined to a polar group while the fatty acids have the structure of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. they are made from polar lipids. Thalassemia stops these forming thus stopping oxygen transport.Huntingtons disease unbearable and would rather not be tested by others whom want to start a family with them think they have the right to know or insurance companies. Apart from the outer cell one. the proportion of phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids in the bilayer affects how freely the proteins float. he made these laws but his findings were ignored due to the perfect evidence that proved others wrong through statistics. it is also flexible to adjust to cell water levels changes. as no one has a set of perfect genes.             Sampling error when find theoretical ratios. Thomas Morgan later found Mendel’s laws was correct and they still apply today o Law of segregation: in a diploid. causing drugs to be too expensive for the developing world. some glycoproteins. these control fluid compositions for suitable reaction conditions. (active in melanocytes that reacts to make melanin) or the breakdown of amino acid phenylalanine by mutant enzymes Some people find learning they have an incurable fatal disease e. When there is water on each side a monolayer may rarely form at the surface and a bilayer is formed (heads in the water and tails hidden)making the unit membrane which allows fat-soluble organic molecule into the cell Fluid mosaic model: Proteins float in a lipid sea. there are many membranes within a cell. it can be caused by gene deletion (ɑ c-16)or mutation(β recessive c-11).it includes all family members and useful when predict human diseases proband is the person being studied( ).

in 1935 Davson and Danielli found proteins and lipid  gases water and lipid-soluble substances can pass into membrane via diffusion where after the particles reach a uniform distribution=net change  facilitated diffusion can be passive transport through protein lined pores occurs when channel proteins are allowing types of molecule through which is specified by its shape or triggered to open by an electrical impulse.g. the reverse if hypertonic. If the surrounding cell solution is hypotonic. there is hypotonic (higher c. RBC carrying oxygen  water enters by osmosis thus avoiding the hydrophobic centre. solute) or isotonic solution (equal 1925 Gorter and Grendel measure the size of membrane components with error. osmotic concentration describes how solutes usually in plant cells are effected. the carrier rotates with the molecule by diffusion the membrane with a renewed shape e.g. in living organisms the solvent is always water. difference  The rate of diffusion across a membrane has these factors and can be calculated by this: Rate of diffusion□ __________________________ ¬increasing surface area¬maintaining the c. enzymes or glycoproteins with a carbohydrate part added to the molecule allows cells be recognised at the end of the nineteenth century Overton found lipid-soluble matter passed through membrane well. hypertonic (higher c. Or depending on protein carriers on the outside surface of the membrane passing through a substance or on the inside when a substance moves out. in 1917 Langmuir demonstrated the monolayer. Isotonic sport drinks help give equal levels of body fluid. gradient ¬decreasing the distance Thickness of membrane    . osmosis can be investigated by benedict’s solution. so the net movement is kept at a minimum.). phagocytosis(cell eating) or pinocytosis(cell drinking)  Exocytosis: the emptying of the vesicles at the surface e. cellulose cell wall prevents cells bursting by halting water influx after cell is rigid. each nerve impulse depends on the influx of sodium ions through the axon membrane.proteins have gated channels or pores.  in animals water does not move continuously into cells due to overfill. these ions have to be actively pumped out the neuron after to let the next impulse pass. and cells contain lots of mitochondria-the site of aerobic cellular respiration. glycocalyx found on the outer side is used for cell recognition within tissues  osmosis is the net movement of solvent molecules from a region of dilute solution of solute to a more concentrated solution of solute through a partial permeable membrane. hormones Fick’s Law: surface area*c. AT is faster and one-way. some allowing ionics in or active carrier systems which provides energy for molecule to move proteins can be a specific receptor molecules. if water is deficient . the osmotic c. turgor  cells can metabolise substances by chemically changing it or by active transport involving a whole membrane carrier protein that uses energy from the breakdown of ATP (produced during cellular respiration)assisted by ATPase removing a phosphate group to form ADP. vital for the CNS.the concentrated cytoplasm loses structure and reactions stop.g. it relies on temperature and oxygen c. of solutes is lower than that in the cytoplasm of cells.  Endocytosis: when materials are taken in by vesicles e. water). cyanide poisons ATP and stops it  sodium pump: actively moves potassium ions into the cell and sodium ions out.

