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January - February 2012
Student Writings from IEI
My Experience By Alejandra (Colombia) This is a new experience for my life. I am studying a new language from a different country, different culture, and different people. It is fun! But I need to change the city and the school. I feel bored. I love my friends, my teachers, Nashville, and my new family house, but this is my life. I don't want to forget. Maybe I will come here another day! I tell God thanks for this experience, for my teachers and friends. A Business or a House? By Nawaf (Saudi Arabia) If I have enough money, I will work at a business building houses and then renting them to people and buying some houses. I will build many apartments. This is better for me. There are people unable to buy a house, but there are people to rent it. I will build it on a main street like near a mall, gas station, coffee shop, big supermarket, and a restaurant. Then I will build my home 70 feet by 70 feet. I will do something inside. I will fix a section for animals like deer and rabbits. I like this. If I Won $1 Million By Faris (Saudi Arabia) If I won 1 million dollars, the first thing I want is to thank my god, and I’ll buy a big palace for my mother. I’ll help poor people in my country first and other countries because I feel sad when I see some families who don’t have money to eat or study because one day I was. I want to finish my university study in the best university and get a good job. I want to travel all over the world and see different cultures. This is my big dream. Playing Games By Ibrahim (Saudi Arabia) I will talk about playing with children and adults. All people have children you can play with. The children are happy to play with them. I like to play with children and adults because I need all people to like me. I am always happy to play with children. I like children very much. I am sad when children are sad. I like to play with adults because adults are friends. I go on a trip with my friend. Can you play with them? I am an adult with adults. I am a child with children. For example, How can you be happy? Play with everybody. This is life. I am happy to play with children and adults. All people look at me. What is Ibrahim playing with the children? I answer for them. I like children.
My Friend By Aziz (Saudi Arabia) A good friend is helpful, understands me, keeps secrets, and is funny. When I want help, he helps me. When he wants help, I help him. First, a friend should be helpful. For example, once I went somewhere in my car, and my car stopped because I didn’t have gas. So, I called my friend, and I said, “I don’t have gas.” He came, and he gave me gas. Second, a friend is understanding. For example, when I have a problem with my friend and I don’t talk 1 to him, he understands me. He comes to me and asks me if I’m angry. Also, he asks me why I don’t talk to him. I say, “ You did something I don’t like.” So, he is understanding, and he says, “Yes, I remember what I did.” Also, he says he is sorry about this situation. Moreover, he is understanding about what I like to do or what I like to eat. Third, when I have a secret, he keeps the secret. For example, sometimes I don’t tell my brother the secret. However, I tell my friend. I can trust him, because he keeps my secret. I like to tell my secret to my friend, because he always understands me. Fourth, a friend
should be funny. When we are together, he tells me a joke. I like this, because I don’t like to be serious all the time. So, whenever we are together, I am never bored. Finally, I like to have many friends, but I think everyone has one special friend who is just right for him. Homesick By Binh (Viet Nam) I’m very sad today, because I miss my country a lot. The memory of my childhood comes back to me. I am thinking about my life with my family in Viet Nam. We live in a small blue house, which is near a gently flowing river. There are green mountains behind my house, and a rice field is in front of it. So, every morning when I go to school, I usually walk through the field. This is an interesting feeling, because when you walk through a rice field, you can smell the scent of the rice in bloom. Also, you can hear birds sing and you see them flying in the blue sky. In the afternoon, I often go fishing with my friends in a rowboat. When I was a child, although I didn’t know how to swim, I liked to sit in a boat and look around, because the sight on the riverside is very nice. I still remember there are two rows of dark green coconut trees along the riverside, and their beautiful reflection shines in the river. Right now, however, I live in a place very far from this memory. Maybe I will have to live here for a long time, but I will never forget the sights, sounds, and scents of my childhood. I think when you go very far from your country, then you will know how much you love it! A Kind Man By Ekab (Saudi Arabia) I have a good friend, and he is kind, brave and friendly. First, he is kind and caring. For example, he likes to help poor people. He owns a business, but he uses all the money from his salary to help needy people. The second characteristic is that he is brave. For example, he went to Somalia to help the population, because the people have many problems from war. Third, he is friendly. Anybody who sees him for the first time likes him. He smiles all the time. I am proud of my friend, because he helps poor people. Once my friend saw a poor man, and he gave the man some money. Then, this man bought some colored pencils and began to draw portraits of people who walked by him on the sidewalk. Now, the poor man has a job! So, one kind person can change another person’s whole life!
A Good Pet By Mio (Japan) I had a pet cat, but cats are not special to me actually. I like all kinds of animals, especially green iguana. Somehow, I have a strong attachment to reptiles and amphibians. I want to touch them. The reason why I like green iguana is they are herbivores. Also, despite their appearance, they are intelligent. It is possible to toilet train an iguana, so it can live in my house. Also, an iguana can remember its name, and it will come to you when you call it. So, I would like to have a green iguana for a pet someday. A Good Friend By Mohammed Alghamdi (Saudi Arabia) A good friend is helpful, compassionate, and generous. First, I think a good friend should be helpful, because that is good for our relationship. For example, my friend Aziz helps me when I do not understand the grammar homework. Also, if I don’t have enough money, he gives me some. The second characteristic is compassion, because we never forget a person who cares about us. For example, when I was sick, my friend Abdullah called me and asked, “Are you OK? Can I take you to the hospital?” If I am sad, he asks me what happened. “Do you have a problem? Can I help you?” he asks. The third characteristic is generosity. We will never forget a person who is generous. For example, my friend Ekab is generous with me when he gives me Arabic coffee. He brings this coffee from Saudi Arabia, and he invites me to drink it with him. These are the most important characteristics of a good friend. A Good Place to Live By Saleh (Saudi Arabia) I think a good place to live should be the desert, because I feel very good when I am in the desert. The desert is very quiet, and nobody lives close to me. Also, I can keep my camels near me. The desert is not like the city. The city is very noisy, and many people live close to my home. When someone lives beside me, then I should call him and visit with him a lot of the time. However, if I live alone, then I will be comfortable and relaxed. Finally, I want to live in the desert like my father and my grandfather.
Optimists and Pessimists By Horiah (Saudi Arabia) Horiah and her friend were talking and they saw a person. Her friend told her that when she sees this person she will be sad all day, but Horiah told her that when I see this person, I will be happy all day. If you have a glass, and half of the glass is empty and the other half of the glass is full, which one do you prefer: the empty part or the full part? This will determine what kind of person you are. There are two kinds of people in life: optimists and pessimists. People who have positive thinking are optimists. They think that solving problems is not difficult, and they figure out how they can solve them. They feel satisfied, cheerful, and happy in their lives, but people who have negative thinking are pessimists. They think that solving problems is difficult. They are always thinking about problems. They often feel upset and afraid. Optimists are flexible when they have problems. They see beauty in every place, even in ugly places. For example, if optimists want to get a job, but they do not get the job they expect, they are ok. On the other hand, if pessimists want to get a job, when they don’t get what they expect, they are very unhappy. They feel disappointed. Optimists see the happy and beautiful side of life and have a social personality. They think that a sunset is a new day in their lives. On the other hand, pessimists see the dim and gloomy side of life and have a selfish personality. These people also have psychology problems. Optimists help themselves as well as other people. They see the tree with the flower. In contrast, pessimists believe that other people will help them with every problem, and they see the tree with a thorn. Optimists see the opportunity in every difficulty and take negative criticism in a positive way. However, pessimists see the difficulty in every opportunity and take positive criticism in a negative way. In short, many people have two kinds of personalities: optimists and pessimists, but how can you become more optimistic? Try to say yes to yourself. People can challenge themselves. Try to say goodbye to pessimism and welcome to optimism. If you are a pessimist, you should try to find the bright side of life and remember that every failure is a step toward success. Technology By Ali Alyami (Saudi Arabia) How much does technology affect our life? According to Longman English Dictionary, technology is “new machines, equipment, and ways of doing things that are based on modern knowledge about science and computers.” Technology is more important today than ever before. We use it everyday, and it’s a very important part of our life because it makes our life easier. There are three important things about modern technology, which are the effects on our life, positive technology, and negative technology. How does technology affect our life? Today nobody can leave it alone. We can’t live one day without technology. We use it everyday in our house, in the street, in work, and school. Technology is everything in our life such as cars, computers, cell phones, TVs, and radios. We won’t die, but our life is going to be difficult without it. It’s very important. We can’t do without it. Technology makes our life easier. Positive technology is a type of technology. There are a lot of positives, but I’ll write about one part, which is communication on the Internet. The wonderful thing we get from technology is that we can see and hear each other when we are far from each other. For example, now I can call my family in K.S.A while I’m in the U.S.A., which is far away. The most wonderful thing is the connection is free. Like the positive, there is a lot of negative technology. It can be a super power that is able to destroy the world. For example, they use it in the war for fighting people. That is very scary and dangerous. In 1945, they used technology for killing and created a Nuclear Bomb and killed a lot of people, which was very ugly. Finally, technology is a very wonderful thing that has happened in our life. It is able to make our life easier and beautiful, and it’s able to destroy our life. I hope to use it for good things and develop it to help us, but not for killing each other. Learning the English Language By Rakan (Saudi Arabia) How can you speak or learn English? It is very important to learn the English Language. It helps you get a better job and travel around the world. It is very difficult to learn English when you come from another country. My experience practicing English in Saudi Arabia and the United States has been very different including how much English I speak during the day, the people who I am able to speak English with, and the opportunity to speak English when I shop. First, when I was in my country, I went to many schools to learn English. The English language is very difficult because I spent only two hours a day in school. In addition, after school, I only spoke the Arabic language with my family. All my friends only spoke the Arabic language, especially when we wanted to buy something. I could not use English to talk with people who work in the store. I didn’t get to practice English when I went shopping. Second, when I came to the U.S., I didn’t speak English very well. I went to the International English Institute to learn how to speak better. At this school, I must speak English all day long.
