compendium

compressed air
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D-33739 Bielefeld
info@boge.com
www.boge.com
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I
Table of contents
Contents
1.1 The history of compressed air ............................................... 1
1.1.1 The origin of compressed air ................................................ 1
1.1.2 The first applications of compressed air ............................... 2
1.2 Units and formula symbols .................................................... 6
1.2.1 Basic units ............................................................................ 6
1.2.2 Compressed air units ........................................................... 6
1.3 What is compressed air ? ....................................................... 7
1.3.1 The composition of air .......................................................... 7
1.3.2 The properties of compressed air ........................................ 7
1.3.3 How does compressed air behave? ..................................... 7
1.4 Physical fundamentals ........................................................... 8
1.4.1 Temperature ......................................................................... 9
1.4.2 Volume ................................................................................. 9
1.4.3 Pressure............................................................................. 10
1.4.4 Volume flow........................................................................ 11
1.5 Compressed air in motion .................................................... 13
1.5.1 Flow behaviour ................................................................... 13
1.5.2 Types of flow ...................................................................... 13
2.1 The advantages of compressed air ..................................... 14
2.2 Pressure ranges .................................................................... 17
2.3 Possible applications for compressed air ........................... 18
2.3.1 Tensioning and clamping with compressed air ................... 18
2.3.2 Conveyance by compressed air ......................................... 18
2.3.3 Pneumatic drive systems ................................................... 19
2.3.4 Spraying with compressed air ............................................ 19
2.3.5 Blowing and flushing with compressed air .......................... 19
2.3.6 Testing and inspection with compressed air ....................... 20
2.3.7 Using compressed air for process control .......................... 20
2.4 Examples of specialised applications ................................. 21
3.1 Compressors (compactors) .................................................. 24
3.1.1 Dynamic compressors ( Turbo-compressors ) .................... 24
3.1.2 Displacement compressors ................................................ 24
3.2 Types of compressor ............................................................ 25
3.2.1 Standard compressors ....................................................... 26
3.2.2 Piston (reciprocating) compressor ...................................... 27
3.2.3 Diaphragm compressor ...................................................... 29
3.2.4 Free piston compressor ...................................................... 30
3.2.5 Rotary vane compressor .................................................... 31
3.2.6 Liquid ring compressor ....................................................... 32
3.2.7 Screw compressor ............................................................. 33
3.2.8 Roots compressor .............................................................. 34
3.2.9 Axial compressor ................................................................ 35
3.2.10 Radial compressor ............................................................. 36
Part 1
Fundamentals of
compressed air
Part 2
Applications for
pneumatics
Part 3
Compressed air
generators
Chapter Page
II
Table of contents
Part 4
Control of compressors
Chapter Page
3.3 Piston compressors .............................................................. 37
3.3.1 General .............................................................................. 37
3.3.2 Suction capacity - output .................................................... 38
3.3.3 Cooling ............................................................................... 39
3.3.4 Coolant ............................................................................... 40
3.3.5 Control of reciprocating piston compressors ...................... 40
3.3.6 Advantages of reciprocating piston compressors ............... 40
3.3.7 Components of a piston compressor .................................. 41
3.4 Screw compressors .............................................................. 42
3.4.1 General .............................................................................. 42
3.4.2 Compression process ........................................................ 42
3.4.3 Method of operation ........................................................... 43
3.4.4 Oil circuit ............................................................................ 44
3.4.5 Pneumatic circuit ................................................................ 45
3.4.6 Heat reclamation ................................................................ 46
3.4.7 Intake control ...................................................................... 46
3.4.8 Advantages of screw compressors..................................... 46
3.4.9 Main components of a screw compressor .......................... 47
3.5 Components .......................................................................... 48
3.5.1 Drive motor ......................................................................... 48
3.5.2 Drive belts .......................................................................... 48
3.5.3 Belt tensioning.................................................................... 48
3.5.4 Inlet and pressure valves ................................................... 49
3.5.5 Safety valve ........................................................................ 49
3.5.6 Intake filter .......................................................................... 49
3.6 Compressor lubricants and coolants .................................. 50
4.1 Pressure definitions.............................................................. 51
4.2 Operating status.................................................................... 52
4.2.1 Stopped ( L
0
) ..................................................................... 52
4.2.2 Idle ( L
1
) ............................................................................. 52
4.2.3 Part-load ............................................................................ 53
4.2.4 Operating load ( L
2
) .......................................................... 53
4.3 Controlling individual compressors .................................... 54
4.3.1 Intermittent control ............................................................. 54
4.3.2 Idle mode control ................................................................ 54
4.3.3 Delayed intermittent control ................................................ 55
4.3.4 Part-load control ................................................................. 56
4.3.4.1 Proportional regulation ....................................................... 56
4.3.4.2 Frequency control ............................................................... 57
4.4. The ARS control concept ..................................................... 59
4.4.1 Autotronic ........................................................................... 60
4.4.2 Ratiotronic .......................................................................... 60
4.4.3 Supertronic......................................................................... 61
III
Table of contents
Part 5
Compressed air treatment
Chapter Page
4.5 Control of several compressors .......................................... 62
4.5.1 MCS 1 and MCS 2 ............................................................. 62
4.5.2 MCS 3 ................................................................................ 63
4.5.3 MCS 4 ................................................................................ 64
4.5.4 MCS 5 ................................................................................ 65
4.5.5 MCS 6 ................................................................................ 66
4.5.6 MCS 7 ................................................................................ 67
5.1 Why treatment ? .................................................................... 68
5.1.2 Planning information .......................................................... 69
5.1.3 Consequences of poor treatment ....................................... 70
5.1.3 Impurities in the air ............................................................. 71
5.2 Water in the compressed air ................................................ 72
5.2.1 Atmospheric humidity ......................................................... 72
5.2.2 Dew points ......................................................................... 73
5.2.3 Air moisture content ........................................................... 73
5.2.4 Quantity of condensate during compression ...................... 74
5.2.5 Example for calculating quantities of condensate .............. 75
5.2.6 Quantity of condensate on a humid Summer day .............. 76
5.2.7 Determining the pressure dew point ................................... 77
5.2.8 Pressure dew point after removal of pressure .................... 78
5.3 Compressed air quality......................................................... 79
5.3.1 Quality classes defined in DIN ISO 8573-1....................... 79
5.4 Methods of drying ................................................................. 80
5.4.1 Operating conditions .......................................................... 81
5.4.2 Condensation by high pressure.......................................... 82
5.4.3 Condensation by refrigeration drying ................................. 83
5.4.4 Diffusion by membrane drying............................................ 84
5.4.5 Sorption by Absorption....................................................... 85
5.4.6 Sorption by Adsorption....................................................... 86
5.4.6.1 Heatless regeneration ........................................................ 87
5.4.6.2 Internal heat regeneration .................................................. 88
5.4.6.3 External heat regeneration ................................................. 89
5.4.6.4 Vacuum regeneration ......................................................... 90
5.4.7 Arrangement of the refrigeration compressed air dryer ...... 91
5.4.7.1 Dryer before the compressed air receiver .......................... 91
5.4.7.2 Dryer behind the compressed air receiver .......................... 92
5.5 Compressed air filters .......................................................... 93
5.5.1 Basic terminology of filters ................................................. 93
5.5.1.1 Filter separation rate η [ %] ............................................... 93
5.5.1.2 Pressure drop ∆p ............................................................... 94
5.5.1.3 Operating pressure ............................................................ 94
5.5.2 Dust separators .................................................................. 95
5.5.3 Pre-filters ............................................................................ 96
5.5.4 Microfilters .......................................................................... 96
5.5.5 Active carbon filters ............................................................ 99
5.5.6 Active carbon adsorbers................................................... 100
5.5.7 Sterile filters ..................................................................... 101
IV
Table of contents
Part 7
Compressed air
requirement
Part 6
Disposal of condensate
Part 8
Determining the size of
the compressor station
Chapter Page
6.1 Condensate.......................................................................... 102
6.2 Condensate drains .............................................................. 103
6.2.1 Condensate drains with manual valves ............................ 104
6.2.2 Condensate drains with float control ................................ 104
6.2.3 Condensate drains with timer operated solenoid valves... 105
6.2.4 Condensate drains with electronic level control ................ 106
6.2.5 Condensate drains with float operated level control ......... 107
6.3 Condensate treatment ........................................................ 108
6.3.1 Oil-water separators ......................................................... 109
7.1 Consumption of compressed air by pneumatic devices . 110
7.1.1 Consumption of nozzles ................................................... 110
7.1.1.1 Compressed air consumption of cylindrical nozzles ......... 111
7.1.1.2 Compressed air consumption of paint spray guns ........... 112
7.1.1.3 Compressed air consumption of jet nozzles ..................... 113
7.1.2 Compressed air consumption of cylinders ....................... 114
7.1.3 Compressed air consumption of tools .............................. 115
7.2 Determining compressed air requirement ........................ 117
7.2.1 Average operation time .................................................... 117
7.2.2 Simultanity factor .............................................................. 118
7.2.3 Defining compressed air requirement .............................. 119
7.2.3.1 Automatic consumer devices............................................ 119
7.2.3.2 General consumer devices............................................... 120
7.2.3.3 Total compressed air consumption ................................... 120
7.2.4 Allowances for losses and reserves ................................. 121
7.2.5 FAD Required L
B
.............................................................. 121
7.3 Compressed air loss ........................................................... 122
7.3.1 Costs of compressed air loss ........................................... 122
7.3.2 Quantifying leakage ......................................................... 123
7.3.2.1 Quantifying leakage by emptying the receiver .................. 123
7.3.2.2 Quantifying leakage by measuring working time .............. 124
7.3.3 Limits for leakage ............................................................. 125
7.3.4 Measures for minimising compressed air loss.................. 125
7.3.5 Reconstructing a pneumatic network ............................... 126
8.1 The type of compressor ...................................................... 127
8.1.1 Screw compressors.......................................................... 127
8.1.2 Piston compressors.......................................................... 127
8.2 Maximum pressure P
max
..................................................... 128
8.2.1 Factors influencing cutout pressure P
max
......................... 128
8.3 Determining the volume of a compressed air receiver ... 129
8.3.1 Recommendations for the volume of compressed air
receivers........................................................................... 129
8.3.2 Norm series and operating pressures for sizes of
compressed air receivers ................................................. 129
8.3.3 Volumes of compressed air receivers for compressors .... 130
V
Table of contents
Part 9
The pneumatic system
Chapter Page
8.4 Compressor cycle intervals................................................ 131
8.4.1 Compressor idle times ..................................................... 131
8.4.2 Compressor running times ............................................... 131
8.4.3 Determining the motor cycle speed.................................. 132
8.5 Examples for compressor configuration........................... 133
8.5.1 Samples calculation for piston compressors .................... 133
8.5.1.1 Determining the maximum pressure P
max
........................ 133
8.5.1.2 Determining compressor size........................................... 134
8.5.1.3 Volume of the compressed air receiver ............................ 134
8.5.1.4 Compressor cycle interval ................................................ 135
8.5.1.5 Motor cycling rate of compressor ..................................... 136
8.5.2 Samples calculation for screw compressors .................... 137
8.5.2.1 Example for determining the maximum pressure P
max
.... 137
8.5.2.2 Determining compressor size........................................... 137
8.5.2.3 Dimensioning the compressed air receiver ...................... 138
8.5.2.4 Compressor cycle interval ................................................ 138
8.5.3 Summary on compressor selection .................................. 139
8.6 Information on compressor configuration ........................ 140
8.6.1 Performance and working pressure.................................. 140
8.6.2 Varying working pressure of consumer devices ............... 141
8.6.3 Combined compressor systems ....................................... 141
9.1 The compressed air receiver .............................................. 142
9.1.1 Storing compressed air .................................................... 142
9.1.2 Pulsation damping............................................................ 142
9.1.3 Condensate collection ...................................................... 143
9.1.4 Operation of compressed air receivers............................. 143
9.1.5 Installation of compressed air receivers ........................... 143
9.1.6 Safety rules for compressed air receivers ........................ 144
9.1.6.1 Registration and inspection obligations ............................ 144
9.1.6.2 Approved inspection authorities and authorized
personnel ......................................................................... 144
9.1.6.3 Inspection prior to commissioning .................................... 145
9.1.6.4 Registration ...................................................................... 145
9.1.6.5 Repetitive inspections ...................................................... 145
9.1.7 Fittings on the compressed air receivers .......................... 147
9.1.7.1 Safety valve ...................................................................... 148
9.2 The compressed air circuit ................................................. 149
9.2.1 The structure of a compressed air circuit ......................... 149
9.2.1.1 The main line.................................................................... 149
9.2.1.2 The distribution line- ring line ........................................... 150
9.2.1.3 The distribution line- stub line........................................... 151
9.2.1.4 The connection line .......................................................... 151
9.2.1.5 Connecting to a collective line with multiple systems ....... 152
VI
Table of contents
Part 10
The Installation Room
Chapter Page
9.3 Tips for planning pipe systems.......................................... 153
9.3.1 General planning tips ....................................................... 153
9.3.2 Pipeline without compressed air dryer ............................. 154
9.3.3 Pipeline system with compressed air dryer ...................... 155
9.4 Pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ................................................................. 156
9.4.1 Type of flow ...................................................................... 156
9.4.2 The Reynolds number Re ................................................ 156
9.4.3 Pressure loss in the pipe system...................................... 157
9.5 Dimensioning pipelines ...................................................... 158
9.5.1 Maximum pressure drop ∆p ............................................. 158
9.5.2 Nominal width of pipelines
Comparison [ DN – Inch ] ................................................. 159
9.5.3 Equivalent pipe length ...................................................... 160
9.5.4 Determining the inside diameter d
i
of the pipe by calculation .................................................. 161
9.5.5 Determining the inside diameter
of the pipe d
i
by graphics .................................................. 162
9.5.6 Determining the inside diameter
of the pipe d
i
with the aid of a bar graph........................... 163
9.6 Choosing the material for pipelines .................................. 164
9.6.1 Threaded pipes ................................................................ 164
9.6.2 Seamless steel pipes ....................................................... 165
9.6.3 Stainless steel pipes ........................................................ 165
9.6.4 Copper pipes .................................................................... 166
9.6.5 Plastic pipes ..................................................................... 167
9.7 Marking pipelines ................................................................ 168
10.1 Cooling the compressor ..................................................... 169
10.2 Compressor installation ..................................................... 170
10.2.1 General information regarding the installation room......... 170
10.2.2 Admissible ambient temperature ...................................... 170
10.2.3 Fire safety rules for installation rooms .............................. 171
10.2.4 Disposal of condensate .................................................... 171
10.2.5 Compressor installation instructions................................. 172
10.2.6 The space requirement of a compressor .......................... 172
10.2.7 Conditions for installing compressed air receivers ........... 173
10.3 Ventilation of a compressor station .................................. 174
10.3.1 Factors influencing the flow of
cooling air of a V

c
of a compressor ................................... 174
10.3.2 Definition of the factors influencing the flow of
cooling air V

c
to and from a compressor ........................... 175
10.3.3 General information for ventilation of compressor rooms . 176
10.3.4 Natural ventilation............................................................. 177
10.3.4.1 Outlet air aperture required for natural ventilation ............ 177
10.3.5 Artificial ventilation ........................................................... 178
10.3.5.1 Required ventilator output with artificial ventilation........... 178
10.3.5.2 Required inlet air aperture with artificial ventilation .......... 179
VII
Table of contents
Part 11
Heat recovery
Part 12
Sound
Chapter Page
10.3.5.3 Example of artificial ventilation of a compressor station ... 180
10.3.6 Circulation of cooling-air with inlet and outlet ducts.......... 181
10.3.6.1 Air inlet ducts.................................................................... 181
10.3.6.2 Extraction of air through a cool-air duct ............................ 182
10.3.6.3 Required flow of cooling-air V