infertility and gut and pancreas indigestion as mucus blocks the pancreatic duct passing enzymes from pancreas to duodenum (top of s. air pressure ˃lung pressure.g. salbutamol and steroids to open airways and reduce inflammation. also sodium channels for sodium ions o High c. elastic fibres return. air goes out (forced exhalation) Exhalation: less chest cavity volume. thAIRapy. separated by elastic tissue that performs elastic recoil Alveoli naturally tend to collapse. dehydrated antibodies. of Na and Cl in fluid of cytoplasm of e. insulin-risk of diabetes or blocked villi=malnutrition Excess mucus can block a woman’s cervix and oviducts stopping sperm or block a man’s vas deferens so sperm is not carried from testis to semen Usually CFTR keeps Na and Cl ions at a gradient so that it can be reabsorbed as it is passes by gland ducts. perhaps at a sticky end (more base pairs on one stand than the othereasier to attach new pieces. villi absorbs enzymes into lining.’flutter’.phospholipid lung surfactant coating prevents this while phagocytic WBC in macrophage kept it free from bacteria Inhalation: more chest cavity volume. or Positive Expiatory Pressure valve o Diet: due to digestive issues.looking at blood medium ¬low permanent vector success rate. a good blood supply for air temperature and the lining secretes mucus and is covered in cilia which removes dust breathed in Alveoli are tiny air sacs made of squamous epithelial cells. less nutrients gained and trapped enzymes may digest pancreas cells e. high-fat. body needs immunosuppressant drugs to prevent rejection(less immune) o Genetic modification: restriction endonucleases enzymes cut DNA. intestine). blocked bronchioles.thus chlorine and water does not move out&mucus sticks Symptoms: salty sweat. one-cell-thick capillaries run close. the nasal passages have large moist surface area to increase the air water vapour. diaphragm flattens. cells (maintains gradient) o Chlorine ATP-activated gated channels in lumen made from CFTR protein pass ions (diffusion). as a result.g. intercostal muscles relax. intercostal muscles contract. bacteria growth in mucus. missing pancreatic enzymes and insulin o Heart or lung transplant surgery: on that organ is cured. breathlessness. vaccines against flu and pneumonia. CF sufferers need to eat more. DNAase mucolytics dilute mucus. healthy genes made by mRNA-DNA using reverse transcriptase to make cDNA. air pressure ˂lung pressure. air goes in Stomach acid and enzymes digest mucus and is kept runny by this process: o Chorine pump allows Chlorine ions in e.           Gases that need to be supplied more quickly than diffusion need a respiratory system. carb and energy food and twice as much protein o Drugs and enzymes: antibiotics via inhalers for lung infections. cells causes water osmosis.DC508.looking at stem cells .salty sweat indicates CF or heart problems No real cure for CF but there are the following aids: o Physiotherapy exercises out mucus twice day e. so water can dilute mucus Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive mutation on chromosome 7 coding for CFTR. DNA ligases acts as genetic glue o Vectors:adenovirus or retrovirus or plasmids (naked DNA gun)or liposome combine with recombinant DNA in the host nucleus(transfection) o Somatic cell gene therapy: gene therapy may not work because of these barriers: ¬sodium ion move out less easily than chlorine ions ¬epithelial cells are always being shed ¬enhanced gene not inherited look at germline ¬difficult lung blockage. diaphragm domes.

earlier in pregnancy.8% risk of miscarriage -faults on inactivated X chromosome undetected o Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: involves IVF where on faulty gene-free embryos are implanted thus removing the gene from the pool . genetic counselling is used in these cases .  It is now possible to perform gene therapy on early stage embryos but this may lead to designer babies or invasive intervention Screening babies for faulty genes has been introduced to give early treatment. most parents would rather not know if their child is a carrier. prenatal screening may raise traumatic decisions for abortion. foetuses are tested: o Amniocentesis: removes 20cm3 of amniotic fluid surrounding fetus with syringe. balancing the finance. cells are spun in centrifuge and are cultured/analysed -late stage fetus abortion more traumatic -1% risk of miscarriage -results take a while o Chorionic villus sampling: small sample of embryotic tissue taken from developing placenta. faster results -4.

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