Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide

SimplIQ for Steppers

Ver 1.1 - June 2009

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

2

Notice
This guide is delivered subject to the following conditions and restrictions: This guide contains proprietary information belonging to Elmo Motion Control Ltd. Such information is supplied solely for the purpose of assisting users of the Bell servo drive in its installation. The text and graphics included in this manual are for the purpose of illustration and reference only. The specifications on which they are based are subject to change without notice. Elmo Motion Control and the Elmo Motion Control logo are trademarks of Elmo Motion Control Ltd. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Document No. MAN-BELGS Copyright  2009 Elmo Motion Control Ltd. All rights reserved The model that is currently available is the BEL-5/100.

Revision History:

Ver. 1.0 Ver 1.1

January 2008 June 2009

(MAN-BELIG.PDF)

Elmo Motion Control Ltd. 64 Gisin St., P.O. Box 463 Petach Tikva 49103 Israel Tel: +972 (3) 929-2300 Fax: +972 (3) 929-2322 info-il@elmomc.com

Elmo Motion Control Inc. 42 Technology Way Nashua, NH 03060 USA Tel: +1 (603) 821-9979 Fax: +1 (603) 821-9943 info-us@elmomc.com

Elmo Motion Control GmbH Steinkirchring 1 D-78056, Villingen-Schwenningen Germany Tel: +49 (0) 7720-85 77 60 Fax: +49 (0) 7720-85 77 70 info-de@elmomc.com
www.elmomc.com

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

3

Contents
Chapter 1:Introduction............................................................................................................... 5 1.1 1.2 Qualified Personnel .................................................................................................... 7 Working with this Document .................................................................................... 7

Chapter 2:Elements ................................................................................................................... 8 2.1
2.1.1

Establishing Communication with a Drive .............................................................. 8
Changing the Communication Parameters ....................................................................... 11

2.2
2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4

Application Parameters and Programming ........................................................... 13
Flash, RAM and Tables......................................................................................................... 13 Creating an Application File................................................................................................ 14 Downloading an Application File....................................................................................... 14 Observing the Contents and Editing an Application File................................................ 15

2.3
2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3

Firmware.................................................................................................................... 15
Version Verification .............................................................................................................. 15 Normal Firmware Download .............................................................................................. 16 Abnormal (from Boot) Firmware Download .................................................................... 16

2.4
2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3

The Conductor Wizard ............................................................................................. 17
The Conductor Tabs.............................................................................................................. 17 The Expert List....................................................................................................................... 18 Accepting a Change of Parameters..................................................................................... 20

Chapter 3:Getting Started with Sensors and Motion Control Setup ................................ 21 3.1
3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3

Introduction............................................................................................................... 21
Tune the Drive to the Motor ................................................................................................ 21 Tune the Motion Controller ................................................................................................. 21 Database Maintenance.......................................................................................................... 21

3.2
3.2.1 3.2.2

Abort and Enable Switches ...................................................................................... 21
Brakes...................................................................................................................................... 22 Application Limits ................................................................................................................ 23

3.3
3.3.1

Set up the Sensors ..................................................................................................... 25
Setting up Sensor #1 ............................................................................................................. 26

3.4
3.4.1 3.4.2

Tuning the Drive to the Motor................................................................................. 27
Selecting the Motor Type ..................................................................................................... 28 Tuning or Checking the Current Control .......................................................................... 29

3.5 3.6
3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3

Commutation............................................................................................................. 30 Motion Tuning........................................................................................................... 32
Torque Drive.......................................................................................................................... 32 Stepper Drives with no Commutation Sensor................................................................... 33 Speed and Position Control ................................................................................................. 35

3.7
3.7.1 3.7.2

Fine Tuning................................................................................................................ 45
Cogging Compensation........................................................................................................ 45 Fine Tuning an Analog Encoder ......................................................................................... 49

3.8

Database Maintenance.............................................................................................. 51

...................................................................................................... 66 Current Limits ............................................ 64 A................................................................................................................10...................................................................................... 62 Resonance and Notch Filters ............ 86 B............ 92 ............................8 A.....................................10 Executing Manual Tuning for a Cascaded Position Controller............................................. 72 Manual Tuning of a PI Controller and a Notch Filter .................. 83 Motor Systems Models ............................4.......3 Feedback Control ............................................... 52 Identification and Uncertainty .....................................3 B...... 67 Manual Tuning of a PI Controller............... 60 Scope......................1 B........................................................5 A.......... 55 Appendix A: A........................................................................1 4.....................................................................................................8.......................1) 4 Chapter 4:Advanced Control Tuning.......... 1..... 79 A............1 B.............................1 B... 62 Fixed...................2............................................................................... and Overshoot...............2 4......................5................................9 A..................................8............................ 61 Keep Margins ........2 A Short Course in Linear Control.............................. Bandwidth and Stability ..............5............................2 Automatic Gain Scheduling...4 Start Step Control................5............................. Settling Time..............................................................................2 A...........................................................2............4 A.............................2 A...... 79 A..... PD.......................................................... ............ 52 Identification ..................................... 91 P.............................. 74 A... 82 Linear Systems and Transfer Functions..............................................7 A.................................................. 66 Recording the Experiment Results... Gain Margin and Phase Margin......................................1 4........................4................................................................4 B................4....................2 B................. 53 Identification Results Management ..........................................1 A... 85 Model with Flexible Transmission (resonance) ........3 Fixed Gain Manual Tuning for a Speed Loop...............................................2 B.................................................................2 A..4 Manual Tuning of Speed and Position Control .3 4..................................................................................3........... 65 Testing the Response of a Controller ................................................8.................................2.......................................1 A................ 63 High Frequency Noise and Low-pass Filters ....................................................................2 The Example System....... PI and PID Controllers.. 66 A........................... 54 Selecting the Identification Frequencies.................................2....................... 67 Manual Tuning of a PI Controller and a Low Pass Filter .............................................................. 53 Identification Work Point....3 A.....7...............1 A.......... 82 Mathematical Models for LTI Systems ...................................................vs.................6 A......................................... 85 A Simple Model............................................................. 52 4......................................... 62 The Basic Concepts ............ 60 Safety ...........5...........................................2 4................ 90 Why Feedback is Required .........3.......................10............................................... 90 Open Loop............................................ 63 Evaluating a Step Response – Rise Time............ 80 Appendix B: B......... 60 Make it Simple............. Gain-scheduled Controllers ............The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver......... 78 Manual Tuning of Gain Scheduling ........1 A.................................................3 A......................................7....................................1 Manual Gain Scheduling..............................................................................

e. Bell Installation Guide This guide Composer Guide SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference Manual SimplIQ Programming and Language Guide SimplIQ for Steppers Application Note DS301 document DS402 document The diagram below shows the SimplIQ for Steppers documentation set: As depicted in the previous figure.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. comprising: . this Getting Started & Tuning guide is an integral part of the Bell documentation set.1) 5 Chapter 1: Introduction The SimplIQ documentation and support software is divided into the following areas: Usage Phase Document Exploratory Planning/configuration Decision/ordering Installation/assembly Commissioning and Getting Started Usage/operation Tool Sales documents for SimplIQ and Bell SimplIQ for Steppers Sizer configuration tool Elmo Catalog and website Device specific installation guide. 1.g.

Once you understand the environment's core logic. It is intended to make you familiar with the software environment provided for SimplIQ. Prerequisite This manual assumes that you installed the drive correctly according to the Bell Stepper Drive Installation Guide. which includes explanations of all the software tools that are part of Elmo’s Composer software environment. The Bell Stepper Drive Installation Guide. The Composer is a support program by Elmo for SimplIQ. Audience and Objective This document is intended for machine manufacturers. This manual is intended to give you a solid starting point. The SimplIQ Programming and Language Manual. . you can work efficiently by referring to the online help. or maintenance. severe personal injury. commissioning engineers. the differences that have been introduced by the Bell to SimplIQ to cover 2-phase motors and steppers. operation. Danger and Warning Symbols The following danger and warning notices are used in this document: Danger: This symbol indicates that death. and service personnel who use the SimplIQ drive system. which describes how to set up and tune the stepper drive. With this environment. in detail. there is a lot of relevant information in other the manuals of the documentation set. which describe in detail each software command used to manipulate the Bell motion controller.1) 6 The SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference and the SimplIQ for Steppers Application Note. The Conductor enables the SimplIQ parameters to be tuned. The Conductor is a tuning tool developed by Digital Feedback Technologies. The Conductor is normally called from the Composer environment. which describes. Support Software This Getting Started manual relies heavily on the Composer and Conductor tools. Note that this documentation does not contain all the information for all product types and cannot take into account every possible aspect of installation. you will be able to set up your drive with relative ease. The Composer supplies the basic services for communicating with drives and collecting data from them. 1. In addition.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. or substantial property damage may result if proper precautions are not taken. The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started Guide.

according to severity): This symbol indicates that minor personal injury or property damage may result if proper precautions are not taken. 1. Qualified Personnel means: For devices that are 60 V or less: someone familiar with the drive. Chapter 4: Advanced Control Tuning is for experienced control practitioners. verify it is in the proper condition. and with adequate technical education. according to local regulations. and that it is not damaged mechanically or electrically.2 Working with this Document We recommend new users to: Thoroughly read Chapter 2: Elements. . 1.1 Qualified Personnel For this document. Before dealing with a device.1) 7 Caution (With or without a warning triangle.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. For higher voltage drives it has the additional meaning of someone licensed to deal with electricity of the relevant voltage and power.elmomc. Up-to-date information about our products can be found on the Internet at the following address: www. Danger: All the devices must be installed according to the device-specific Installation Guide. following a training course.com ESD Notices Caution: The SimplIQ drives are Electrostatic-Sensitive Devices (ESD). 1. This means that handling them incorrectly may damage them. who can exploit the extra flexibility of the SimplIQ environment beyond the "Getting Started" level. Special attention must be given to earth grounding and for high voltage connections and insulations. after reading material. Note: This symbol highlights supplementary information This symbol indicates that the topic is normally handled automatically by support software. Go through Chapter 3: Getting Started. Please carefully read the ESD precautions in the Installation Guide. The appendices give more general data on the linear system and on manual tuning. and the material is only given for enhanced understanding.

refer to the Composer online help. The following window opens: .The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. In this manual we focus on single drive connections. the following window opens: Figure 1: Starting the Composer Click Open Communication Directly. 1.1 Establishing Communication with a Drive When you open the Composer it tries to communicate with the drive. The Composer can communicate with multiple drives and define a network setup. The communication may be one of the following: RS-232 CANopen The Composer application can be connected simultaneously to more than one drive.1) 8 Chapter 2: Elements This section deals with the most basic concepts of drive commissioning: Communication Application programming Firmware The Conductor Wizard 2. When you open the Composer. For further details.

click Properties: For RS-232 you need to set the number of the COM port in use.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. and it has one stop bit. If the properties listed there are as required. Then click Finish.1) 9 Figure 2: Composer connecting window Ignore the Application Name field. For CAN you need to set the ID and the baud rate. Look at Last Successful Communication Properties. you will have to select the CAN adapter from the supported types. Otherwise. The Composer opens to the main window: Figure 3: The main Composer window . In addition. click Finish. 1. the baud rate and the parity. The communication is always 8 bits in a byte.