d
and cross-section
of duct A
d
when using a cool-air duc ................................ 182
10.3.6.4 Information concerning ventilation by ducting .................. 183
10.3.6.5 Dimensioning the air inlet aperture
when using an outlet duct ................................................ 184
10.3.6.6 Variations of duct-type ventilation..................................... 185
10.4 Example installation plans ................................................. 186
10.4.1 Installation of a screw-type compressor: an example ....... 186
10.4.2 Installation of piston-type compressor: an example.......... 187
11.1 The heat balance of a compressor station........................ 188
11.2 Room heating ...................................................................... 189
11.2.1 Room heating through ducting ......................................... 189
11.2.2 Operation of room heating................................................ 190
11.2.3 Economy of room heating ................................................ 190
11.3 The Duotherm heat exchanger ........................................... 191
11.3.1 Duotherm BPT ................................................................. 191
11.3.2 Duotherm BSW................................................................ 192
11.3.3 How much energy is it possible to save?.......................... 193
11.4 Closing remarks concerning heat recovery ...................... 194
12.1 The nature of sound............................................................ 195
12.1.1 Sound perception ............................................................. 195
12.2 Important terminology in acoustics .................................. 196
12.2.1 Sound pressure ................................................................ 196
12.2.2 Sound level ....................................................................... 196
12.2.3 Sound intensity................................................................. 196
12.3 Human perception of sound............................................... 197
12.3.1 The sound intensity level .................................................. 197
12.3.2 Assessed sound level dB ( A ) .......................................... 197
12.3.3 Loudness in comparison .................................................. 198
12.4 Behaviour of sound............................................................. 199
12.4.1 Distance from the sound source....................................... 199
12.4.2 Reflection and Absorption ................................................ 199
12.4.3 Damping sound ................................................................ 200
12.4.5 Dessemination of sound in pipes and ducts ..................... 200
12.4.6 Sound pressure level from many sound sources.............. 201
12.4.6.1 Several sound sources with the same level ...................... 201
12.4.6.2 Two sound sources with different levels ........................... 201
12.5 The effects of noise ............................................................ 202
12.6 Noise measurement ............................................................ 203
12.7 Silencing on compressors ................................................. 203
VIII
Table of contents
Part 13
Costs of compressed air
Part 14
Appendix
Chapter Page
Part 15
Index
13.1 Composition of compressed air costs .............................. 204
13.1.1 Cost factor ratios .............................................................. 204
13.2 Cost-effectiveness calculation for energy costs .............. 205
A.1 Symbols ............................................................................... 206
A.1.1 Picture symbols defined by DIN 28004 ............................ 206
A.1.2 Symbols for contact units and switching devices
as per ISO 1219 ............................................................... 208
15.1 Conversion Table ................................................................. 212
1
Fundamentals of compressed air
1. Fundamentals of compressed air
1.1 The history
of compressed air
1.1.1 The origin of compressed air
Fig. 1.1:
The first compressor - the lung
Compressed air, together with electricity, is the most frequently
used carrier of energy in industry and the crafts today. But
whereas we learn to use electricity and electrical appliances
from a very early age, the possibilities, advantages and essen-
tials of compressed air are far less understood.
People’s comprehension of compressed air grew parallel to
their understanding in other technical fields. Its development
was only furthered where it was seen to have advantages over
other technologies. But compressed air was always being
used, and so clever people were always thinking about how to
put it to better use.
The first compressor - the lung
Many technical applications originate from the earliest days of
mankind. The first use of compressed air was blowing on tinder
to fan a flame. The air used for blowing was compressed in the
lungs. Indeed, the lung could be called a kind of natural
compressor. The capacity and performance of this compres-
sor is extremely impressive. The human lung can process
100 l/min or 6 m
3
of air per hour. In doing so it generates a
pressure of 0,02 - 0,08 bar. In a healthy condition, the reliability
of the human compressor is unsurpassed and it costs nothing
to service.
The further development of the „lung“
However, the lung proved to be wholly inadequate when
people began to smelt pure metals such as gold, copper, tin
and lead more than 5000 years ago. And when they started
to make high grade metals, such as iron from ore, further
development of compressed air technology was essential.
More powerful aids than the lung were needed to generate
temperatures of over 1000° C. At first they used the high winds
on uplands and the crests of hills. Later, Egyptian and Sumerian
goldsmiths made use of the blast pipe. This brought air directly
into the embers, which increased the temperature decisively.
Even today, goldsmiths all over the world use a similar device.
However, this is only useful for melting small quantities of
metal.
2
Fundamentals of compressed air
Fig. 1.2:
Picture of the foot-powered bellows in ancient Egypt
1.1.2 The first applications of
compressed air
Recognising the properties of
compressed air
Fig. 1.3:
The catapult of Ktesibios
Fig.1.4:
The temple doors of Heron
The first mechanical compressor - the bellows
The first mechanical compressor, the hand-powered bellows,
was developed in the middle of the third millennium BC. The
much more powerful foot-powered bellows was invented around
1500 BC. This progress was necessary when the alloying of
copper and tin to make bronze developed into a stable manu-
facturing process. The development can be seen in a wall-
painting of an ancient Egyptian grave. It was the birth of com-
pressed air as we know it today.
Hydraulic organ
Storage and suppression of pulsation
The first deliberate exploitation of energy in the air is handed
down to us by the Greek Ktesibios ( ca. 285 to 222 BC ). He
built a hydraulic organ and used compressed air for the
storage and reduction of vibration.
Catapult
Storage of energy
Ktesibios used another property of compressed air, stored
energy, for his catapult. With the aid of air compressed in a
cylinder, the Greek’s catapult generated enough tension to
propel missiles.
Temple doors
Expansion and the performance of work
Heron, an engineer living in Alexandria in the first century BC,
found a way to open the doors of a temple automatically by
keeping the flame at the altar inside the building permanently
alight. The secret was to use the expansion of hot air to force
water out of one container and into another. Heron recognised,
even if unwittingly, that it was possible to perform work by
changing the condition of air.
3
Fundamentals of compressed air
Fig. 1.5 :
Compressed air to increase energy
Fig. 1.6 :
Compressed air as a means of transport
p
1
p
2
Fig. 1.7 :
Pneumatic brakes in a train ca. 1870
Pascal’s law
Increasing energy
It was only in the 17th century that a series of learned people
began to study the physical laws applicable to compressed air.
In 1663 Blaise Pascal published an essay on increasing
energy by using liquids ( hydraulics ), that was also valid for
the technology of compressed air. He found that the energy
exerted by one man at one end of a closed container of water
was equivalent to the energy exerted by 100 men at another
end.
Transporting objects through pipes
Pneumatic conveyance
Taking up where Heron left off, the French physicist Denis
Papin described in 1667 a method of transporting objects
through pipes. He exploited the slight difference in pressure
inside a pipe. In doing so he found out that energy was
generated at an object inside the pipe. This was recognition of
the advantage of the high work speeds obtainable by using air.
Papin thus laid the foundation stone for pneumatic convey-
ance.
Pneumatic brakes
Power transmission
As early as around 1810, trains were being powered by
compressed air. In 1869 Westinghouse introduced his pneu-
matic brake. His brake motor followed three years later. In this
system the brakes were applied by over-pressure i.e., the full
braking effect is obtained if there is a drop in pressure e.g., by
the bursting of a hose.
This was the first use of a fail-safe system. Brake systems
based on this principle are still used in HGVs today.
4
Fundamentals of compressed air
Fig. 1.8 :
Pneumatic drills in tunnel construction
Fig. 1.9 :
Compressed air station in Paris 1888
Pneumatic post
Conveyance by compressed air
The idea of trains powered by compressed air was not forgot-
ten. In 1863, Latimer Clark together with an engineer named
Rammel built a pneumatic conveyance system in London. It
featured small trolleys moving completely inside conveyor
tubes and was designed to transport postal bags and parcels.
This system was much more flexible than the heavy, atmos-
pheric railways of 1810, and led eventually to the introduction
of pneumatic post.
Pneumatic post networks soon sprung up in Berlin, New York
and Paris. The Paris network reached its peak length of 437 km
in 1934. Even today, pneumatic post systems are still used in
large industrial operations.
Pneumatic tools
Transporting energy
When the tunnel through Mont Cenis was being built in 1857,
the new technology was used in a pneumatically-powered
hammer drill to cut through the rock. From 1861 they used
pneumatically-powered percussion drills, these being sup-
plied with compressed air from compressors at both ends of
the tunnel. In both cases the compressed air was transported
over long distances.
When in 1871 the breakthrough in the tunnel was achieved,
there were over 7000 m of pipelines on both sides. Thus, for
the first time, the transportability of energy was demon-
strated and made known to a wide public as one of the
advantages of compressed air. And from here on, pneumatic
tools of even greater performance and versatility were devel-
oped.
Pneumatic networks
Central generation of compressed air and signal transmission
The experience gained using networks of pneumatic lines and
the development of more powerful compressors led to a
pneumatic network being installed in the sewage canals of
Paris. It was put into commission in 1888 with a central
compressor output of 1500 kW. By 1891 its output rating had
already reached 18000 kW.
The all-round success of the pneumatic network was under-
lined by the invention of a clock, the minute hand of which was
moved on every sixty seconds by an impulse from the com-
pressor station. People had not only seen the possibility of
transporting energy, but also of moving signals over great
distances through a pneumatic network.
The pneumatic network in Paris is unique to this day, and is still
in use.
5
Fundamentals of compressed air
Fig. 1.10 :
Four-stage adding device with wall radiation
elements
Signal processing
Compressed air for the transmission and processing of signals
In the 1950s in the USA the high flow speed of compressed air
was first used for the transmission and processing of signals.
Low-pressure pneumatics, also known as fluidics or pneu-
monics ( pneumatic logic ), allow the integration of logical
switching functions in the form of fluidic elements in a very
small area at pressures of 1.001 to 1.1 bar.
The high operating precision of the fluidic logic elements under
extreme conditions allowed them to be used in the space and
defence programmes of the USA and the USSR. Immunity to
electromagnetic radiation from exploding nuclear weapons
gives fluidics a special advantage in several sensitive areas.
Even so, over the course of time fluidics has largely been
superseded by electrical and microelectronic technology in the
fields of signal and information processing.
6
Fundamentals of compressed air
Engineering uses measures derived from the basic units. The
following table shows the most frequently used units of meas-
ure for compressed air.
1.2 Units and formula symbols
Basic unit Formula symbol Symbol Name
Length l [ m ] Metre
Mass m [ kg ] Kilogramme
Time t [ s ] Second
Strength of current I [ A ] Ampere
Temperature T [ K ] Kelvin
Strength of light I [ cd ] Candela
Qty of substance n [ mol ] Mol
The SI-units ( Système International d'Unités ) were agreed
at the 14th General Conference for Weights and Measures.
They have been generally prescribed since 16.10.1971.
The basic units are defined independent units of measure
and form the basis of the SI-system.
Unit Formula symbol Symbol Name
Force F [ N ] Newton
Pressure p [ Pa ] Pascal
[ bar ] Bar 1bar = 100000Pa
Area A [ m
2
] Square metre
Volume V [ m
3
] Cubic metre
[ l ] Litre 1m
3
= 1000l
Speed v [ m / s ] Metre per Second
Mass m [ kg ] Kilogramme
[ t ] Tonne 1t = 1000kg
Density ρ [ kg / m
3
] Kilogramme per cubic metre
Temperature T [ °C ] Degree Celsius
Work W [ J ] Joule
Energy P [ W ] Watt
Tension U [ V ] Volt
Frequency f [ Hz ] Hertz
1.2.1 Basic units
1.2.2 Compressed air units
7
Fundamentals of compressed air
The air in our environment, the atmosphere, consists of:
78 % Nitrogen
21 % Oxygen
1 % other gases
( e.g.. carbon-dioxide and argon )
Compressed air is compressed atmospheric air.
Compressed air is a carrier of heat energy.
Compressed air can bridge certain distances ( in pipelines ),
be stored ( in compressed air receivers ) and perform work
( decompress ).
As with all gases, the air consists of molecules. The molecules
are held together by molecular force. If the air is enclosed in a
tank ( constant volume ), then these molecules bounce off the
walls of the tank and generate pressure p.
The higher the temperature, the greater the movement of air
molecules, and the higher the pressure generated.
Volume ( V ) = constant
Temperature ( T ) = is increased
Pressure ( p ) = rises
Boyle and Mariotte carried out experiments with enclosed
volumes of gas independently of each other and found the
following interrelationship:
The volume of gas is inversely proportional to pressure.
( Boyle-Mariotte’s Law )
1.3 What is compressed air ?
1.3.2 The properties of compressed air
Fig. 1.11:
The composition of air
Fig. 1.13:
Air in a closed container
1.3.1 The composition of air
p
V
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
T
1.3.3 How does compressed air behave?
Compressed air
Pressure energy
Heat
Fig. 1.12:
Air compression
Nitrogen
78%
Oxygen
21%
other gases
1%
8
Fundamentals of compressed air
p
0
, T
0
p
1
, T
1
p
0
, V
0
p
1
, V
1
V
0
, T
0
V
1
, T
1
Heat
Heat
The condition of compressed air is determined by the 3
measures of thermal state:
T = Temperature
V = Volume
p = Pressure
p × ×× ×× V
———— = constant
T
This means:
Volume constant ( isochore )
Pressure and temperature variable
When the temperature is increased and the volume remains
constant, the pressure rises.
p
0
T
0
—— = ——
p
1
T
1
Temperature constant ( isotherm)
Pressure and volume variable
When the volume is reduced and the temperature remains
constant, the pressure rises.
p
0
× ×× ×× V
0
= p
1
× ×× ×× V
1
= constant
Pressure constant ( isobar )
Volume and temperature variable
When the temperature is increased and the pressure
remains constant, the volume increases.
V
0
T
0
—— = ——
V
1
T
1
1.4 Physical fundamentals
constant volume
isochore compression
constant temperature
isotherm compression
constant pressure
isobar compression
9
Fundamentals of compressed air
0°C
1.4.1 Temperature
1.4.2 Volume
Volume (V)
Norm volume + 8% = Volume
0°C 20° C
0 bar
abs
8 bar
abs
Fig.1.14:
Showing temperature
The temperature indicates the heat of a body and is read in °C
on thermometers or converted to Kelvin ( K ).
T [ K ] = t [ °C ] + 273,15
Volume V [ l, m
3
]
Compressed air in expanded state, open air
The volume is determined, for example, by the size of a cyl-
inder. It is measured in l or m
3
and relative to 20° C and
1 bar.
The numbers in our documentation always refers to com-
pressed air in its expanded state.
d
2
× ×× ×× π
V
Cyl
= ———— × ×× ×× h
4
V
Cyl
= Volume [m
3
]
d = Diameter [m]
h = Height [m]
Normal volume V
Norm
[ Nl, Nm
3
]
Compressed air in expanded state under normal conditions
The normal volume refers to the physical normal state as speci-
fied in DIN 1343. It is 8% less than the volume at 20° C.
760 Torr = 1,01325 bar
abs
= 101 325 Pa
273,15 K = 0 °C
Operating volume V
operat
[ Bl, Bm
3
]
Compressed air in compressed state
The volume in operating state refers to the actual condition.
The temperature, air pressure and air humidity must be taken
into account as reference points.
When specifying the operating volume the pressure must
always be given, e.g., 1 m
3
at 7 bar means that 1 m
3
expanded
(relaxed) air at 7 bar = 8 bar abs. is compressed and only
occupies 1/8 of the original volume.
10
Fundamentals of compressed air
Atmospheric pressure p
amb
[ bar ]
Atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of the air that
surrounds us. It is dependent on the density and height of the
atmosphere.
At sea level, 1 013 mbar = 1,01325 bar
= 760 mm/Hg [ Torr ]
= 101 325 Pa
Under constant conditions atmospheric pressure decreases
the higher the measuring location is.
Over-pressure p
op
[ bar
op
]
Over-pressure is the pressure above atmospheric pressure.
In compressed air technology, pressure is usually specified
as over-pressure, and in bar without the index „ op“.
Absolute pressure p
abs
[ bar ]
The absolute pressure p
abs
is the sum of the atmospheric pres-
sure p
amb
and the over-pressure p
op
.
p
abs
= p
amb
+ p
op
According to the SI-System pressure is given in Pascal [ Pa ].
In practice, however, it is still mostly given in „ bar “. The old
measure atm ( 1 atm = 0,981 bar-op ) is no longer used.
Force F
Pressure = ———— p = ——
Area A
1 Newton 1 N
1 Pascal = ———— 1 Pa = ——
1 m
2
1 m
2
1 bar = 10195 mmWH [ mm water head ]
1.4.3 Pressure
Fig.1.15:
Atmospheric pressure
Fig.1.16:
Illlustration of different pressures
Over-
pressure
barometric
air pressure
Partial
vacuum
100 % Vacuum
p
a
b
s
p
o
p
p
v
a
c
p
a
m
b
p
amb
= Atmospheric pressure
p
op
= Over-pressure
p
vac
= Partial vacuum
p
abs
= Absolute pressure
11
Fundamentals of compressed air
Volume flow V

[ l/min, m³/min., m³/h ]
The volume flow describes the volume ( l or m³ ) per unit of
time ( minute or hour ).
A distinction is made between the working volume flow ( in-
duction rate ) and the volume flow ( output rate ) of a com-
pressor.
Working volume flow V

Wor
[ l/min, m³/min., m³/h ]
Induction rate
The working volume flow is a calculable quantity on piston
compressors. It is the product of the cylinder size ( piston
capacity ), compressor speed ( number of strokes ) and the
number of cylinders working. The working volume flow is given
in l/min, m³/min or m³/h.
V

Wor
= A × ×× ×× s × ×× ×× n × ×× ×× c
V

Wor
= Working volume flow [ l / min]
A = Cylinder area [ dm
2
]
s = Stroke [ dm]
n = Number of strokes [ 1/ min]
(compressor speed)
c = Number of working cylinders
Volume flow V

[ l/min, m³/min, m³/h ]
Output rate
The output rate of a compressor is normally declared as the
volume flow.
In contrast to the working volume flow, the volume flow is not
a calculated value, but one measured at the pressure joint of
a compressor and calculated back to the induction state. The
volume flow is dependent on the final pressure relative to the
induction conditions of pressure, temperature and relative
humidity. This is why when calculating the induction state the
measured volume flow to induction pressure must be „ relaxed“
and to induction temperature it must be „ re-cooled“ and „dryed“
to a relative humidity of 0 %.
The volume flow is measured according to VDMA 4362,
DIN 1945, ISO 1217 or PN2 CPTC2 and given in l/min, m
3
/min
or m
3
/h. The effective volume flow, i.e., the output that can
actually be used, is an important consideration for the design
of a compressor. Volume flows can only usefully be compared
when measured under the same conditions. This means that
the induction temperature, pressure, relative air humidity and
measured pressure must match.
1.4.4 Volume flow
TDC = Top dead centre
BDC = Bottom dead centre
TDC
BDC
Fig. 1.18:
Cylinder movement
Working volume flow
Induction rate
Fig. 1.17:
Working volume flow and volume flow

Volume flow
Output rate
12
Fundamentals of compressed air
Norm volume flow V

Norm
[ Nl/min, Nm
3
/min, Nm
3
/h ]
As with the volume flow, the norm volume flow is also meas-
ured.
However, it does not refer to the induction state, but to a theo-
retical comparative value. With the physical norm state the
theoretical values are:
Temperature = 273,15 K ( 0 °C )
Pressure = 1,01325 bar ( 760 mm HG )
Air density = 1,294 kg/m
3
( dry air )
rel. humidity = 0 %
Operating volume flow V