Furthermore, I met a lot of students from around the world. I talked with them, and I studied very hard to learn English. In the U.S., I must speak English all the time. For me, buying something is the secret to speaking English because the people at the store speak only English and I can practice my English when I shop. In conclusion, my experience with English in my home country and the U.S. has been very different. I think that before you can learn something, you should practice it all the time. Addiction By YuJin (South Korea) Almost every person has habits and among them, a small number of people fall form them seriously. When people are extremely addicted, the results are so tragic. Most people are usually addicted to IT, drinking, and shopping. As an information age, the world is changing rapidly. Everywhere we can find laptops, smart phones, and multiflex pads. Among them, the most significant IT is the phone. Alost every person has a smart phone, especially many teenagers. Teenagers use their smart phone all day for games, chatting, and surfing the Internet. It’s a very serious problem for growing a teenager’s health and performance in school. Second, drinking is also tempting. The most common drink is alcohol. When people drink alcohol, they feel something good and have an exciting mood. However, people over drink and people lose the ability to make rational judgments. Also, their body is aggravated. As a result, they experience rupture with their family and fatal kidney damage. Finally, another kind of addiction is shopping. Usually, women are more addicted than men. These people buy everything, even if they don’t need it. Usually, these items are not important, for example, clothes, watches, and shoes. They spend all incoming money on themselves. Over time, these people will have bad credit. There is a difference between something you like and something you are addicted to. Addictions can be harmful, especially addiction to technology, alcohol, and shopping. If you like something, there will be advantages for you, but if you are addicted to something, you will have bad results. Facts about Phobias By Mariam (Egypt) What does phobia mean? According to Contemporary Topics, “Phobias are persistent, irrational fears of certain objects or situations. Phobias can focus on a particular object.” In this essay, I will discuss the meaning of phobia, the types of phobias, and the treatment for phobias. First, a phobia is an extreme and very strong fear. There are two types of causes of phobias. The first is learning. For example, when you have an experience when you were a child that was bad. The
second is indirect learning like when you see someone that had an experience. Second, come with me to know about the types of phobias. There are some people who have a fear of sleep, a fear of dogs, a fear of being in closed places, of crowds, of heights, of light and dark, and of needles. Third, what treatments are available for phobias? A person can also unlearn a phobia. For example, for a woman has a phobia of swimming it is very important for the woman to talk about her feelings. She can get treatment from another person. Also, she can talk with a psychologist about her problem and take some medicine. Finally, not all phobias are severe enough to seriously impede the overall happiness or quality of our life. However, many phobias can and do exactly that. There are many ways to deal with a phobia, and every individual is different. It depends on your personality, motivation, and how much time you have. The Failure By Muhammed Alzomaai (Saudi Arabia) Who among us does not want success? Who among us does not look for the shortest and the fastest way to his or her goals? We like to be successful, but sometimes we like a crooked way to achieve our goals. There are many reasons that prevent success including bad friends, the type of person who does not know what he wants, and spending a lot of time waiting in secret for a successful way. First, if you want to be successful, you must clear out your bad friends. I think they are the enemy for success because they don’t want anyone to be successful or be better than them. These people look at our mistakes because they like to just scoff at people who have dreams because they tried and they did not succeed in their experiences. Second, the person who does not know what he wants will not find success. I think all people have heard this sentence. If anyone asks another person what do you want in your future? He directly says, “I want to be rich” and he does not know in which field or major he wants to be successful or rich. Next, there are people who spend a lot of time waiting in secret for success. This helps attract your goals quickly. Also, there are books that talk about the law of attraction. I think this book will help any person to be successful in their life. However, there are people who understand this book wrongly and stay just hoping and sitting in his bed. In conclusion, I think the bad friends always help you, but in the incorrect way. They help you to get many problems in your life. The man who does not know what he wants must try to know or stay away and he will work under people who have ambitions. Finally, try not to let the time pass you without doing anything in your day.
Love By Yanlin (China) What is love? The dictionary tells us that love is a strong positive emotion of regard and affection. Love means people have a great affection or liking for someone. Love with your parents, love with your friends, and love with your lover are all different types of love. First of all, since the first day we came to this world, we should love our parents. Why? They give birth to us. They offered themselves in fostering us. When we were a child, they taught us how to write a word and how to be a good person. When we were sick, they cared for us day and night. When we were going to America, they cried loudly at the airport, really like a child. This is family love, the greatest feeling in the world. So, love your parents, forever and ever. Second, there is a folk adage in China, "Depend on our parents at home and depend on our friends abroad". During our life, we will meet a lot of people. Some passed us in the street, some came into our life then hurried away, and others stayed with us. However, just a few people can be a friend with us. Both of us liked the same thing and talked about everything. We smiled together and cried together. We slept in the same bed and even wore the same pairs of pants. This is friendship. I think a best friend is always someone who can give you strength when you are sad. Finally, have you ever fallen in love? Love is fantastic between a man and a woman. Two people
who never knew each other, then they became good friends and talked about everything. Then one day, they fell in love and even got married. What a wonderful thing to love your love! There are many different types of love including love for your family, friends, and lover. Sometimes, love is great. Sometimes, love is simple and small. If you are looking for love, you will find it is always around you. Dreams By Mohammed Alshamrani (Saudi Arabia) Each person has dream in their life and they hopes their dream comes true. First, the majority people had a lot of dreams when they were children. For me I had a lot of dreams. I had a dream to be pilot, and I had dream to be doctor. I had dream to be famous person, and I had dream to be announcer. Second, I have a lot of dreams in my life today. I hope get my master’s degree and get a high grade, and improve my English language. In addition, I hope to find a good girl and to be a good husband, and at the same time be good father for my sons. Third, I have some dreams that have come true. For example, I have a lot of good friends. I have a good life with my family, and I'm studying in U.S. In conclusion, every one has dreams in their life, and I hope all my dreams come true soon. My advice to you is if you have a dream and it has not come true, I think you should make this happen.
Why parents give their children an allowance By Abdirizak (Somalia) Giving children an allowance is okay. But there are reasons to give children an allowance because we want to have a good connection between parents and children, which is very important. If we don’t have a good relationship with our children they won’t like us, and they won’t learn anything from us. So, let me pick out four reasons why parents should give their children an allowance. The most important reasons are to make them happy, to let them have their own choice, to make them stop begging for things from someone else and to teach them something. First, parents love their children but the children may not love their parents unless the parents reward them for good things they do, for example they give whatever makes them happy, like an allowance, because they can buy things which they like most. In addition, parents may give children something by surprise because they want to them happy .Moreover, the children have to respect their parents because if the children respect their parents those are great children. On the other hand, people who don’t have a good relationship with their children won’t give them pocket money so people may regret after that. Unfortunately, they will not have made them happy when they are grown up. The second reason which makes parents give their children an allowance is to give them their own choice. Otherwise they won’t be comfortable. They may feel in control and think their parents won’t let them have what they need. They may buy whatever they prefer for themselves. However, they can get things with their own choice, even though, their parents may not be happy with what their children are doing. It also teaches them responsibility for what they buy. Third, showing children the straight path by not giving children pocket money is bad idea. For example, if parents don’t give their children pocket money, they may learn bad discipline like begging others or stealing. So, to 5
stop children from begging for something they need their own money. Furthermore, if parents don’t take care of their children needs it could cause them to steal something. So this is very important to understand how an allowance helps their children. As another reason, we should give our children an allowance to teach them how to manage their own money. For example, if we give them some money every week, they may spend some of it and save some of it for their holidays .So giving children an allowance teaches them how to manage their money and it also helps them gain experience in their future. In conclusion, giving your children an allowance is a great idea because it is beneficial for the children and their parents. In addition, it protects children from doing unnecessary things at the moment and in the future. The reasons why are to make them happy, to let them have their own choice, to stop begging something from someone else and to teach them something. People should consider these reasons and see why an allowance is important. The significance of the insignificant: When the little details add a new color to your steps By Amaia (Spain) Everything was normal, a typical stressful day in college; the day of enrollment to decide the subjects for the rest of my academic days and long nights with a lot of coffee. It was my fourth year in college, reportedly the last, but a long time ago, I had decided to detach myself from the need to finish my studies in the years mentioned, to really enjoy this “race” -the road that I want for my life. With this in mind, I chose some subjects for that academic year and I decided to push back others subjects to study next year. My plan was to take advantage of the scholarship available in the International Student Exchange Program, and finish my bachelor at The University of La Plata, Argentina. The year went smoothly, enriching myself intellectually with idealistic ideas about education and social transformation, and preparing my next destination: my trip to Argentina. July was full of the stress of the final tests. It was hard to focus my attention because my mind was blurred the two weeks before I had to cross the Atlantic. Despite the hard duel between my obligation to study and the relentless need to enjoy those warm summer days free from any kind of book, I managed to pass my exams and completed the courses successfully. That state of my excitement was beyond what words can describe, the burden of responsibility that I had assumed during the academic year was dissipated in every particle of enthusiasm that enraptured me in those days of farewells, tears, smiles and sunrises with good company. Also, I cannot describe in words the moment that I saw myself in the abyss, without land, lost in helplessness. It all happened when I was going to get approval for the credits of the subjects and close everything to leave and finish my degree in Argentina. To my surprise, I had finished my bachelor... I must have been mistaken that stressful day on which I completed my registration and chose more subjects that I should and I didn’t let any subject to study in Argentina. I dare to say that I ended my bachelor for because of small insignificant mistake... that was the moment that I planned my new departure... but not for Argentina. I will talk about the effects of that event, why I write now from another place at the other side of the Atlantic, how finishing my degree dismounted my future plans and then reassembled them. I will talk about my present path, of how the expectations don't have to necessarily respond to our requirements; I will talk about the insignificance and the significance. It was hard to see my future plans and projects vanish into the void. All my intentions evaporated at the last minute. At the time of turning, that marks the boundary, and that often is prisoner of the random. From having everything planned, I went to have nothing within a second. That is, I finished with my bachelor without having a fixed target to aim. I sweated trying to stop the logic that inserted us into the wheel and blinds us to make decisions - the wheel of finding a job, choosing my master degree, doing something "productive." The logic that doesn't give to us the time to stop and think about what we really want for our lives, or in other words, what is that we really want to compromise in our days. Being aware of this gave me the courage to say stop, to strip the people expectations that were planning on me and enjoy falling into the dream to think about my own goals. "Music" was the word, the idea, the evidence of my missed road. Suddenly everything became clear. I felt that music should be the direction of every beat of my heart, the same that pushed me to live, that incited me to the straight madness. Everything seemed to change when I decided to commit myself to my personal legend. And everything started to flow. It seemed as if the whole universe was conspiring to make my new project. It was by chance that I have family in Nashville, the "Music City". I'm writing from Nashville, from the Music City. One of the main consequences of that "mistake" of finishing my degree that seemed insignificant when I chose my subjects is that I'm writing from Nashville, I repeat. And I'm writing in English. Coming to Nashville has given to me the opportunity to open the doors of the linguistic world - to know another way of seeing the reality and to feel a different way of interpreting all phenomena. Learning English gives me the chance to see the world through a different lens. This would not have been possible if I had not enrolled at IEI, my actual English school. The school has introduced me to an intercultural context which I had never experienced before, besides having a pedagogical approach to language teaching that I share a lot. On the other hand, being in Nashville and speaking English has opened the door to meet people in the world of music. It is true, I'm writing from Nashville, in English, with one blues band that features with me on the piano keys. 6