It is possible to change the drive communication parameters only later. you will see the following message: . after communication is established. If you do not know the CAN ID. it is only possible to download the new firmware version. o Use the DSP 305 protocol to find out the drive parameters (you will need your own CAN application for that). If the drive lost its software. the Composer already has all its personality data stored and will not ask you to wait again. Baud rate of 500000 and CAN ID of 127 for CAN. or "boot" software. 1. for example by a power-down during firmware downloading. you may either: o Connect first with RS-232. it will withdraw to a very limited default. The communication parameters in the "boot" state are fixed (not affected by any user setting): Baud rate of 57600 and no parity for RS-232. With this boot. When a Composer first meets a drive version it uploads this internal information. After you set the correct communication parameters.1) 10 The Smart Terminal lets you enter commands manually – please refer to the SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference Manual. Notes: At the connection step you need to know the drive communication parameters. The drive stores a lot of information about itself internally and this enables the Composer to interact with a multitude of drive types. type it in the Enter Command field and click Send.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. then ask for PP[13] (can ID) and PP[14] (CAN baud rate). You will see the following window: Figure 4: Uploading personality data The next time you contact the same drive version. To send a command.

200 1: 9. This is a command to accept the new setting. 5: 115. Setting PP[2] and PP[4] alone does not change the communication setting. Click Yes to disconnect. you will see: Figure 6: Communication disconnect message This is because you changed the baud rate so the communications from the Composer fail. 4: 57.1 Changing the Communication Parameters 2.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. so the Composer can continue communication with the drive. for example.800 0: None 1: Even 2: Odd First set the desired parameters in the Composer smart terminal: PP[2] PP[4] RS-232 parity.1) 11 Figure 5: Boot software message Click Yes to open the windows related to downloading the firmware.1. than re-open communication by clicking Connect. This is a requirement for a baud rate of 115200/sec.600 0: 4. PP[2]=5.1 Changing the RS-232 Communication Rate and Parity RS-232 baud rate. 1.400 2: 19. . 2. Write. Next write PP[2]=1.600 3: 38. Almost immediately.1.200.1.

This is a command to accept the new setting. Write.1.000 5: 50.1) 12 Figure 7: The Connect button. for example. you will see: Figure 8: Communication disconnect message This is because you changed the baud rate so the communications from the Composer fail. PP[13]=5. you may use the SV command to make the new baud setting permanent.000 3: 125. .1. CAN baud rate.000 8: 800.2 Changing the CAN Communication Rate and ID First set the desired parameters in the Composer smart terminal: Parameter PP[13] PP[14] Description CANopen device ID.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. This is a requirement for the node ID of 5.000 2: 250. Click Yes to disconnect.000 Setting PP[13] and PP[14] alone does not change the communication setting.000 1: 500.000 6: 50.000 7: 50. circled in red Next select the new baud rate using the Properties button (See Figure 2). 2. 1. so the Composer can continue communication with the drive. than re-open communication by clicking Connect.000 4: 100. Range 1 – 127 0: 1. Almost immediately. Next write PP[2]=1.000. When the Composer Smart Terminal re-opens.

When you write. The application includes: Parameters to store permanently in the drive. When the drive powers-on. RAM Volatile Stores a volatile copy of the serial-flash parameters for real-time high-speed use. RAM and Tables The drive contains the following memory types: Memory Serial Flash Table Flash Type Non-volatile Non-Volatile Used for This flash stores all the non-volatile parameters.1) 13 Figure 9: The Connect button. When the Composer Smart Terminal re-opens.2. after you tuned some parameters). . as well as the User Program This high speed flash stores the motion correction tables for real-time use. circled in red Next select the new baud-rate using the Properties button (see Figure 2). The data in the Table Flash must be an identical copy of the data in the serial flash. When you want to synchronize the RAM and the serial flash.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. you may use the SV command to make the new baud setting permanent. If the contents are notequal. such as controller coefficients. The parameter KI[1] has a copy in the serial flash which remains as is.2 Application Parameters and Programming When you commission a drive. The Composer packs all the non-volatile parameters and the User Program in a single file. KI[1]=1. It also compares the Table Flash with the Serial Flash. you create an Application. 1. for example. with the .dat file to program many amplifiers to the same parameters and User Program.1 Flash. it loads the RAM as a copy of the table flash. User programs: please refer to the SimplIQ Programming and Language Guide. The Composer can later use this . 2. 2. you will not be able to start the motor until the situation is corrected.dat extension. An Application refers to the entire data set you download and store into the drive. you update the copy of KI[1] in the RAM. When you communicate with the drive the parameters you modify are in the RAM. you can: Use the SV command to copy the entire RAM contents into the serial flash (for example.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. and SI commands work on an entire data set. The following window opens: .2. Notes: The SV. It enables you to synchronize the parameters in the Serial Flash to the copy in the RAM <Yes>.3 Downloading an Application File In order to distribute an application from a data file to a driver. SV does not automatically synchronize the Table Flash because Table Flash synchronizations take a long time.2. It displays the following message: Figure 10: Save application message The Composer uploads the parameters directly from the serial flash. or to skip synchronization <No>. When you want to synchronize the Table Flash and the Serial Flash. do the following: From the menu select File>Open Application. After this enter a file name. Table Flash synchronizations are carried out very rarely. The Composer will prepare to pack all the parameters and the User Program into an application file. From the menu select File>Save Application.2 Creating an Application File In this Section we will create an application file in the PC computer. 2. There is no way to save some of the parameters and not save others.1) 14 Use the LD command to copy the entire Serial Flash contents into the RAM. LD. 1. use the SI=1 command. 2.

The drive must be loaded with the correct software to operate. 2.21 10Dec2007. Firmware upgrades are.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.2. Verify that the communication parameters there are correct. 1. however. available from time to time. After downloading.02. It should return something like Bell 2. look at the Communication Info data box.07. 2. . 2. It is a text file with the .3 Firmware This section deals with keeping the drive software version up-to-date. You will normally receive the drive loaded with the correct software from the dealer. Then click Download to complete the downloading.4 Observing the Contents and Editing an Application File The Composer has a tool called the Application Editor. use the VR command. the Serial Flash and the Table Flash may become nonsynchronized.abs extension.1 Version Verification For version verification. You can download the latest firmware from the Elmo web site.1) 15 Figure 11: Open Application window Upon selection. You can compare this string with the latest available firmware at the Elmo web site.3. or click Change to edit them. and in this case you need to enter SI=1 at the smart terminal in order to complete the synchronization.

Baud rate of 500000 and CAN ID of 127 for CAN. When it has finished loading.1) 16 2.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. it is only possible to download the new firmware version. and you can observe the part that is currently being loaded. The firmware starts to load. The following window opens: Figure 12: Download firmware window Use the Browse button to select the firmware . The first part is "Firmware downloading" and the last part is "Extended firmware downloading". or "boot" software. After you set the correct communication parameters.2 Normal Firmware Download In the Composer Smart Terminal.3. a message asks you to reboot the drive by disconnecting it from the electricity. you will see the following message: . and then click OK.abs file. 1.3. The communication parameters in the "boot" state are fixed (not affected by any user setting): Baud rate of 57600 and no parity for RS-232.3 Abnormal (from Boot) Firmware Download If the drive lost its software. select Tools>Firmware Download. it will withdraw to a very limited default. 2. With this boot. for example by a power-down during firmware downloading. and you can watch the progress bar: Figure 13: The Firmware progress bar The firmware is internally divided into a few sections.

4 The Conductor Wizard 2.1 The Conductor Tabs The Conductor is the main tool for tuning the SimplIQ control functions.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. and which require your attention and understanding – refer to the figure below.4. A color code defines which parameter fields you may leave as is. but you do not need to be an expert. You have a lot of flexibility in managing the experiment. . Figure 15: The Conductor window The Conductor manages some experiments for the tuning current and motion controls. 1.1) 17 Figure 14: Firmware message 2.

Expert lists and the Conductor wizards work with the parameters in RAM only. you see the .The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. until you click Save in Flash in the Database tab.1) 18 Figure 16: User editable fields in a tuning experiment 2. Your work is volatile (will disappear at the next power-on or LD command).4.2 The Expert List The Expert list is a tool for observing and editing the drive parameters. and it lets you track which drive parameters you changed and how. It gives extra flexibility for the experienced user. 1. When you open the Expert List using the Expert list button following: .

1. each of the parameters that this wizard pad controls. select another keyword from the list. or type a keyword manually. The Expert List finds which parameters relate to a given Conductor tab using a keyword. however.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. If the Expert List detects a change when you exit. You can. it will display: Figure 18: Expert List exit comparison .1) 19 Figure 17: Expert list window Here you see. Then click Search . Conductor tabs use keywords that are delimited by $ signs at both ends. and may edit (simply by clicking the value).

and you exit a tab. until you click Save in Flash in the Database tab. 1. as in Figure 18. the conductor displays an exit comparison. .3 Accepting a Change of Parameters When you change drive parameters with the Conductor.1) 20 2. Expert lists and the Conductor wizards work with the parameters in RAM only.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. the parameters are accepted and cannot be restored by the Conductor. Your work is volatile (will disappear at the next power-on or LD command).4. After confirmation.

you may want the following: Tune speed and position controls.1. we go through the setup process step by step.1. This will prevent system constraints being violated later on. Stepper. 3. Defining the sensors. The drive has several digital inputs (depending on the drive type). This will create the initial conditions for the motor to work. The last step is to check database validity. etc. brakes.2 Abort and Enable Switches First. step-by-step process. and position. you only need to set few parameters. 3. as well as limit switches when applicable.1 Tune the Drive to the Motor All motor and application types: Set the switch functions for limits.1. Selecting the motor type (DC. speed.3 Database Maintenance All the steps until now have manipulated variables in the drive's database. enable functions. There are several automatic functions that may be assigned to drive digital inputs. Set corrections for motor cogging and define the speed-dependent corrections to the current loop. Brushless). and to save the outcome in a permanent (flash) memory. Tuning the current controller. 3. Set the application limits for current.1) 21 Chapter 3: Getting Started with Sensors and Motion Control Setup 3. 3. Brushless motors only: Commutation tuning (finding how to power the stator so that the motor will develop maximum torque in the desired direction). .1 Introduction Tuning a SimplIQ drive to a motor is an ordered. 1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.2 Tune the Motion Controller For open loop stepping applications. set the enabling switches. It is important that at this stage you define which switches are used to abort or to stop motion. If you have a motion sensor. In this "Getting Started" chapter. Note that this chapter does not contain all the detailed information for all product types and cannot take into account every possible aspect of the drive setup.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Correct digital input definitions help to guarantee that the drive generates only safe motions in the course of the tuning process.2.1) 22 For this purpose. Figure 19: Defining input logic For a detailed description of the functions that may be assigned to digital inputs. First select the brake engage and release delays. 3. refer to the IL[N] command in the SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference Manual. For this purpose select the Protections>Brake tab in the Composer’s Smart Terminal: Figure 20: The Brake tab . Incorrect digital input settings may prevent drive motion or tuning. set it up now. 1. use the Input Logic tab in the Smart Terminal.1 Brakes If a brake is installed and you want to operate it automatically when the motor starts.

speed and position limits. This will help to keep the motor within its safe operation range. Next. refer to the OL[N] command in the SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference Manual. For a detailed description of the functions that may be assigned to digital outputs. Current Limits Use the Limits>Current tab in the smart terminal: Figure 22: The Current tab .2 Application Limits Next. Figure 21: The Output Logic tab 3.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1. define the digital output for use as brake control. You can test brake operation by programming the brake control temporarily as a general purpose output. use the Output Logic tab of the Composer's Smart Terminal. set the application current.1) 23 Do not specify brake delays greater than you actually need.2. and manipulate it using the OB[N] command.

and PL[2] commands in the SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference Manual. 3.PL[1]. 3.2. Refer to the CL[1]. 1.1 Speed Limits Use the Limits>Velocity tab in the smart terminal: Figure 23: Setting the speed limits In the Speed Limits tab. . you can select RPM as the speed units. They do not apply to speed-only or currentonly applications. You may set the current limits in the Conductor wizard as well. For correct translation between RPM and sensor counts.2.2. brushless and stepper motors cannot work. Take care before you change CA[18] because if you enter an incorrect value.2 Position Limits Open the Protections>Position tab in the smart terminal: The position command limits apply for open loop stepper applications as well as for position feedback applications.2.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 24 Notes: The MC command returns the current limit of the drive peak. you need to set the CA[18] parameter (sensor counts per motor revolution) properly.