Operat
[ Ol/min, Om
3
/min, Om
3
/h ]
The operating volume flow gives the effective volume flow of
compressed air.
To be able to compare the operating volume flow with the other
volume flows, the pressure of he compressed air must always
be given in addition to the dimension Ol/min, Om
3
/min or
Om
3
/h.
Norm volume flow + 8% = Volume flow
0°C 20°C
Fig. 1.19:
Norm volume flow
Fig. 1.20:
Operating volume flow
1 bar
abs
8 bar
abs
13
Fundamentals of compressed air
Different laws apply to compressed air in motion than to sta-
tionary compressed air.
The volume flow is calculated from area and speed.
V

= A
1
× ×× ×× v
1
= A
2
× ×× ×× v
2
A
1
v
2
—— = ——
A
2
v
1
V

= Volume flow
A
1
, A
2
= Cross section
v
1
, v
2
= Speed
The result of the formula is that:
The speed of flow is inversely proportional to
the cross section.
Flow can be laminar or even (Ideal),
or turbulent ( with backflow and whirling ).
Laminar flow ( even flow )
low drop in pressure
slight heat transition
Turbulent flow ( whirl flow )
high drop in pressure
great heat transition
1.5 Compressed air in motion
1.5.1 Flow behaviour
1.5.2 Types of flow
Fig. 1.21:
Flow behaviour
A
2
A
1
v
1
v
2
Fig. 1.22:
Laminar flow
Fig. 1.23:
Turbulent flow
14
Applications for pneumatics
2. Applications for pneumatics
2.1 The advantages
of compressed air
Pneumatics faces increasing competition from mechanical,
hydraulic and electrical appliances on all fronts. But pneumatic
devices have fundamental advantages over the other tech-
nologies:
Easily transported
Air is available everywhere, and there is plenty of it. Since
outlet air escapes into the open, there is no need for return
lines. Electrical and hydraulic systems need a return line to
the source.
Compressed air can be transported over great distances in
pipelines. This allows the installation of central generation sta-
tions that can supply points of consumption via ring mains
with a constant working pressure. The energy stored in com-
pressed air can be widely distributed in this way.
Easily stored
It is easy to store compressed air in purpose-built tanks. If
there is a storage tank integrated in a pneumatic network, the
compressor only needs to work when the pressure drops
below a critical level. And because there is always a cushion
of pressure, a work cycle can be completed even if the power
network fails.
Transportable compressed air bottles can also be used at
locations where there is no pipe system (e.g., under water).
Clean and dry
Compressed air does not cause soiling or leave drops of oil if
the lines are defective. Cleanliness in fitting and operation are
extremely important factors in many sectors of industry, e.g.,
food, leather, textiles, and packing.
Lightweight
Pneumatic devices are usually much lighter than comparable
equipment and machinery with electrical power units. This
makes a big difference with manual and percussion tools
( pneumatic screwdrivers and hammers).
15
Applications for pneumatics
Safe to use
Compressed air works perfectly even when there are great
temperature fluctuations and the temperatures are extreme.
It can also be used where there are very high temperatures,
e.g., for operating forge presses and blast furnace doors.
Pneumatic devices and lines that are untight are no risk to the
safety and serviceability of the system.
Pneumatic systems and components in general wear very
little. They therefore have a long working life and a low failure
rate.
Accident-proof
Pneumatic elements are very safe with regard to fire, explo-
sion and electrical hazards. Even in areas where there is a
risk of fire, explosion and extreme weather conditions, pneu-
matic elements can be used without large and expensive safety
apparatus. In damp-rooms or outdoors too, there is no danger
with pneumatic equipment.
Rational and economical
Pneumatics is 40 - 50 times more economical than muscle
power. This is a major point, particularly in mechanisation and
automation.
Pneumatic components are cheaper than the equivalent hy-
draulic components.
There is no need for regular medium changes, as with hy-
draulic equipment, for instance. This reduces costs and the
servicing requirement, and increases operating times.
Simple
The design and operation of pneumatic equipment is very
simple. For this reason it is very robust and not susceptible
to malfunctioning. Pneumatic components are easy to install
and can be re-used later without difficulty. Installation times
are short because of the simple design. The fitters require no
expensive special training.
Straight-line movements can be executed without extra me-
chanical parts such as levers, cams, eccentric disks, screw
spindles and the like.
16
Applications for pneumatics
Overload-proof
Compressed air equipment and pneumatic working parts can
be loaded until they stop without being damaged. This is why
they are considered to be overload-proof.
In contrast to electrical systems, the output of a pneumatic
network can be overloaded without risk of danger. If the pres-
sure drops too much, the work can not be done, but there will
be no damage to the network or its working elements.
Fast work medium
The very high flow speeds allow rapid completion of work
cycles. This provides short cut-in times and fast conversion of
energy into work.
Compressed air can achieve flow speeds of over 20 m/s.
Hydraulic applications only manage 5 m/s.
The pneumatic cylinders reach linear piston speeds of 15 m/s.
Maximum control speeds in signal processing lie between 30
and 70 m/sat operating pressures of between 6 and 8 bar.
With pressures of less than 1 bar it is even possible to obtain
signal speeds of 200 to 300 m/s.
Fully adjustable
Travel speeds and exerted force are fully and easily adjust-
able. Both with linear and rotary movement, force, torque and
speeds can be fully adjusted without difficulty by using throt-
tles.
17
Applications for pneumatics
2.2 Pressure ranges
C
o
m
p
a
c
t
i
o
n

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

i
n

b
a
r
Low pressure range
Medium pressure range
High pressure range
High pressure range
Fig 2.1 :
Pressure ranges
Low pressure range to 10 bar
Most pneumatic applications in industry and the crafts lie in
the low pressure range of 10 bar and below.
Compressors used :
– one and two-stage piston compressors
– single-stage screw compressors with oil-injection cooling
– two-stage compressors
– rotary compressors
Medium pressure range to 15 bar
HGV and other heavy vehicle tyres are filled with compressed
air from 15 bar compressors. There are also other special
machines that operate with such pressures.
Compressors used :
– two-stage piston compressors
– single-stage screw compressors ( up to 14 bar )
with oil-injection cooling
High pressure range to 40 bar
The compressors in this pressure range are generally used
for starting large diesel engines, testing pipelines and flushing
plastic tanks.
Compressors used :
– two and three-stage piston compressors
– multi-stage screw compressors
High pressure range to 400 bar
One example of the use of compressed air in the high pres-
sure range is the storage of breathing air in diving bottles.
High pressure compressors are used in power stations, roll-
ing mills and steel works and for leak testing. Compressors of
this type are also used for compressing utility gases, such as
oxygen.
Compressors used:
– three and four-stage piston compressors
18
Applications for pneumatics
2.3 Possible applications for
compressed air
2.3.1 Tensioning and clamping with
compressed air
Fig. 2.2:
Pneumatic-mechanical clamp
2.3.2 Conveyance by compressed air
Fig. 2.3:
Bridging the heights with a pneumatically powered
elevator
Compressed air is used intensively in all sectors of industry,
the crafts, and everyday life. The range of possible applica-
tions is diverse and all-embracing. Some of the technical uses
are mentioned and explained briefly below.
In view of the versatility of this medium it is only possible to
outline a few of the possible applications. The arrangement of
the chapter can not be unambiguous since the criteria for
assessment and differentiation are too varied.
Tensioning and clamping with compressed air is mainly used
in applications involving mechanisation and automation. Pneu-
matic cylinders or motors fix and position the tools needed for
work processes. This can be done by linear and rotary move-
ment, and also by swivel movement. The energy in the com-
pressed air is converted directly into force and movement
through the exertion of pressure. The amount of tensioning
force required must be dispensed with precision.
Conveyance by compressed air is found in mechanisation
and automation. In these applications, motors and cylinders
are used for timed or untimed conveyance, or according to
work processes. Automated storage and receipt also belongs
in this category, as does the turn-around of tools and other
items on longer conveyor belts.
Another variation of pneumatic transport is the conveyance of
bulk material and liquids through pipes. With this method,
granulates, corn, powder and small parts can be quickly and
comfortably conveyed over relatively long distances. The pneu-
matic post concept also belongs in this category.
19
Applications for pneumatics
2.3.4 Spraying with compressed air
2.3.5 Blowing and flushing with
compressed air
2.3.3 Pneumatic drive systems
Fig. 2.4:
Valveless pneumatic hammer
Fig. 2.6:
Air gun with spiral hose
Fig. 2.5:
Arc-type metal spraying system
Pneumatic drive systems are found in all areas of industry
and the crafts. These can perform rotary and linear move-
ments. Linear movement with the aid of cylinders in particular
is seen as a highly economical and rational application. The
utility work is performed by dropping the pressure and chang-
ing the volume of the compressed air.
Pneumatic percussion machinery and tools (e.g., pneumatic
hammers) are of great importance in this category. The en-
ergy in the compressed air is converted into kinetic energy for
a moving piston. Vibrators and jolting devices belong to this
category.
Pneumatic power is also used by a multitude of valves and
slides, tools, adjustment devices, feed systems and vehicles.
With Spraying applications, the energy of the expanding com-
pressed air is used to force materials or liquids through a spray
nozzle. This procedure is used to apply or atomise various
substances.
Surface treatment processes, such as sand and gravel blast-
ing, shot peening and painting with spray-guns belong to this
category. Concrete and mortar are also applied using this
method.
If high temperatures are also used, compressed air can be
utilised for applying liquid metals. Arc-type spraying is an ex-
ample worthy of mention here..
Another application is the atomisation of liquids through spray
nozzles, e.g., for spraying weedkillers and insecticides.
When blowing and flushing the compressed air itself is the
work medium and tool. The flow speed generated by dropping
pressure and/or the expanding volume performs the utility work.
Examples of this type of work are blowing out glass or plastic
bottles, blowing out and cleaning tools and moulds, fixing light
tools for processing or conveyance and flushing out metal chips
and residue. Compressed air in this form can also be used to
let off heat.
20
Applications for pneumatics
2.3.6 Testing and inspection with
compressed air
2.3.7 Using compressed air for process
control
Fig. 2.7:
Reflex nozzle with impulse emitter
Fig. 2.8:
Diagram of a BOGE screw compressor, air-cooled
version with fully-adjustable output control
In pneumatic testing and inspection procedures, the
changes in pressure at the measuring point are used to deter-
mine spacings, weights and changes in shape. This allows
passing articles to be counted, correct positioning to be
checked and the presence of workpieces to be ascertained.
This process is an integral part of many sorting, positioning
and processing systems.
All pneumatic applications must be controlled by some means.
They must receive instructions.
In general this is done by press-switches, direction valves and
so forth. These control mechanisms are in turn actuated in
many different ways, e.g., by mechanical switches, cams, or
by hand. Electrical and magnetic switches are also in wide-
spread use. The results determined by pneumatic process
control systems can be used directly by direction valves or
press-switches.
Pneumatics is of great importance for checking flow processes
with liquids and gases. It is used for the remote control of
valves, slides, and flaps in large industrial installations.
Pneumatics (fluidics) is also used for information processing
and logical switching. These logic plans are comparable with
integrated electronic circuits. They require much more space,
but are characterised by high operating precision in certain
applications. If the demands on the logic elements are not too
high, fluidics can offer an alternative.
21
Applications for pneumatics
2.4 Examples of specialised
applications
The following list will give the reader an idea of the many ap-
plications of compressed air in industry, the crafts and every-
day life. Obviously, it is not possible to list all the possibilities
for pneumatics since new areas appear and old ones become
disused in the course of development and progress. This can
therefore only be an incomplete summary of typical applica-
tions to be found in the various sectors of the economy.
A list of the typical applications in general mechanical engi-
neering has not been included, since pneumatics touches prac-
tically every area, and mentioning all would be beyond the
scope of this manual.
Construction trade
– Drill and demolition hammers ( hand rams )
– Concrete compactors
– Conveyor systems for brickworks and artificial stone
factories
– Conveyor systems for concrete and mortar
Mining
– Rock drilling hammers and carriage systems
– Loading machinery, shuttle and demolition cars
– Pneumatic hammers and chisels
– Ventilation systems
Chemicals industry
– Raw material for oxidation processes
– Process control
– Remote-controlled valves and slides in process circuits
Energy industry
– Inserting and withdrawing reactor rods
– Remote-controlled valves and slides in steam and
coolant circuits
– Ventilation systems for boiler houses
22
Applications for pneumatics
Health system
– Power packs for dentists’ drills
– Air for respiration systems
– Extraction of anaesthetic gases
The crafts
– Staplers and nail guns
– Paint spray-guns
– Drills and screwdrivers
– Angle grinders
Wood processing industry
– Roller adjustment for frame saws
– Drill feed systems
– Frame, glue and veneer presses
– Contact and transport control of wooden boards
– Removal of chips and sawdust from work areas
– Automatic pallet nailing
Steel mills and foundries
– Carbon reduction in steel production
– Jolt squeeze turnover machines
– Bundling machinery for semi-finished products
– Coolants for hot tools and systems
Plastics industry
– Transport of granulate in pipes
– Cutting and welding equipment
– Blowing workpieces from production moulds
– Locking mechanisms for casting moulds
– Shaping and adhesive stations
Agriculture and forestry
– Plant protection and weed control
– Transport of feed and grain to and from silos
– Dispensing equipment
– Ventilation systems in glasshouses
23
Applications for pneumatics
Food and semi-luxury food industry
– Filling equipment for drinks
– Closing and checking devices
– Bulk packing and palleting machinery
– Labelling machines
– Weighing equipment
Paper-processing industry
– Roller adjustment and feed machinery
– Cutting, embossing and pressing machinery
– Monitoring of paper reels
Textiles industry
– Thread detectors
– Clamping and positioning equipment in sewing machines
– Sewing needle and system cooling
– Stacking devices
– Blowing out residual material and dust from sewing
Environmental technology
– Forming oil barriers in the water
– Enriching water with oxygen
– Keeping lock gates free of ice
– Slide actuation in sewage plants
– Increasing pressure in the drinking water supply
– Mammoth pump for submarine applications
Traffic and communications
– Air brakes in HGVs and rail vehicles
– Setting signals, points and barriers
– Road-marking equipment
– Starting aids for large diesel engines
– Blowing out ballast tanks in submarines
24
Compressed air generators
Compressors (compactors)
are engines used for pumping and compressing gases to any
pressure.
Ventilators
are flow machines that pump nearly atmospheric air.
With ventilators only slight changes to density and tempera-
ture occur.
Vacuum pumps
are machines that induct gases and steam in order to create a
vacuum.
3. Compressed air
generators
Dynamic compressors are for instance turbo-compressors, by
which running wheels equipped with blades accelerate the
gas to be compressed. Fixed direction gear on the blades
converts speed energy into pressure energy.
Dynamic compressors are to be preferred for
large quantities of medium and low medium
pressures.
On displacement compressors the compression chamber
closes completely after taking in the air. The volume is re-
duced and the air compressed by force.
Displacement compressors are to be preferred
for small quantities of medium and high me-
dium pressures.
3.1 Compressors ( compactors )
3.1.1 Dynamic compressors
( Turbo-compressors )
3.1.2 Displacement compressors
25
Compressed air generators
displacement compressors Turbo-compressors
Axial compressor Radial compressor
oscillatory rotary
with crank drive
without
crank drive
single-shaft
multiple-
shaft
Rotary vane
compressor
Liquid ring
compressor
Screw
compressor
Roots-
compressor
piston
compressor
Plunger
compressor
Diaphragm
compressor
Crosshead
compressor
Free-piston
compressor
Compressors ( compactors )
3.2 Types of compressor The summary shows the compressors divided according to
their operating principle.
With all compressors, a distinction is drawn between non-oil-
lubricated and oil-lubricated compressors.
Spiral type
compressor
26
Compressed air generators
3.2.1 Standard compressors The table shows the typical areas of work for various standard
types of compressor.
Type Symbol Op. diagram Pressure range Volume flow
[ bar ] [ m
3
/ h ]
Plunger 10 ( 1-stage ) 120
compressor 35 ( 2-stage ) 600
Crosshead 10 ( 1-stage ) 120
compressor 35 ( 2-stage ) 600
Diaphragm low low
compressor
Free piston limited use as
compressor gas generator
Rotary vane 16 4500
compressor
Liquid ring 10
compressor
Screw 22 3000
compressor
Roots 1,6 1200
compressor
Axial- 10 200000
compressor
Radial- 10 200000
compressor
27
Compressed air generators
3.2.2 Piston (reciprocating) compressor Piston compressors draw in air by way of pistons moving up
and down, compress it and then push it out. The processes
control induction and pressure valves.
By arranging several compression stages in series it is possi-
ble to generate various pressures, and differing quantities
of air can be generated by using several cylinders.
Plunger compressor
On plunger compressors, the piston is connected directly to
the crankshaft via the con-rod.
Crosshead compressor
The piston is powered by a piston rod and that by the cross-
head.
Properties of piston compressors:
– Highly efficient.
– High pressures.
Fig. 3.1:
Symbol for piston compressor
Fig. 3.2:
Op. diagram of plunger compressor
Fig. 3.3:
Op. diagram of crosshead compressor
Crosshead
28
Compressed air generators
The piston compressors are differentiated according to the
arrangement of their cylinders:
– Vertical cylinders.
No stress on the piston or piston ring through the weight
of the piston.
Small base area.
– Horizontal cylinders.
Only as multi-cylinder compressor in Boxer construction.
Low forces of gravity. This benefit is only noticeable when
output is greater.
– V-, W- or L-type compressors.
Good mechanical balance.
Low space requirement.
Fig. 3.6:
Crosshead compressors
Horizontal, L-type, V-type, W-type
Fig. 3.4:
V-type plunger compressor
Fig. 3.5:
W-type plunger compressor
29
Compressed air generators
3.2.3 Diaphragm compressors The diaphragm compressor belongs to the family of displace-
ment compressors.
An elastic diaphragm causes the compression. Instead of a
piston moving linear between two end positions, the diaphragm
is moved in non-linear vibrations. The diaphragm is attached
to the side and is moved by a con-rod. The stroke of the con-
rod depends on the elasticity of the diaphragm.
Features:
– Large cylinder diameter.
– Small stroke.
– Economical with low output quantities, low pressures,
and when generating a vacuum.
Fig. 3.7:
Symbol for diaphragm compressor
Fig. 3.8:
Op. diagram of diaphragm compressor
30
Compressed air generators
3.2.4 Free piston compressor The free piston compressor belongs to the family of displace-
ment compressors.
It is a compressor with an integrated two-stroke diesel engine.
Compressed air acts on the raised pistons and pushes them
back inside, thereby starting the compressor. The combustion
air thus compressed in the engine cylinder drives the pistons
apart again upon combustion of the injected fuel. The enclosed
air is compressed. After letting out the necessary scavenging
air the greater part of the compacted air is pushed out through
a pressure holding valve. Any remaining air is pushed back in
by the piston for the new cycle. The induction valves draw in
new air again.
Features:
– Highly efficient.
– Smooth-running.
– Simple principle, but seldom used.
In practice, the piston movements need to be synchro-
nised and extensive control equipment fitted.
a = Pneum. outlet aperture
b = Inlet aperture
c = Fuel injection nozzle
d = Exhaust aperture
Fig. 3.9:
Op. diagram of free piston compressor
a
b b
c
d
31
Compressed air generators
3.2.5 Rotary vane compressor The rotary vane compressor ( lamellar or rotary multi-vane com-
pressor) is one of the rotary displacement compressors.
The housing and rotary pistons moving inside form the cham-
ber for inducting and compressing the medium.
A cylindrical rotor on eccentric bearings turns inside a closed
housing. The rotor ( drum) has radial slots along its entire length.
Inside the slots, slides move in a radial direction.
When the rotor reaches a certain speed, the working slide is
pressed outwards against the inner walls of the housing by
centrifugal force. The compression chamber between the ro-
tor and the housing is divided by slides into individual cells
( work chambers).
As a result of the eccentric arrangement of the rotor, the vol-
ume increases or decreases during a rotation.
The pressure chambers are lubricated by loss lubrication or
oil injection.
By injecting larger quantities of oil into the compression cham-
ber one achieves, in addition to lubrication, a cooling effect
and a sealing of the slides against the inner wall of the hous-
ing. The injected oil can be separated from the compound of
oil and air after compression and directed back to the oil cir-
cuit.
Features:
– Very quiet running.
– Pulse-free and even output of air.
– Low space requirement and easy to service.
– Low efficiency.
– High maintenance costs due to wear on the slides.
Fig. 3.10:
Symbol for rotary vane compressor
Fig. 3.11:
Op. diagram of rotary vane compressor
32
Compressed air generators
3.2.6 Liquid ring compressor The liquid ring compressor belongs to the category of rotary
displacement compressors.
The eccentrically borne shaft in the housing with fixed radial
paddle displaces the sealing liquid during rotation. This forms
the liquid ring that seals the spaces between the paddles
against the housing.
The content of the chamber is changed by the rotation of the
shaft, causing air to be inducted, compressed and transported.
The liquid generally used is water.
Features:
– Oil-free air ( through oil-free transport medium).
– Low sensitivity to soiling and chemicals.
– Liquid disperser required because auxiliary liquid is
forced continually into the pressure chamber.
– Low degree of efficiency.
a = Paddle wheel
b = Housing
c = Inlet aperture
d = Outlet aperture
e = Liquid
Fig. 3.13:
Op. diagram of liquid ring compressor
Fig. 3.12:
Symbol for liquid ring compressor
33
Compressed air generators
3.2.7 Screw compressor
Fig. 3.14:
Symbol of screw compressor
Fig. 3.15:
Op. diagram of screw compressor
The screw compressor is a rotary displacement compressor.
Two parallel rotors with differing profiles work in opposite di-
rections inside a housing.
The intake air is compressed in chambers, which continuously
decrease in size due to the rotation of the rotors until the final
pressure is reached, and is then forced out of the discharge
outlet. The chambers are formed by the casing walls and the
meshing helical gears of the rotors.
Oil-free screw compressors
On screw compressors that seal without oil, and with which
the air in the compression chamber does not come into con-
tact with oil, the two rotors are connected by a synchronised
transmission so that the surface profiles do not touch.
Screw compressors with oil-injection cooling
On screw compressors with oil-injection cooling only the main
rotor is under power. The secondary rotor turns without con-
tact.
Features:
– Small size.
– Continuous air production.
– Low final compression temperature.
( with oil-injection cooling)
Fig. 3.16:
Section through screw compressor stage
34
Compressed air generators
3.2.8 Roots compressor The Roots compressor belongs to the displacement family of
compressors.
Two symmetrically shaped rotary pistons turn in opposite di-
rections inside a cylindrical chamber. They are connected by
a synchronised transmission and operate without contact.
The air to be compressed is directed from the intake side into
the compressor case. It is enclosed in the chamber between
the wing and case. At the moment in which the piston releases
the edge to the pressure side the gas flows into the discharge
outlet and fills the pressure chamber. When the wing turns
further, the content of the transport chamber is pressed out
against the full counter pressure. Constant compression takes
place. The compressor must always work against the full dy-
namic pressure.
Features:
– No wear on the rotary piston, and therefore no lubrication
is required.
– Air contains no oil.
– Sensitive to dust and sand.
Fig. 3.17:
Symbol of Roots compressor
Fig. 3.18:
Op. diagram of Roots compressor
35
Compressed air generators
3.2.9 Axial compressor Axial compressors are flow devices by which the air flows in
alternatingly in an axial direction through a series of rotating
and stationary paddles.
The air is first accelerated and then compressed. The paddle
ducts form randomly expanded channels in which the kinetic
energy generated by circulation of the air delays and is con-
verted into pressure energy.
Features:
– Uniform output.
– No oil content in air.
– Sensitive to changes in load and stress.
– Minimum output quantities required.
Fig. 3.19:
Symbol of turbo-compressor
Fig. 3.20:
Op. diagram of axial compressor
36
Compressed air generators
3.2.10 Radial compressor Radial compressors are flow devices in which the air is di-
rected to the centre of the rotating running wheel.
The air is moved by centrifugal force against the periphery.
The rise in pressure is caused by the accelerated air being
directed through a diffusor before it reaches the next running
wheel. The kinetic energy (speed energy) converts into static
pressure during this process.
Features:
– Uniform output.
– No oil content in air.
– Sensitive to changes in load and stress.
– Minimum output quantities required.
Fig. 3.21:
Symbol of turbo-compressor
Fig. 3.22:
Op. diagram of radial compressor
37
Compressed air generators
Piston compressors operate according to the displacement
principle. The piston intakes air through the intake valve dur-
ing the downwards stroke. It closes at the start of the down-
wards stroke. The air is compressed and forced out of the
pressure valve. The piston is driven by a crank drive with crank-
shaft and conrods.
Piston compressors are available with one and several cylin-
ders, and in one and multiple-stage versions.
Multi-cylinder compressors are used for higher outputs, multi-
stage compressors for higher pressures.
Single stage compression
Compression to the final pressure in one piston stroke.
Two stage compression
The air compressed in the cylinder in the first stage ( low pres-
sure stage ) is cooled in the intermediate cooler and then com-
pressed to the final pressure in the second stage ( high pres-
sure cylinder ).
Single action compressors
One compression action with one rotation of the crankshaft.
Double action compressors
Two compression actions with one rotation of the crankshaft.
Piston speeds
With compression the compression speed or even the motor
speed is of secondary importance. The most important factor
in assessing wear is the piston speed. So a compressor with
a low speed and large stroke can have a high piston speed.
In contrast, compressors with high speeds and a small stroke
can have low piston speeds. The piston speed, measured in
m/s, is extremely low with BOGE piston compressors. This
means minimal wear.
3.3 Piston compressors
3.3.1 General
Fig. 3.23:
BOGE piston compressor
Fig. 3.24:
Principles
Intake Compression
38
Compressed air generators
Suction rate - Output
Stroke volume flow - Volume flow
The suction rate (stroke volume flow) is a calculated size for
piston compressors. It is the product of cylinder capacity, com-
pressor speed (number of strokes ) and the number of intake
cylinders. The stroke volume flow is given in l/min, m
3
/min and
m
3
/h.
The output ( free air delivered FAD ) is measured according to
VDMA Unit Sheet 4362, DIN 1945, ISO 1217 or PN2 CPTC2.
The ratio of output to induction rate is the volumetric efficiency
rate.
Clearance area
The clearance area is a specific dimension located between
the top dead centre of the piston and the bottom edge of the
valve.
The clearance area includes:
– Design tolerances
– Cavities in the valves and valve seats
– Individual design considerations
During the down stroke of the piston the air in the compres-
sion expands to atmospheric pressure. Only at this stage and
during the continued downstroke of the piston is air sucked in
from outside.
The difference between the suction rate and the output oc-
curs because during suction the pressure of the air already
drops in the inlet filter, leakages also occur, the air sucked in
heats up and re-expansion occurs in the compression space.
3.3.2 Suction capacity - output