Is the magic of the cause and effect, of the power of the insignificant details to change directions, to change the rudder against the current. Flexibility, my friends, it's all I can say. Not demanding anything from the moments is my motto, let it come and let it go as they came, for can close doors, knowing with certainty that we have another thousand to open. And to be strong to kiss lips that taste like farewell ... Depending on Computers By Ibrahim (Saudi Arabia) Every age has its advantages in comparison to the ages that came before. In the close past, the computer was not being used by the general public as it is now. Some people are becoming too depended on computers in every aspect of their life. This dependence on the computer may cause harm in many ways, including laziness, piracy, and the negative impact on children. Some people say if we want to find any information we use the technology to help us to get what we need as quickly as possible, and we use the computer with everything because it saves us time. That better than trying to find information which we need in many books. I think this is a good explanation, but not for everything, because after a while we will find ourselves unable to do the basic things like calculating a simple number without using the calculator and that will be a very bad. Furthermore, we find many people who are dependent on the computer often keep personal data or financial information, such as credit cards numbers, in the computers of their own. This may expose them to risk of piracy from hackers who may steal their information and data. They use the pretext of a strong protection program that protects them from any breach or piracy. But when we see reality, many companies and websites that are supposed to be using the strongest programs of protection have been attached by hackers with some kind of piracy that caused them financial losses. In addition, many children who spend a long time in front of computer screens play computer games because their parents see it as the safest place for playing. Many parents say that having their children play inside home is better than playing with other children in outside the home because they may be exposed to physical dangers, and if they play at home will not be exposed to it. I agree with them that the children will be far from the physical damage, but they may be exposed to other dangers. Especially, computers can cause damage to their behavior. Some games may teach a child how to be aggressive. Or they make the children cannot think for a long time because the game doesn't require that, just follow the steps and they will win. Therefore, we must let the children not dependent on computer games for fun of all the time, but should try to make them share the play with other kids away from the computer for most their free time. Indeed, the computer is just a device through which we can get many benefits if we use it well, and may cause us a lot of problems if we use it the wrong way. We depend on the computer for too many things. This is wrong, as one who cannot life without it. But must make it a way to help us achieve what we want. The causes and effects of stress By Mandana (Iran) Stress is intrinsic to our life and so it is very important to control it because when it starts to increase, it would be very dangerous for people’s lives. Stress can be created by many reasons which are biological, external and internal. The first reason of stress is biological problems that can be transferred from a mother to the fetus during pregnancy when the new born baby is influenced by his/her mother. These babies are crying excessively, they have low weight and they don’t sleep well. Furthermore, children who live with parents that always have arguments and problems are also stressed. The second cause is external factors like finding a job, making more money, relationships with colleagues and partners, which affect people more than genetic factors. Actually, people might try to get two or three jobs in order to make more money and prepare better life for their families and themselves. But they get frustrated and they lose their rest and free time. The third reason is internal factors and they depend on the person’s nature like wanting too much, not being happy with what they have and making themselves stressed. Actually these people live in future and past. They don’t live in the present. They want more and more. For instance, one of my friends has a good family, a good job and healthy kids, but he always complains and has stress. When I ask him why he is unhappy, he tells me that he wants his daughter to go the best school and his son to go to the best university. Actually these people are pessimistic. They don’t enjoy the moment and put a lot of stress on themselves. However, stress also has many consequences which could be more dangerous for people’s lives. I would like to separate them into two groups: effects on peoples’ health and effects on their social life. The first result is health problems, which are more important than the other category. Losing weight, gaining weight, oversleeping, not sleeping well, irritability and anxiety are the most common effects of stress. However people who have stress cannot concentrate on their life too. The second result is social consequences which are very common in contemporary life, especially in big cities where people are always in a rush because they feel they have to be in a competition. Actually social stress 7
causes a different type of health effect and brings other problems like, job loss, divorce and even violence. When people have stress, they might lose their self-control and create problems for themselves, their colleagues or family. In conclusion, stress is very harmful and sometimes it makes people sick. Actually, in contemporary life we see increasing numbers of people who have stress. I think exercising, being happy with what we have respecting others and using some other way can help decrease stress and can be very helpful. Therefore, we are responsible for our children, family, friends and ourselves. That’s why we have to take care of ourselves and control stress which is harmful for everybody. Why students should do their homework in school By Nina (Equador) Could you imagine if your children don’t have to do homework at home? Would you have more time to spend with them? Could you and your children go to visit some friends or family? Could you rest in peace thinking all homework is ready for the next day? May you feel happy if your children demonstrated that they are responsible with their obligations like homework? I think this would be wonderful. The first point is that students who go to school the entire morning should do homework at school because they have time to work there and they will feel their entire job is done when the school ends. Nevertheless, it can be true that some of the students need to be busy in the afternoons doing homework. For instance, they might waste their time playing violent video games or meet with bad friends but any way students are meeting with others the entire morning. Most of them don’t have anything to do in the afternoons therefore it is necessary that they are being controlled in their homes. The second point can be that students who have time to rest after school might have better grades overall. Students who have done their homework at school have more time to rest and enjoy time of their lives. Parents and teachers feel sure that students are doing homework and parents can feel confident if their children do their homework at school. Students are doing their homework well if it is guided by teachers and teachers feel certain that students are improving. Parents might feel that they don’t have control in what students are learning, because they are not there to see what they doing but only some of them check their children’s homework anyway. Another important point that I have in mind is that not all parents have time to check homework. In this case the best solution can be to ask their children what they did during that day in school and checking their homework. The third point is that if students are doing their homework in school they can share their questions and resolve problems of learning. Doing homework in school, which is the perfect place to do homework, can be very helpful. Students can learn more because they exchange knowledge with other students and questions will be answered by teachers. Some parents and teachers might feel unsure if the students are doing their homework during school because they might be wasting their time with friends or texting on their cell phones. But rules will be given to the students who will have to respect this time to do their homework. Parents will feel sure that students did their homework correctly if they didn’t understand or know about their homework. In conclusion parents can feel happy if they have time to meet with their children. Children can rest or enjoy at home if they did their homework. In addition teachers can be sure their students are doing homework every day. The Blind Side By Razaz (Saudi Arabia) The Blind Side is a movie. It talks about what people cannot see in a person, how this person lives or what a person does for a living. It also talks about a person whose name is Michael Oher. Michael was born in Memphis, Tennessee. He was one of twelve children to Denise Oher. His mother drank alcohol and took drugs, and his father, Michael Jerome Williams, spent his life in prison. Michael received little attention and discipline when he was a kid. He was in school first and second grades, after that he moved from one school to another eleven times during his first nine years as a student. Michael was a lonely person. He lived by himself even though his mother was still alive, but he never cared about her, because she never cared about him. Even when he met her, they stayed just looking at each other all the time. Michael had a lot of questions he wants to get an answer to and he tries to find the answer. Who is his father? And is his mother guilty for leaving him? SIMILARITIES What are the similarities between the writer and Michael? You can say that the writer lived the same life that Michael lived, but there are a few differences between them. Oher was living in the U.S. He did not care about where he would sleep or spend the day, he just cared about washing his clothes and getting some sleep. Michael rarely spoke to people and he did not like to speak to them. He learned to be alone and he liked it. Sometimes he missed his family, but he do not know why he felt that way. Oher liked basketball and he loved, it but people said he must play football because his body was big and he could play football survive and in this game. The writer was born in Saudi Arabia. He left the country when he was two years old and he went to the Philippines. He spent seven years there and he did not know how to speak Filipino, so he never spoke to anyone there and he liked to be alone. Like Oher, he always thought about his mother and he promised himself that one day he would find her even if the price was death. He just wanted to find her. After that, he went to Egypt to spend 8
