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Globalization and the University:

Realities in an Unequal World

by Philip G. Altbach
Center for International Higher Education
Boston College

OCCASIONAL PAPERS ON GLOBALIZATION


Volume 2 No. 1 2005

Tampa, Florida
Dear Reader,
As editor of Occasional Papers on Globalization, I am pleased to introduce the
first issue of volume two, written by Professor Philip G. Altbach, Center for
International Higher Education, Boston College.

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Globalization and the University: Realities in an Unequal World

by Philip G. Altbach

In the past two decades, globalization has always figured in the global environment,
come to be seen as a central force for both they have been affected by circumstances
society and higher education. Some have beyond the campus and across national
argued that globalization, broadly defined as borders. This reality is all too often
largely inevitable global economic and overlooked in analyses of 21st century
technological factors affecting every nation, globalization. A long-term perspective when
will liberate higher education and foster considering the university reveals the deep
needed change. Technological innovations historical roots of the ethos and governance
such as the Internet, the forces of the market, of universities.
and others will permit everyone to compete
on the basis of equality. Knowledge Given the centrality of the knowledge
interdependence, it is argued, will help economy to 21st-century development,
everyone. Others claim that globalization higher education has assumed a higher
strengthens worldwide inequality and fosters profile both within countries and
the McDonaldization of the university. All internationally because of its roles in
the contemporary pressures on higher educating people for the new economy and
education, from massification to the growth in creating new knowledge (Altbach,
of the private sector, are characterized as 1998a). As evidence, the World Trade
resulting from globalization. There is a grain Organization is now focusing on higher
of truth in each of these hypotheses—and a education. Currently, a debate is
good deal of misinterpretation as well. This under way concerning the General
essay will seek to “unpack” the realities of Agreement on Trade in Services
globalization and the related concept of (GATS). Multinational corporations and
internationalization in higher education and some government agencies in the rich
to highlight some of the impact on the countries are seeking to integrate higher
university. Of special interest here is how education into the legal structures of world
globalization is affecting higher education in trade through the WTO. These
developing countries, which will experience developments indicate how important
the bulk of higher education expansion in universities and knowledge have become in
the next two decades (Task Force on Higher the contemporary world (Larsen, Martin, &
Education and Development, 2000). Morris, 2002; Knight, 2002; Altbach, 2002).

From the beginning, universities have Definitions


been global institutions—in that they It will be useful to define some of the
functioned in a common language, Latin, terms in the current debate about
and served an international clientele of globalization. For some, globalization means
students. Professors, too, came from many everything—a catch-all for the external
countries, and the knowledge imparted influences on society. For others, it includes
reflected scholarly learning in the Western only the negative side of contemporary
world at the time. Since universities have reality. We examine the international
environment of higher education and seek to engage in collaborative research overseas,
analyze how that environment affects set up joint teaching programs in other
national higher education systems and countries or a myriad of other initiatives.
individual academic institutions. Thus, the Internationalism is not a new phenomenon
focus is not on the detailed issues of the and indeed has been part of the work of
management of academic institutions— many universities and academic systems for
changing administrative structures or centuries. With much room for initiative,
changes in the specific nature of academic institutions and governments can choose the
appointments, for example, although these ways in which they deal with the new
may be influenced by global trends. Rather, environment. Internationalism constitutes
we are concerned with how societies and the ways that contemporary academe deals
universities have dealt with mass with globalization. While the forces of
enrollments, privatization, and new technologies, globalization cannot be held at bay, it is not
among others. inevitable that countries or institutions will
necessarily be overwhelmed by them, or that
In this discussion, globalization is the terms of the encounter must be dictated
defined as the broad economic, by others. Internationalization accommodates
technological, and scientific trends that a significant degree of autonomy and
directly affect higher education and are initiative (Knight, 1997; Knight, 2004;
largely inevitable in the contemporary Scott, 1998; De Wit, 2002).
world. These phenomena include
information technology in its various Another new trend in higher education
manifestations, the use of a common is multinationalization, which refers to
language for scientific communication, and academic programs or institutions located in
the imperatives of society’s mass demand one country offering degrees, courses,
for higher education (massification) and for certificates, or other qualifications in other
highly educated personnel, and the ‘private countries. The programs are often sponsored
good’ trend in thinking about the financing jointly with local institutions, but this is not
of higher education. Academe is affected by, always the case (Teather, 2004). A joint-
for example, patterns in the ownership of degree sponsored by institutions in two or
multinational publishing and Internet more countries, often called “twinning,” is
companies, the investment in research and an example of a multinational academic
development worldwide, and international enterprise. Offshore institutions constitute
currents of cultural diffusion. These, and one variation of the trend—this may be
other, trends are part of globalization—they carried out through franchising (sometimes
help to determine the nature of the 21st referred to as “McDonaldization”) or simply
century economy and society. All are by opening a branch institution (Hayes &
affected by these trends, and must take them Wynyard, 2002). The American University
into consideration as part of higher of Bulgaria, offering U.S.-style academic
education policy and reality. programs in English in Bulgaria and
accredited in the United States is an
Internationalization refers to specific example. Increasingly, the Internet is used in
policies and programs undertaken by the delivery of multinational academic
governments, academic systems and programs.
institutions, and even individual departments
to undertake student or faculty exchanges,