Suction rate
Suction rate
Volume flow
Output
Fig. 3.25:
Suction rate and free air delivered
Fig. 3.26:
Clearance area
C = Clearance area
S = Stroke
R = Re-expansion
C
R
S
39
Compressed air generators
3.3.3 Cooling Heat is generated in all compression processes. The degree
of heating depends on the final pressure of the compressor.
The higher the final pressure, the higher the compression tem-
perature.
According to safety rules, the final compression temperature
on compressors with oil-lubricated pressure chambers and
single stage compression, a maximum 20 kW motor rating
and maximum 10 bar may be up to 220°C.
With higher pressures and motor ratings a maximum tempera-
ture of 200°C is allowed. With multiple stage compression and
pressures of over 10 bar the maximum final compression tem-
perature is 160°C.
The greatest part of compression heat must therefore be ex-
pelled. High compressed air temperatures can be dangerous
as a small amount of lubrication oil is absorbed into the com-
pressed air during compression, this could be flammable. A
fire in the line or the compressor would be the least danger,
but with higher temperatures the danger of compressed air
explosion is potentially greater because the ratio of oxygen
contained is far greater than atmospheric air.
Each compressor stage therefore has an intercooler and
aftercooler installed in order to cool the compressed air.
The quantity of heat to be removed by cooling depends on the
free air delivered and the pressure. Higher pressure compres-
sors have two, three, or more cylinders. The cylinders are
located in the best position in the air flow of the cooling venti-
lator wherever possible. In order to intensify heat extraction,
the surfaces of the cylinders and cylinder heads are produced
with generous ribbing. However, the intensive cooling and rib-
bing of the compressor is not enough to obtain a minimum
compressed air temperature. The compressed air must also
be cooled by an intercooler between the first and second stages
and an the aftercooler behind the second stage. If this cooling
is not sufficient, multi-stage compression is necessary.
Safety regulation VGB 16 § 9 for oil-lubricated reciprocating
compressors stipulates that the cooling air temperature must
fall to between 60°C and 80°C after the last compression stage.
It is also beneficial for the consumer to have a low compressor
air outlet temperature, because the cooler compressed air con-
tains less moisture. Apart from this, downstream equipment,
such as the compressor receiver and air treatment compo-
nents can be designed for low compressed air temperatures
and thus be purchased at less cost. The air outlet temperature
on air-cooled piston compressors is approx. 10 - 15°C above
ambient temperature, depending on the quality of the com-
pressor.
Fig. 3.27:
Direction of cooling air on a piston compressor
Fig. 3.28:
After-cooler as turbulence lamellar cooler
40
Compressed air generators
– Compression of nearly all technical gases possible
– Economical compression of pressures up to 40 bar
– Can be used as a booster compressor
– Easy control
– Economical start-stop-operation ( no idle running time )
3.3.6 Advantages of reciprocating
piston compressors
Piston compressors are mainly of the air-cooled variety.
Cold air has the advantage that it is almost everywhere in
unlimited quantities.
The cold air is generated by a ventilator. The ventilator forces
the cold air over the intercooler and aftercooler and over the
compressor.
During compression and cooling stage of the compressed air,
condensate forms inside the cooler. Because of the flow speed
of the compressed air, the condensate is taken out of the
aftercooler by the air, and into the pipe network and com-
pressed air tank.
3.3.4 Coolant
Piston compressors are normally controlled by pressure
switches. The pressure switches must be located in a calm
area of the compressed air. This is in the compressed air re-
ceiver, for example, and not in the pipeline between the com-
pressor and the receiver.
The pressure switch stops the compressor at maximum pres-
sure and switches it back on at 20 % below maximum pres-
sure. The actuation is therefore 8 :10 bar and 12 :15 bar.
A smaller differential is not recommended because the com-
pressor will then cycle too often and the wear on the compres-
sor and the motor increases. The cut-in pressure can be low-
ered with the cut-out pressure remaining constant. This has
the advantage that the compressor has longer running times
but longer stationary times too. The cut-in pressure may not
be lower than the minimum pressure of the pneumatic net-
work.
Piston compressors do not continue running (running-on) but
switch off immediately after the maximum pressure is reached
(intermittent operation).
Piston compressors are particularly suitable as peak load ma-
chines. The compressor only switches on when there is an
increased demand for compressed air and switches off with-
out run-on time when the maximum pressure is reached, i.e.,
saving approx. 30 % energy consumption in idling mode.
3.3.5 Control of reciprocating piston
compressors
Fig. 3.29:
Pressure switch
41
Compressed air generators
3.3.7 Components of a piston compressor
Crank case Inlet filter
Safety valve
Pressure
switch
Cooler
Drive motor
Fig. 3.30:
Layout of a piston compressor
Condensate
drain
Compressed
air connection
42
Compressed air generators
In contrast to the piston compressor, the screw compressor is
a relatively new construction. Although the principle was de-
veloped as early as 1878 by Heinrich Krigar in Hannover, the
construction was only perfected after the second world war.
The Swedish company "Svenska Rotor Maskiner" ( SRM) de-
veloped the screw compressor technically to series standard.
Screw compressors operate on the displacement principle.
Two parallel rotors with different profiles work in opposite di-
rections inside a housing.
3.4 Screw compressors
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Compression process The intake air is compressed to final pressure in chambers
which continuously decrease in size through the rotation of
the screw rotors. When the final pressure is reached the air is
forced out through the discharge outlet. The compression
chambers are formed by the casing walls and the meshing
helical profiles of the rotors.
Intake ( 1 )
The air enters through the inlet aperture into the open screw
profiles of the rotors on the intake side.
Compression ( 2 ) + ( 3 )
The air inlet aperture is closed by the continued rotation of the
rotors, the volume reduces and the pressure increases.
Oil is injected during this process.
Discharge ( 4 )
The compression process is completed. The final pressure is
reached and the discharge begins.
Fig. 3.31:
Section through a screw compressor air end
Fig. 3.32:
The compression process in a screw compressor
stage
Suction side
Suction side
Suction side
Suction side
Pressure side
Pressure side
Pressure side
Pressure side
43
Compressed air generators
BOGE screw compressors draw in atmospheric air through
the cyclonic suction filter 1 fitted with a paper microfilter car-
tridge and with soiled filter facility. After passing through the
multi-function suction controller 2 the air enters the compres-
sor stage and is compressed 4. Continuously cooled BOGE
oil is injected 3 into the compressor stage. The oil absorbs and
removes the heat generated during the compression process
which increases in temperature to approx. 85°C. According
to EC machinery guidelines the final maximum compression
temperature may not exceed 110°C.
A large proportion of the oil is separated from the compressed
air in the combined air/oil separation vessel 5. The residual oil
is removed by the spin-on fine oil separator 6, which removes
the residual oil in the compressed air down to only approx.
1-3 mg/m
3
.
The compressed air then passes through a minimum pres-
sure valve 7 into the compressed air aftercooler 9 where it is
cooled down to a temperature of only 8 °C above ambient and
is then directed through the standard BOGE stop valve into
the compressed air system.
The oil in the oil separator is cooled from 85°C to 55°C in the
amply dimensioned oil cooler 8. It then passes through a re-
placeable spin-on oil filter 10. A thermostatic valve 11 in the oil
circuit ensures that the oil temperature is ideal in every oper-
ating phase.
3.4.3 Method of operation
1 = Intake filter with paper microfilter insert
2 = Multifunction suction controller
3 = Oil injection
4 = Compressor air end
5 = Oil separator tank
6 = Spin-on oil separator cartridge
7 = Minimum pressure valve
8 = Oil cooler
9 = Aftercooler parallel to flow of cool air
10 = Oil microfilter
11 = Thermostat valve
12 = Cleaning aperture
4
7
6
1
2
10
9
5
11
8
3
12
Fig. 3.33:
Sectional diagram of a
BOGE S-series screw compressor
44
Compressed air generators
3.4.4 Oil circuit The oil injected into the compressor stage performs the fol-
lowing functions:
– Extraction of compression heat (cooling)
– Sealing the gap between the rotors and their housing
– Lubricating the bearings
1 = Compressed air/oil separator vessel
The oil is separated from the compressed air by reducing the
air flow velocity in the separator vessel in which the oil collects
System pressure forces this oil out of the separator vessel
into the compressor stage.
2 = Thermal bypass valve
The thermal bypass valve directs the oil through the oil cooler
or through a bypass (e.g., in the warm-up stage).The oil is
thus always at its optimum operating temperature.
3 = Oil cooler (air or water)
The oil cooler reduces the oil temperature to optimum condi-
tions prior to injection into the compressor stage.
4 = Oil filter
The oil filter retains impurities from the oil and prevents prob-
lems of contamination in the oil circulation system.
5 = Compressor air end
The oil injected in the compressed air is directed back into the
compressed air/oil vessel, where it is separated by gravita-
tional forces.
6 = Scavenging line
The compressor air end draws any residual oil that has col-
lected in the separator back into the oil circuit via the scaveng-
ing line.
Fig. 3.34:
Components of the oil circuit
4
5 6
2
1
3
45
Compressed air generators
3.4.5 Pneumatic circuit
Fig. 3.35:
Components of the pneumatic circuit
7 8 6
5 4 3
2 1
The air sucked into the compressor air end is compressed to
final pressure by the rotors.
1 = Intake filter
The intake filter cleans the air drawn in by the compressor
stage.
2 = Suction controller
The suction controller opens (operation mode) or closes (idling
mode and stopped) the intake line, depending on the operat-
ing status of the compressor.
3 = Compressor air end
The compressor stage compresses the intake air.
4 = Compressed air/oil vessel
Inside the compressed air/oil vessel the compressed air and
oil are separated by gravity.
5 = Oil separator
The oil separator removes the residual oil from the compressed
air.
6 = Minimum pressure valve MPV
This valve opens only when the system pressure has risen to
3.5 bar, which causes a fast build-up of system pressure and
assures lubrication in the start-up and pressure phase of the
compressor. When the compressor is switched off the mini-
mum pressure valve prevents compressed air from flowing
out of the compressor.
7 = Compressed air aftercooler (air cooled)
The compressed air is cooled in the aftercooler. During this
phase, a large proportion of the moisture in the air condenses
out.
8 = Stop valve
The screw compressor can be isolated from the system via
the stop valve located at the outlet of the compressor.
46
Compressed air generators
– when compressed air is required on a continuous basis
– ideal as a base load machine
– economical with 100 % operating availability
– proportionale control possible
– ideal for use with frequency controller
The oil removes approx 85% of compression heat from screw
compressors with oil injected cooling. When using a heat ex-
changer the heat can be extracted from the oil and used for
utility or water heating.
The water passing through the heat exchanger is heated to
+70°C. The quantity of water heated depends on the tempera-
ture difference.
3.4.6 Heat reclamation
3.4.8 Advantages of screw compressors
Fig. 3.36:
Heat exchanger BOGE-DUOTHERM