another two years there and he ran away from his home two times. After that he went to his home country. The writer likes basketball and boxing and he practices both of these sports. NEW FAMILY NEW LUCK The lucky day for Oher was one day when he was walking down the street. The weather was cold, and a woman saw him. She asked him to get in the car and come with her family and spend the night at their house. He slept at their house and when he woke up, he fixed the place that he slept on and wanted to leave the home, but the family helped him to get in school and learn. He spent Thanksgiving with them and they almost became one family. One day, the family sat with Michael and asked if he wanted to be part of the family or not. The answer was yes, he wanted to be part of the family and live with them and they went to meet his mother to make sure that she was OK with that. They got the approval from her so that he could get his driver license. The family bought to him a new car and the first time he drove the car, and he had an accident with his new brother LJ. Michael was playing Football but if he want to get a scholarship he had to have a 2,5 GPA and he took the test and he finally scored 2,52. He got the scholarship, completed classes at Brigham Young University and then went to play football at the University of Mississippi. That was the best part in Michael’s life. THE TRUTH AND WHY I just want to say that life changes and life has got a lot of things for us. We must accept those things and survive. It is like a test for us. Never look to people or what they are doing this to have or get a good life. You do not know what they have in their life. Also, do not think about getting things that you saw that other people have. You must see how your life is and think about if you can get it or not. Another important thing is to never look to yourself and say that you are not good or that you do not have a goal in life. All of us have a goal and you must go and try to find it. If you cannot get it, you must find another way to reach it and one day you will get it. So remember, never give up and do not look back. Learn from Michael and the writer and take them as an example and look how they are now. Michael is one of the best defenders in the NFL and the writer is studying in the U.S to get the best degree and he has a new life, lovely teachers and treats them as sister and mother. In the end, the reason I like this movie is because it is based on a true story, a good story, it is not common between the people and the movies and it is close to my life .Yes, it means a lot to me. It reminds me of my life and that there is somebody who lived the same way I did and maybe worse than this. I am still looking for the answer and one day I will find it, but I know it will take a long time. The movie also helps people change their life, get what they want, know what they want from life, know how to help people and have a good life. Just do not forget: never give up. Sunday morning By Gulnoza (Uzbekistan) It was Sunday morning when I got the phone call. Officer Johnson knew me and he said I should come over to the police station. When I arrived there, Daniel was sitting in a cell. He couldn’t really remember his name, he had headache and he was wearing a dress. What had happened? I remembered that Daniel was talking about a party where he was going to go with his girlfriend Pamela. I called her; she was drunk, but she could remember something from last night’s party. She told me that someone invited them to the party. They wore usual party clothes: she wore a dress with flowers and trees and Daniel – a blanket and T-shirt with a rabbit on it. One the way they stopped at store to buy some bottle of beers, sausages and a piece of cheese. When they got to the party, it had already started. It was snowing little bit outside. They drank a bottle of beer to get warm and began to dance. Then there was a competition where a couple should exchange their clothes and dance. Winners who got the greatest score would be sponsored to have two days of vacation in the mountains. They decided to take part and exchanged their clothes. Suddenly Daniel had a headache and Pamela gave him some green pills of medicine. He was supposed to get better but later she realized that she had given him stomach pills instead of headache ones. She could barely remember the end of the party. She told me that there was a fire, many people running outside and then she woke up from the ringing phone. Music and art instruction in school are just as important as math and sciences By Ali (Saudi Arabia) To build any civilization two significant factors, human culture and industrial civilization, are necessary. So, to build human civilization we must focus on the human sciences like, art and music, just as much as on math and sciences to build the industrial civilization. I believe that music and art instruction in school are just as important as math and sciences because we can influence the behavior of students and discover their skills and talents through these classes. It looks like an entertaining environment and interesting time and poor families who don’t have 9
enough money to provide the equipment benefit from it the most. In addition, we can use a lot of aspects of art and music to improve the sciences. I remember, when I was child I had a dream that I wanted to become a singer, a famous soccer player or a calligrapher, but unfortunately, I didn’t find the support for my talents, so they became just hobbies. Some people say that we have a huge number of students, and so it’s hard to cover this number and absolutely we cannot explore the every student’s talent. However, the simple answer against this counterargument is that it’s unfair to suppress children’s skills and talents as an excuse that we don’t have enough time and can only add new classes in weekday or on the weekend. We would only help engineers, doctors although we know more singers, artist, and athletes than scientists. Beside this, music and art classes look like an entertaining environment, an interesting time and some poor families wouldn’t have enough money to provide the equipment for their children on their own. Some people, however, argue that it is not the school’s responsibility to spend a lot of money on art or music classes and that students can find this chance outside off schools. They say poor families should try to join public schools or summer schools. I think if we changed our look to the other side, we would receive more benefits now from the fees and in the future when we help our countries to reduce unemployment. Another important argument to consider is that there are links between math and sciences, and music and art. There is a counterargument that we can’t mix art and sciences because it’s impossible to find links between them. However, there has been a long connection between art and science, one that can be traced back to the Egyptian pyramids. History proves that the two disciplines cannot exist without each other, enduring constantly changing and evolving relationships. According to a lecture by Robert Eskridge, titled “Exploration and the Cosmos: The Consilience of Science and Art. Science art and technology”, for instance, there is much evidence that supports the positive effects of music on one’s ability to do math. According to Cindy Zhan, author of “The correlation between music and math: a neurobiology perspective”, “Most research shows that when children are trained at music in young age, they will be more likely than others to improve their math skills.” I believe there is no more excuse to neglect teaching music and art in school. These subjects are just as important as math and sciences. Just imagine if you want to build your own house and you have an architect who has good information about math and distance but he or she can’t draw the shape of building even via computer programs or he couldn’t include innovative and aesthetic things if you wanted it. Are you going to trust him to build your house? I don’t think so! Free public Wi-Fi By Abdulrahman Alqahtani (Saudi-Arabia) A lot of people are talking about free public Wi-Fi. Many cities around world offer free public Wi-Fi, but on the other hand a lot of cities do not. This issue has businesses, students and everyone who has work to do on the Internet talking about free public Wi-Fi. I agree that the Internet is very important and we cannot give up even if we move somewhere. I am going to talk about this issue that a lot of people are talking about. First of all, according to official statistics, 1.9 billion people of the world population use the Internet, that is mean 24% of people in the world. Many people move a lot for their work, I mean people need Wi-Fi in each place that where they moving. A lot of people say it is good idea to have free Wi-Fi everywhere, that it will help us to have a great reputation and to attract tourists and visitors. On the other hand, people who are against this idea say, it is not a good idea, because a lot of companies offer Internet at cheap cost and some companies could offer it for free! Those companies have a good service without any cut in the service. They said the free public Wi-Fi sometimes has cut in the service and maybe slow speed because a lot of people use Wi-Fi. I agree with people who say the free public should be offered everywhere. As a second argument, some people say that free public Wi-Fi is great regardless if hackers can get information about credit cards or important things like specific pictures or letters because people should not put them online anyhow. People who disagree say that nobody can protect the Wi-Fi if the companies or the government does not have any information or cannot identify the users, because only if one pays for this service online or with his credit card, the government or companies will know each user and can offer protection programs that help too. In this situation, we cannot decide who is right because both of them have convincing reasons for what they say. I think that a lot of programs can protect user’s accounts and the companies can offer this service. The third argument is that it is important thing to support the country’s economy. Every country thinks about how they can support it, so that country can get a lot of money. Today, the country depends on big companies like telecommunication companies. When people buy devices, for example smart phone, laptops and devices, you can move around them with and you will buy many of them to use outside if you can use the free public Wi-Fi. For example, if I have laptop I will not use it outside but if I know that if I buy I paid and I will use outside? I will buy it. The majority of people would buy more devices and the budget of country will increase by this deal. On other hand, the people who are against this opinion say that it is not a big deal factor that will help economy or budget. I disagree with that because a lot of countries depend on the income of these companies. For example the USA own shares of some companies like Apple, Motorola and other tele-companies. 10
I would like to say every idea has against thing. Free public Wi-Fi one thing all people talking about, because so far the Internet is charged in many cities and airport. I think if companies offered this service with cost or not, still Internet more important for us especially in this time because every things are developing every day. The causes and effects of illiteracy By Shiva (Nepal) We know knowledge, skills and education are the most powerful and advanced keys for human development and civilization. Education is the most valuable asset for individuals’ lives and it helps the people to sustain their lives in an easier and more effective way. Due to proper and formal education, overall today’s world has been achieving the great contribution day by day since the early centuries. However, people are more aware of the importance of education and have gained a high level of standard education, but most people are still deprived of education due to their social culture, poor economic conditions, mental or physical handicaps and personal unwillingness to be educated. In fact, in today’s mechanical world, most people are almost literate but some people are still illiterate somehow. They don’t read and write even a single word. People who don’t read and write are generally categorized as illiterate. Illiterate people usually depend on others and need help in every advanced field. This fact shows that illiterate people are creating more problems and are facing more trouble in every field in their life time. So, these results are worst for every individual life, society and for the whole nation. Thus, illiteracy not only has major impacts on an individual but also the direct or indirect impacts for the whole nation. Regarding the topic, I’d like to explain some causes and effects of illiteracy. Generally, human beings are classified into many groups and ethnicities. Every group or ethnicity has their own social culture and religious belief. In fact, as relating to the Hindu culture, 15-20 years ago women were forcefully banned to go school by their parents because of their religious faith. Their parents believed that if their daughter went to school then they would engage with the boys and elope with someone. Another reason is gender violence between sons and daughters, they thought if they paid for their daughter’s education, they would get nothing because their daughter would marry one day and leave their home. But on the other hand, parents spent a large amount of money to their son’s education because they thought their son would be always with them and would take care of them when they become old. These types of causes can be seen today also especially in the rural areas of India, Nepal, Bhutan and other female dominated societies. That is why the illiteracy rate of women is always higher than the men’s in these countries. Although, educational awareness programs were running through the different agency in these areas, people are still back because the cultural influence and religious superstition are deeply rooted in their hearts. But we can expect, it will be overcome by the next generation. Thus, social culture and religious belief are also one of the major factors of causing illiteracy. Another strong cause of illiteracy can be a mental or physical handicap. We know, a person with physical disability can learn and do something, because a physical disorder can’t stop them to learn new things, but a person who is mentally disabled can’t do anything themselves. But today disabilities are categorized into two groups; Handicapped from birth and Handicapped after birth. Those who became handicapped after birth are not the major caused of illiteracy but the handicapped from birth can be the major cause of illiteracy. For example, if any child was born with physical or mental disability, he/she may take a long time to get a normal physical health but it’s impossible to get a mental care. In some cases it is possible but it may take a very long time years and years ahead. So, imagine, if a person was physically and mentally cured after 18 years, ‘would he/she attend school for education’? No, because his/her age would be too high to go school. So, in this way learning disabilities can caused the illiteracy at any time and this is one of the major causes of illiteracy in any country. Qualitative and standard education always depends on a nation’s economy. If the country’s economy is poor, then the government cannot facilitate and manage proper education for the citizen. These problems are usually seen in a poor and under developed country. Regarding Nepal, most people are illiterate due to a lack of proper education. Illiteracy of most people is caused by country’s poor economy. In Nepal, we can only find the few numbers of schools without having a standard level of education. Due to the improper educational programs and lack of schools and transportation, students have to walk hours to reach the school. Most children are found in the cattle farm and just working at home. If we ask them, do you like to go school, they say; yes, but the school is so far. In this way the poor economy causes the growth of illiteracy. We know education helps the people to maintain the standard lifestyle and makes it easier on everything. But on the other hand, due to the lack of education illiterate people are facing more and more trouble in their life time. In fact, illiterate people get less opportunity and a more likely to be unemployed. Due to the lack of reading and writing skills, jobs are limited and people have no job guaranty. It also has the worst effects on families. If the parents are illiterate, they don’t know how to deal with the children and how to control their children in effective ways. Illiterate parents can’t help their children with their homework if they are in school and illiteracy may influence their children to copy the same and it may expand to the future generation. Illiteracy can be effects on health and sanitation because illiterate people don’t know how to keep healthy and how to keep the environmental sanitation well. These are the major effects of illiteracy on their real life. Illiteracy can create more and more problems in the society and in the whole nation. We know some advanced countries are trying to reduce the illiteracy ratios to zero but they have not succeeded yet. In the United States, educational awareness programs are conducted in an organized way for immigrant adults but only a 11