Sensor #1 is for speed feedback and possibly position feedback. select the Wizard from the tools menu. 3.XM[2]. In an open loop stepping application the relevant modulo limits are XM[1].1) 25 Figure 24: Position command limits Notes: This tab does not set the counting range (modulo limits). The command limits must always be stricter than the feedback limit. . If the command limits are beyond the modulo limits they will be ignored.3 Set up the Sensors The drive may accept two sensors.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. or use the Wizard button: Figure 25: The Wizard button. 1. The second feedback serves for position feedback. open the Conductor tool: From the Composer. To set up the sensor. You can define the modulo limits in the setup window of the feedback sensor in the Conductor Wizard. or as a source for ECAM. encircled in red This will open the Conductor window.

For a detailed explanation of each of the fields in the tab. ECAM. or as PWM input. you can observe that the position readout behaves correctly – either by observing the online position display. . If the motor is small and you can move it by hand.1) 26 3. or by taking a record. Figure 26: Sensor #1 tuning window Select the type of motion sensor #1.1 Setting up Sensor #1 Skip this section for open loop stepper applications.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1. click the Help button. Setting up Sensor #2 You need to set up sensor #2 if you are going to use it for load feedback.3.

3.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. before going to the final fine tuning. 1. After this step. .1) 27 Figure 27: Sensor #2 setup Sensor #2 can also be configured as a PWM input. as will be explained. the digital current control of the motor will work. Additional stages are required. The motor tuning will not be complete after this stage. or as a PWM output – refer to the online help.4 Tuning the Drive to the Motor The next step is to define the motor type. at least at the basic level.

DC motors connect between M1 and M2. M2. Steppers connect one phase between M1 and M2. Figure 28: Selecting the motor type . Brushless 3-phase motors connect between M1. torque sensitivity. the phase order does not matter.) in advance. as this was done at the protections stage.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. or brushless motors. and M3. You probably do not need to edit the current limiting values. etc. and the other phase between M3 and M4. inductance. Notes: Check that the motor leads are connected correctly.4. 1.1 Selecting the Motor Type The SimplIQ drive can drive DC.1) 28 3. You do not need to know any of the motor parameters (resistance. 2-phase steppers.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.2 Tuning or Checking the Current Control In the same window. select the automatic current control tool. you will see a graph of the resulting current controller response. When tuning is over. you do not have to change anything in this window.1) 29 3. .4. Figure 29: Entering the current control tuner The following window opens: Figure 30: Current tuning window In general. just click Start.

but it also reduces the bandwidth of the resulting current loop. Use greater current levels if you suspect the motor is working near magnetic saturation. Apply the low-pass filter only if the current control is very noisy (this is very rare). 3. Click the Commutation tab: . Learning the order and the polarity of the Hall sensors (if present).The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1. Notes: Setting greater phase margins reduces overshoot.5 Commutation Commutation tuning means the process of: Defining which rotation direction is positive (this is a subjective user decision). Adjusting the parameters of the initial rotor position finding – this is essential for a brushless motor to rotate. Un-checking Measure all phases will result in shorter. Learning the order and the polarity at which the motor phases were connected. but less accurate current control tuning. you can also see the frequency response of both the open and closed current controller.1) 30 By clicking the frequency graph button.

1) 31 Figure 31: The Commutation tab After checking if Digital Hall sensors are installed. The Conductor is responsible to make the motor rotate. unless you forced the sensor direction (to remain as is).The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. The following window will open: Figure 32: Motor direction decision message . the Conductor will rotate the motor. The consumed current will be positive. To solve this. The problem is that the positive direction is subjective. the Conductor does not know which direction your application calls positive. and ask you to look at the motor while it rotates. so that when the direction is positive: The position sensor reading will increase. go to the tuning process. 1.

If you do not need to enhance the torque control. you may want cogging and speed corrections. 3. finish the fine tuning. After tuning the speed controller.1 Torque Drive If you want to enhance the torque control smoothness and performance. but through a gear train or a backlash. 3. and then back to the Motion tab to select Torque control. Then exit the Conductor. go to the Fine Tune tab. For that you will need to tune a speed controller (even though you will disable it later).6 Motion Tuning This step depends upon the drive method you choose. go to the Database tab and save your work. Figure 33: Motion tab for torque drives . 1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 32 Check Reset Commutation Every Hall Edge if your position sensor is not mounted directly on the motor.6.

1) 33 3. Figure 34: Motion tab Here you need to enter the holding torque component (static torque.2 Stepper Drives with no Commutation Sensor For stepper drives. and accelerating torque). click the Motion tab and select either Open loop stepper or Closed loop stepper with sensor #1. 1. The Motor Calculator button helps you to find the required parameters.6. . speed dependent torque.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.

1) 34 Motor calculator tool Figure 35: Motion tab for stepper After opening the Motor Calculator tool the following window appears: . 1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.

For closed loop position control.3 Speed and Position Control This section describes the speed and position control loop closure wide view. 3. You can download the calculated parameters to the drive by clicking Download.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Speed control on sensor #1 and position control with sensor #2. Select one and the Motion tab appears as follows: . and also the maximum deceleration SD – for further explanations click the Help button. This will give the holding torque fixed. Position and speed control with sensor #1. The details are also described. this calculator also obtains the dynamic torque limit PF[29]. 1. and acceleration dependent components. speed dependent. then click Calculate.1) 35 Figure 36: Motor calculation window Complete the Inputs section of the form from the motor datasheet.6. There are three options that lead to approximately the same setup actions: Speed control with sensor #1.

Verification. The usage level for the tools can be anything from novice to control expert. Design. Before using the Motion tab read the following sections. This division is because the process may be iterative in which case you may need to repeat some of the steps. . The process is divided into several steps: Prepare for identification.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 36 Figure 37: Motion tab for closed loop control The Conductor presents an advanced set of motion tuning tools. 1. Identification.

3. It concludes with a controller that has quite low performance – only enough to continue automatic tuning from here. set UM=3 (Open loop). and record the motion sensor Position and Speed. On starting the Controller tool. LVDT. The sensor quality must be tested with the motor fully powered. 3.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 37 Notes: This step assumes that you have properly set the current control and the commutation in advance. Allow the Conductor to find a controller automatically. Resolver. 1. Potentiometer.1 Prepare for Identification The control tuning environment needs a working closed loop to start from. since RFI from the motor occasionally disturbs the sensor quality.6. The Conductor tries to follow the guidelines of the Appendix on manual tuning automatically. To find the sensor quality. the following window opens: . (The disturbance display on the speed record is much clearer than on the position record). set HT[1]=CL[1] (maximum holding torque). etc. If the current control or commutation are not optimum. If you use analog sensors (Analog encoder. the controller tuning will yield poor results. open the Composer. The initial closed loop does not need high performance.) take extra care to ensure your position signals are clean before you start motion.

If it failed. 3.3.2 Identification Identification is the process of finding the transfer function of the controlled plant.1) 38 Figure 38: Start step designer window Click Start and wait for the Conductor. The transfer function will serve you later when you design a controller to match it. If you had a good controller in the drive before starting the process of finding a controller. . The starting controller replaces the motion controller with a lowperformance fixed controller. Usually it succeeds and you have completed the process. save your work (using the Database tab) before opening this window.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1. use the controls and read the online help in order to obtain a working starting controller.6.

1. and wait until completion. For quick identification. You will receive an identification result with a frequency response plot: . select the Identify tool. identified with different working conditions.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. You can log differing transfer functions. The implementation of this method by the Conductor. The noises you hear are the frequencies that run through your plant.1) 39 The method for finding the transfer function is simple: inject sine signals of varying frequency to the plant and measure the resulting motion. is quite complex. and then use them all in a combined design process to generate a controller that fits them all. The transfer function of motion systems depends on the signal amplitude and the working conditions. however. answer Yes to confirm the change of control parameters. The following window opens: Figure 39: Identification window Click Run.

3.1) 40 Figure 40: Example of a frequency response Click OK to return to the main identification screen. in order to attenuate noises and in order to de-sensitize the controller to the large uncertainties of high frequency identification. The following window opens: . Maximize crossover frequency and low frequency gain for agile and accurate control. Minimize high frequency response.3 Design With the identification results you can design a controller. 1. The controller has to meet the following goals: The robustness figures of merit: acceptable gain and phase margins.idn as the identification file. The design environment of the conductor is built to optimize this trade off. Select MyFirstIden.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. then save your work using the File>Save menu. Name it MyFirstIden. 3. These is a conflict between these goals so there is a trade off. Example: a completely automatic design: Select the Design tool.6. Select the Plant tab and click Add.idn.

1. The following window opens: .1) 41 Figure 41: Add identified plant to the designer Select Tools>Automatic design.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1) 42 Figure 42: Automatic design window Click Run. The results appear in the following window: Figure 43: Complete design .

You can save it to a file.4 Verification In the verification stage simply run step responses and judge them according to your needs. The following window opens: . Select Tools>Download Design.6. 3.1) 43 You have now completed your first successful design. 1. Click the Verification tool.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.3. and in the following window: select the “Position” unit mode.

and the results appear in the following window: .The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 44 Figure 44: Verification window Click Start. 1.

1.1) 45 Figure 45: Controller verification results 3.7.1 Cogging Compensation The first compensation is for cogging.7 Fine Tuning The Fine Tuning tab enables special enhancements to be tuned. . The aim of this window is to map T (θ ) . This mapping can be saved in the drive. This is not required for all applications. It becomes available when you check Enable Cogging Compensation. or retrieved from a file. The cogging compensation adds a compensation torque T (θ ) where θ is the motor’s electrical angle. The following fine tunings are available: Cogging compensation Analog encoder index tuning 3.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. saved to a file.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1) 46 Figure 46: The Fine Tuning Tab On opening the cogging compensation tool. the following window opens: .

the experiment starts and the progress is displayed at the bottom of the window. Measure the actual motor cogging by clicking Start. When starting a cogging measurement. there will be no cogging compensation. i.. without measuring anything.e. Load a cogging table from a file. the following window opens: When you click Yes.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 47 Figure 47: Cogging compensation tuner window The following options are available: Set the cogging compensation to default. . 1.

1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 48 .

both cases are measured. 1.7. then the "Analog index tuning" button is visible. .The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 49 3. The motion has to traverse the analog encoder index.2 Fine Tuning an Analog Encoder If sensor #1 is set to "Analog incremental encoder" in the "Sensor #1" window. Figure 48: The Fine Tuning window whem sensor #1 is an analog encoder When you click Analog Index Tuning. Please note that for analog encoder. This tuning defines the signal level and position where analog index capture occurs. the index appears at different positions for forward travel and for reverse travel. you need to define the experiment motion in the following window.

. progress is displayed in the progress bar at the bottom of the window. 1. click Start to begin.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 50 Figure 49: Analog index tuning After you set the parameters for the experiment.

Save your parameters in flash memory.1) 51 3. The Expert List of this window brings up the entire SimplIQ database. Click the Database tab: Figure 50: Database maintenance tab Check the database integrity. For example. the motor will not start and it will report "Bad Database". save the results. Restore your previously stored parameters from flash memory if you want to purge your Conductor session.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Checking the database here will prevent this error.8 Database Maintenance Finally. if you selected a commutation finding method by CA[17] that does not match the installed sensors. 1. This checks for certain conflicts that can prevent the motor from starting. .