Fig. 3.37:
Intake control with ventilation/control valve
The suction controller controls the intake line of the screw
compressor.
– Fully unloaded start-up through closed controllers.
– Seals hermetically on idling, stopped and emergency cut-
out.
3.4.7 Intake control
47
Compressed air generators
3.4.9 Main components of a screw compressor
Fig. 3.38:
Layout of a screw compressor
Intake filter Control panel
Drive motor
Compressor air end
Oil filter
Compressed air/oil
separator vessel
Compressed air/oil
combi-cooler
Oil separator
Suction controller
Cabinet air
inlet filter
48
Compressed air generators
3.5 Components
3.5.1 Drive motor Drive motors are normally AC motors and mainly operate at a
a speed of 3.000 min
-1
. The appropriate compressor speed is
obtained by drive belt transmission.
Normal drive motor supply is TEFV (totally enclosed fan vented)
IP 55 class F insulation.
Fig. 3.39:
Drive motor with belt and tensioner
3.5.2 Drive belts The compressor is driven via drive belt transmission.
Using the BOGE patented GM-drive system on screw com-
pressors, drive belts are practically maintenance-free and have
a calculated design life of up to 25,000 hours, depending on
site conditions.
3.5.3 Belt tensioning Motors on piston compressors are normally located on a slid-
ing plate for belt tensioning. The plate is fitted with a threaded
central spindle which together with parallel guides ensure
accurate alignment of the drive belts across the pulleys.
BOGE screw compressors are equipped with the patented
BOGE-GM-drive system. This take account of different belt
tension forces caused by motor weight, start-up torque and
running torque, and ensures that compressors have constant
belt tension in every operating stage, without the need for
retensioning and alignment on belt change.
Fig. 3.40:
BOGE-GM-drive system
49
Compressed air generators
3.5.4 Inlet and pressure valves The tongue valve controls the inlet and outlet of air in the cyl-
inder chamber of the piston compressor.
BOGE-ferax
®
-tongue valves have fewer components than con-
ventional valves, with friction-free operation, minimal dead
space flow resistance. This means more FAD, higher valve
working life expectancy and practically no carbonised oil de-
posits on the valves, which can be produced by high compres-
sion temperatures.
Fig. 3.41:
BOGE-ferax
®
-Tongue valve
The safety valve must blow off the full output of the compres-
sor at 1.1 times the nominal pressure of the compressed air
tank.
3.5.6 Intake filter Screw compressors draw in atmospheric air through the air
inlet filter inside the compressor cabinet and through the suc-
tion filter with paper microfilter cartridge. The inlet filter sepa-
rates solid impurities such as dust particles from the intake
air, minimising wear in the compressor and providing the cus-
tomer with clean compressed air.
In dusty conditions ( e.g., cement works ) paper insert filters
are used. These have a higher separation rate than standard
wet air or foam filtration.
The filter inserts can be cleaned on larger compressors. There
is a possibility to monitor the intake filter for pressure differen-
tial, allowing soiled filters to be recognised at an early stage.
Fig. 3.43:
Intake filter with paper insert
Dust separator Paper filter insert
Automatic dust extraction
3.5.5 Safety valve
Fig. 3.42:
Safety valve on screw compressor
50
Compressed air generators
3.6 Compressor lubricants
and coolants
Compressor oils are standardised to DIN 51506. No HD (high
density) oils may be used to lubricate compressors. HD oils
tend to emulsify and thus quickly lose their lubricating proper-
ties.
Mineral and synthetic oils are allowed. Mineral oils have a useful
life of around 2.000 to 3.000 operating hours under normal
operating conditions. Synthetic oils can be changed at longer
intervals.
The oil level of the compressor must be checked regularly.
The first oil change is made after the running-in period (approx.
300 to 500 operating hours).
Compressors must not be operated with too little oil. Even a
short trial run without oil (e.g., to check the direction of rota-
tion) can lead to damage.
The oil filter must be cleaned or replaced each time the oil is
changed.
Compressor oils and the condensate from oil-lubricated com-
pressors may not be discharged into the public drains. They
must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable man-
ner. Appropriate oil-water-separators can be used to minimise
disposal costs.
Piston compressors
Synthetic-base oils allow compressor running times of up to
8.000 operating hours.
Screw compressors
The lifetime of mineral oils for screw compressors is typically
about 3.000 operating hours. Synthetic oils can reach a life-
time of up to 9.000 operating hours.
Synthetic oils have a much higher oxidation and ageing sta-
bility than mineral oils. An increased lifetime is the positive
result. Also unwished deposits in the oil circuit are prevented.
Other advantages of synthetic oils are the lower volatility of
synthetic oils, resulting in lower oil carry over and residual oil
content, especially at high temperatures and a better viscos-
ity-temperature-behaviour, ensuring good and stable lubrica-
tion in a wider temperature range.
When compressed air is used in the food or pharmacy indus-
try and accidental contact with the product is possible, USDA-
H1 oils have to be used that fulfil the strict requirements of the
food and drugs industry.
Fir. 3.44:
Oil level check with a dipstick
51
Control of compressors
4. Control of compressors
4.1 Pressure definitions
The aim of control is to minimise energy consumption and
wear and maximise availability.
There are various types of control, depending on the con-
struction type, size and area of application:
– the final pressure ( network pressure ).
– the inlet pressure.
– the generated volume flow.
– the absorbed power of the compressor motor.
– the climatic conditions of compressor humidity after the
compressor stage.
Controlling the final pressure is the most important of all con-
trol tasks.
Network pressure p
N
[ bar
op
]
The network pressure p
N
is the pressure at the compressor
outlet behind the outlet valve. This is the pressure in the pipe-
line network.
The network target pressure p
Ns
[ bar
op
]
The network target pressure p
Ns
is the minimum pressure that
must be available in the network.
System pressure p
S
[ bar
op
]
The system pressure p
S
is the pressure inside a screw com-
pressor up to the minimum pressure non-return valve.
Cut-in pressure p
min
[ bar
op
]
The cut-in pressure p
min
is the pressure below which the com-
pressor will cut-in.
The cut-in pressure p
min
should be at least 0.5 bar above the
network target pressure p
Ns
.
Cut-out pressure p
max
[ bar
op
]
The cut-out pressure p
max
is the pressure above which the
compressor switches off.
The cutout pressure p
max
for piston compressors should be
approx. 20% more than the cut-in pressure ( e.g., cut-in pres-
sure 8 bar, cut-out pressure 10 bar ).
On screw compressors the cut-out pressure p
max
should be
0.5 to 1 bar over the cut-in pressure ( e.g., cut-in pressure
9 bar, cut-out pressure 10 bar ).
52
Control of compressors
4.2 Operating status
4.2.1 Stopped ( L
0
)
4.2.2 Idle ( L
1
)
The operating status is the current operating mode of a com-
pressor. The operating status is the basis for compressor con-
trol.
The compressor is stopped but ready for operation. If com-
pressed air is needed it switches on automatically.
The compressor is running off load and no air is being com-
pressed (Energy used for compression is saved). If compressed
air is needed it switches to operating mode without delay.
Idle operating mode reduces the motor cycles, thus reducing
wear.
Various techniques are used to control the idle mode:
Circulation switching
The intake line is connected directly to the pressure line. High
pressure losses occur and it is essential that a non-return valve
be installed.
Flowback switching
The intake valves of the compressor are open during the com-
pression process. The air does not compress, it flows back to
the intake side.
The flowback method is suitable for start-up relief, because
the first working stroke is already completely relieved.
Intake line closure
A valve closes the intake line of the compressor. The intake
volume is reduced to zero and there is no air available for
compression. The pressure losses are low.
Pressure line closure
A valve closes the pressure line of the compressor. The com-
pressed air can not be emitted. No volume flow can occur.
53
Control of compressors
The output of the compressor is adjusted to the relevant com-
pressed air requirement. The energy consumption falls slightly
if the output is lower. The network pressure p
N
is constant.
There are several methods of varying volume flow. These can
also be combined if necessary:
Speed control
Changing the motor speed also varies the output of the com-
pressor. This occurs mainly with engine-driven compressors.
With electrically-powered compressors speed control is usu-
ally accomplished with the aid of a frequency converter.
The output is economically continuously controlled from
25 - 100%.
Emergency chamber control ( piston compressors only )
By increasing the dead space there is a stronger reverse
expansion of the compressed air. If several emergency cham-
bers are opened one after the other the output can be re-
duced in steps. There are also variations by which an emer-
gency chamber can be continuously expanded.
Flowback control ( piston compressors only )
The output of the compressors is reduced by opening the in-
take valves during the compression stroke. The opening time
of the intake valves determines the amount by which com-
pressed volume flow is reduced.
A part-load control of approx. 25 - 100% of output is possible.
When the intake valve is open for the full compression stroke
the output drops back to zero.
Proportionale regulation
An adjustable throttle in the intake line reduces the intake
volume. When the system pressure drops, the valve opens
accordingly, the compressor takes in more air, and the output
rises. As soon as system pressure becomes constant the throt-
tle valve closes and the compressor operates in idling mode.
The output varies between 0 - 100%. The electrical power
requirement does not fall below 70% during this time.
The compressor delivers its maximum output and consumes
the maximum energy.
4.2.3 Part-load
4.2.4 Operating load ( L
2
)
54
Control of compressors
Compressor control has two objectives:
Energy-saving and minimisation of wear.
To meet these objectives, the 4 operating modes of compres-
sors are combined in various control methods. The method
used depends on marginal conditions.
With intermittent control a pressure switch or pressure trans-
ducer actuates the compressor, depending on network pres-
sure.
The compressor has two operating modes, Operating mode
( L
2
) and Stopped ( L
0
).
This arrangement has the best energy consumption of all types
of control. It is recommended when there is a large compressed
air receiver. A large storage volume also reduces the number
of motor cycles.
– The network pressure p
N
rises to the cut-out pressure p
max
.
The compressor switches to Stopped ( L
0
).
– The network pressure p
N
drops to cut-in pressure p
min
.
The compressor switches Operating mode ( L
2
).
The intermittend control is the typical control of piston com-
pressors.
A pressure switch or pressure transducer switches the com-
pressor to operating load or idle mode depending on network
pressure.
In Idle mode ( L
1
) the drive motor continues to run, but the
compressor does not produce any compressed air. The elec-
trical power demand falls to approx. 30% of the operating mode
requirement.
Continuous operation of the drive minimises the number of
motor cycles, which especially with large motors causes in-
creased wear.
Idle operating mode is used in pneumatic systems with rela-
tively small storage volumes, in order not to exceed the maxi-
mum switch cycles of the drive motor.
– The system pressure p
N
rises to cut-out pressure p
max
.
The compressor switches to idle mode ( L
1
).
– The network pressure p
N
drops to cut-in pressure p
min
.
The compressor switches to operating mode ( L
2
).
4.3 Controlling individual
compressors
4.3.1 Intermittent control
4.3.2 Idle mode control
Fig. 4.2 :
Op. diagram of idle mode control
Behaviour of pressure
Behaviour of electrical intake
Fig. 4.1 :
Op. diagram of cutout control
Behaviour of pressure
Behaviour of electrical intake
55
Control of compressors
A pressure switch or pressure transducer works in conjunc-
tion with a timer and controls the compressor independently
of system pressure.
The compressor goes through the modes of Operating mode
( L
2
), Idle mode ( L
1
) and Stopped ( L
0
). The modes are
linked with each other via the timer t
V
.
The delayed intermittent control combines the benefits of in-
termittent control and idling control. It is a middle path with
lower energy consumption than the idling control method.
The delayed intermittent control operates with two switching
variants:
1st Variant
– The system pressure p
N
rises to cut-out pressure p
max
.
The compressor switches to idle mode ( L
1
).
– The system pressure p
N
has not reached cut-in pressure
p
min
after expiry of the time t
V
.
The compressor switches to stopped ( L
0
).
– System pressure p
N
drops below cut-in pressure p
min
.
The compressor switches to operating mode ( L
2
).
2nd Variant
– The system pressure p
N
rises to cut-out pressure pmax.
The compressor switches to idle mode ( L
1
).
– System pressure p
N
reaches cut-in pressure p
min
before
expiry of the time t
V
.
The compressor switches to operating mode ( L
2
).
There are 2 possibilities to activate the timer t
V
:
1. Switching on the compressors ( p
min
) starts the timer t
V
.
This provides shorter idling times and therefore lower
energy costs as with 2.
2. On reaching the cut-out pressure ( p
max
) the timer t
V
starts.
4.3.3 Delayed intermittent control
Fig. 4.3
Op. diagram of delayed intermittent control
Behaviour of pressure
Behaviour of electrical intake
1. 2.
56
Control of compressors
The volume control of the compressor is adjusted to the re-
spective requirement for compressed air.
The network pressure p
N
is largely constant due to the vari-
able output control. The fluctuations of p
N
vary depending on
the method of part-load control used.
The part-load control method is used with systems with small
storage capacities and/ or heavy consumption fluctuations. The
number of cycles drops.
In addition to the ARS control unit, BOGE offers an optional
proportional regulation for screw compressors with oil in-
jection cooling. This control intervenes in the processes of the
suction control and operates according to the suction throttle
principle. It adapts the FAD to the actual compressed air de-
mand.
The proportional regulation from BOGE is set at the factory to
a production rate of between 50 and 100% of FAD. If FAD
drops to below 50%, the compressor is working uneconomi-
cally. Depending on the switching cycle the compressor either
switches off or continues on idle mode. With this method on-
off-cycles and idling times are minimised and energy is saved.
By adapting the FAD to the actual compressed air demand
a constant net pressure is reached as the delivered volume
corresponds to the air volume taken from the net. The net
pressure can thus be reduced to a lower level and additional
energy can be saved by preventing energy consuming over
pressure. This method of regulating the FAD is cheaper than
the more common frequency control and can be ideally used
in a peak load compressor with low changing air demands to
use the cost saving potential.
4.3.4 Part-load control
4.3.4.1 Proportional regulation
Fig. 4.4
Op. diagram of part-load control
Behaviour of pressure
Behaviour of electrical intake
Fig. 4.5a:
Correlation between FAD and absorbed power
when using proportional regulation
P
o
w
e
r

i
n
t
a
k
e

[
%
]
FAD [ % ]
Uneconomical
zone
Eco-
nomical
zone
Characteristic control line for
Proportional regulation
Ideal
characte-
ristic line
Idling
absorbed
power
57
Control of compressors
4.3.4.2 Frequency control
The frequency control allows for a very large FAD regulation
from 25% up to 100%. Adaptation to differing compressed air
requirements is assured by infinite speed adjustment of the
drive motor which is actuated by a frequency converter with
simultaneous speed adjustment of the compressor air end.
The frequency converter is designed for soft starts and stops
of the drive motor. Even during the switch-on phase, the start-
ing current does not exceed its rated current which, in case of
extreme drive performance, can be of some advantage in the
supply of energy.
If the output falls below 25%, the compressor is working un-
economically. Depending on the switching cycle the compres-
sor either switches off or continues on idle mode. Owing to the
variable adaptation of air delivery, switching operations and
idle mode are widely avoided thus enabling the screw com-
pressor to actually work in continuous operation in the most
efficient manner possible.
Due to frequency converter occasioned losses, the absorbed
power of a frequency controlled compressor is, at full load,
approximately between 3% and 5% higher than that of a non-
controlled compressor. On the other hand, when adjusting the
delivered air quantity by changing the speed of the motor and,
consequently, the speed of the compressor air end, the fre-
quency control serves to almost proportionally reduce the
absorbed power at the same time. The frequency control proves
to be specially advantageous when it comes to smaller flow
rates where the proportional regulation by means of suction
control appears to work in a rather inefficient manner. Taking
into account the two identification lines, it is obvious that at
average flow rates between 100% up to approx. 85% the use
of the proportional regulation is far more economical, whereas
for lower values the frequency control has considerable ad-
vantages. Hence follows that the frequency control is ideally
suited for use even at low flow rates with considerably varying
compressed air demand.
Due to the extensive range of frequency adjustments, it is
possible, even in case of little air consumption, to adapt the air
delivery to the actual demand in compressed air and to al-
most completely avoid switching and idle operation.
Under ideal circumstances the flow rate control can be used
to constantly maintain the net pressure at a 0.1 bar tolerance.
Any excess compression, as is normal with non-controlled
compressors due to the difference between switch-on and
switch-off pressures, can thus be avoided resulting in energy
savings from 6% up to 10% for every 1 bar of high compres-
sion.
Fig. 4.5b:
Correlation between FAD and absorbed power
when using proportional regulation and frequency
control
P
o
w
e
r