few adults are able to read and write. So, illiterate people are facing hardship in their life and getting more problems in every way. The impacts of illiteracy are reflected on every area of skills. Thus, illiteracy is a major problem for an individual, society and for the whole nation. Music and art instruction in school are just as important as math and science By Heidi (Germany) I think music and art work together hand in hand with math and science. They are just as important as math science and because you may need both in your job, for example drawing and archeology, music and medicine, and drawing and architecture. I would like explain why we need music and art in our schools. First, when children start school they cannot only study math and science. These are subjects, which demand full attention from the children, but the children need a balance. During many lessons in math and science, art and music they can gather their experiences and expand their sights more and more. Even for the psyche of children, music and drawing classes are very important. They can laugh and sing and the classes make them happy. Some people who disagree with that might say instead of drawing and music we should teach more science and math, because for our national development we need qualified scientists and engineers. However through drawing and making music we develop skills such as imagination, perseverance and discipline. In their future careers children need these skills and that’s why we must give the children the chance to take these classes. Secondly, I will explain the relationship between music and science, math and drawing and show why we cannot easily leave out these two important classes. When a person studies psychology, they need to know about music. There are many children who are very hyperactive, they need treatment and the doctor may use music. Music can calm the children down. Of course, you cannot use hip hop, but calm music can flow into your senses and soothe your body completely. There are special kinds of music and sounds of music which are very significant. Sounds like rushing water or the chirping of birds can help improve the child’s soul. A psychologist must sometimes evaluate some children’s drawings. He must have knowledge of art. As an example; a child may have had a bad experience, and to help him/her we let the child draw. The psychologist can read from drawings what happened and can help the child. Also, there is a connection between math and drawing. For example an architect needs to know how to draw. When a person builds a house or bridge, he /she will draw these things first. He/she needs an optical view of body and this you can learn in draw lesson. However the government believes music and art are a waste of time and they want to invest more in math and science, because there are more different jobs and offer for the children for her later lives. But the monotonous study and onesided lesson can make children sick and bored. When the children no longer have pleasure to learn always the same, it will soon bring no benefit. In addition, we should not forget that children love to draw or make music. Some children are so talented and if they continue to be taught they will be become artists. Later when they are great masters in their fields, they can bring great prestige to the country. The position of the government is holding to have them more mathematicians and engineers. The development of the world falls further and further. It is inevitable that we need highly qualified people. It doesn’t help us, music and drawing for our development. But in my opinion, the government doesn’t think that a scientist or a mathematician needs leisure. And these people go to a concert or a museum to relax and that is why we need art and music in our schools. In the correlations of these fields can be clearly seen that we need music and drawing in our schools. It is not important whether it is not that important for their children’s health, their psyche or their subsequent career. What would you do if your child came home from school and said to you: ”Always having math and science is no fun and I don’t want to go more to school anymore.” It is much more interesting to have classes like drawing and music between very hard classes like math and scientists.
The Debate of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States Mohammed Almutairi (Saudi Arabia) The most commonly used illegal drug in the U.S is marijuana, which is made of dry shredded green leaves and brown flowers mixed together with stems, seeds, and leaves derived from the hemp plant Cannabis Sativa (drugabuse.gov). Marijuana is sometimes used for healing cancer patients, HIV/AIDS, and glaucoma. However, the opponents of marijuana prohibition claim that it is against the individual freedom and there is no good reason that marijuana should be illegal. Also, the opponents claim that marijuana prohibition is costing the government lots of money every year and they can get extra money from imposing higher taxes on marijuana just like alcohol and tobacco (mjlegal.org). On the other hand, there are many reasons why marijuana should stay illegal. The economic effect of legalization can be devastating, crimes will increase around the dispensary that sells legal marijuana and jails will require more money to serve and keep the criminals who are involved in crimes related to marijuana. Moreover, that will cost the courts and law enforcement more money and time to handle those crimes. The health side is another problem; marijuana has more fatal effects than alcohol and tobacco which the opponents claim that marijuana has no difference from alcohol and tobacco. Marijuana has some effects on the society which people do not have the knowledge of, families have lost their children because of their addiction, also a high percentage of teenagers use this drug which has effect on their social life. The Netherlands, Canada, and other European countries are examples of places that have allowed the use of marijuana for pleasure or for medical use. They have suffered from legalizing it. Main points: • The opponents’ arguments on marijuana prohibition. • • • • The economic effects of legalizing marijuana. The health effects of legalizing marijuana. The impact on society if marijuana will be legalized. Examples of places where marijuana have been allowed.
Why should marijuana be legalized? Liberty is the most common argument that the opponents use to justify their needs to use marijuana. They claim it is not harmful and there is no reason to prevent it “Individuals deserve the right to decide whether or not they should use marijuana. The government should not tell individuals what to do as long as they do not harm others.” (mjlegal.org). Moreover, they claim that the cost of keeping the drug is expensive for the government “We currently spend billions of dollars every year to chase peaceful people who happen to like to get high “as the opponents say, the war on drugs costs the government billions of dollars each year to lock the “peaceful people” in jail and make normal people pay more taxes to pay their bill in prison. They also claim when marijuana became legal like tobacco and alcohol the government has the chance to get more money from taxing the marijuana. Furthermore, their last argument is about the failure of prohibition. Opponents say there is no obvious evidence that shows the decrease of using the drug from imposing the prohibition, and claim that there are “theories” which show that prohibition increases the chances of using the drug and if the drug was legal and only allowed for 21 year-olds it will reduce the use of it in high schools. • The economic effects of legalizing marijuana: Marijuana is the leading cause of substance abuse other than alcohol in the United States if marijuana was legalized and taxed it will bring more financial loss to the government. For instance, today there are 129 million alcohol users and 70.9 tobacco users costing the government over $185 billion and $14.5 billion tax revenue for alcohol; similarly, tobacco use costs over $200 billion but only $25 billion is collected as taxes. These figures show that the costs of legal alcohol are more than 12 times the total tax revenue collected, and the costs of legal tobacco are about 8 times the tax revenues collected(cnbc.com). So legalizing marijuana would just bring more loss not as they simply claim. • The health effects of legalizing marijuana:
Despite the benefits of using marijuana to treat AIDS, cancer, glaucoma, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain, many studies show that marijuana has dangerous effects on the human body and the brain that could be fatal. The dangerous effects of marijuana on the brain are causing a short memory loss, paranoia, and sustaining attention. When marijuana gets in the nervous system it attaches to the brain’s neurons and interferes with normal communication between the neurons. These nerves respond by altering their initial behavior. For example the 13
nerves that are supposed to assist the memory in the brain will not function correctly when a person takes a high dose of the drug, his nervous system will not be able to help him remember the things that he did five minutes ago (serendip.brynmawr.edu). In addition to the brain, there are more dangerous effects on the body, Marijuana is filled with hundreds of chemicals, and when it is burned, hundreds of additional compounds are produced. When marijuana is inhaled or ingested in some other form, several short-term effects occur. Some of the side effects of marijuana use are: • • • • • • Problems with memory and learning Distorted perception Difficulty with thinking and problem solving Loss of coordination Increased heart rate Anxiety, paranoia and panic attacks Marijuana smokers also suffer the same health problems that tobacco smokers have, and more effects include dry mouth, red eyes, impaired motor skills and damaged concentration. Long-term use of the drug can increase the risk of damaging the lungs and reproductive system, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). It has also been linked to heart attacks (science.howstuffworks.com). In conclusion, when we see the opponents argument we can see the solution that they have presented are weak and legalizing marijuana will not bring any good to the U.S, for instance when they said marijuana will not harm anybody, we already have troubles with drunk drivers, so what will happen if we have to face some high drivers? In addition legalizing marijuana will have a major impact on the government’s economic status. When the opponents said that taxing marijuana will bring some revenue they were mistaken, because the government already has troubles with the costs of alcohol and tobacco compared to the revenue. Moreover, the impact on the society is a problem that cannot be fixed, when parents became addicted to this drug they are more likely to get caught and go to prison and their children will grow up without their parents around them, or their children could drift into drugs in order to become like their parents. The health effects are dangerous and would sometimes cause death, the opponents cannot argue against that. One major effect on the human body is raising heart rates and lowering blood pressure which can cause a heart attack. In addition, we should look to the countries that have changed their drug policies in order to support liberalization, and they have failed doing it, they became magnets to the people who are looking for drugs, also crimes have increased around those places that allow marijuana and other drugs. So, by looking to the opponents arguments, the economic effects of legalizing marijuana, the health effects, the impact on the society, and seeing some live examples of places that have allowed marijuana and had problems because of it, we cannot simply allow such a drug to became legal and see the negative effects occur in front of us and pretend it is a liberal thing. There are some things which cannot be legalized, and one of these things is drugs and particularly marijuana.