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Centers and Peripheries qualifications, strong traditions, and
The world of globalized higher education legislation that supports academic freedom.
is highly unequal. Concentrating on The academic culture fosters high
developing countries and on smaller achievement levels by individual professors
academic systems immediately reveals the and students, and by the institutions
specter of inequality. While the Internet and themselves. These top institutions often use
other manifestations of globalization are one of the major international languages for
heralded as disseminating knowledge teaching and research, and in general enjoy
equally throughout the world, the evidence adequate support from the state.
is mixed on the outcomes. In some ways,
globalization does open access, making it The world of centers and peripheries is
easier for students and scholars to study and growing ever more complex (Altbach,
work. But in many respects, existing 1998b). The international academic
inequalities are only reinforced while new centers—namely the leading research-
barriers are erected. The debate in higher oriented universities in the North, especially
education mirrors analyses of globalization those that use one of the key world
generally. Economists Joseph Stiglitz and languages (particularly English)—occupy
Dani Rodrik, among others, have argued that the top tier. High quality universities do
in some respects globalization works against exist elsewhere—for example, in Japan and
the interests of developing countries, several smaller European countries. A
reinforcing international inequalities number of universities in China, Singapore,
(Stiglitz, 2002; Rodrik, 1999). Neither is and South Korea aspire to the status of top
opposed to globalization —and both see it as research institutions.
inevitable—but their critiques reveal critical
problems that tend to be overlooked in the A New Neocolonialism?
dominant perspectives on the topic. The era of the Cold War was
characterized by the efforts of the major
The powerful universities and academic powers to dominate the “hearts and minds”
systems—the centers—have always dominated of the peoples of the world. The Soviet
the production and distribution of Union, the United States, and others spent
knowledge. Smaller and weaker institutions lavishly on student exchanges, textbook
and systems with fewer resources and often subsidies, book translations, institution
lower academic standards—the peripheries— building, and other activities to influence the
have tended to be dependent on them. world's academic leaders, intellectuals, and
Academic centers provide leadership in policymakers. The goals were political and
science and scholarship and in research and economic, and higher education was a key
teaching. They are the leaders with regard to battlefield. The rationale was sometimes
the organizational structure and mission couched in the ideological jargon of the
of universities and in knowledge Cold War but was often obscured by
dissemination. The centers tend to be rhetoric about cooperation (Altbach, 1971).
located in larger and wealthier countries,
where the most prestigious institutions The programs included many that offered
benefit from the full array of resources, considerable benefit to the recipients—
including funding and infrastructures—such including scholarships to study abroad, high-
as libraries and laboratories to support quality textbooks, scientific equipment, and
research, academic staff with appropriate other resources. Participation in programs

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took place on an entirely voluntary basis, central for communicating knowledge
but, in a context of scarcity, assistance worldwide, for instruction even in countries
becomes difficult to decline. Acceptance where English is not the language of higher
meant increased ties to the donor countries education, and for cross-border degree
and institutions and long-term dependence arrangements and other programs. The
on the countries providing the aid. dominance of English is a factor in
Installation of laboratory equipment or globalization that deserves analysis if only
computers, for example, meant continuing because higher education worldwide must
reliance on the supplier for spare parts, grapple with the role of English (Crystal,
training, and the like. 1997).