Several frequency response measurements can describe the same plant in order to reflect plant uncertainty. or noise attenuation. . its uncertainty. so the explanations given here may also vary slightly. 1. together with the Manual Tuning Appendix.3. or you can return to the identification stage to add the results of new working points. This chapter assumes you are familiar with Section 3. The Getting Started chapter. This chapter goes over the tuner options in greater detail.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. that is. The second step is to identify the plant model. to find its transfer function. amplitude-phase versus frequency.2 Identification This chapter deals with identifying the plant including. choosing full automation. The feedback design process may be iterative – you can return to the design stage to improve on the test results.6. The first step is to generate a low performance controller that is called the "starting step controller". The window controls may differ between Conductor versions. The user orients the design optimization by emphasizing design margins.1 Start Step Control 4. covers this step.1) 52 Chapter 4: Advanced Control Tuning This chapter is intended for users wishing to use the extra flexibility of the motion control tuning system beyond the "getting started" level. as explained in the following sections. Notes: The "Getting Started" chapter has taken you through all these stages. This minimal controller only has to stabilize the motor while the plant dynamics are identified. Detailed explanations of the window controls are in the online help. The fourth step is verification – running a 'field' evaluation test. Feedback design is a four-step procedure. 4. bandwidth. Notes: This Chapter focuses on understanding what you do rather than on detailed explanations of the window controls. The third step is to design a controller to match the plant's frequency response. The auto-tuner is very flexible regarding these steps.

each describing the plant with different working conditions. This is because handling a multitude of transfer functions is very complex. After this process. When the Conductor presents the identification result it normally shows one nominal transfer function.2.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. We take frequency response not because the plant is really linear and time invariant. Knowing very well the limitations of frequency responses. 1. as it is nonlinear and noisy. Identification file maintenance is from the window that opens by clicking Identify in the Motion tab of the Conductor. This is much better than traditional methods that can only consider one plant model at a time.idn extension. Later.2. the DFT tuner identifies many frequency responses instead of one.1) 53 4. Each frequency response describes the plant linearized about a different working point. Identification is an involved process.idn files. you will have many measured values for the amplitude/phase of the plant at any given frequency. You can keep several . A frequency response is a characteristic of a linear. An identification file stores a list of frequencies and the associated amplitude and phase values of the plant transfer function. 4. . but because all the established control design theory deals with plants having frequency responses.1 Identification and Uncertainty The identification produces a frequency response. time invariant plant. This set of values forms an "uncertainty set" for the frequency. the Conductor will design a controller that optimizes the response to the entire uncertainty set.2 Identification Results Management The Conductor stores the identification results in files with the . The Conductor is based on many years of trials and collecting data from actual motion systems.

at this working point it applies the sinusoidal exciting signals. then add the frequencies you want (further details appear later in this manual). The Conductor uses the "Starting Step" controller to set the plant working point. Open an existing file. The Conductor identifies frequency responses. 1. . You need to help the Conductor in selecting the identification work-point. You can add frequency points to an existing identification. This means that if you want to add data in a certain frequency region you do not need to go through the entire identification process.2.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Applying pure sinusoidal excitation in an open loop may not be such a good idea – the motor may drift away and high frequency data may be completely obscured by frictions. You can also edit existing identification results. the identification will suffer from frictions. The motor will hardly drift. from the following options: Stay in place: The start step controllers hold the motor more or less in a fixed position. thus it naturally selects sinusoidal excitation. so that its response will reveal the most about its nature.1) 54 Open Save New Cleanup Figure 51: Identification file maintenance options You can reset the identification process (New) and store results (Save). You can clean outliers from frequency responses (Cleanup) – deleting an identified frequency which you consider unreliable 4.3 Identification Work Point Identification is the art of exciting the plant with signals.

The Conductor must select the identification frequency with care. it accepts it. The window opens by clicking Identify in the Motion tab of the Conductor. This mode gives most of the Free mode advantages when you cannot allow free rotation of the motor. so that: It will find all the critical plant data. . The following figure shows your selection. then the Conductor can extract the frequency response for that single frequency.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 55 Free: For non-restricted displacement around the initial position. Putting so much energy in a single frequency gives the best results which are also the most noise immune.2. so that the frictions will minimally affect identification. 1. It can complete the identification in a reasonable time. The starting step controller will keep the motor with constant speed. You can identify in each of the "Stay in place". the identification is slow. "Free" or "Bounded" modes. and the later control design may consider all the cases. Each sine signal must be maintained long enough for the transients to disappear. Where it finds large amplitude or phase gradients. The comparison will inform you how frictions affect your system. The Conductor applies an iterative search which first spans a broad set of frequencies. without missing important points. Bounded: For restricted displacement around the initial position with given position limits around the initial position. Where the frequency response looks locally smooth. 4. Figure 52: Selecting the identification method Check Identify Aux. Sensor if you intend to use sensor #2 for position control. it applies denser frequencies. However. This mode gives the best linear identification.4 Selecting the Identification Frequencies The Conductor applies sine signals to the plant.

near resonant modes. the Conductor may miss very narrow resonance/anti-resonance pairs.g.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. You suspect. based on the evaluation results. Check Automatic Refinement to allow intensified resolution where the frequency response changes rapidly. For this purpose.1) 56 Although the automated frequency search works well in most cases. Figure 53: Selecting the frequency editor If you open the Frequency Editor before you have an identification result. e. We recommend that you first let the Conductor identify with automated frequency search. that the Conductor missed a resonance. use the Frequency Editor. Make manual adjustments when: The identification results do not look continuous and smooth enough. the window looks like this: . 1.

1) 57 Figure 54: Frequency Editor. and are thus better for identification. o Large current near resonant modes lead to unpleasant noises. For every frequency there is also an associated excitement current amplitude. 1. Before the identification you can see the default set of frequencies that the Conductor sets before learning the plant. however: o Large currents at high frequencies tend to saturate the amplifier voltage due to motor inductance. Bigger current amplitudes generate a better signal to noise ratio. This saturation is reflected in the identified transfer function by decreased amplitude and increased delay. and the list in the Frequency area.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. when no identification is available The red points. After clicking Run Identification the window appears as follows: . show the frequencies for plant excitation. There are other considerations. or even mechanical damage.

and use the Add>Graphics tool. and appended to the existing identification record. 1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. We would like to increase the resolution there. You can add and edit new frequency points and run them. . the resolution seems poor near the anti resonance and near the 2-3-4 resonances. There are no red points and no point listing in the selection box since all the frequency points have been run and there has not yet been a new request. on the next "Run Identification" only the frequencies you added will be identified. Add the red frequency points to the graph.1) 58 Figure 55: Frequency editor window after identification The blue points show identification results. Phase jumps of 360° (see the right end of the above phase plot) come from angle display folding. their identification result will be appended to the existing frequency response results. Do not confuse 360° phase jumps with phase resolution problems. Notes: Poor resolution usually reflects in the phase window being clearer than in the amplitude window. For the above identification.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1) 59 Figure 56: The Frequency Editor . 1.

A. but it may mislead you. . For that. In the tuning process. letting disturbances and external loads drive the shaft. A PI speed controller with a single notch filter. a low-pass filter or both. High order filters are expected to improve closed loop performance if the sensors are noisy with systems that exhibit resonance. The High order filter can improve the controller performance dramatically when used correctly. The notch filter and/or low-pass filter are termed in this document as "High order filters". refer to the KP[N]. a low-pass filter or both. being unaware of your specific limitations. 3. This appendix does not describe the tuning interfaces – see the sections on motion tuning for that. leading to an abrupt. 2. and evaluate the experiment parameters carefully before launching it. The Conductor suggests some experiment parameters. unexpected response. Notes: This appendix concentrates on manual tuning tips and theory. the motion controller may become unstable. Cascaded position: The inner loop is a PI speed controller with a single notch filter. and when it is essential to decrease high frequency motor currents.2 Safety Servo systems must be treated with care. they must be treated with extreme care. and it does not provide an accurate description of controller parameterization.1 Scope This Appendix explains how to manually tune controllers of the following types: 1. 1. Read this appendix carefully before launching an experiment. KI[N] commands etc in the SimplIQ for Steppers Command Reference Manual. We strongly recommend familiarizing yourself with the controller structure and parameterization before attempting to tune it. A PI speed controller. In the tuning process. and the outer loop is a simple gain. Although we have made our best efforts to generate safe tuning conditions: In the tuning process. All the relevant commands have links to the full control structure description. Use the manual tuning as a starting point for automatic tuning: Automatic tuning brings better results than human tuning in most cases.1) 60 Appendix A: Manual Tuning of Speed and Position Control A. Incorrect usage of the High order filter can lead to a poor or even unstable controller. the motion controller may become very weak.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Cascaded position controller: The inner loop is a PI speed controller and the outer loop is a position simple gain controller. 4.

try to tune first its embedded speed controller. use a fixed controller. A controller of lower bandwidth decreases stresses and is more robust to changes and ageing. Work linearly. 1 A. With high controller gains the current command saturates for very small tracking errors. 1. 1 2 Systems that do not stay in place when the motor is shut down.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Overshoots are necessary if the controller is to track without a time delay. which usually limits the achievable bandwidth compared to a simple PI. Use the High order filter when encountering oscillations and high frequency noise. The small extra effort of tuning the High order filter can be very beneficial.3 Make it Simple This Appendix gives some simple guidelines for manual controller tuning. adhere to the simple PI speed controller. The saturation makes the evaluation of control quality very difficult. The Conductor program lets you tune a speed controller without the risk that the motor will drift away from its starting shaft position. don't excite high frequencies. Use controller scheduling (dynamic adaptation of the controller parameters to the situation) if you have a low-resolution encoder or high friction. Note that the rate of change of the current command is also limited. If you need to tune a position controller. In order to simplify the tuning process we divide it into a series of steps. In this Appendix you will learn how the High order filter may decrease control stresses. Verify how the controller works with large signals only after it is satisfactory with small signals. The rules of simplification are: Never tune your controller to perform better than you need. This is because max dI dt = VB L where I is the motor current. Keep the motions small enough and verify by the current waveforms that the current command does not saturate2. If your encoder has good enough resolution and the friction is low enough. VB is the supply voltage and L is the motor inductance. Work with steps. The High order filter always introduces a filtering delay. The results will not reveal oscillations and high frequency problems that may exist. Do not fear overshoots. The High order filter requires more skill to use. Evaluate the overshoot that you can tolerate by experimenting with acceleration limited test waveforms. Tuning a speed controller is simpler than tuning a position controller.1) 61 Treat unbalanced systems with extreme care. . without exceeding the acceleration you actually use. The extra effort of tuning the High order filter can be very beneficial. When you test a controller with limited acceleration or even smoothed reference waveforms. If your mechanics are simple and good enough to avoid the High order filter. Reducing the height of the overshoots lengthens their duration.