References http://alcoholism.about.com/od/pot/a/bldea050426_5.htm 22 Feb. 2012 http://alcoholism.about.com/od/pot/a/effects.-Lya.htm 22 Feb.2012 http://www.cnbc.com/id/36267223/Why_We_Should_Not_Legalize_Marijuana 22 Feb.2012 http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/marijuana-facts-teens 22 Feb. 2012 http://www.mjlegal.org/essayspeech.html 22 Feb. 2012 Parke R, Clarke-Stewart A. From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities. U.S. Dept. of Health and Social Services; Dec. 2001. http://science.howstuffworks.com/marijuana4.htm 22 Feb. 2012 http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/exchange/node/1808 22 Feb. 2012
American Animation and Japanese Animation Lei He (China) Many people in the world like animation not just children. There are many kinds of animation in the world. The most famous are cartoons (American animation) and anime (Japanese animation). Many people like cartoons more than anime, but nowadays, anime seems as popular as cartoons. More and more young people like Japanese animation more than American animation. This research paper will compare these two kinds of animation looking at their history, style, organization, and audience. History The history of American animation as an art form has undergone many changes in its one hundred year history with four distinct eras of development. Cartoon History The first chapter of American animation happened during the silent era, from the 1900s through the 1920s. The earliest animated cartoons were made during this time, ranging from the works of Winsor McCay through Koko the Clown and Felix the Cat. From 1915 to 1928, Bray Studios was the first and foremost cartoon studio housed in New York City. Many aspiring cartoonists started their careers at Bray, including Paul Terry (creator of Mighty Mouse), Max Fleischer (creator of Betty Boop), as well as Walter Lantz (creator of Woody Woodpecker). The second chapter is from the 1920s through 1950s. It is considered the golden Age of American animation. Walt Disney came on the scene during the 1930s and dominated the animation industry with the creation of Silly Symphonies, Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Snow White and The Seven Dwarfs. Other things to note during this era, Warner Bros. and MGM rose to fame and Fleischer Studios created Betty Boop and Popeye. The third chapter is cartoons that were aired on TV in the United States from 1930s though 1980s. In 1938, Chad Grothkopf's eight-minute experimental Willie the Worm is cited as the first animated film created for TV. As Saturday morning cartoons gained popularity, it also started the decline of theatrical cartoons and feature films. During the 1960s, there were attempts at reviving these animated features which led to adult animation gaining popularity in the early 1970s. In the 1980s, commercials that featured cartoons became widely popular. The fourth chapter, 1980s through the present, is the modern animation in the United States. This period of time is considered to be the animation renaissance. Works like Who Framed Roger Rabbit and many of the movies from Disney were made during this time. After Steven Spielberg collaborated with Warner Bros, a flood of newer, bolder animation studios were found and thus created the Animaniacs and Tiny Toon Adventures. Don Bluth films appeared on the scene and created potential competition for Disney. The Simpsons marks the resurgence of adult animation. The rise of computer animation through modern technology lead to the decline of traditional animation. Saturday morning cartoons steadily declined as the rise of Nickelodeon, Disney Channel and Cartoon Network ensued. Cartoon Network's late-night animation block Adult Swim has become immensely popular and led to a resurgence of adult animation.  Anime History The origins of Japanese animation are hard to define. In pre-movie times, versions of Shadow play (imported from China) existed, which had an incredible impact on the development of animation in Japan. The first documented time an animated movie was shown to the public was in the Kabukiza (cinema center in Tokyo). It was named Tekugukan. The earliest known anime was produced around 1907 and consists of fifty frames drawn directly onto a strip of celluloid. The untitled short movie depicts a young boy writing the Chinese characters for "moving picture", then he turns towards the viewer, removing his hat, and offering a salute. The creator's identity is unknown. The history of anime begins at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques that were being explored in the West. Though filmmakers in Japan experimented with animation earlier, the first widely popular anime series was Osamu Tezuka's Astro Boy(1963). During the 1970s, anime developed further, separating itself from its Western roots, and developing unique genres such as mecha (big robot anime). Notable shows in this period include Lupin III and Mazinger Z. During this period several filmmakers became famous, especially Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii. In the 1980s, anime was accepted in the mainstream in Japan, and experienced a boom in production. The start of the Gundam franchise, and the beginnings of Rumiko Takahashi's career began in this decade. Akira set records in 1988 for the production costs of an anime. The 1990s and 2000s saw an increased acceptance of anime in overseas markets. Akira and Ghost in the Shell (1995) became famous worldwide. Series like Neon Genesis Evangelion and Cowboy Bebop were popular in Japan and attracted attention from the West. Spirited Away shared the first prize at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival and won the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2003, and Innocence: Ghost in the Shell was featured at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival.  From the information stated, we can understand the improvements of both American cartoon and Japanese anime throughout history. American cartoon is the starting point of animation. It brought animation to the mainstream, but has steadily fallen off due to the targeted audience being very narrow. Japanese anime has taken the positive points of American cartoon and added many improvements while sticking to the traditional animation style. Currently, anime is more successful due to the creators targeting all kinds of audiences. 15
Style When you watch any cartoon, you can just see a personality. In this way it seems that all cartoons (no matter what the nationality) are practically the same. Sure the animation is different, but cartoons shouldn't be solely based on artwork. Anime has been made for every genre, ranging from comedy, drama, romance, or even musical, while American cartoons are usually just for kids, political humor, or adult animation. The storylines have different styles. American cartoons (kid based) are more goofy and characterized. Japanese anime have more of a human base (realistic style). American cartoons are more creative in art style utilizing 2D, 3D, or CGI whereas animes usually stick with the traditional animation. The biggest difference is the story. When you watch a Japanese animation film, the most interesting thing to which you pay attention is the story. Anime producers put the story ahead of everything. They realize that, without a good story, the audience won’t come back for more. Cartoons are different from the anime, most of the time, the story of the film is very simple, but the animations are made very fluid and consist of a lot of detail. It almost seems like that the cartoonists are more interested in the movement of the animation more than the story. Audience In both cartoon and anime the audiences are not only children. But there are still differences between these two kinds of animation. Cartoons are mainly derived from slap-stick comedy shows of the past, novels, and comic books. Some Disney cartoons also call upon history and old Shakespearian plays for ideas (Lion King was heavily influenced by Hamlet). Most animation movies use good stories which are very old and famous, but most of comics are used for TV films. Although some adults also like comics, they just like comic books, most of them don’t care about the comic animation TV films. So, most American animation is made for children, there is not too much animation for the adult. On the other hand, the people who like Japanese animation are not only children. In Japan and all around the world, all ages like Japanese animation. That’s because Japanese animation has different levels for different ages. It also has different drawing styles for male or female audiences. Both anime and cartoons derive ideas or stories from comic books or novels. Japanese comic books are called Manga, and are very popular throughout the world due to it having such a wide variety of genres. Thus, the animation which is made from popular manga will already have a large audience and therefore be very successful. Although American animation has a long and famous history with many famous companies and films, it still has its troubles such as style and audience. But American animation always follows the laws of traditional animation. Although in my opinion, I prefer American animation to Japanese animation because I prefer wonderful movement to a good story. Japanese animation is more popular than it was at its beginning when it needed to learn from American animation. Although America is still the leader in the world of animation, I think in a few years, Japanese animation might reach the same level as American animation. Work Cited 1. Wikipedia, 2-12-2012,en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_animation
2. Japanese lifestyle, Anime history, 2-12-2012, culture/anime_history.html
Green Homes Nadi Kanakreyeh (Jordan) Green building is the practice of creating structures and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle from sitting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort (Scour.com). A green home uses less energy, water and natural resources. In addition, it creates less waste; and is healthier for the people living inside. For the building materials they use recycled or salvaged materials that reduce the home's impact on the environment. Also preferable materials that are locally available can be processed with less energy and water, reusable or recyclable, durable and abundant in the environment. The engineers and scientists have a Long term prospect for the green home industry. Because of the new technology and high quality development plans and every day designs. Also it has been certified green by The U.S. Green Building Council, the Environmental Protection Agency and others that offer ratings on homes, based on inspections by trained third-party professionals. A Cost-Efficient home, the net cost of owning a green home is comparable to — or still cheaper than — owning a standard home. If upfront costs are higher, it is often because many architects, homebuilders, engineers, plumbers and other industry professionals just don't have the knowledge and experience to cost-effectively plan, design and build a green home. Finding a professional familiar with green-building techniques will save money, and ensure one is getting the best-quality work possible. Some statistics says “Month to month, people who live in green homes save money by consuming 40% less energy and 50% less water than standard homes (Scour.com). Over the years, that adds up to big savings.” Also, it is requiring fewer repairs because of its high-quality building materials and construction processes. So a green home is more durable than most standard homes. And the value of a green home is typically higher than that of a comparable standard home, and the market demand for green homes continues to rise. As a result a new green home is designed to save your money while at the same time saving the environment. The green home has oriented windows to face the South which can trim heating costs in the winter. Moreover, Shade from trees to the south and west can reduce cooling costs in the summer.