We are now in a new era of power and English is the most widely studied
influence. Politics and ideology have taken a foreign language in the world. In many
subordinate role to profits and market-driven countries, English is the required second
policies. Now, multinational corporations, language in schools, and is the second
media conglomerates, and even a few language of choice in most places. English is
leading universities can be seen as the new the medium of most internationally
neocolonists—seeking to dominate not for circulated scientific journals. Universities in
ideological or political reasons but rather for many countries stress the importance of their
commercial gain. Governments are not professors’ publishing in internationally
entirely out of the picture—they seek to circulated scientific journals, almost by
assist companies in their countries and have definition in English, placing a further
a residual interest in maintaining influence premium on the language. Internet websites
as well. The role of the governments of such devoted to science and scholarship function
countries as the United States and Australia predominantly in English. Indeed, English
in advocating the interests of for-profit serves as the language of Internet academic
education providers and others in their and scientific transactions. The largest
countries in the World Trade Organization number of international students goes to
with regard to the General Agreement on universities in English-speaking countries.
Trade in Services (GATS) and other matters
is but one example. As in the Cold War era, English is the medium of instruction in
countries and universities are not compelled many of the most prominent academic
to yield to the terms of those providing aid, systems—including those of the United
fostering exchanges, or offering Internet States, the United Kingdom, Australia,
products, but the pressures in favor of Canada, and New Zealand—all of which
participation tend to prevail. Involvement in enroll large numbers of overseas students.
the larger world of science and scholarship Singapore, Ethiopia, and much of
and obtaining perceived benefits not Anglophone Africa use English as the
otherwise available presents considerable primary language of instruction as well.
inducements. The result is the same—the English often functions as a medium of
loss of intellectual and cultural autonomy by instruction in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh,
those who are less powerful. and Sri Lanka. Other countries are
increasingly offering academic programs in
The Role of English English—to attract international students
English is the Latin of the 21st century. unwilling to learn the local language and to
In the current period, the use of English is improve the English-language skills of

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domestic students and thus enable them to to 80 percent of students from China and
work in an international arena. English- India, two of the largest sending countries to
medium universities exist in many the United States, do not return home
countries—from Azerbaijan and Bulgaria to immediately after obtaining their degrees,
Kyrgyzstan and Malaysia. In many taking jobs or post-doctoral appointments in
countries—such as Japan, the Netherlands, the United States. The years since the
Germany, Mexico, and so on—universities collapse of the Soviet system have also seen
offer English-medium degree programs and a flow of scientists from Russia to Western
courses at local universities. Many European Europe and North America.
Union nations offer study in English as a
way of attracting students from elsewhere in Most international students pay for their
the EU. own studies, producing significant income
for the host countries—and a drain on the
The Global Marketplace for Students and economy of the developing world.
Scholars According to estimates, the money spent
Not since the medieval period has such a abroad by students from some developing
large proportion of the world’s students been countries more than equals incoming foreign
studying outside their home countries— aid. These students not only acquire training
almost two million students at any one in their fields but also absorb the norms and
time—and some estimate that the number of values of the academic systems in which
overseas students will grow to 8 million by they study. They return home desiring to
2020. Large numbers of professors and other transform their universities in ways that
academics travel abroad temporarily for often prove to be both unrealistic and
research or teaching, and substantial ineffective. Foreign students serve as
numbers of academics migrate abroad as carriers of an international academic
well to pursue their careers. Aspects of culture—a culture that reflects the major
globalization such as the use of English metropolitan universities and which may not
encourage these flows and will ensure that be relevant for the developing world.
growth continues. As academic systems
become more uniform and academic degrees The flow of highly educated talent from
more accepted internationally, as the developing countries to the West is
immigration rules favor people with high large—and problematical for Third World
skill levels, and as universities look to hiring development. For example, more Ethiopian
the best talent worldwide, the global holders of doctoral degrees work outside of
marketplace will expand. Ethiopia than at home, and 30 percent of all
highly educated Ghanaians and Sierra
The flow of academic talent at all levels Leoneans live and work abroad. Many
is directed largely from South to North— African countries experience this pattern.
from the developing countries to the large South Africa is losing many of its most
metropolitan academic systems. Perhaps 80 talented academics to the North, while at the
percent of the world’s international students same time it is recruiting from elsewhere in
come from developing countries, and Africa. This migration has seriously
virtually all of them study in the North. weakened academic institutions in many
Most of these students pursue masters, developing countries.
doctoral, and professional degrees. Many do
not return to their countries of origin. Close