i
n
t
a
k
e

[
%
]
FAD [ %]
Characteristic control line for
Proportional regulation
Ideal
characte-
ristic line
Idling
absorbed
power
Characteristic control line
for frequency control
58
Control of compressors
Owing to its continuous and wide ranging volume flow regu-
lation the frequency control is perfectly suited for strongly vary-
ing demands in compressed air consumption with view to both
single compressors and peak load compressors in a com-
pressor system.
Depending on prevailing circumstances, all energy savings
resulting from the use of a frequency control are immense.
Saving potentials can be achieved by elimination of high com-
pression, minimization of idling times and losses due to com-
pressor switch cycles as well as adaptation of the absorbed
power to the actually needed and delivered quantity of com-
pressed air.
Also for the earlier mentioned case of proportional regulation
by using the suction regulator similar saving potentials can be
achieved in cases of lower air flow fluctuations.
59
Control of compressors
BOGE screw-type compressors and supersilenced piston com-
pressors are equipped with the modern ARS-control concept
( Autotronic, Ratiotronic, Supertronic ).
The ARS-control differs in features and control functions.
ARS is an integrated control and monitoring concept with two
objectives:
– Energy-saving and thus a reduction of running costs.
– Extending the lifetime of the compressor by allowing only
as little wear as possible.
The ARS-control on screw compressors uses a microcontroller
to obtain the cheapest intermittent operation while taking into
account the max. permissible motor cycles. Piston compres-
sors only use economical intermittent operation.
All programmed data are stored in an EEPROM storage mod-
ule that can be electronically written to and erased. The stored
information is thus still available in the event of a power failure.
Modular design
The ARS-control comprises standard components that are in-
dividually obtainable. Components can also easily be added
at a later date. The controls can therefore be ideally configured
for the individual requirements of the customer. The controls
can be rapidly replaced in the event of failure, thus increasing
the availability of the compressors. There is therefore no need
for time-consuming and costly examination by specialists.
4.4. The ARS control concept
60
Control of compressors
4.4.1 Autotronic
4.4.2 Ratiotronic
Fig. 4.6 :
The BOGE Autotronic
Fig. 4.7 :
The BOGE Ratiotronic
The Autotronic is an intelligent control and monitoring unit for
screw and piston compressors. It offers:
– Convenient and well arranged operating panel with 7-seg-
ment display with international symbols, all values are dis-
played directly and precise
– Automatic selection of the best operating mode
– Operating hours counter
– Programmable control
– Protection of important program-parameter by code request
– Accurate pressure sensors instead of pressure switches
– Permanent display of actual compression temperature and
pressure
– Digital pressure and temperature display
– Automatic freeze protection for temperatures to –10°C
– Idle mode control for extreme short time rating
– Display of fault and maintenance notifications,
– On-site software update possible
– Optional RS 485 interface
The Ratiotronic is an extension of the Autotronic for screw or
piston compressors. It offers the following additional features:
– Connection to diverse bus systems
– Local or remote operation
– Monitoring of a compressed air preparation component
– Additional system pressure sensor
– Ring buffer for the last 30 faults
– Potential free contacts for fault and maintenance messages
and operating mode.
61
Control of compressors
4.4.3 Supertronic
Fig. 4.8 :
The BOGE Supertronic for screw compressors
The Supertronic is a complex operating and monitoring unit
for screw compressors. In comparison to the other control units
it has comprehensive additional functions:
– Well-arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters (digits)
and clear text.
– Adjustment of network pressure by keyboard.
– Comprehensive display and monitoring of major operating
data.
– Comprehensive compressor monitoring
Malfunction and warning messages shown on the
LCD- display.
– Integrated electronic real-time clock for switching on and
off. Operated via keyboard.
– All operating parameters can be adjusted via the key-
board.
– Access to all functions with a few additional keystrokes.
62
Control of compressors
1.1
For users of compressed air with high, much fluctuating con-
sumption a single, large compressor is not the best solution.
In these cases, a combined compressor system consisting of
several compressors is much the better alternative. Greater
operating reliability and economy are the aguments in favour
of this.
Organisations that are very dependent on compressed air can
guarantee their supply at all times by a combined compressor
system. If one compressor fails or servicing work is neces-
sary, the other compressors continue the supply.
Several small compressors can be adjusted more easily to
compressed air consumption than one large compressor. The
idling costs of a large compressor are moreover higher than
those of small, stand-by compressors. These facts provide the
greater economy.
A combined compressor is operated economically and low on
wear by a master control system.
MCS 1 controls 2 compressors of the same size as basic load
and peak load. The compressors are cyclically changed and
switched on and off via their own pressure switches. The con-
trol unit offers:
– Cyclic change via a timer.
– Time lag cycling of the compressors by the control unit
through pressure graduation.
– Even use of compressors.
– Constant pressure in the pressure range.
– Minimal cycle difference ∆p = 0,8 bar
MCS 2 controls up to 3 compressors of the same size as
basic load, medium load and peak load. The compressors are
cyclically changed and switched on and off via their own pres-
sure switches. The upgrade to 3 compressors and the greater
cycle difference is the only difference to the MCS 1. The fea-
tures are otherwise the same.
– Minimal cycle difference ∆p = 1,1 bar
4.5.1 MCS 1 and MCS 2
Fig. 4.9:
The BOGE Master Control System 2
4.5 Control of several
compressors
Fig. 4.10:
The circuit diagram of the BOGE MCS 2
63
Control of compressors
4.5.2 MCS 3 MCS 3 controls a maximum of 4, 8, or 12 compressors of the
same and/or different size and type in a system. All compres-
sors are controlled by a common pressure sensor on the com-
pressed air receiver.
The MCS 3 has at 0.5 bar a very small cut-in difference. The
individual compressors are not given fixed cut-out and cut-in
pressures. All compressors work in the same pressure range
( ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p = 0.5 bar ). The compressors cut-in dynamically accord-
ing to requirement via set intermediate pressure values. The
speed of pressure rise and fall is measured. The compres-
sors switch on and off dynamically.
The control offers:
– Dynamic pressure control by microcontroller in connec-
tion with electronic pressure controllers for a minimum
cut-in difference of 0.5 bar.
( no over-compression → energy saving )
– Time dependent allotment of compressors in rank
stages for shift operation with differing compressed air
requirement.
– Individual assignment of individual compressors to load
range groups, uniform usage of compressors.
– Adjustable basic load changeover cycle.
– Independent rotation of compressors into the load range
groups.
– Time offset allocation of compressors if demanded by
the control unit.
– Well arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters and
clear text.
– Possibility of checking all inlets and outlets via a test-
menu.
– Automatic reverting to pressure switches of individual
compressors in the event of voltage loss.
– The individual compressors work independently without
the MCS 3. They are then controlled from their own
pressure switches.
Fig. 4.11:
The BOGE Master Control System 3
Fig. 4.12:
Circuit diagram of the BOGE MCS 3
Cut-in
pressure
[bar]
Cycle
difference
Compressors 1-12
64
Control of compressors
MCS 4 controls a maximum of 4 or 8 compressors of the same
and/or different sizes and types in a system. All compressors
are controlled by a common pressure sensor at the com-
pressed air receiver.
The basic load with this control unit is normally covered by the
largest compressor or combination of compressors. The small-
est compressor takes the peak load. Compressors of the same
size change over in providing the basic load.
The MCS 4 computes compressed air consumption continu-
ally from programmed compressor performance data and in-
formation from the pressure sensor. It selects the compressor
that most closely matches the requirement.
The control offers:
– need-oriented use of the various compressors and
compressor combinations.
– ideal use of the benefits of screw and piston compressors.
– minimal cut-in difference of 0.5 bar.
( no over-compression → energy-saving )
– three different pressure profiles per day by a timer
programme to adapt the control to differing compressed
air requirement.
– Time adjusted use of compressors on demand by the
control unit.
– Well-organised LCD-display with 2 x 20 characters and
clear text output.
– Possibility to check all inlets and outlets via a test menu.
– Automatic switchover to pressure switches in the event of
voltage loss.
– The individual compressors operate independently
without the MCS 4. They are then controlled by their own
pressure switches.
– Two potential-free timer contacts for control of additional
components.
4.5.3 MCS 4
Fig. 4.13:
The BOGE Master Control System 4
Fig. 4.14:
Op. diagram of the BOGE MCS 4
Cut-in
pressure
[bar]
Cycle
difference
Compressors 1- 8
65
Control of compressors
4.5.4 MCS 5
Fig. 4.15:
The BOGE Master Control System 5
MCS 5 controls a maximum of 4, 8, or 12 compressors with
infinite output control of the same and/or different size and
construction in a system. All compressors are controlled by a
common pressure sensor on the compressed air receiver. The
peak load compressor controls accordingly the requirement
of compressed air via its infinite output control.
If the compressed air demand drops this compressor switches
off and the medium load compressor takes over via its infinite
output control,dependng on the level of priority.
Up to their use of infinite control the MCS 3 and MCS 5 are
similar.
The control unit offers:
– Adaptation of FAD to the compressed air demand by
infinite output control by the peak load compressor.
– Minimal pressure fluctuations in the pneumatic network.
– Dynamic pressure control by microcontroller in conjunc-
tion with the electronic pressure control for a minimum
cut-in difference of 0.5 bar.
( no over-compression → energy savings )
– Time-independent allocation of compressors in level of
priority for shift operation with differing compressed air
demand.
– Individual allocation of compressors in the load range
groups with even usage of compressors.
– Adjustable basic load change cycle.
– Independent rotation of compressors in the load range
groups.
– Time adjusted use of compressors on demand by the
control unit.
– Well arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters and
clear text output.
– Possibility to check all inlets and outlets via a test menu.
– Automatic change to pressure switches of individual
compressors in the event of voltage loss.
– The individual compressors operate independently
without the MCS 5. They are then controlled by their own
pressure switches.
Fig. 4.16:
Op. diagram for the BOGE MCS 5
Cut-in
pressure
[bar]
Cycle
difference
Compressors 1- 12
66
Control of compressors
4.5.5 MCS 6 MCS 6 Controls a maximum of 4, 8, or 12 compressors with
speed frequency control of the same, and/or different size and
design/type in a system. All compressors in the system are
controlled through a common pressure sensor on the com-
pressed air receiver. The peak load compressor controls the
compressed air demand via its speed frequency control.
When the compressed air demand falls this compressor
switches off and the medium load compressor takes over the
control through its speed frequency control.
Apart from the speed frequency control the MCS 3 and the
MCS 6 systems are similar.
The control system offers:
– Adaptation of the FAD to the compressed air demand
through speed frequency control of the peak load com-
pressor.
– Minimum pressure fluctuations in the pneumatic system.
– Dynamic pressure control by microcontroller in conjunc-
tion with the electronic pressure controller for a minimum
cut-in difference of 0.5 bar.
( no over-compression → energy saving )
– Time-dependent allocation of compressors in priorities
for shift operation with differing compressed air demand.
– Individual allocation of individual compressors in the load
range groups with even work rates among the compres-
sors.
– Adjustable basic load change cycle.
– Independent rotation of compressors in the load range
groups.
– Time adjusted use of compressors on demand by the
control unit.
– Well-arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters
and clear text output.
– Possibility to check all inlets and outlets via a test menu.
– Automatic switchover to the pressure switches of indi-
vidual compressors in the event of power failure.
– The individual compressors work independently without
the MCS 6. They are then controlled by their own pres-
sure switches.
Fig. 4.17:
The BOGE Master Control System 6
Fig. 4.18:
Op. diagram for the BOGE MCS 6
Cut-in
pressure
[bar]
Cycle
difference
Compressors 1- 12
67
Control of compressors
4.5.6 MCS 7 MCS 7 controls, regulates and monitors a complete pneumatic
station with the Siemens-control S 5 ( S7 ) and the operator
terminal OP 15.
The basic features include:
– 8 Compressors.
– 2 Refrigeration compressed air dryers.
– 2 Adsorption dryers.
– 10 Bekomats.
– 2 Potentional-free switch channels for control of additional
devices.
The MCS 7 is available in three versions:
Version 1
Version 1 offers an extended software program of MCS 3. It
uses pressure-dependent control of up to 8 or 12 compres-
sors of the same and/or different size by priorities and timer
programmes.
Version 2
Version 2 offers an extended software program of MCS 5. It
uses pressure-dependent control of up to 8 or 12 compres-
sors of the same and/or different size with infinite output con-
trol.
Version 3
Version 3 offers an extended software program of MCS 6. It
uses pressure-dependent control of up to 8 or 12 compres-
sors of the same and/or different size with speed frequency
control.
In addition to the basic individual software functions the con-
trol offers:
– Recording of the operating status of the compressors
and additional components of the compressor station.
– Storage of operating, warning and malfunction messages.
This makes servicing and repair of the compressor
system much simpler.
– Control and monitoring of the compressed air treatment
components and the pneumatic system.
– BUS-coupling with Profibus ( optional )
This allows connection to a central control facility.
– System visualisation in master control equipment (optional)
Comprehensive information can be obtained about the
entire compressed supply.
Fig. 4.19:
The BOGE Master Control System 7
Fig. 4.20:
Op. diagram for the BOGE MCS 7
Cut-in
pressure
[bar]
Cycle
difference
Compressors 1- 12
68
Compressed air treatment
5. Compressed air treatment
5.1 Why treatment ? Modern production equipment needs compressed air. The
many conditions in which it is used range from untreated blow-
ing air to absolutely dry, oil-free and sterile compressed air.
The impurities in our atmosphere are usually invisible to the
naked eye. But they can seriously impede the reliable opera-
tion of a pneumatic system and consumer devices, and have
an adverse effect on the quality of products.
1 m
3
of atmospheric air contains many impurities such as
– Up to 180 million particles of dirt.
These are between 0.01 and 100 µm in size.
– 5 - 40 g/m³ Water in the form of atmospheric humidity.
– 0.01 to 0.03 mg/m
3
Oil in the form of mineral oil aerosols
and unburnt hydrocarbons
– Traces of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury,
iron.
Compressors draw in atmospheric air and the impurities they
contain and concentrate them many times. At compression
of 10 bar-op ( 10 bar over-pressure = 11 bar absolute ) the con-
centration of impurities rises by 11 times. In 1m
3
compressed
air there will then be up to 2 billion particles of dirt. Lubrication
oil and scuff also passes from the compressor in the com-
pressed air.
Correct treatment of compressed air brings benefits :
– Increased working life of consumer devices.
– Improved and consistent product quality.
– Pneumatic lines free of condensate and rust.
– Fewer malfunctions.
– Pipelines without condensate collectors.
– Lower servicing outlay.
– Lower pressure loss from leakage and flow resistance.
– Lower energy consumption due to lower pressure loss.
Fig. 5.1 :
Concentration of impurities in the air during com-
pression
69
Compressed air treatment
5.1.2 Planing information BOGE recommends the air treatment described on this page
for the various applications of compressed air.
B
O
G
E