The concept of sustainable development can be traced to the energy (especially fossil oil) crisis and the environmental pollution concern in the 1970s.The green building movement in the U.S. originated from the need and desire for more energy efficient and environmentally friendly construction practices. Green building brings together a vast array of practices and techniques to reduce and ultimately eliminate the impact of buildings on the environment and human health (Smeath, 2009). It often emphasizes taking advantage of renewable resources, e.g., using sunlight through passive solar, active solar, and photovoltaic techniques and using plants and trees through green roofs, rain gardens, and for the reduction of rainwater run-off. Many other techniques, such as using packed gravel or permeable concrete instead of conventional concrete or asphalt to enhance the replenishment of ground water, are used as well. For a Healthier Home green homes' use of toxin-free building materials helps combat indoor air pollution, which can be much worse than outdoor pollution. Unhealthy air inside can pose serious health risks for residents, including cancer and respiratory ailments like asthma. Such non-toxic materials include wheat-derived strawboard, 17
natural linoleum made from jute and linseed oil, paints with little or no volatile organic compounds and toxin-free insulation made from soybeans, recycled paper or even old denim. And green homes have far fewer problems with mold or mildew (Thehousedesighners.com). For an Environmentally Friendly Home some green homes further reduce our dependence on conventional energy sources as they generate some or all of their energy needs through alternative energy sources like the sun, wind, geothermal energy and biomass. And efficient plumbing and bathing fixtures, drought-tolerant landscaping and water-conserving irrigation systems help green homes use, on average, 50% less water than standard homes (Epa.gov). There are a number of motives to building green, including environmental, economic, and social benefits. However, modern sustainability initiatives call for an integrated and synergistic design to both new construction and in the retrofitting of an existing structure. Also known as sustainable design, this approach integrates the building life-cycle with each green practice employed with a design-purpose to create a synergy amongst the practices used. References 1- http://click.scour.com/jump2/?affiliate=6678&subid=a11&terms=how%20long%20the%20term%20prospect %20for%20the%20green%20home. 2- http://www.thehousedesigners.com/greenhouseplans/benefits-of-building-green.asp. 3- Smeath ,Doug November, 5, 2009, http://greenhomeguide.com/know-how/article/green-homes-101 4- http://www.epa.gov/greenbuilding/pubs/about.htm. How to Invest like a Valued Investor in the Stock Market? Gee (Thailand) People all over the world would like to be rich and have a lot of money. Many employees keep searching for a job, which can offer them a higher salary to fit their needs. Some of them have found the suitable jobs, others have not. The dream that they will become a billionaire is no more. Some people are aware of losing their job and want to become rich, they still try to find a way to become rich by conducting business, getting a second or third job or investing. These are some methods that provide wealth to people. However, there are many people who want to gamble and become rich quickly. They bought stocks in the markets that they hope will make them millionaires but they have failed. Although, there are a few investors that have succeeded in buying stocks, they have advanced knowledge about companies’ finances and how stocks work. Moreover, many successful investors like Warren Buffett and Benjamin Graham have always invested in the stock that could grow in the future and make a profit from their growth. This strategy is called “Valued Investment (VI)” or some people call it “Long-Term” investment. Having a knowledge of the stock markets, a company’s finances, vision and long-term plans help investors achieve success in the future. The essential information that inexperienced investors who want to buy stocks in the longterm investment or Valued Investment (VI) must know includes the basic information of stock and the long-term or VI strategy such as knowledge of the stock market, a company’s finances and vision. This paper is divided into two sections : essential information of stock and VI or long-term strategy. 1. Essential information of stock. Essential information is the first thing that inexperienced investors must know before they are going to purchase stocks from companies. The investors must acknowledge that stocks are not the same as the lottery that anyone can buy and sit at home waiting for the lucky number. Unlike the lottery, investors have to obtain basic knowledge before they purchase their first stock because they want their money to grow. Therefore, they should invest their money effectively and profitably. 2. Valued Investment(VI) or Long-Term Plan Investors have to deliberate their strategies and evaluate the real value of stocks and companies which they would purchase and compare the profit and performance of company growth or return to their expectation. With many strategies for success in buying stocks that appear in several textbooks and articles, the most successful strategy which can be used practically and has made some investors such as Warren Buffett and Benjamin Graham accomplished investors and wealthy is Value-Investment(VI) or investment in long-term plan. Despite gaining a profit from daily trade that very few investors can anticipate and then sometime luck is the main factor, Valued Investment(VI) or Long-Term Plan provides investors a firm and sturdy gain from the companies that they have invested in because investors can anticipate the companies’ performance and yearly net profit from fundamental factors such as the annual announcement from companies, PE, PBV, ROE, ROA ratios. These elements can tell investors the real value of the companies and if they are worthy to invest in or not. According to Warren Buffett and Benjamin Graham who are both sages and gurus in Valued Investment(VI) or Long-Term Plan, and whose strategies have been published in Graham or Buffett strategy books, there is 18
some essential information that should be considered because these elements guide investors to companies’ future and incoming return. According to Damodaran Aswath , the following factors should be carefully considered. 2.1. Earnings to price ratio that is double the AAA bond yield.  2.2. PE of the stock has to be less than 40 percent of the average PE for all stocks over the past five years.
2.3. Dividend Yield > Two-thirds of the AAA Corporate Bond Yield.  2.4. Price < Two-thirds of Tangible Book Value1.  2.5. Price < Two-thirds of Net Current Asset Value (NCAV), where net current asset value is defined as liquid current assets including cash minus current liabilities.  2.6. Debt-Equity Ratio (Book Value) has to be less than one.  2.7. Current Assets > Twice Current Liabilities.  2.8. Debt < Twice Net Current Assets.  2.9. Historical Growth in EPS (over last 10 years) > 7%  2.10. No more than two years of declining earnings over the previous 10years  These factors should be crucially considered because these 10 screens can provide better profit from investment in stock markets. Firstly, earnings to price ratio should be double the AAA bond yield means the companies’ PE or EPS should be higher twice than AAA bond yield that offered by government. For example, if US government offers AAA bond that its yearly return is 3%, the companies’ earnings to price ratio should be 6% or more because this investment in stocks would be worthier than AAA bond yield and this means higher than interesting rates that all of banks offered. The same as 2.2 that PE should be lower than 40 percent of the average PE for all stocks over the past five years that means the companies could grow in the future. For 2.4-2.6, according to Investment Philosophies, Graham and Buffett would like to buy stocks those prices are lower than they should be and BV is lower than 0.7. Because of undervalue, those stocks are under evaluated and can be rapidly grow up in a few years. Moreover, companies’ debt should be lower than twice of net current assets because the companies can pay debt instantly or have ability to pay debt with out taking loan from banks or other investors. This means companies would stand up and grow up with out unnecessary debt and they can build up companies by their cash flow. Section from http://archive.cyark.org To summarize, Valued Investment(VI) or Long-Term Plan is not a perfect plan for some investors who want to invest in stock markets because it takes too long time before they make enough money to cover their cost. However, Valued Investment(VI) or Long-Term Plan has been proven by two successful investors Warren Buffett and Benjamin Graham. Also, this strategy has shown to the world that all investors can use it practically and provide wealth to all investors who follow and adapt the rules to suit the contemporary markets. Reference :
Section from http://archive.cyark.org 
1. Damodaran Aswath. “Chapter 8 Graham disciplines.” Investment Philosophies,(2002): 219-268. 2. Little Ken, Investing Basics, Basic Stock Information. 2 Feb. 2012 <http://stocks.about.com/od/ understandingstocks/a/Stockintro.htm> 3. Little Ken, Investing Basics, Understanding Cyclical and Non-Cyclical Stocks. 2 Feb. 2012 <http:// stocks.about.com/od/Understandingstocks /a/CNCstocks.htm> 4. Little Ken, “Investing Basics, What market indexes tell us?” 2 Feb. 2012 < http://stocks.about.com/od/ understandingstocks/a/Indexes102704.htm> 5. Little Ken, “Trading Basics, Basic Steps in How Stock Trading works”. 3 Feb. 2012 < http:// stocks.about.com/od/tradingbasics/a/ Basictrading.htm> 6. “Online Broker.” 3 Feb. 2012 <http://teenvestor.com/Investors/stocks/online_brokers.htm> 7. “Stock Classification.” 3 Feb. 2012 < http://teenvestor.com/Investors/stocks/stock_classifications.htm> 8. “Stocks Basics : How to read a stock table and quote.” 1 Feb. 2012 <http://www.investopedia.com/ university/stocks/stocks6.asp#axzz1lv515OMN> 9. Understand Stocks and Stock markets, Debra Pankow, family economics specialist, March 2005 NDSU.
Call of Duty (Fatherhood) Ali Alnemer (Saudi Arabia) Being a father is a turning point in a man’s life. As happy as the moment is when the father has the first look at his child, it is a moment of bewilderment,too. For the father that he start to ask himself what does being father mean? How important am I in this person’s life? And thousands of similar questions that can be shortened to one bigger question, which is’ what is the father’s role in the process of raising children? A lot of research and studies have been looking into how important the mother is, but According to Stephen F. Duncan, Ph.D. a Professor, Family and Human Development Specialist, MSU Extension Service “Recently, scientists have discovered fathers” emphasizing the importance of the father that scientists weren’t aware of. Studies have shown many harmful effects due to the father’s lack of involvement. Humanity has experienced several reasons for the father’s lack of involvement, like wars, industrial revolutions, or economical crisis. In all of the different circumstances children had the same harmful impact. According to Stephen F. Duncan,” Children reared in single-parent families may suffer from greater depression and emotional distress.” The depression and the emotional distress may exhibit greater behavioral and learning difficulties in school. However, being in such difficult circumstances may lead to much worse things, Stephen F. Duncan also said “[ being in single-parent families a child] may be forced to take on adult responsibilities at an early age. In adulthood, children from single-parent families are more likely to have lower educational and economic achievements, have an increased likelihood of forming single parent families themselves, and may have difficulties forming lasting relationships with partners.” In addition, Stephen also shows some studies proved that children who live some time of their childhood in singleparent houses, which most often are mother only families, are more likely to drop out of school, more likely to have a child before the age of 20 and more likely to be unemployed, and more likely to feel unsatisfied belonging to their society. On the other hand, the father is involvement makes a real difference, according to Rich Batten’s article in Colorado State University, whose title is “The importance of fathers.” Well-fathered children are shown to be more emotionally intelligent and socially successful as adults.” Not only this, Stephen F. Duncan goes much farther “Whether the outcome is intellectual development, sex-role development, or psychological development, most kids do better when their relationship with Dad is close and warm.” Researchers who look to children's mothers to understand the youngsters' development are getting only half the story, says Ronald Rohner, director of the Center for the Study of Parental Acceptance and Rejection in the School of Family Studies at the University of Connecticut. We will present some of the best ways for a father to be involved in his own family with his own children. During the earliest days of the child’s life, there is nothing the child needs but breast-feeding. Holding the baby and walking around from time to time, can be very helpful for everyone. It could be a rest time for the mother, that she finally might relax after the whole nine months of pregnancy, and at last she may have a few moments to take care of herself. It could be a good time for the baby and the father to start knowing each other, and start creating the child-father connection. When the baby starts to play, fathers are often seen as playmates, according to Stephen “Children prefer Dad as a play partner, but more often go to Mom in stressful situations.” Being a playmate with the children could be enough to break all the psychological barriers between the father and the child which would lead to better communication in future. And in my opinion as serious as the play is, it will led to better quality communication later. According to Linda Acredolo, professor of psychology at the University of California at Davis and coauthor of Baby Signs, “ Play is the business of childhood, allowing your child free rein to experiment with the world around him and the emotional world inside him.” Some other benefits the baby may get while playing with the father, are problem solving, skill building, and overcoming physical and mental challenges. According to Dr. Haim G. Gionott, an author of the book Between Parent and Child, there are no parents in the world with zero love for their children, but some parents have trouble showing their love. Within better communication which comes from being a playmate, showing a true love for the children wouldn't be problem at all. Showing love to children, especially the fathers love can provide a feeling of safety for the child and that could somehow improve their personal intelligence. According to Stephen F. Duncan “A close and warm relationship with Dad fosters a daughter’s sense of competence—especially in math skills, and a secure sense of femininity.” The absolute love will save the child a massive effort of worrying and clear his or her mind to be ready to discover the world. According to Gary Smalley and John Trent, authors of the book The Blessing, “A father's silence can be just as devastating as any kind of abuse; it leaves a child wondering "do I matter?"... 20