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Academic migration follows complex the migration of academic talent will
routes. Many Egyptian, Jordanian, and continue in the current globalized
Palestinian academics work at Arabian Gulf environment. People have long equated the
universities, attracted by better salaries and migration of talent with brain drain. The life
working conditions than are available at stories of emigrants have changed (Choi,
home. Indians and Pakistanis are similarly 1995). Many academics now keep in close
drawn to the Gulf as well as to Southeast contact with their countries of origin,
Asia. Singapore and Hong Kong attract maintaining scientific and academic
academics worldwide. Mexico and Brazil relationships with colleagues and institutions
employ scholars from elsewhere in Latin at home.
America. South Africa, Namibia, and
Botswana currently recruit Africans from The migration of academic talent is in
elsewhere on the continent. Some of the best many ways promoted by the industrialized
scholars and scientists from Russia and a countries, which have much to gain.
number of Central European countries have Immigration policies are in some cases
taken positions in Western Europe and designed to encourage talented personnel to
North America. migrate and establish residency—although
at least in the United States security
The most significant “pull” factors concerns in the aftermath of 9/11 have
include better salaries and working changed the equation to some extent. In
conditions and the opportunity to be at the many countries, academic institutions make
centers of world science and scholarship it easy for foreigners to fit into the career
(Altbach, 2003, pp. 1-22). The discrepancies structure.
in salaries and conditions between North and
South mean that in most developing The Curriculum
countries academics cannot aspire to a The field of business administration
middle-class lifestyle or have access to the exemplifies the global dominance of ideas
necessary tools of research and scholarship. by the major English-speaking academic
systems. In most countries, business
One of the many “push” factors involves administration is a new field, established
the limited extent of academic freedom in over the past several decades to prepare
many developing countries. Academics can professionals for work in multinational
be subject to restrictions and even arrested if corporations or in firms engaged in
they stray from officially approved topics. international commerce as well as in local
Favoritism and corruption in academic business. The dominant pattern of
appointments, promotions, and other areas professional studies is the M.B.A. degree—
further erode the environment of the the American-style master’s of business
university. In many higher education administration. This degree originated as the
systems, job security or stability are way to prepare American students for work
unattainable. Conditions at Third World in U.S. business, based on American
universities stem largely from the scarcity of curriculum ideas and American business
resources and the pressure of increased practices. A key part of many M.B.A.
student numbers on overburdened academic programs is the case study, again developed
institutions. While the “pull” factors at the in the U.S. context. The M.B.A. model has
centers will retain their influence, the “push” been widely copied in other countries, in
factors can be moderated. Overall, however, most cases by local institutions, but also by

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American academic institutions working another, academic models, curricula, and
with local partners or setting up their own programs from the more powerful academic
campuses overseas. While the programs system prevail. Thus, programs between
sometimes are modified in keeping with the Australian and Malaysian institutions aimed
local context, the basic degree structure and at setting up new academic institutions in
curriculum remain American. Malaysia are always designed by Australian
institutions. Rarely, if ever, do academic
There is an increasing use of common innovations emanate from the periphery out
textbooks, course materials, and syllabi to the center.
worldwide, stimulated by the influence of
multinational publishers, the Internet, and Some of the export initiatives taking
databases, as well as by the growing number place today are indicative of global trends. A
of professors who return home after their small number of prestigious American
study abroad with ideas concerning universities are establishing campuses
curriculum and instructional materials. worldwide, usually in popular professional
These materials originate mainly in the large fields such as business administration. The
academic systems of the North—especially University of Chicago’s business school
the United States, the United Kingdom, and now has a campus in Spain that offers
France. Chicago degrees to Spanish students and
students from other European countries,
The Multinationalization of Higher Education using the standard Chicago curriculum—
The emergence of a global education taught in English mostly by Chicago faculty
marketplace exhibits itself in the form of a members—with an international focus. It
variety of multinational higher education includes a period of study at the home
initiatives—ranging from “twinning” campus as well. Some other U.S.
programs linking academic institutions or universities have developed similar
programs in one country with counterparts programs.
in another to universities in one country
setting up branch campuses in another. Another trend has been the establishment
Cross-border higher education ventures of U.S.-style universities in such countries
include many that use the Internet and other as Kyrgyzstan, Qatar, and Bulgaria, among
distance education means to deliver their other places. These schools typically
programs. Many for-profit companies and originate through local initiative, and many
institutions have invested in multinational have strong links to American universities.
educational initiatives, as have a range of Some are supervised by the U.S. partners
traditional higher education institutions and accredited in the United States. The
(Observatory on Borderless Higher language of instruction is English and the
Education, 2004). curriculum is U.S. based. The quality of
these American clones varies considerably,
Inequality is characteristic of the 21st with some simply capitalizing on the cachet
century, although neither colonialism nor of an American-style education.
Cold War politics impels policy. Now,
market forces, demands for access, and In another export model, foreign
monetary gain motivate multinational higher academic degree programs are “franchised”
education initiatives. When institutions or by local institutions. The foreign university
programs are exported from one country to lending its name provides the curriculum,