1) 62 A. and some parameters of the Advanced filter. conditionally stable.5 The Basic Concepts This section concisely and informally explains the entities you will come across when tuning. the greater the chance that the system will become noisy or even unstable due to changing work conditions. or due to ageing. The following tips will help you create a stable. A fixed controller 5 runs a fixed set of control parameters .1 Fixed. in real-time.5. The Drive stores 16 sets of controller parameter sets. The higher the gains.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. e. but are likely to remain stable. Increasing the integrator gain at low speeds may improve low speed behavior.g. but also low enough so that it prevents position disturbances from creating large overshoots. For a position controller. . 3 Tuning for the least inertia may have a high price with high inertia postures or load conditions. Gain scheduling is the process of adapting the controller parameters "on the fly" to a given situation. This means that a position controller will loose stability with gains that are small enough. however. Acceleration limits. 5 The fixed/scheduled option refers to the proportional and the integral speed gains. You can tune instead for several postures or loads and apply manual gain scheduling. long-lasting motion system: Tune for minimum inertia. Automatic gain scheduling: the Drive adapts the controller to the speed controller command. This delay requires a decreased controller bandwidth. If the inertia of the system varies. 1. 4 If you tune a speed controller you don't have to test with halved gains.or a gain-scheduled controller. tune for minimal inertia3. there is a large delay between consecutive encoder position updates. Positions or loading conditions with higher inertia will have a slower response time. and also when the selected gains are reduced by half4.vs. o At low speeds friction becomes a dominant control problem. the maximum motor acceleration (parameter GS[9]) must be set high enough so that it does not disturb normal operation. The drive supports two types of gain scheduling. Position controllers are. The active controller parameters set is chosen by the gain scheduling process. The reasons for automatic gain scheduling are: o When the speed becomes low. A. position gain. You must bear in mind that the price of maximum performance is decreased robustness to system variations. The controller must remain stable (it does not have to maintain an optimum response) when you double the selected gains. for a rotary robot arm. Gain-scheduled Controllers The drive can run either a fixed.4 Keep Margins It is very tempting to increase the controller gains and enjoy the maximal performance of your system. A.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

63

Manual gain scheduling: The controller parameters may adapt due to a user program or an external command. For example, the controller gains of a winder may be increased as it rolls and gains weight. For convenience, when you program a fixed controller you don't overwrite the schedulable parameters, and vice versa. The Auto-tuner always programs an automatically gain-scheduled controller.

A.5.2 Resonance and Notch Filters
Resonance is a very common mechanical phenomenon, in which a flexible system vibrates in its natural frequencies. In many applications, the natural frequencies are too high for the motion controller to control. The best policy for the motion controller is then to avoid exciting the oscillations. You chain a band-stop (notch) filter to the controller to prevent the controller from driving the oscillatory frequency. If you don't use a notch filter where necessary, either: Severely limit the possible controller bandwidth. Risk instability and extreme stresses to the controlled system. Tips: Normally there is more than one resonance frequency. It may be necessary to set more than a single notch. In some systems the resonance frequency changes significantly due to load or posture changes. Verify that your designed notch covers the entire operational envelope.

A.5.3 High Frequency Noise and Low-pass Filters
High frequency noise means vibration, acoustically unacceptable noise, and much greater power consumption than is necessary just to drive the motor to its desired shaft position. The main reasons for high frequency noises are: Sensor inaccuracy. Plays or backlash in the mechanics. High frequency, unidentified resonance, possibly due to aliasing6. The best policy for the motion controller is to avoid exciting the motor at a high frequency because the system vibrates there or because the feedback is not reliable. For this purpose chain a low-pass filter to the controller. The price of a low-pass filter is an equivalent delay. For a double pole filter with a damping factor of 0.7, the insertion delay is about 0.23/f, where f is the corner frequency.

6

We deal with a sampled system. High frequency signals may appear to sampled systems in changed, low frequencies. For example, if the Drive samples at 300 usec (TS=75), then an oscillation with a period of 300 usec (3333 Hz) appears to the Drive as a constant value (frequency=0).

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

64

A.5.4 Evaluating a Step Response – Rise Time, Settling Time, and Overshoot.
A step response is the waveform (position or speed) the motor exhibits when its reference command (position or speed) changes abruptly. Step responses are not very practical in real-life motoring applications, as the reference commands are nearly always acceleration limited and many times smoothed. A step response is, however, good to reveal the detailed dynamic behavior of the controller. The most popular step-response figures of merit are: Rise time: The time since the reference has been changed until the value (position or speed) covers 90% of the step. Settling time: The time since the reference has been changed until the value (position or speed) remains permanently within 3% of the step. Overshoot: The percentage of the deviation to the other side while stabilizing the step. These figures of merit are shown in Figure 57.
1400 1200 1000 Target 800 600 400 200 Time 0 0.011 0.012 0.046 0.050 0.074

Figure 57: A step response: The rise time is about 0.01, the settling time is 0.074, and the overshoot is about 30%.

The overshoot level, as well as the ratio between the rise time and the settling time, 7 reflect the gain and the phase margins . Gain or phase margin results that are too low may result in a high step response overshoot (more than 40%) followed by an undershoot and a long settling time. If the phase margin is too high, the settling time is too long. These properties are depicted in Figure 58 below which is a simulation of three design examples: One with reasonable margins, one with margins that are too low and one with phase margins that are too high.

7

The gain margin is the factor in which the controller gain can be increased until loosing stability. The phase margin is the difference of the open-loop phase from -180 degrees at the point where the open-

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

65

16000 14000 12000 Step response 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 Tim e (sec.)
A cceptablemargins: good response Acceptable margins: Nice response Too low too low: large overshoot and and oscillations Margins margins: large overshoot oscillations Too much margins: long settling time Margins too high: long settling time Reference Reference

Figure 58: Comparison between step responses of acceptable controllers and nonacceptable controllers. Details on the plot.

A.6 The Example System
Manual tuning is not a true science with closed formulas. It is heuristic, and the heuristics fit only a (relatively wide) selection of systems. All the explanations in the rest of this Appendix refer to the two laboratory systems, shown below. Both the systems have the same motor and amplifier: Characteristic Motor type Encoder resolution Amplifier Value Brushless, three pole pairs, 4 Amp continuous. 4000 counts/rev (1000 lines) Bell 5/100

In system #1, the motor is loaded by a simple inertia. This simple inertia load enables high bandwidth control. In system #2, the load inertia is coupled to the motor through flexible coupling. The coupling introduces a mechanical resonance.

loop gain is 0 db. For further explanation, see the Auto-tuning manual, or any basic textbook in control theory.

as the number of the recorded data points is limited.1) 66 A.7. and also the motor's current demand. 1. If you use excessive current levels in the experiment. the drive may switch automatically to the continuous limit. high frequency disturbances may be totally mispresented. . A. This gives you extra assurance that the system is properly assembled and well calculated. and then test them. If the current demand is saturated then the system reached physical limitations. but for large recording times you will lose resolution. Large high frequency current demands reveal the need for high frequency filtering in a more vivid way than position or speed error. cogging (periodic-inposition torque disturbance). excellent technical calculations software by MathWorks.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. and they may look as phenomena of a much lower frequency. You can set the recorder time as long as you want. resonant limit cycle (constant frequency sinusoidal disturbance) and much more. Current command waveforms easily reveal phenomena like friction (current increases for a while before the motor starts to move). proportional to the squared speed). and you cannot distinguish the small signal response from the experiment result.7. dynamic unbalance (periodic-in-position torque disturbance. Notes: The recorder can export the experiment results to Matlab8 for further analysis. 8 Popular. Check that the currents are near the expected values for the accelerations used.7 Testing the Response of a Controller Manual tuning is an iterative process in which you select parameters for the controller. When decreasing the recorder resolution. The current demand is very useful for: Detecting saturation. The recorder is automatically triggered when the motion command (speed or target position) changes.1 Current Limits Beware that the peak current limit and the continuous current limit of the drive may differ.2 Recording the Experiment Results The Conductor's Wizard records the results of the tuning experiment. you become more susceptible to aliasing. and exhibit saturation behavior. play (the ratio between current and acceleration jumps wildly). A. The recorder records the reference and the actual speed and position waveforms. In other words.

) 0.3 Tim e (sec.3 -1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.5 0. A. With the low gains the motor's response is very sluggish. T.48 sec Rec. as in Figure 59. Start with the very low gains of the PI controller: KI=3 and KP=1 for example.06 -0.5 Figure 59: First test with low KI and KP . (c) Displacement: Displacement of at least Max.1 -3 0 0 S peed Reference 0.2 0. We evaluate the step response in order to iterate the KI and KP parameters for improved closed loop performance.8 Fixed Gain Manual Tuning for a Speed Loop This section deals with choosing the KI and KP parameters of the PI controller and the parameters of the High order filter.1 0.48 seconds.5 Am pere -0.3 Tim e (sec.4 0. then set the following step reference command parameters: (a) Set a long recorder time. Record Time is 0. 1. KP KI Velocity +Displ. Counts/sec. as with low gains the response is going to be slow. unless it violates the mechanical limits.1 0. The steps are: 1.12 -0. 1 3 12000 5000 -5000 0. This may be too slow a velocity for optimal tuning. Record Time multiplied by Velocity (about 5000 in this example). Rec. the measured speed and the motor current.15 0 0. Here the Max.8. -Displ.6 -0. We first describe how to select the KI and KP parameters. We will increase the reference speed later. 1. Res 400 musec Profile off Let us observe two plots.2 0.4 0. Then we explain how to add a low-pass filter.2 x 10 4 -2.09 -0.1) 67 A.03 -0. (b) Velocity: 12000 counts/second (fits 180 RPM for encoder of 4000 counts per revolution).) 0. when we are more confident of the motor's response. The test data is summarized in the following table. Finally we explain how to decide if a notch filter is needed and how to add it.1 Manual Tuning of a PI Controller We present an iterative process of choosing KI and KP and testing the closed loop step response.

1 -3 0 0. KP KI Velocity +Displ.) 0.1 0 -0.5 Figure 60: A test with the same controller as the test of Figure 59 with a higher velocity command and a longer recording time (Speed2) 1. 2.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1 -0. Res 400 usec Profile Off . 5000 -Displ. Figure 60 repeats the same test with increased velocity and test duration as given in the table below.7 to 1.4 0. Rec.3 0 0. -Displ. 5000 Rec. Current command is far from saturation.48 sec Rec.1 0.2 Speed Reference 0. T. The final response is in Figure 61.2 x 10 4 -2. 1. The step response is unacceptable for any reason.4 sec 2 msec Off Counts/sec. Rec. The measured output does not reach the commanded step. Repeat step 1. this is a result of high friction.5 Am pere 0. 0.0. Res Profile 1 3 48000 20000 20000 2. In this case decrease KP by at least a factor of 2. increasing KI and KP simultaneously by 50% at a time until one of the following occurs: The step response exhibits an overshoot of about 20%. T.5 0.3 Tim e (sec.) 2 2. which includes several tests based on increasing KI and KP with the values given in the following table KP 10.5 1 1. for example any sign of resonant oscillation.2 -0.3 -1.3 sec. therefore you can increase the velocity command.5 Tim e (sec.) that the velocity is almost fixed while the current increases.1) 68 Figure 59 reveals the following: 1. The system exhibits large overshoot and undershoot which is a sign of being close to instability. Note that there is a long time duration (from 0.6 -0. 1.30.2 0.40 KI 6π KP Velocity 12000 +Displ.20.

from the initial value of KI0.2 Figure 61: Test results for maximum KP for KI/KP=3 Adjust the speed command for optimal tuning.9 -1.1 0.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. which includes several tests of increasing KI in the range given in the following table and marked on the plot.1 -0. When the gains increase.KP=40 KI=90.1 Ampere in the other direction) is a measure of the amount of friction.16 Tim e (sec. Friction is considered high if the speed response depends significantly on the reference magnitude. 1. You will have to reduce the speed command until the current waveform does not saturate. then perform step response tests while increasing KI by a factor of 1.14 0.3 -0. Information delay is explained in the "Fixed vs. 1. See an example in Figure 59.14 0.5 0.KP =30 KI=60.3 at a time.18 0.12 KI=120.) 0. Increasing the velocity command helps to minimize the friction effect.3=30.18 0.5 0. 2.5 0. . which decreases our ability to evaluate the test results.KP =10 Reference -0.3 x 10 4 KI=120.16 Tim e (sec.2 Am pere 1.1 0. Let us denote the final KI and KP by KI0 and KP0.3 -0. Remark: The speed command should be large enough to minimize friction effects.5 0. Fix KP=KP0/1. which in our example gives 40/1. but the current consumption for the same reference speed increases. In our example the final values are KP=30 and KI=8000. see the results in Figure 62.KP=40 KI=90.3.KP =30 KI=60. the friction is less apparent.9 0.1 Ampere in one direction and 0. 9 Friction will cause the response to behave differently as a function of speed. In extreme cases we observe the current increasing while the motor speed stays fixed below its destination.12 0.KP =20 KI=30.1) 69 Counts/sec.1 1. Gain Scheduled Controllers" section above. Continue increasing KI until the system exhibits overshoot of about 30%. The speed command should be as 9 large as possible to minimize friction effects and information delay effects . here KP0=40 and KI0=120.7 0.) 0. The steady state current (0.KP =10 0.KP =20 KI=30.