"does he love me?"... "Am I worthy of being loved?".” While the lack of the father’s love to the child means You aren’t worth it, shown love from the father means more than only you are worth it. It means so much to the child, that no one can express its meaning. After creating a high quality of communicating and using it to show love for children, it is the time to use high quality communicating in daily life. According to Dr. Haim daily, dialogs between a child and parents could guarantee a successful life for the child. In addition daily dialogs between the child and the father can add a lot to the child’s personality which can specifically support the child’s relationship which is considered a basic need to any human. According to Joan Kuersten ,Vocalist/Performing Arts Professional “ Talking with your children is one of the most critical steps of healthy parenting.” Children begin their life fascinated by language and communication. Speaking with mom or dad could give the child the first meaning of comfort and pleasure. Joan Kuersten also suggests that the parents should start the talk, and communicating continually up to the teen years. that could teach the child how to express his or her own feeling and avoid self-expressed depression. Many parents ask, what are the topics I should use to talk with my children? The truth is no one can answer this question but the parents and the child. As much as they know each other, they know what may be interesting to each other. The important thing is to have a topic to talk about that everyone has the same chance of asking, and saying his own opinion. The father tasks are not always directly related to the children, sometimes it could be indirect. Keeping, and sometimes increasing, the love level to his wife, who is the mother, could release the stress, that many mother’s suffer, and provide a much better environment for the children to grow in. According to Ken Canfield “ [the mother of your children] is your number one asset and ally as a father, and showing her love and respect is one of the best things any father can do for his kids.”Also, supporting the family financially could provide a very secure psychological environment for the children. In the end, being physically present isn't enough to be a great father. It is critical that a dad be warm and emotionally available to his child. It is not just the mere presence and availability of fathers that matters, but exactly how they are present. Copyright © 2000 MSU Extension Service. The Importance of Fathers. Montana: Copyright © 2000 MSU Extension Service, 2000. Print. Batten, Rich. "The Importance of Fathers." Colorado State University Extension. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http:// www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columncc/cc060918.html>. "Fathers' Role in Raising Children: Misunderstood." News 4 Woai.com. 4 Mar. 2004. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. Canfield, Ken. "When Dad Loves Mom, Children Benefit | Fathers for Good." Fathers for Good. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http://www.fathersforgood.org/ffg/en/good_for_mothers/index.html>. "BlazingGrace.org | Healing Father Wounds: Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry." Blazing Grace | TechMission Safe Families: Pornography & Sex Addiction Recovery & Christian Accountability. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http:// www.blazinggrace.org/cms/bg/healingfatherwounds>. Kevorkian, Meline M. "Communicating with Children: You Make the Difference." National PTA®. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pta.org/2617.htm>. "How Your Child Benefits from Play | BabyCenter." BabyCenter | Homepage - Pregnancy, Baby, Toddler, Kids. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http://www.babycenter.com/0_how-your-child-benefits-from-play_64065.bc>.
Child Labor in Egypt Adnan Shanghab (Saudi Arabia) Child labor is a serious problem has been found in Egypt for many years. In general, child labor is a fulltime job that harms children who are under the minimum age (ages 11 to 17) working illegally under harmful circumstances that let a child work for more than 10-hour a day in a bad atmosphere. According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), there are 215 million to 222 million child laborers in the world (International para1). This huge number must scare people who care and want to live in a peaceful world. Nevertheless, each country that have this issue also have the possibility to dissolve this issue. As a whole, Egypt is one of the oldest countries in the world that is characterized by more than one thing. One thing is the location; another thing is the agriculture, last but not least, is the water resources, and the large number of the population, which is more than 80 million. Another thing that needs to be mentioned is that Egypt in an Islamic county that follows the prophet Mohammed. According to the prophet Mohammed, he said that we have to teach children to pray from age 7, and punish them when they turn age 10. In this message, praying does not mean just praying, it also means learning and to be educated. This religion or any religion in the world embraces human rights and do not accept any of the issues that harm people under any reason like child labor. Child labor is not just a family or child's problem; it is a community, country, government, and individual’s issue. Child labor has been caused under many reasons which are the economic situation of the family and the child laborers' situations, and the government and the community's responsibilities, and as a human we need to think about the future's future which is the children. Being below the poverty line especially for a long time without any improvement might lead some people to dispense their principles to find any way to get money. 20 percent of the population of Egypt is living below the poverty line (Reske para8). Some families in Egypt let their children work to help the family instead of studying. Indeed, the jobs that the children work in are definitely harmful for them because the children do not have any degree or experience to be in a nice place or to have a good job, therefore they do not get paid enough. In addition, normal people's jobs are usually around 8 hours a day and some people work in the offices in a good atmosphere and they get bored. The huge number of the child laborers in Egypt has been increasing. A 1988 government survey of Egypt found that 1.4 million children between 6 to 14 ages are working (Egypt para1). Recently, Department of Labor has mentioned that "2.7 million children in Egypt work" (Bureau para4). Children who are working this way have faced a lot of stress that they are not supposed to face. Child laborers in Egypt work 10-hour shifts in 40 degree Celsius heat for 20 pence a day (McDougall para2). That is similar of employee slaves, because slaves work really hard, have the worst laborious jobs, and do not get paid enough. It's really painful and oppression for adults, hopefully not for the angels who need a little mercy. Children around the world, since they were born, parents are taking care of them, take them to school, and teach them until they become adults. Following this further, wise parents do not have children until they feel that they are ready to have a child or two because children need a lot of stuff from birth to college. Thousands and thousands are paid for them. So, some parents do not think that way, they just want to have kids, but they do not know in these situations every parent needs to look farther. Obviously, child laborers work in the lowest level of jobs. According to the UNICEF Organization, a visit of any industrial neighborhood of Cairo will quickly confirm that children are significant part of the country's work force (Working Children para1). In fact, the people and community that the children live in used to have child laborers instead of fixing the problem, even though the children do not get their right as employees. They get punished, insulted, and the worst treatment. Not every employer does that, but most of them do. Besides, 3-5 % of the children are working 9-11 hours in dangerous environments (Working Children para3-4). Another sad thing is the human trafficking of the children in Egypt; the human traffickers let children look homeless to ask people for money. There was a story which was filmed in the 1900's, that talked about a man and woman who were abducting children between 6 to 10 ages to make them work for them as homeless or selling tissues, dropping them in the streets in the morning and picking them up at night. Imagine young children working in the hot weather all day walking, without any good care and missing their homes and families. Even animals are not treated this way. The government and the community of each country that has this child labor issue are responsible to dissolve this issue. The people in Egypt need to be a one person. For example, the government needs to have strict laws of the child labor's issue, to not employ any child who is under 18 year-old, and to have fines for each company or foundation that break the laws. On the other hand, some people or employers want to help the children by employ them and let the children work for them. That is the wrong way of helping, if people or employers want to help; they should help them by letting them go to school instead of working. In June 2008, the minimum age for employment in Egypt was changed from 14 to 15 years. The Labor Law, however, still does not apply to children working in agriculture, small family enterprises, or domestic service (2008 Findings para4). It is still unfair for children to begin working at that age. However, it allows governors in agreement with the minister of education to 22
permit the employment of children between 12 to 14 years in seasonal work deemed not harmful to health or effecting school attendance and 12 to 14 years may also participate in vocational training (Itani para6). The government and the society need to work, help, and do the best they can to solve this criminality against innocent children in the community that has no mercy. And definitely the children deserve better than this. Every country needs to take care of the youth as much as they can because the youth make the generations and who will make the achievements of the country to reach the summits. Child labor is a big reason for illiteracy and increases the numbers of it to be doubles and doubles. In 1966, the illiteracy in Egypt was more than 70% of the population, this huge number scares everybody. In addition, the illiteracy in Egypt is one of the reasons that make the economic problems because if most of the people do not know how to read or how to write, a lot of people are not able to study or to get knowledge. But, by the time Egypt has been solving this dangers issue, and with every generation this number has been decreased. Illiteracy is one of Egypt's biggest challenges (McGrath). Everyone in Egypt needs to start thinking for a moment about the future of the child laborers. The huge number of child laborers (2.7 million) require a big plan to be fixed in the next years. So, when those children grow up, they will be not able to get a nice job, get married, or even have kids because they have not studied anything. Some of them might do it when they get older, which will be harder for them, and most of them will not. So, who is the responsible of this issue?! UNICEF is working in partnership with local non-governmental organization both to monitor and prevent children from falling into workforce and to protect them and improve their lives for children who have no choice but to work (Working Children para6). In conclusion, children are the most important part of our community. Each parent needs to think a million times before having kids. Are we ready? Can we afford his/her expenses? If these two questions had been asked from each parent, child labor might not have been created. Since this issue has been getting bigger, the government needs to find a solution as soon as they have found it coming an issue in the society. Education for children is the same thing of building a building, it needs to be a strong building and to not to fall for years. So, education in Egypt needs to be planned strongly to product a smart, educated and strong generation that will lead the country and the world. And, UNICEF is one of the organizations that need to be all over the world to take care of the children when the society and the government do not pay attention to their new generation. Works Cited "Bureau of International Labor Affairs." DOL.org, 28 September 2011. Web. 12 December 2011. "International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (IPEC)." ILO.org. Web. 12 December 2011. Itani, Nadia. "Child Labor in Egypt." ddrn.dk , 1 July 2009. Web. 12 December 2011. McDougally, Dan. guardian.co.uk, June 2008. Web. 12 December 2011. McGrath, Cam. ipsnews.net. Web. 12 December 2011 Reske, Henry J. "Egypt's Poverty, Unemployment Push Youths to Breaking Point." newsmax.com, 31 January 2011. Web. 12 December 2011. "Working Children Issues and Impact." UNICEF.org. Web. 12 December 2011. "2008 Finding on the Worst Forms of Child Labor – Egypt." UNHCR.org, 2008. Web. 12 December 2011.
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