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some (often quite limited) supervision, and disseminate their own work. Academic
quality control through a local academic institutions are beginning to use IT to
institution or perhaps business firm. The deliver degree programs and other curricula
new institution is granted the right to award to students outside the campus. Distance
a degree or certificate of the foreign education is rapidly growing both within
institution to local students. Unfortunately, countries and internationally. IT is
these franchising arrangements have led to beginning to shape teaching and learning
many abuses and much criticism. Many and is affecting the management of
articles have appeared in the British press academic institutions.
charging that some U.K. institutions, mostly
the less prestigious ones, involved in IT and globalization go hand in hand.
overseas programs are damaging the “good Indeed, the Internet serves as the primary
name” of British higher education. vehicle for the globalization of knowledge
Meanwhile, “buyers” (fee-paying students) and communication. As with the other
overseas think that they are getting a aspects of globalization, significant
standard British degree, when in reality they inequalities exist. Inevitably, the information
are receiving the degree but not the level of and knowledge base available through the
education provided in the United Kingdom. Internet reflects the realities of the
knowledge system worldwide. The
There are a large number of “twinning” databases and retrieval mechanisms
programs worldwide. This arrangement probably make it easier to access the well-
links an academic institution in one country archived and electronically sophisticated
with a partner school in another. Typically, scientific systems of the advanced
the university in the North provides the industrialized countries than the less
basic curriculum and orientation for an networked academic communities of the
institution in the South. In such developing countries.
arrangements, academic degrees are often
jointly awarded. The Internet and the databases on it are
dominated by the major universities in the
Information Technology North. The dominance of English on the
The information age carries the potential Internet also affects access and usage of
of introducing significant change in higher information. Multinational publishers and
education, although it is unlikely that the other corporations have become key players,
basic functions of traditional academic owning many of the databases, journals, and
institutions will be transformed. The other sources of information. Academic
elements of the revolution in information institutions and countries unable to pay for
technology (IT) that are transforming higher access to these information sources find it
education include the communication, difficult to participate fully in the networks.
storage, and retrieval of knowledge Tightening copyright and other ownership
(Castells, 2000). Libraries, once the restrictions through international treaties and
repositories of books and journals, are now regulations will further consolidate
equally involved in providing access to ownership and limit access (Correa, 2000).
databases, websites, and a range of IT-based
products (Hawkins & Battin, 1998). Distance education, while not a new
Scholars increasingly use the Internet to phenomenon, comprises another element of
undertake research and analysis and to higher education profoundly affected by IT.

8
The University of South Africa, for competition in the marketplace of ideas and
example, has been offering academic knowledge products.
degrees through correspondence for many
decades. The Open University in the United GATS and related arrangements also seek
Kingdom has effectively used a combination to provide a legally binding framework for
of distance methods to deliver its highly the circulation of educational services and
regarded programs. IT has greatly expanded for the protection of intellectual property
the reach and methodological sophistication (Knight, 2004, pp 3-38). Thus, GATS and
of distance education, contributing to the the WTO are very much related to TRIPS
growth of distance education institutions. Of (Trade Related Intellectual Property)
the 10 largest distance education institutions arrangements and copyright regulations. The
in the world, 7 are located in developing motivating force behind all of these
countries, and all use IT for at least part of regulatory frameworks is to rationalize the
their programs. As with the other aspects of global trade in knowledge and to ensure
globalization discussed in this analysis—the open markets and protections for the owners
leading providers of IT consist of of knowledge products. The WTO and its
multinational corporations, academic related agreements, as well as international
institutions, and other organizations in the copyrights, have the force of law—they are
industrialized nations. The Internet international treaties supported by a legal
combines a public service—e-mail and the enforcement regime. These arrangements
range of websites to which access is free— were created to protect the sellers and the
with a commercial enterprise. Many providers, not the buyers and users, and as a
databases, electronic journals, e-books, and result they have negative implications for
related knowledge products are owned by developing countries (Raikhy, 2002). For
profit-making companies that market them, example, copyright laws have been further
often at prices that preclude access by those strengthened to protect the owners of
in developing countries. knowledge, while failing to open access
through “fair use” provisions or meaningful
International Agreements and Frameworks special arrangements for developing
An indication of the potential impact of countries.
globalization is the debate over the inclusion
of higher education in particular and Those favoring GATS and the regulatory
knowledge industries within the framework framework in general are the sellers and
of the WTO through the GATS proposal. owners—multinational knowledge companies,
While GATS has not yet been fully governments focusing on exports, and others
formulated and is not part of the WTO (OECD, 2002). Testing companies such as
framework, it is relevant not only because of the U.S.-based Educational Testing Service,
its influence but also for what it reveals information technology and computer firms,
about the reality of globalization. GATS for-profit educational providers such as
seeks to establish “open markets” for Sylvan Learning Systems, and others are
knowledge products of all kinds—including examples of businesses involved in global
higher education. The idea behind GATS is education that see GATS as benefiting their
that education is a commodity like any other interests. In many countries, government
and should be freely traded around the agencies most focused on GATS include not
world. The proponents argue that free trade the ministries of education but rather
will benefit everyone by permitting departments concerned with trade and