2. The test with KI=8000 has an overshoot of 30% with negligible undershoot and can be considered a good choice 3. A typical overshoot selection is 25%. The example in Figure 63 reflects a non-robust controller with poor properties such as a large settling time.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.5 0. 5000 Rec.16 Tim e (sec.14 0.16 Tim e (sec. the user must be careful to preserve the gain margin as explained in Section A.7 0.7 -1. However.48 sec Rec.1) 70 KP 30 KI Marked On Plot Velocity 12000 +Displ.14 0.5 0.2 Am pere 1.1 0.1 1.12 KI=8000 KI=6000 KI=4000 KI=2000 KI=1000 KI=500 0. 0.18 0.18 0.12 0. However.) 0.3 -0.1 0.5 0.4 We are now ready to give the first guidelines for what to look for when searching for a good controller: Guideline 1: When searching for good controllers try to increase KI in order to improve the closed loop performance of the system. The final step is performing small iterations on KI and KP (a 10% parameter change in each test) and testing in order come up with the best solution defined by the user.5 1.1 -0.9 0.1 x 10 4 KI=8000 KI=6000 KI=4000 KI=2000 KI=1000 KI=500 Reference -0. Guideline 2: Never allow an overshoot of more than 40%.7 0. Res 400 musec Profile off Counts/sec. T. 1. increasing KI too much creates unacceptable oscillations as shown in Figure 63. 5000 -Displ.) 0. .2 Figure 62: Test results for several KI and fixed KP.

2 0.1 2 0.18 0. It should have an overshoot of about 20-30% and a very small or zero undershoot .03 Tim e (sec. 2 1.1 0.05 Figure 64: A small signal step response characterization of a good PI controller.16 Tim e (sec.05 Am pere 2.8 -2.4 -1.2 Figure 63: An example of unacceptable controller – KI is too large Guideline 3: The final response should have an overshoot of about 25%.14 0.2 Am pere 1. C ounts/sec.KP =30 0.04 0.01 0.4 -4 0 0.6 -1.3 x 10 4 KI=20000.03 Tim e (sec.2 -2 0.4 0.) 0.02 0.) 0.) 0.KP =30 Reference -0.8 -0.02 0. no undershoot and non-saturating current demand.18 0.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.16 Tim e (sec.14 0.12 KI=20000.4 -0.4 x 10 4 Speed Reference -1.2 0.04 0.12 0.5 0.1 1.01 0.2 0.KP =30 KI=16000.) 0. 3 2.4 -0.KP =30 KI=16000.1) 71 Counts/sec. 1.2 -2 0 4 0.

Above the bandwidth of 3 Hz. Denote the PI parameters by KI0 and KP0. The next step is to decrease KP by about 30% to leave space for increasing KI and leave it fixed while increasing KI. . Then choose KP=40/1. Start with designing a PI controller without a low-pass filter as described above. as the numerical controller of the Drive is not optimized for such low frequencies. Moreover.8. 1.3=30 and increase KI until a satisfactory response is achieved. it can avoid unexpected mechanical phenomena.2 Manual Tuning of a PI Controller and a Low Pass Filter A low-pass filter enables decreasing and smoothing the current injected to the motor due to the sensor’s noise and/or due to plant resonance appearing at very high frequencies. or follow the instructions in the next step. Add a low-pass filter at the frequency of 0. Most likely. KI=5000 is the recommended value because larger values exhibit undershoot and lower values exhibit overshoot less than 10%. Figure 66 shows tests with several KI values.2/[Speed Sampling Time] with a damping factor of 0. except for rare systems for which the bandwidth of 3 10 Hz cannot be achieved .1) 72 Theoretical Tip: We suggest to start the manual tuning with KI/KP= 6π . the value KP=50 is too high. Figure 63 describes two tests. First find the largest KP where KI/KP= 6π . 10 We don’t recommend implementing closed loop responses slower then 1 Hz. However if agility can be sacrificed it is highly recommended to use a low-pass filter. KP=40 is satisfactory. Design a PI controller as described below. using a PI controller with a low-pass filter decreases the closed loop agility performance compared to a PI controller. This procedure converges. Then find the maximum KP where KI/KP=3. the value of KP will be responsible for stability rather than KI. The following procedure for incorporating a low-pass filter is recommended: 1.5.3.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. assuming you can achieve a bandwidth greater than 3 Hz.6. 2. Repeat this step while decreasing the corner frequency of the low-pass filter 20% at a time until a satisfactory result is achieved (see Guideline 4). as detailed in section A. A.

5 0. while KP=50 is too large Counts/sec.12 KI=10000 KI=7000 KI=5000 KI=3000 0.) 0.14 0.5 1.KP =40 0.7 0.14 0.14 0.12 KI=150.8 0.) 0.5 0.5 0.1) 73 Counts/sec. The candidate for KI is KI=5000.8 -1.2 Am pere 1.18 0.16 Tim e (sec.18 0.KP =50 KI=120.18 0.1 x 10 4 KI=10000 KI=7000 KI=5000 KI=3000 Reference -0.1 0.14 0. 1. 2.) 0.1 x 10 4 KI=150. where the overshoot is about 20% 0.16 Tim e (sec.1 0.4 0.7 -1.16 Tim e (sec.9 0.18 0.12 Figure 66: Test results for searching for the maximum KI.2 -0.5 0 -0.6 -0.2 Am pere 1.2 .1 2 0.3 0.12 0.5 1 0. 2 1.1 2 0. KP=40 is acceptable.KP =40 Reference -0.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.4 -1 0.16 Tim e (sec.2 Figure 65: Tests for finding the maximum KP for KI/KP=3.) 0.KP =50 KI=120.

that is.3 Manual Tuning of a PI Controller and a Notch Filter During the design of a PI controller. Counts/sec. Below is a characteristic example. .The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.8 0. try to insert a second order low-pass filter. see Guideline 4 below.) 0.2 0.3 Tim e (sec. Guideline 4: A satisfactory result is the low-pass filter with the lowest corner frequency that satisfies the required performance.8 0 0. Let us start designing a PI controller. A.2 0.4 0. which calls for using a notch – the current exhibits periodic noise waveform Measure the resonance frequency. one can measure 30 cycles in 0. we have the test results given in Figure 67. Repeat. the resonance phenomenon is more clearly identified from the current response than from the speed response.1 0.12 0.5 Am pere 1.0387=359 Hz. which indicates the existence of resonance.3 Tim e (sec. By enlarging an interval of the measured current. The measured current exhibits oscillations.8.76 1. Remark: In this example the measured speed also exhibits oscillations.5 Figure 67: Example of a test. however.1) 74 If a settling time of 25 msec at least is satisfactory.48 -0. The low-pass minimizes the expected current consumption and current noise level.4 0.6 -0.1 0. The starting corner frequency is (10/Settling time) Hz. After several iterations increasing KI and KP (KI/KP= 2π ).4 0.16 -0. Iterate step 2 for low-pass filters decreasing by 25% each test.8 -3 0 2. 1. decreasing the lowpass frequency until a satisfactory controller is achieved.) 0.6 x 10 4 Speed Reference -1. the designer can conclude from the test results if a notch filter is required and in which frequency it should be added.0837 seconds which fits to a resonance frequency of 10/0. In most cases. using the second (resonant) test system. how many oscillations appear in a second. 3 1.

2 0.4 0. (RSpeed2) Add a notch at frequency 359 Hz with damping factor of 0.) 0. and then click Run to perform a test. Note that the resonance phenomenon disappeared (compare Figure 67 and Figure 70). . 1.1) 75 0. The screen is shown in Figure 69. Click OK to return to the Tuning Velocity Loop screen.34 0. The outcome is shown in Figure 70.36 Am pere 0. Click the Highorder Filter Design button. choose a notch filter.07.4 Figure 68: Zoom of current test measurement for measuring the plant’s expected resonance. The improvement is apparent in Figure 71.32 0.24 0.3 0.32 0. type its corner frequency and use the slider to choose the damping factor.28 0.36 Tim e (sec.38 0.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. which is zoomed to the scale of Figure 68.

3 Tim e (sec.1 0.12 0.8 0.8 0 0.8 -3 0 2.4 Speed Reference 0. 3 1.) 0.) 0.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.1 0.2 0.6 -0.4 0.1) 76 Figure 69: Notch filter at the corner frequency 359 Hz and a damping factor of 0.07 Counts/sec.48 -0. 1.5 Am pere 1.16 -0.5 Figure 70: Test result showing how a notch filter eliminates current oscillations due to mechanical resonance .6 x 10 4 -1.76 1.4 0.2 0.3 Tim e (sec.

4 Figure 71: Zoom of current test measurement for the same controller used for Figure 68 with Notch Remark: Figure 71 reveals two remaining oscillations. Repeat the test with different damping values according to the following guideline: Guideline 5: Try using the largest damping factor value. Do not try using damping factors that are too small (0.07 is considered small) because this introduces more phase delay. which knocks out the resonance. The oscillation at 75 Hz is due to cogging and not due to a mechanical resonance.38 0. 11 The resonant frequency may change due to load or posture changes.34 0.1) 77 0. Continue the PI manual tuning process for designing KI and KP as described earlier in this chapter. one about 75 Hz and the other 860 Hz.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. If this frequency doubles then it is due to cogging and if it remains the same then it is due to a resonance. and it is less robust when faced 11 with resonant frequency variations .2 0.36 Tim e (sec. 1.3 0. In order to prove this. repeat the test with twice the velocity command. The resonance at 860 Hz is very close to half the Nyquist frequency.24 0.4 0.32 0. . and may be dampened using the low-pass filter option.) 0.28 0.36 Am pere 0.32 0.

(b) The outer loop formula for KP is based on the estimate of the system’s bandwidth.1) 78 A. The tested results are shown in Figure 72 for the parameters in the table below. It is therefore required to increase the phase margin of the inner loop by decreasing KI in order to leave some extra phase margin for KP of the outer loop. Inner loop parameters: KI is half that of the speed loop designed in the first stage and KP remains the same. Res 400 musec Acc/Dec 60 M . T. The suggested dual loop controller is: 1. Outer loop parameters are: KP=0.9 Executing Manual Tuning for a Cascaded Position Controller Design of a position controller is a two-stage sequence. as such it remains unchanged. KP 30 KI 4000 KP outer 150 Velocity 100000 Step 2000 Rec. Assume the speed controller was designed and tested as shown in Figure 62 for which KI=8000. The first is to tune a speed controller and the second is to tune the simple gain outer controller.5/dT=16. 2. (c) KP of the inner loop mainly dictates the gain margin.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. 0.0034 seconds. The rise time is dT=0.48 sec Rec. Explanation: (a) The KP of the outer loop will decrease the phase margin. The KI of the inner loop was designed to achieve the minimal phase margin allowed. KP=30. 1.

A.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver.6 0.08 0.4 -0.1) 79 2500 2000 Counts 1500 1000 500 0 0 4 Am pere 2.10.02 0.08 0.) 0.04 0.) Figure 72: Tests of position design Speed Reference 0.1 Manual Gain Scheduling Manual gain scheduling is useful when one can learn of the changing conditions: Using position data . .04 0.1 0.06 Tim e (sec. The iteration range for the KI of the inner loop should not exceed 50% of its original value. by analog input or communication. The third step is to iterate on the KI parameter of the inner loop and on the outer loop KP parameter. Controller gains can be scheduled either manually or by reference to the speed controller.8 1. and the iteration on the outer loop should not exceed 100% of its original value. In this section we extend our ability to tune a gain-scheduled controller.02 0. Using external data.06 Tim e (sec.1 3. a winder may learn the wheel weight by feeding the output of a load-cell to the analog input.8 -2 0 0. that is aware of the entire robot posture.10 Manual Tuning of Gain Scheduling The previous sections dealt with the manual tuning of a fixed controller. 1. For example. or a robot arm driver may receive a gain-scheduling command from a central controller. A.for example in a winder application.

the information delay is 1 msec. Plays may be less disturbing at high speeds. for a speed of 500 count/sec. You can select any subset of the option speeds and tune the controller for them. Minimal recommended speed settling time = (20 to 25) times the delay. The resulting delay destabilizes the controller. 12 In position control. sacrificing high-speed performance. a position error translates into a speed demand.2. For this reason. The best speed settling time for the speed of 500 count/sec is about 30 msec. at high speeds there is a larger gap between the speed options.2 Automatic Gain Scheduling In many applications there is a good reason to schedule the controller gains by the speed command. A. due to frictions and plays. The tuning speeds are calculated to generate equally distributed information delays. The second term is the information delay. and recovering full performance when the speed demand or the position error12 are high again. .1) 80 For manual gain scheduling. The motion controller starts to develop oscillations until the instantaneous speed is enough to stabilize the motor. since for higher speeds the information delay is insignificant. A. whereas at slower speeds the gap is smaller. Refer to the chapter on the Speed and the Position Controller in the Application Manual for more details. tune a series of fixed controllers and log their parameters.3 msec of delay. For example. easily taken by the integrator of the controller. The following algorithm calculates the maximum recommended closed loop bandwidth for a given speed: Delay = Speed controller sampling time + 1 / (2 Speed reference). totaling 1.10. Frictions appear at higher speeds as constant disturbance.1 Tuning a Speed Controller The highest speed for tuning is about two encoder pulses per controller sampling time. Speed settling times down to 20 msec can be achieved for the speed of 500 count/sec with reduced phase margins. 1. the speed calculation delay.10. With TS=75. where the sign of the torque is fixed. The automatic gain-scheduling process enables switching to slower controllers when the speed is slow. The two main reasons are: At low speeds the information comes from the encoder at a reduced rate. At low speeds the plant behavior may change significantly.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. and other minor delay contributors. The first term in the formula includes the computation delay. The only way to render the information delay insignificant is to reduce the controller’s bandwidth. the zero-order-hold delay. the speed controller sampling time is 300 usec. and set GS[2] for the selection of the appropriate controller. Keep in mind that the High-order filter must be similar for all the parameter sets. Then program them to the controllers’ array using the KG[N] command.

The minimal recommended position settling time = twice the speed settling time.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. .1) 81 12000 10000 8000 c ounts/sec 6000 4000 2000 0 0 10 20 30 Index 40 50 60 70 Figure 73: An example of option speeds Position gain scheduling is similar to speed gain scheduling. 1.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. for any time shift T . The performance we want to obtain dictates the level of model complexity. the letter S hides very complicated electronics and physical phenomena. A simple consequence of this is that if the system’s input is amplified by a fixed value.) Output y Figure 74: Block diagram of a system S with input u and output y = S (u ) In the above block diagram. a motor. time shift T and input u S (u1 + u2 ) = S (u1 ) + S (u2 ) (1) S (a ⋅ u ) = a ⋅ S (u ) y (t ) = S (u (t )) ⇒ y (t − T ) = S (u (t − T )) . approximate model.1 Linear Systems and Transfer Functions A system is something that has inputs and outputs. This simplifies the theoretical presentation while maintaining physical understanding. and a shaft encoder. At first approximation. then the system’s output for the sum of inputs. is the sum of outputs. is shown in Figure 74 figure below. LTI models (not necessarily for truly LTI systems) have a great advantage – a wellestablished theory of dealing with them. Mathematically. The inputs (deliberate inputs and disturbances) cause the system to respond. and for any constant a . LTI systems have the following useful properties: 1. 2. For example. 1. The input to the system is the ±10 V command voltage of the servo amplifier. the example system is LTI (Linear and Time Invariant). whose input is u and output y = S ( u ) . discrete system. The outputs are what can be observed from the response of the system to the inputs.1) 82 Appendix B: A Short Course in Linear Control This section goes over some theoretical matters that are the essence of the Conductor. A schematic representation of a system. so is its output. It brings continuous time theory although the SimplIQ is a sampled. To summarize. if the system’s output is y1 for input u1 and y 2 for input u2 . u1 + u2 . The superposition principle works. They always behave the same way. Input u System S(. Writing a true model of the system is too complex. B. named S. If y (t ) is the output for the input u (t ) then y (t − T ) is the output to the delayed input u (t − T ) . we are content with a simple. For the purpose of controller design. The output of the system is the reading of the shaft encoder. consider a system consisting of an analog servo amplifier. y1 + y 2 . if the signals u1 and u2 are applied to a system S and yield the outputs S (u1 ) and S (u2 ) .

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. a (ω ) the A major property of an LTI system is that its output. that is it is the system output. which means that the relation between the output.1) 83 B. the output is the same as parameter ω is called the frequency of the signal u (and y ). It can be confirmed by substitution that (3) where u is the current and y the shaft angle. For the system of (2). y .the way the system responds to a sinusoidal signal of any frequency. The basic one is the differential equation. where a (ω ) and ϕ (ω ) are the absolute value and phase. hence. In fact. The Laplace transform of the system described by the differential equation (2) is: bn s n + bn−1 s n −1 + Λ + b1 s + b0 s m + Λ + a1 s + a0 (6) . the transfer function is: bn ⋅ ( jω ) + bn −1 ⋅ ( jω ) n n −1 ( j ω )m + Λ + a1 ⋅ ( jω ) + a 0 + Λ + b1 ⋅ ( jω ) + b0 (5) Note that the expression in (5) yields a complex number. The dependence of α and ϕ on the frequency ω is called a Transfer function. are modeled by differential or algebraic equations. should obey the differential equation a n y ( n ) + a n−1 y (n −1) + Λ + a1 y (1) + a 0 y = u (m ) + bn −1u (m−1) + Λ + b1u (1) + b0 u (2) A simple example is a DC motor in current mode. The transfer function is closely related to the Laplace transform of the system. for an input of the the input apart from an amplification factor a (ω ) and time delay − ϕ(ω) / ω . form u = sin (ω t ) is y = a (ω ) ⋅ sin (ωt + ϕ(ω )) . respectively. It directly describes the frequency response . described by the differential equation &= ku & y to the system (2) is u = sin (ω t ) . The transfer function is the basic engineering description of a linear system. like any other system. u . the Laplace transform of the system is obtained by replacing in (2) the expression jω with the Laplace variable s . Let us now assume that the input y = a (ω ) ⋅ sin (ωt + ϕ(ω )) (4) solves (2).2 Mathematical Models for LTI Systems LTI systems. The magnitude of this number is α (ω ) and its phase is ϕ (ω ) . y (t ) . and input. 1. The amplitude of y and ϕ (ω ) its phase.

It is customary to describe the frequency response of a system pictorially by a plot of the amplitude and phase of (6) versus the frequency ω where s = jω .1) 84 Comparing (6) and (2). ω . so that the t 1 2 transfer function from the motor torque to its position is roughly J m s where J m is the motor inertia. not just to sinusoids. 1. Please note that the transfer function is a full description of the response of its related system to any input. . transfer function that relates the torque of a motor to its position is roughly a double integral (the torque is roughly proportional to acceleration). The Nichols plot is a plot of the amplitude of (6) versus its phase along the real parameter. An example 10 2000(s + 3) ⋅ 2 Nichols chart of the transfer function s (s + 60)(s + 33) is in the figure below. this plot is known as its Bode plot.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. where s = jω . A Bode plot example for the function 10 2000(s + 3) ⋅ s 2 (s + 60)(s + 33) is given in Figure 75. The Nichols plot of the same transfer function is shown in Figure 76. we find that the Laplace variable s is equivalent to the 1 d ⇔ ∫ dτ s⇔ s . The derivative operator. 30 20 10 dB 0 -10 -20 -30 0 10 -100 -120 deg -140 -160 -180 -200 0 10 10 1 10 2 10 log(ω) 1 10 2 Figure 75: Bode plot of a function Another efficient pictorial representation of a linear system is the Nichols plot. dt and its inverse to an integrator. As will be shown in the next plot. the Nichols plot is a very attractive description of an LTI system for feedback control design.

i motor current. where v is the applied voltage.5 ω=2 L(jω) ω=3 ω=5 ω=10 ω=20 -315 -270 -225 -180 deg -135 -90 -45 0 Figure 76: An example Nichols chart B. Equation 7 applies for both brush and brushless DC motors.3. Equations (7) where TC is neglected is schematically described in Figure 78. R i v L E M θ. L inductance. B Constant Field Figure 77: Schematic model of a DC motor Mathematically it can be described by the set of equations di dt & E = K E ω = K Eθ &+ & T = K i = Jθ& Bθ + T v = iR + E + L T (7) C & back e. ω = θ shaft speed angle. 1.m.3 Motor Systems Models B.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. T . R resistance.f. θ shaft angle. B shaft viscous friction. K E motor e.1) 85 30 20 10 0 B d -10 -20 -30 -40 -360 ω=80 ω=40 ω=60 ω=1. Figure 77 is a simplified schematic representation of a fixed magnet electrical motor. J. constant.m. E T motor torque. .f. J shaft inertia. and TC shaft coulomb For linear control systems design..1 A Simple Model A motor is a device that translates electrical energy into mechanical energy. friction.

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

86

v

+ _

1 R

i
KT

T

1 J

1 s

θ

− Ls

−B

KE

Figure 78: Block diagram of the simplified DC motor model

The transfer function from voltage input, v , to motor shaft angle, θ , is

& 1 / KE θ L JR = , τe = ; τm = 2 R KT K E v s (1 + sτ m + τ e τ m s )

(8)

Usually, τ e is much smaller then τ m . The electrical time constant τ e is normally in the order of magnitude of 1 msec, whereas in low friction systems τ m may be in the order of 1 sec. If τ e << τ m , we can replace sτ m in the denominator of (8) by s (τ m + τ e ) to get the approximation

1/ KE θ& = v s (1 + sτ m )(1 + τ e s )

(9)

Equation (9) is a common expression found in the literature and suits feedback design where resonance effects can be neglected. We will now describe and analyze motors with resonance.

B.3.2

Model with Flexible Transmission (resonance)

Figure 79 is a schematic representation of a ‘constant field’ motor with the load connected to the motor shaft by a flexible axis.