9
export promotion. In the United States, it is international education markets are already
the Department of Commerce that has taken appropriately open, and additional legal
the lead and not the Department of requirements to open them further are not
Education. Education groups in the United needed. Cross-border educational transactions
States, Canada, and a number of other of all kinds are being actively pursued
countries have been skeptical or opposed to worldwide. At present, developing countries
the GATS proposal. The American Council are the main importers of products and
on Education, which represents most services from abroad—and they would be
university presidents in the United States, most directly affected by GATS.
for example, has spoken out against GATS.
Developing countries have generally not yet Conclusion
taken a position on the concept of free trade Globalization in higher education and
in education and knowledge products. While science is inevitable. Historically, academe
the complicated details of a GATS treaty has always been international in scope and
have not been worked out, the basic issues has always been characterized by
are straightforward. Should education in all inequalities. Modern technology, the
of its manifestations be considered as a Internet, the increasing ease of
commodity to be traded in the marketplace, communication, and the flow of students
regulated in the same fashion as are and highly educated personnel across
automobiles or bananas? borders enhances globalization. No
academic system can exist by itself in the
Current arrangements—in which all world of the 21st century. The traditional
countries retain authority over educational domination of the North over the South
imports and exports, subject to some remains largely intact. The task of
regulatory arrangement such as international ameliorating inequalities in the context of
copyright, patent treaties, local accreditation mass higher education is not an easy one.
and licensing arrangements, and the like— Yet, it is important to ensure that
nonetheless permit a great deal of globalization does not turn into the
international higher education exchange, as neocolonialism of the 21st century.
this essay illustrates. It can be argued that

References and Additional Reading

Altbach, Philip G. (1971). Education and neocolonialism. Teachers College Record 72 (1), 543-
558.

Altbach, Philip G. and Viswanathan Selvaratnam, (Eds.). (1989). From dependence to


autonomy: The development of Asian universities. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.

Altbach, Philip G. (1998a). Comparative higher education: Knowledge, the university, and
development. Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

Altbach, Philip G. (1998b). The university as center and periphery. In Philip G. Altbach (Ed.),
Comparative higher education: Knowledge, the university, and development. (pp. 19–36).
Greenwich, CT: Ablex.

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Altbach, Philip G. (2002, summer). Knowledge and education as international commodities: The
collapse of the common good. International Higher Education, no. 28, pp. 2–5.

Altbach, Philip G. (2003). Centers and peripheries in the academic profession: The special
challenges of developing countries. In Philip G. Altbach, (Ed.), The decline of the guru: The
academic profession in developing and middle-income countries. (pp. 1-22). New York:
Palgrave.

Ashby, Eric. (1966). Universities: British, Indian, African—A study in the ecology of higher
education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Castells, Manuel. (2000). The rise of the network society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chambers, Gail S., and William K. Cummings. (1990). Profiting from education: Japan-United
States international ventures in the 1980s. New York: Institute of International Education.

Choi, Hyaeweol. (1995). An international scientific community: Asian scholars in the United
States. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Correa, Carlos M. (2000). Intellectual property rights, the WTO and developing countries.
London: Zed Books.

Crystal, David. (1997). English as a global language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

De Wit, Hans. (2002). Internationalization of higher education in the United States and Europe.
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