Motor
M

d ML

Load

1

M2

c ML BM θM

BL
θL

Figure 79: Schematic connection of load via flexible coupling

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

87

Suppose that in the system of Figure 79 the motor is brought abruptly to some constant torque. Initially the load will not react. This is because the axis must be deformed in order to convey torque to the load. When the load finally moves, its acceleration will oscillate. The oscillations in the load will induce oscillations in the motor, as shown in Figure 80 for a step command. This oscillation phenomenon is called Resonance.
1.8 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0 0

2

4 time

6

8

10

Figure 80: Typical response of an oscillating system to torque step

Mathematically, the following equations describe the system:

& & J L &L = TL − BL θ L + TDL θ & & J M &M = TM − BM θ M − TL n θ

(10)

TM = iKT

& & TL = (θ M n − θ L )c ML + θ M n − θ L d ML
where, J L is the load inertia, θ L load angle, TL load torque, BL load viscous friction, TDL disturbance moment on the load, J M motor inertia, θ M motor shaft angle, TM motor torque, BM motor shaft viscous friction, n gear ratio, i motor current, K T motor e.m.f. constant, c ML transmission spring factor and d ML the transmission damping factor. Equations (10) where B is neglected, is schematically described in Figure 81.

(

)

The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide
MAN-BELGS (Ver. 1.1)

88

1 n
TDL
i

KT

Tm

_
1 JMs

θm

+

1 s

1 n

+

+

+

_

cML
+

1 J Ls

1 s

θL

dML
1 n
+ _

Figure 81: Block diagram of a DC motor with flexible load

The transfer functions of (10) from current input, i , to motor and load angles,

θ M and θ L , respectively, are
 d c  K T J L  s 2 + ML s + ML   JL JL  θM   = i  2  d ML d ML  c ML cML J M J Ls2  s +   J + n 2 J s + J + n 2 J   m  L M  L 
θL = i K T ( J L c ML + d ML s )  d c c d  J M J L s 2  s 2 +  ML + 2ML  s + ML + 2ML  J   JL n JM n Jm   L     
(11)

   
(12)

An example of the Bode and Nichols plots of the transfer function (11) and (12) are given in Figure 82 and Figure 83 respectively.

but hardly any motion is seen on the motor shaft. the plot has a minimum on the dB scale and the phase increases.1) 89 -20 -30 -40 B -50 d -60 -70 3 -40 -60 -80 -100 g -120 e d -140 -160 -180 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ω 20 30 Figure 82: Bode plot of a motor with flexible load (resonance model) At low frequencies. in opposing directions. At the higher frequency axis. the plot attains a maximum on the dB scale. The anti-resonance and the resonance are well seen also in the Nichols chart below. about ω = 10 .5 -180 deg -135 -90 -45 0 Figure 83: Nichols plot of a motor with flexible load (resonance model) . the transfer function rolls down with a fixed slope and fixed phase angle. at frequency 11. In the resonant frequency the motor and the load oscillate about each other.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. and the phase drops again. At this frequency torque is passed from the motor to the load and the load oscillates wildly. 0 -10 -20 -30 B d -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -360 -315 -270 -225 L(jω) ω=1 ω=2 ω=4 ω=6 ω=8 ω=16 ω=30 ω=60 ω=10 ω=11 ω=10. The second. This behavior is due to the double integration that relates the system position to its torque input. At the resonant frequency of ω = 11 . is called anti-resonance. This is the frequency in which the load would freely oscillate if the inertia of the motor were infinite. Figure 82 presents two well-known phenomena. well below the oscillations. at the frequency of 10. is the resonance. 1. At the anti resonance frequency. The first.

thus as before. where P denotes the controlled transfer function (the plant). r . even if known. its output. However. u r which depends on d may not be accurate enough. which is an external input to the system. B. u and disturbance. without the feedback. This open-loop solution may not be applicable because of the following reasons: The plant model is not known exactly. that is. y is generated by its input. is called an open-loop system.4 Feedback Control The system we consider here is shown in block diagram form in Figure 84. may not be stably invertible. P . whose input is the difference of two signals: The command input.1 Why Feedback is Required (13) Given a plant. y r . use of feedback has two major drawbacks: . The external command does not depend on the system’s output and the user has complete control over it. y . The feedback input. d . A desired output. 1. r C(s) - u P(s) y Sensor Figure 84: Block diagram of a simple feedback system The input to the plant in Figure 84. A system whose input depends on its output is called a closed-loop system or a feedback system – for example the feedback system described in Figure 84. which is the measured output of the plant. can be achieved using the input ur = P −1 ( y r − d ) (14) The synthesis of (14) does not use the measured plant output.1) 90 B.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. is the output of the controller C (s ) .4. is not known or partially known. The disturbance. it is possible to bypass these difficulties and thus achieve desired outputs to a very high degree of accuracy. By embedding the plant in a feedback structure. The plant. y = Pu + d Our goal is to achieve a desired output using the input. A system as in Figure 74. d .

will also satisfy the Nyquist stability criterion. and arg L( jωGM ) = −180ο (16) .1) 91 The sensor.4. Feedback should be carefully designed in order to avoid loss of stability due to plant uncertainty and plant input saturation. which means that stability remains under slight model changes. which is a frequency domain criterion applied on the open loop transfer function. A feedback design for which L( jω) is far from the ‘dangerous’ value -1 at all frequencies guarantees the following two very important closed loop properties: The plant output will not oscillate during operation. slightly changes during operation. which might destabilize the system. Gain Margin and Phase Margin. A simplification of the Nyquist criterion. B. the changed open loop. Gain margin . if k is the smallest positive value such that the plant k ⋅ P ( s ) becomes unstable.The gain margin of the transfer function L( s ) is k . bandwidth and gain and phase margins are the key parameters used to describe a feedback design. P( s ) . the Nyquist criterion guarantees that there exists no frequency such that for most motion applications. will not oscillate too much and will have good performance in its entire operating envelope. L( jω ) . C( s ) and Sensor (s ) are the transfer functions of the plant controller and sensor. is far from the − 1 value is. so that 20 ⋅ log L( jωGM ) = −k . The design criterion to guarantee stability of an LTI feedback system is the Nyquist stability criterion. a critical design criterion. which measures the plant output. k is the smallest positive value for which there exists a frequency. adds noise to the measurement. These parameters are now explained. For simple plants. Stability. simply requires that the Bode plot of L( jω) will L( jω ) = −1 . Bandwidth and Stability A feedback-controlled system should be carefully designed so that it will not loose stability. adequate have a phase larger than − 180ο at the frequency ω0 where L( jω0 ) = 1 . therefore. How much the open loop. 1.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Open loop – The open loop of the system is the transfer function: L(s ) = P (s ) ⋅ C (s ) ⋅ Sensor (s ) (15) where P( s ) . A highly amplified measurement noise may even saturate the plant input. If the plant transfer function (characteristic). ω GM .2 Open Loop. L( jω ) . or produce an unacceptable output. but first we define the open loop of a feedback system. respectively. and is measured by the open loop gain and phase margins. The controller amplifies the measurement noise. Clearly.

3.4. It is.ωPM -6 dB M -12 dB ωGM -20 dB -30 -360 -270 -180 Open-Loop Phase (deg) -90 0 Figure 85: Definition of gain margin M . C( s ) = K P + K D ⋅ s . the input. ω PM . It means that the signals used to drive the system are. the plant output and its derivative. The bandwidth definition we use here is the following: The bandwidth of L( s ) is ω B rad/sec. A PD controller includes a simple gain and a derivative. limited to systems that are not relevant and will not be discussed further. A controller transfer function ( s + a ) /( s + b) . Nichols Chart 30 0. An accurate. 2. if it is the lowest frequency such that L( jω B ) = 1 . for which L( jω PM ) = 1 . therefore.5 dB 0 dB 20 ) B 10 d ( n i a 0 G p o o L n -10 e p O -20 1 dB -1 dB L(jω) 3 dB 6 dB -3 dB φ ωB. if ϕ is the smallest positive value such that at any The third design criterion is the system’s bandwidth. For example. θ . The bandwidth is a figure of merit for the performance of the closed loop system during operation. C ( s ) = K P . to a motor with command angle.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. A motor whose transfer function is k s . Several definitions of the term bandwidth appear in the literature.1) 92 Phase margin – We will say that the phase margin of the transfer function L( s ) ο frequency. phase margin φ and bandwidth frequency ω B of the open loop L (s ) B.25 dB 0. θ M . PI and PID Controllers A P type controller is a simple gain controller. Figure 85 is a pictorial description of gain and phase margins and bandwidth for the open loop transfer function built from: 2 1. will be u = K P ⋅ (θ − θ M ) + K D ⋅ θ& θ& − M ( ) (17) .3 P. ο ο is ϕ (degree units). PD. the phase of L( jω PM ) is − 180 + ϕ . P type controllers cannot stabilize a positioning motion system. u . 1. except for the command input. that is. and measured output angle. static sensor (sensor transfer function = 1 ).

θ . u .3.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. output integral and output derivative. B. In the presence of friction or unbalance the controller output u must be kept steadily non-zero while the tracking error vanished. A PID controller is of the form C ( s) = KI + KP + Kd ⋅ s s (18) It means that the signals used to drive the system are the command input. however.4. because it does not allow a complex zero pair. to a motor with command angle. For example. PID controllers are superior to PD controllers. In order to enable a constant controller output when no tracking error is present to drive the controller. the input. The SimplIQ controllers "hide" the PID control as a cascaded PIP loop: Ref KP[3] Speed s KP[2]+KI[2]/s P(s) Position We observe that the transfer function of this controller is KP[3] × KI [2] + KP[3] × KP[2] + KI [2] + KP[2]s . reduces the phase margin and increases the difficulty of controller tuning. θ M . and measured angle. will be (19) u (t ) = K I ⋅ −∞ ( M ∫ (θ (τ ) − θ M (τ ))dτ +K P ⋅ (θ (t ) − θ M (t )) + K D ⋅ (θ&t ) − θ& (t )) t As explained above. so actually KP[2] is K D .1) 93 PD controllers are not useful. as they permit steady state errors in the presence of friction and unbalance. as they can achieve a required command input ‘exactly’. . The integrator. s KI[2]+KP[3]*KP[2] is K P and KP[3]*KI[2] is K I We must note that the SimplIQ implementation is less general than PID. plant output. we add an (integral) term to the controller.1 The Basic Usage of PI and PID Controllers We use a PID controller for position control. A PD controller cannot do that. the result is the PID controller. In position controllers the derivative term (representing speed feedback) is absolutely necessary to maintain feedback stability. 1.

for PI controllers we use C ( s) = that is KI + KP s (20) u( t ) = K I ⋅ −∞ & & & & ∫ (θ(τ ) − θ (τ ))dτ +K ⋅ (θ(t ) − θ (t )) t M P M (21) and for PID controllers we use (19). as required by plants with a large mismatch between the inertias of the motor and the load. We therefore use the PI (PID without the D) form for speed controllers. They have limited ability to add extra phase compensation.The SimplIQ for Steppers Getting Started & Tuning and Commissioning Guide MAN-BELGS (Ver. Acceleration is hard to estimate with acceptable noise. The resulting structure is: Ref KP[3] Speed KP[2]+KI[2]/s High order filter P(s) Position s . the derivative term represents acceleration. They have poor high frequency measurement noise attenuation.2 The High Order Filter The PI/PID controllers by themselves are fine for many applications. in addition to the PI/PID controller. B. The SimplIQ controller structure includes. 1. To summarize. but they have the following limitations: They cannot notch out resonance. a freely parameterized high-order (up to 8th order) linear filter to overcome the PI/PID limitations.4.1) 94 For speed control.3. so that the inclusion of the D term in speed controllers is impractical.