s
c
r
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Area of application Quality
of compressed air classes
DIN ISO 8573-1**
General air — — —
Blowing air — — —
Sand blasting — 3 —
Simple varnishing work — 3 —
General works air 5 3 4
Conveyance air 5 3 4
Simple spray painting 5 3 4
Sandblasting with higher
quality requirements 5 3 4
Pneumatic tools 1 1 4
Control air 1 1 4
Process control eqpt. 1 1 4
Spray painting 1 1 4
Conditioning 1 1 4
Fluid elements 1 1 4
Dental laboratories 1 1 4
Photo laboratories 1 1 4
Breathing air 1 1 1-3
Instrument. air 1 1 1-3
Pneumatics 1 1 1-3
Spray painting with higher
quality requirements 1 1 1-3
Surface treatment 1 1 1-3
Medical equipment 1 1 3-4
Conveyance air with higher
quality requirements 1 1 3-4
Food and luxury
food industry 1 1 3-4
Breweries 1 1 1-3
Dairies 1 1 1-3
Pharmaceuticals industry 1 1 1-3
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*) The dust separator is not required under certain circumstances.
**) DIN ISO 8573-1; 1991
70
Compressed air treatment
If the impurities and water from atmospheric air remain in the
compressed air the consequences can be unpleasant. This
applies to the pipeline and the consumer devices, and prod-
ucts can also suffer if the quality of compressed air is poor. In
some applications the use of compressed air without adequate
treatment is dangerous and a health hazard.
Solid matter particles in compressed air
– Wear on pneumatic systems.
Dust and other particles cause scuff. This effect is increased
if the particles combine with lubricating oil or grease to form
a grinding paste.
– Particles that are hazardous to health.
– Chemically aggressive particles.
Oil in the compressed air
– Old and different oil in the pneumatic system.
Resinified oil can reduce pipe diameters and cause block-
ages. This increases flow resistance.
– Oil-free compressed air.
With pneumatic conveyance, oil can stick to the product
being conveyed and thus cause blockages.
In the food and pharmaceutical industries compressed air
must be free of oil for health reasons.
Water in the compressed air
– Corrosion in the pneumatic system.
Rust forms in the pipelines and operating elements and
causes leaks.
– Gaps in lubricant films.
Gaps in lubricant films lead to mechanical defects.
– Formation of electrical elements.
Electrical elements can form when some metals come in
contact with water.
– Formation of ice in the pneumatic network.
In low temperatures water in the network can freeze and
cause frost damage, reduce pipe diameter and block pipes.
5.1.3 Consequences of poor treatment
71
Compressed air treatment
5.1.3 Impurities in the air In our atmosphere there are particles of dirt that are not vis-
ible to the naked eye. This chapter contains a general sum-
mary of the type, size and concentration of these particles.
Concentration of particles Limits Average values
in atmospheric air [ mg/ m
3
] [ mg/ m
3
]
In the country 5 - 50 15
In the town 10 - 100 30
In an industrial area 20 - 500 100
In large factory plants 50 - 900 200
2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68 2 4 68
0,001 0,01 0,1 1,0 10 100 1000 10000
Particle diameter [ µm ]
Fertiliser, ground limestone
Steam, vapour, smoke Dust Mist Spray Drops, grains
Oil vapour
Tabacco smoke Coal dust
Cement dust Soot
Airborne sand
Dried milk Spores
Pollen dust
Flour
Sea-salt grains
Bacteria Viruses
Paint pigment
Sulphurous mist
Water vapour
Gascous molecules
Visually detectable Microscopically detectable Sub-microscopically detectable
72
Compressed air treatment
5.2.1 Atmospheric humidity
M
a
x
i
m
u
m

h
u
m
i
d
i
t
y

h
u
m
a
x


[
g
/
m
3
]
Dew point [ °C ]
5.2 Water in the compressed air
Fig. 5.2 :
Maximum humidity
depending on dew point
There is always a certain amount of moisture in the atmos-
phere. This is known as atmospheric humidity and its content
varies depending on the time and place. At any temperature
a certain volume of air can only contain a maximum quantity
of moisture. However, atmospheric air usually contains less
than this maximum amount.
Maximum humidity hu
max
[ g/m
3
]
Maximum humidity hu
max
( saturation quantity ) means the
maximum quantity of moisture that 1 m³ air can hold at a cer-
tain temperature. The maximum humidity does not depend on
pressure.
Absolute humidity hu [ g/m
3
]
Absolute humidity hu means the actual quantity of moisture
held by 1 m³ air.
Relative humidity ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ [ %]
Relative humidity ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ means the ratio of absolute to maximum
humidity.
hu
ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ = ——— × ×× ×× 100 %
hu
max
ϕ = relative humidity [ %]
hu = absolute humidity [ g/m
3
]
hu
max
= maximale humidity [ g/m
3
]
Since maximum humidity hu
max
depends on the temperature
the relative humidity changes with the temperature, even if
the absolute humidity remains constant. On cooling to dew
point, the relative humidity rises to 100 %.
73
Compressed air treatment
Atmospheric dew point [ °C ]
Atmospheric dew point means the temperature to which
atmospheric air ( 1 bar abs ) can be cooled without precipi-
tation.
The atmospheric dew point is of minor importance for pneu-
matic systems.
Pressure dew point [ °C ]
The pressure dew point means the temperature to which com-
pressed air can be cooled without precipitation of conden-
sate. The pressure dew point depends on the final compres-
sion pressure. If pressure drops, the pressure dew point drops
with it.
5.2.2 Dew points
5.2.3 Air moisture content The following table shows the maximum air humidities at cer-
tain dew points:
+100° 588,208
+99° 569,071
+98° 550,375
+97° 532,125
+96° 514,401
+95° 497,209
+94° 480,394
+93° 464,119
+92° 448,308
+91° 432,885
+90° 417,935
+89° 403,380
+88° 389,225
+87° 375,471
+86° 362,124
+85° 340,186
+84° 336,660
+83° 324,469
+82° 311,616
+81° 301,186
+80° 290,017
+79° 279,278
+78° 268,806
+77° 258,827
+76° 248,840
+75° 239,351
+74° 230,142
+73° 221,212
+72° 212,648
+71° 204,286
+70° 196,213
+69° 188,429
+68° 180,855
+67° 173,575
+66° 166,507
+65° 159,654
+64° 153,103
+63° 146,771
+62° 140,659
+61° 134,684
+60° 129,020
+59° 123,495
+58° 118,199
+57° 113,130
+56° 108,200
+55° 103,453
+54° 98,883
+53° 94,483
+52° 90,247
+51° 86,173
+50° 82,257
+49° 78,491
+48° 74,871
+47° 71,395
+46° 68,056
+45° 64,848
+44° 61,772
+43° 58,820
+42° 55,989
+41° 53,274
+40° 50,672
+39° 48,181
+38° 45,593
+37° 43,508
+36° 41,322
+35° 39,286
+34° 37,229
+33° 35,317
+32° 33,490
+31° 31,744
+30° 30,078
+29° 28,488
+28° 26,970
+27° 25,524
+26° 24,143
+25° 22,830
+24° 21,578
+23° 20,386
+22° 19,252
+21° 18,191
+20° 17,148
+19° 16,172
+18° 15,246
+17° 14,367
+16° 13,531
+15° 12,739
+14° 11,987
+13° 11,276
+12° 10,600
+11° 9,961
+10° 9,356
+9° 8,784
+8° 8,234
+7° 7,732
+6° 7,246
+5° 6,790
+4° 6,359
+3° 5,953
+2° 5,570
+1° 5,209
0° 4,868
-1° 4,487
-2° 4,135
-3° 3,889
-4° 3,513
-5° 3,238
-6° 2,984
-7° 2,751
-8° 2,537
-9° 2,339
-10° 2,156
-11° 1,960
-12° 1,800
-13° 1,650
-14° 1,510
-15° 1,380
-16° 1,270
-17° 1,150
-18° 1,050
-19° 0,960
-20° 0,880
-21° 0,800
-22° 0,730
-23° 0,660
-24° 0,600
-25° 0,550
-26° 0,510
-27° 0,460
-28° 0,410
-29° 0,370
-30° 0,330
-31° 0,301
-32° 0,271
-33° 0,244
-34° 0,220
-35° 0,198
-36° 0,178
-37° 0,160
-38° 0,144
-39° 0,130
-40° 0,117
-41° 0,104
-42° 0,093
-43° 0,083
-44° 0,075
-45° 0,067
-46° 0,060
-47° 0,054
-48° 0,048
-49° 0,043
-50° 0,038
-51° 0,034
-52° 0,030
-53° 0,027
-54° 0,024
-55° 0,021
-56° 0,019
-57° 0,017
-58° 0,015
-59° 0,013
-60° 0,010
-65° 0,00640
-70° 0,00330
-75° 0,00130
-80° 0,00060
-85° 0,00025
-90° 0,00010
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/ m
3
]
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/m
3
]
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/m
3
]
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/m
3
]
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/m
3
]
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/m
3
]
dew max.
point humidity
[ °C ] [ g/m
3
]
74
Compressed air treatment
Air contains water in the form of moisture. Since air can be
compressed and water can not, when air is compressed the
water precipitates in the form of condensate. The maximum
humidity of the air depends on temperature and volume. It
does not depend on quantity.
Atmospheric air can be imagined as a moist sponge. It can
take in a certain amount of water when it is relaxed. But if it is
squeezed, part of the water runs out. Some of the water will
always stay in the sponge regardless of how hard it is squeezed.
Compressed air is very similar.
The following examples illustrate the quantity of condensate
to be expected q
c
when air is compressed. The example as-
sumes a humid Summer day with 35° C and 80 % atmospheric
humidity.
V
1
× ×× ×× hu
max 1
× ×× ×× ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ
1 11 11
V
2
× ×× ×× hu
max 1
× ×× ×× ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ
2 22 22
q
c
= ——————— - ————————
100 100
6,5 × ×× ×× 39,286 × ×× ×× 80 0,59 × ×× ×× 39,286 × × × × × 100
q
c
= ————–———– - ————–————–
100 100
m³ × ×× ×× g/ m³ × ×× ×× % m³ × ×× ×× g/ m³ × × × × × %
q
c
= ———————– - ————————–
% %
q
c
= 181,108 g
q
c
= precipitated condensate [ g ]
V
1
= Volume at 0 bar-op [ m
3
]
V
2
= Volume at 10 bar-op [ m
3
]
hu
max 1
= max. humidity at 35° C [ g/m
3
]
ϕ
1
= relative humidity of V
1
[ %]
ϕ
2
= relative humidity of V
2
[ %]
Because the water that comes out of the compressed air is
the part the air can not store, the humidity ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ of the compressed
air rises to 100 %.
When compressing 6,5 m
3
air to 10 bar pressure, at a con-
stant temperature 181,108 g water will precipitate in the
form of condensate.
5.2.4 Quantity of condensate
during compression
V
1
= 6,5 m
3
V
2
= 0,59 m
3
p
1
= 0 bar-op = 1 bar abs p
2
= 10 bar-op = 11 bar abs
T = 35° C T = 35° C
ϕ
1
= 80 % ϕ
2
= 100 %
hu
max
= 39,286 g/ m
3
q
C
Fig. 5.4 :
Precipitation of condensate during compression
Fig. 5.3 :
A wet sponge being squeezed
75
Compressed air treatment
5.2.5 Example
for calculating quantities of
condensate
Ambient air
p
1
= 1 bar abs
T
1
= 33° C
ϕ
1
= 80 %
hu
max 1
= 35,317 g/m³
q
c2
q
c1
V

1
= 2720 m³/h
Fig. 5.5 :
Condensate precipitation when compressing with a
dryer
Compressor
p
2
= 11,5 bar abs
T
2
= 40° C
ϕ
2
= 100 %
hu
max 2
= 50,672 g/m³
Refrigeration compressed
air dryer
p
3
= 11,5 bar abs
T
3
= 3° C
ϕ
3
= 100 %
hu
max 3
= 5,953 g/m³
V

1
V

2
= ––––– = 236,5 Bm
3
/h
P
2
V

= 236,5 m
3
/h
V

2
= 236,5 Bm
3
/h
An example shows the amount of condensate q
c
that actually
occurs when air is compressed. It is to be noted that the con-
densate occurs at several points of the compressor station
and at different times.
The task here is to calculate the occurrence of condensate on
a screw compressor with an output of V

= 2720 m³/h and a
final compression pressure of p
op
= 10,5 bar. Connected in
series to the compressor are a compressed air tank and a
refrigeration compressed air dryer.
The atmospheric air contains a certain amount of water under
these conditions:
q
w
= V

1
× ×× ×× hu
max 1
× ×× ×× ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ
1
/100
g/h = m³/h × ×× ×× g/m³ × ×× ×× %/%
q
w
= 2720 × ×× ×× 35,317 × ×× ×× 80/100
q
W
= 76849,79 g/h =
^
76,85 l/h
During the compression process, the temperature rises above
the pressure dew point of the compressed air, and therefore
no moisture will precipitate. In the aftercooler of the compres-
sor the compressed air is cooled down to T
2
= 40°C. The first
condensate occurs and is taken with the air into the com-
pressed air receiver. The volume flow calms down and the
droplets of water precipitate. A considerable amount of con-
densate collects there:
q
c1
= q
W
– (

V

2
× ×× ×× hu
max 2
× ×× ×× ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ
2
/100 )
q
c1
= 76849,79 – ( 236,5 × ×× ×× 50,672 × ×× ×× 100/100 )
q
c1
= 64865,86 g/h=
^
64,87 l/h
After this the compressed air is cooled down in the refrigera-
tion compressed air dryer to a temperature corresponding
to a pressure dew point of 3°C. The condensate precipitates
in the dryer and is drained off.
q
c2
= (

V

2
× ×× ×× hu
max 2
) – (

V

2
× ×× ×× hu
max 3
)
q
c2
= ( 236,5 × ×× ×× 50,672 ) – ( 236,5 × ×× ×× 5,953 )
q
c2
= 10576,04 g/h=
^
10,58 l/h
76
Compressed air treatment
In addition to the individual flows of condensate, there is also
the quantity of condensate that needs to be dealt with by the
condensate treatment equipment.
Condensate quantity q
c
= q
c1
+ q
c2
Condensate quantity q
c
= 75441,9g/h
= 75,4 l/h
With 3-shift operation working at 100 % efficiency the com-
pressor is running 24 hrs. per day. This means, with the basic
assumptions unchanged:
Condensate quantity q
cD
= 1810605,6 g/D
= 1810,6 l/D
The following quantity of condensate will then occur in one
year:
Condensate quantity q
cY
= 659060438 g/Y
= 659060 l/Y
The quality of compressed air must always remain the same if
the surrounding conditions are unchanged. i.e., the pres-
sure dew point of the compressed air must be 3°C even on a
humid Summer day with an air temperature of 40°C and 90 %
atmospheric humidity.
FAD V


1
= 2720 m³/h
Inlet pressure p1 = 1 bar abs
Inlet temperature T1 = 40° C
Relative humidity ϕ
1
= 90 %
Pressure dew point T
3
= 2° C
Under these conditions the quality of compressed air remains
constant but the quantity of condensate is much higher.
Condensate quantity q
c
= 122,6 l/h
With 3-shift operation working at 100 % efficiency the com-
pressor is running 24 hrs. per day. This means, with the basic
assumptions unchanged:
Condensate quantity q
cD
= 2943,3 l/D
The following quantity of condensate will then occur in one
year:
Condensate quantity q
cY
= 1071358 l/Y
5.2.6 Quantity of condensate on a
humid Summer day
Fig. 5.6 :
Approx. 8 10 l buckets of condensate precipitate in
24 hours
77
Compressed air treatment
The pressure dew point means the temperature to which the
compressed air can be cooled without condensate precipi-
tating. The pressure dew point depends on the final compres-
sion pressure. If the pressure drops, the pressure dew point
drops with it.
The following diagrams are used to determine the pressure
dew point of the compressed air after compression:
5.2.7 Determining the pressure
dew point
Example 1
Intake air
– relative atmospheric humidity ϕ = 70 %
– inlet temperature T = 35°C
Compressed air
– Final compression pressure p
abs
= 8 bar
⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ The pressure dew point is approx. 73°C
Example 2
Intake air
– relative atmospheric humidity ϕ = 80 %
– inlet temperature T = 35°C
Compressed air
– Final compression pressure p
abs
= 10 bar
⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ The pressure dew point is approx. 82°C
Relative humidity ϕ [ %] Pressure dew point [ °C ]
I
n
l
e
t

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Example2
Example1
F
i
n
a
l

c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
78
Compressed air treatment
5.2.8 Pressure dew point after removal
of pressure
When compressed air relaxes (pressure released) the pres-
sure dew point drops. The following table is used to determine
the new pressure dew point and atmospheric dew point after
relaxation:
Example 1
Compressed air
– p
abs
= 35 bar air pressure
– Pressure dew point 10°C
relaxed compressed air
– p
abs
= 4 bar air pressure
⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ The new pressure dew point is approx. –22°C
Example 2
Compressed air
– p
abs
= 7 bar air pressure
– Pressure dew point 20°C
relaxed compressed air
– atmospheric air pressure p
abs
= 1 bar
⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ The atmospheric dew point is approx. –8°C
Atmospheric dew point [ °C ]
max. humidity [ g/m
3
]
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

d
e
w

p
o
i
n
t

[
°
C
]
Example1
O
v
e
r
p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

p
o
p

[
b
a
r
-
o
p
]
Example 2
79
Compressed air treatment
The quality classes for compressed air defined in DIN ISO
8573-1 make it easier for the user to set his requirements and
choose the equipment he needs to treat the air. The norm is
based on maker’s specifications giving defined limits for their
equipment and machinery pertaining to purity of compressed
air.
The DIN ISO 8573-1 norm defines quality classes for com-
pressed air according to:
Oil content
Definition of the residual quantity of aerosols and hydrocar-
bons contained in the compressed air.
Particle size and density
Definition of the size and concentration of solid matter parti-
cles that may remain in the compressed air.
Pressure dew point
Definition of the temperature to which the compressed air
can be cooled without condensation of the moisture it con-
tains. The pressure dew point changes with the air pressure.
5.3.1 Quality classes defined in
DIN ISO 8573-1
5.3 Compressed air quality
80
Compressed air treatment
5.4 Methods of drying The summary presents the methods of drying compressed
air according to their principle of operation. A distinction is
always made between condensation, sorption and diffusion.
Condensation is the separation of water by going below the
dew point.
Sorption is drying by removal of moisture.
Diffusion is drying by molecular transfer.
Process of drying compressed air
Condensation
Refrigeration drying
High pressure
Absorption
Solid dryers
Soluble dryers
Liquid dryers
Heatless regeneration
Int. heat regeneration
Ext. heat regeneration
Vacuum regeneration
Sorption
Adsorption
Diffusion Membrane drying
81
Compressed air treatment
5.4.1 Operating conditions The through-flow rate of a dryer refers to the intake rate of
air during compression by a compressor according to PN2
CPTC2, ISO 1217 ( DIN 1945 Part 1 ).
– Intake pressure p = 0 bar
op
=
^
1 bar
abs
– Intake temperature T
0
= 293 K =
^
20° C
Drying equipment is designed according to DIN ISO 7183 for
certain operating conditions. The performance data given for
the equipment is only correct under these conditions:
– Operating pressure p = 7 bar
op
=
^
8 bar
abs
– Ambient temperature t
A
= 298 K =
^
25° C
– Entry temperature t
En
= 308 K =
^
35° C
If a dryer is used under different operating conditions, appro-
priate conversion factors must be taken into account. These
factors differ in the various drying processes.
Example for the layout of a refrigeration compressed air
dryer
Conversion factors for operating conditions and ambient tem-
perature:
A BOGE refrigeration compressed air dryer, model D8, has a
through-flow rate R of 45 m
3
/h. It is operated at an average
ambient temperature of t
A
= 40° C and an operating pressure
of p = 10 bar
op
.
Op. pressure p [ bar
op
] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16
Factor f 0,62 0,72 0,81 0,89 0,94 1 1,04 1,06 1,09 1,1 1,12 1,15 1,17
Ambient temperature t
A
[ °C ] 25 30 35 40 43
Factor t 1,00 0,92 0,85 0,79 0,75
R = 45 m
3
/h
p = 10 bar
op
⇒ f = 1,09
t
A
= 40° C ⇒ t = 0,79
R
Ad
= Adjusted through-flow rate [ m
3
/h ]
R = Through-flow rate [ m
3
/h ]
f = Conversion factor for p = 10 bar
op
t = Conversion factor for t
A
= 40° C
With changed operating conditions the dryer has through-flow
rate of 38,75 m
3
/h.
R
Ad
= R × ×× ×× f × ×× ×× t
R
Ad
= 45 m
3
/h × ×× ×× 1,09 × ×× ×× 0,79
R
Ad
= 38,75 m
3
/h
82
Compressed air treatment
5.4.2 Condensation
by high pressure
The air is compressed far beyond the necessary pressure,
and afterwards cooled and reduced to operating pressure.
Operating principle
With rising pressure and thus reduced volume the air is able
to hold less water. During pre-compression at high pressure
a large amount of condensate precipitates. The absolute
humidity of the air goes down. If the compressed air is now
relaxed, the relative humidity drops and with it the dew point.
Example:
Compressed air is pre-compressed to 36 bar. The dew point
is 10°C. The condensate precipitates. After reducing to 4 bar
the compressed air has a new pressure dew point of approx.
– 18°C.
Features
– Simple process with continuous volume flow.
– No expensive refrigeration and drying equipment.
– Only economical for small output quantities.
– Very high energy consumption.
m
K
p = 1 bar p = 36 bar p = 4 bar
Fig. 5.7 :
Over-compression with subsequent relaxation
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
approx.
– 70°C
Volume
flow
[ m
3
/h ]
Depends on
compressor
Entry
temperature
[ °C ]

Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
Depends on
compressor
83
Compressed air treatment
Dry compressed air
Moist compressed air
Fig. 5.8 :
Op. diagram of a refrigeration compressed air dryer
1 = Air/Air heat exchanger
2 = Air/refrigerant heat exchanger
3 = Refrigerant/air heat exchanger
4 = Condensate drain
5 = Refrigerant compressor
6 = Vapour outlet
5.4.3 Condensation
by refrigeration drying
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
to –2°C
Through-
flow rate
[m
3
/h ]
11-35000
Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
to +50°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
to 210
When the temperature falls, air loses its ability to hold water.
To reduce the moisture content, compressed air can be cooled
down in a refrigeration dryer.
Refrigeration drying is a process by which compressed air is
cooled down by a dryer in a heat exchanger. The moisture
contained in the air precipitates in the form of condensate.
The quantity of condensate that precipitates rises with the
difference between the entry and exit temperature of the com-
pressed air.
Operating principle
Refrigeration drying runs in two phases. This is done to im-
prove effectiveness and to obtain maximum use of the refrig-
erant.
1st Phase
Inside an air/air heat exchanger the compressed air already
cooled by the refrigeration dryer cools new air flowing in. 70 %
of the moisture contained in the air precipitates here in the
form of condensate.
2nd Phase
The compressed air flows through a refrigerant/air heat ex-
changer and cools down almost to freezing point. The precipi-
tated condensate is directed off before re-heating in the first
cooling phase.
Features:
– Highly economical.
Refrigeration drying is the most economical process in
approx. 90 % of all applications.
– Separation of impurities.
Almost 100 % of all solid particles and water droplets
larger than 3 µm are separated.
– Lower pressure loss in the dryer.
The pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p from the dryer is approx. 0,2 bar.
3
2
1
4
4 6
5
84
Compressed air treatment
The principle of the membrane dryer is based on the fact that
water penetrates a specially coated hollow fibre 20000 times
faster than air.
The membrane dryer consists of a bundle of thousands of
coated hollow fibre membranes. These hollow fibres are made
of a solid, temperature and pressure-resistant plastic. Their
inside surface is coated with an ultra-thin (less than the length
of a light wave) coating of a second plastic. The hollow fibres
( membranes ) are installed in a pipe where the inner channel
of the fibres is open at the end.
Operating principle
The moist compressed air flows through the inside of the hol-
low fibres ( internal flow ). The moisture contained in the air
penetrates through the layer of coating on the hollow fibres
towards the outside. To do this a concentration gradient of
moisture is required between the inside and outside of the
hollow fibres.
A quantity of air for flushing is taken from the main volume
flow of the compressors and relaxed (decompressed). Since
the maximum air humidity depends on volume, the relative air
humidity drops. The flushing air becomes very dry. The flush-
ing air flows around the hollow fibres and provides the neces-
sary concentration gradient of moisture. The flushing air can
escape unfiltered into the open and is lost for the system. No
liquid water is created with this method. The water is removed
in vapour form.
Features
– Low level of particles in the air.
A filter must always be connected upstream of the mem-
brane dryer, in order to filter out particles up to a size of
0.01 µm. If installed directly downstream of the compres-
sor, the filter should be connected to dust separator.
– Low pressure loss in the dryer.
The pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p from the dryer is max. 0.2 bar.
– Compact construction.
The dryer can be installed as a component of the pipeline.
– No servicing.
There are no moving parts in the dryer.
– No precipitation of condensate during drying
– No additional energy costs.
– Silent.
– No fluorocarbons.
– No moving parts.
– No motor.
5.4.4 Diffusion
by membrane drying
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
0 to – 20°C
Through-
flow rate
[ m
3
/h ]
11 - 130
Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
2° to 60°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
5 -12,5
Moist air
Dry air
Moist
flushing air
Inside flow
Dry
flushing air
Fig. 5.9 :
The principle of a membrane dryer
Water
vapour
85
Compressed air treatment
5.4.5 Sorption by Absorption With absorption drying the moisture is separated by a chemi-
cal reaction with a hygroscopic drying agent. Since the ab-
sorption properties of the drying agent diminish over time,
periodic renewal is necessary.
There are 3 different types of drying agent. The soluble agents
liquify with increased absorption. The solid and liquid agents
react with the moisture without changing their aggregate sta-
tus.
Operating principle
During absorption the compressed air flows upwards through
a drying middle bed. During this it gives up some of its mois-
ture to the drying agent. A drain directs the condensate to a
floor tank. The pressure dew point is lowered by 8 – 12 %.
Example
Compressed air enters a dryer operating with calcium chlo-
ride at a temperature of + 30°C. The pressure dew point
achieved here is between 18 and 22°C.
Features
– Low entry temperature.
High temperatures soften the drying agent and bake it
together.
– Very corrosive drying agents.
The dried compressed air can take drying agent with it
into the pneumatic system. This can cause considerable
damage.
– No input of outside energy.
Due to its properties, absorption drying has only become
established in fringe applications of pneumatic engineering.
One example of this is its use for compressed treatment air in
laboratories.
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
Depends on
entry
temperature
Through-
flow rate
[ m
3
/h ]

Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
to 30°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]

Drying agent
Solid Soluble Liquid
Dehydrated Lithium chloride Sulphuric acid
chalk
oversour Calcium chloride Phosphoric acid
magnesium salt
Glycerine
Triethylene glycol
Fig. 5.10 :
Absorption dryer with solid drying agent
1 = Screen
2 = Solid drying agent
3 = Cover
4 = Condensate drain
1
1
2
3
4
86
Compressed air treatment
5.4.6 Sorption by Adsorption Drying compressed air by adsorption is a purely physical proc-
ess. The moisture is bound to the drying agent by force of
adhesion ( unbalanced molecular attraction ). The moisture stays
on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption material with-
out a chemical reaction taking place.
The adsorption material has an open porous structure and a
large inner surface. The most common adsorption materials
are aluminium oxide, silicagel, active carbon and molecular
screens. Different adsorption materials are used for the vari-
ous regeneration processes.
Adsorption material Properties of Adsorption material *)
Obtainable Entry Regeneration Surface
press. dew point temperature temperature
[ °C ] [ °C ] [ °C ] [ m2/g ]
Silicagel ( SiO
2
), raw – 50 + 50 120 - 180 500 - 800
Silicagel ( SiO
2
), spherical – 50 + 50 120 - 180 200 - 300
Activated – 60 + 40 175 - 315 230 - 380
Aluminium oxide ( Al
2
O
3
)
Molecular screens – 90 + 140 200 - 350 750 - 800
( Na, AlO
2
, SiO
2
)
*) The properties of the adsorption material change with the pressure and temperature of the gas to be dried
A
B
Operating principle
During the drying process the moist compressed air flows
through an adsorption tank. The moisture is bound, which dries
the compressed air. This process generates heat. The adsorp-
tion material must be regenerated when the adhesive forces
are balanced by water deposits. This means that the water
must be removed from the adsorption material. For this rea-
son there must be two parallel drying tanks with continual
operation. The active tank A dries the compressed air, while
the inactive tank B regenerates without pressure.
The following processes are mainly used to regenerate the
adsorption material:
– heatless regeneration
– internal hot regeneration
– external hot regeneration
– vacuum regeneration
87
Compressed air treatment
With heatless regeneration the drying and regeneration time
is around 5 min. For this reason the moisture only deposits on
the outer surface of the drying agent.
Cold regeneration adsorption dryers operate according to the
pressure alternation process. With this method the desorption
( regeneration ) takes place without additional input of heat.
A part of the dried volume flow is branched off. This part-flow
relaxes to a pressure of just over 1 bar and is thus extremely
dry. This dry air then flows through the regeneration drying
tank B. In this process it takes on the moisture stored in the
drying agent and directs it out into the open through an outlet
valve.
Features
– Economical on smaller systems with low volume
flows.
– Simple dryer construction.
– Can be used at high ambient temperatures.
– Low volume of drying agent.
Drying and regeneration times approx. 5 min.
– High operating costs.
The regeneration air is taken from the pneumatic system
and can not be used further.
– Regeneration without outside energy.
– The percentage ratio of regeneration air to the output
of the compressor falls with a higher final compression
pressure.
These values are physically fixed and it is not possible to
go below them. They are taken from the correlation be-
tween air moisture and compressed air pressure relief.
Specific calculations for the regeneration air demand have
– Prefiltration of intake air.
A prefilter removes most of the oil, water droplets and par-
ticles of dirt.
– Postfiltration of dried compressed air.
Drying material taken with the compressed air from the
drying tank must be filtered out.
Fig. 5.11 :
Adsorption material after 5 min. drying time
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
to – 70°C
Through-
flow rate
[ m³/h ]
4 - 5600
Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
to + 60°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
4 - 16
5.4.6.1 Heatless regeneration
Fig. 5.12 :
Op. diagram of an adsorption dryer,
cold regeneration
1 = Valve block
2 = Non-return valve
3 = Perforated cover
4 = Outlet valve
5 = Pre-filter
6 = After-filter
Final comp. Ratio of regeneration air [ %]
pressure Press. dew point Press. dew point
[ bar
abs
] –25° to –40°C –40° to –100°C
5 25,83 27,14
7 17,22 18,1
10 11,49 12,07
15 7,39 7,77
20 5,46 5,47
Dry compressed air
Moist compressed air
Regeneration
air
A
4 1
2 3 2
B
5
6
to be done for every application.
88
Compressed air treatment
With heat regeneration the drying and regeneration times are
around 6 - 8 hrs. During the long drying time the moisture
deposits on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption
material. To reverse this process heat must be brought from
outside. If the regeneration temperature of the drying material
is exceeded by heat from outside, the surface energies that
occur outweigh the adhesive forces in the drying material and
the water evaporates. A small flow of regeneration air drains
off the moisture.
The regeneration temperature depends on the pressure dew
point of the regeneration air. The lower it is, the lower the
regeneration temperature of the dryer.
With internal regeneration the heat is transmitted directly
from a heater in the drying tank to the adsorption material.
This happens in two phases:
1st Phase
Drying tank B is slowly heated by the internal heating to the
necessary regeneration temperature. If the regeneration tem-
perature is exceeded, the moisture releases itself from the
adsorption material. Approx. 2 - 3 % of the dried flow of com-
pressed air from the compressor relaxes and at slight pres-
sure is directed through a diversion line through drying tank B.
This flow of regeneration air absorbs the moisture and directs
it out into the open through an outlet valve.
2nd Phase
In a cooling phase the operating pressure drops back to the
temperature of the drying bed. A second diversion line opens
for this purpose. Approx. 5 % of the compressor FAD is directed
through drying tank B. The internal heating is no longer oper-
ating at this point.
Features
– Economical with high volume flows.
– Simple dryer construction.
– Little dried compressed air is required to regenerate the
dryer.
– Prefiltration of intake air.
A pre-filter removes most of the oil, water droplets and
dirt particles from the compressed air.
– Postfiltration of dried compressed air.
Drying materials taken with the compressed air from the
drying tank must be filtered out of the compressed air.
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
to – 40°C
Through-
flow rate
[ m
3
/h ]
200 - 5600
Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
to + 50°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
2 - 16
Fig. 5.13 :
Adsorption material after 6 - 8 hrs drying time
1 = Valve block
2 = Non-return valve
3 = Diversion line with perf. cover 1st Phase
4 = Diversion line with perf. cover 2nd Phase
5 = Heating
6 = Stop valve
7 = Outlet valve
8 = Prefilter
9 = After-filter
Fig. 5.14 :
Op. diagram of an adsorption dryer,
internal hot regeneration
Dry compressed air
B A
Regeneration
air
Moist compressed air
1
6
7
5
2
3
4
5.4.6.2 Internal heat regeneration
8
9
89
Compressed air treatment
Dry compressed air
B A
Regeneration
air
1 6
7
1 = Bottom valve block
2 = Top valve block
3 = Diversion line with perf. cover 3rd Phase
4 = Heating register
5 = Fan
6 = Stop valve
7 = Non-return valve
8 = Prefilter
9 = After-filter
Moist compressed air
5
2 3
4
Fig. 5.16 :
Op. diagram of an adsorption dryer,
external hot regeneration
8
9
With heat regeneration the drying and regeneration times are
around 6 - 8 hrs. During the long drying time the moisture
deposits on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption
material. To reverse this process heat must be brought from
outside. If the regeneration temperature of the drying material
is exceeded by heat from outside, the surface energies that
occur outweigh the adhesive forces in the drying material and
the water evaporates. A small flow of regeneration air drains
off the moisture.
The regeneration temperature depends on the pressure dew
point of the regeneration air. The lower it is, the lower the
regeneration temperature of the dryer.
With external regeneration air is drawn in from the atmos-
phere by a fan and heated in a heating register. This happens
in three phases:
1st Phase
The drying tank B is slowly heated to the necessary rege-
neration temperature by the flow of hot air. Once the rege-
neration temperature is reached, the water releases itself from
the Adsorption material. The fan continues to supply hot rege-
neration air through drying tank B. This flow of regeneration
air takes on the moisture and transports it into the open through
an outlet valve.
2nd Phase
In a cooling phase the operating temperature drops back to
the temperature of drying tank B. For this purpose the heating
register of the fan is switched off and cold air from the atmos-
phere is directed through the drying tank.
3rd Phase
At the end of cooling, dry, relaxed compressed air flows from
the compressor and through the drying tank, in order that the
atmospheric does not bring moisture back into the dryer.
Features
– Economical with high volume flows
– Higher regeneration temperatures allow a lower pressure
dew point.
– Low additional consumption of compressed air.
Only a small part of the regeneration air is taken from
the pneumatic system.
– Prefiltration of inlet air.
A pre-filter removes most of the oil, water droplets and
dirt particles from the compressed air.
– Postfiltration of dried compressed air.
Drying materials taken with the compressed air from the
drying tank must be filtered out of the compressed air.
Fig. 5.15 :
Adsorption material after 6 - 8 hrs drying time
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
to – 40°C
Though
flow rate
[ m
3
/h ]
500 - 15000
Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
to + 50°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
2 - 16
5.4.6.3 External heat regeneration
90
Compressed air treatment
Vacuum regeneration is a variation of external hot regeneration.
As with hot regeneration the drying and regeneration times
are around 6 - 8 hrs. During the long drying time the moisture
deposits on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption
material. To reverse this process heat must be brought from
outside. If the regeneration temperature of the drying material
is exceeded by heat from outside, the surface energies that
occur outweigh the adhesive forces in the drying material and
the water evaporates. A small flow of regeneration air drains
off the moisture.
The regeneration temperature depends on the pressure dew
point of the regeneration air. The lower it is, the lower the
regeneration temperature of the dryer.
With vacuum regeneration atmospheric air is drawn with a
partial vacuum into the drying tank. This flow of air heats
externally. Vacuum regeneration occurs in two phases.
1st Phase
A vacuum pump draws in air from the outside. This flow of air
is heated by a heating register and drawn through the drying
tank. Once the regeneration temperature is reached, the wa-
ter releases itself from the Adsorption material. The flow of
regeneration air takes on the moisture and transports it into
the open through an outlet valve.
2nd Phase
In a cooling phase the operating temperature drops back to
the temperature of the drying tank. For this purpose the heat-
ing register is switched off and cold air from the atmosphere is
directed through the drying tank.
Features
– Economical with high volume flows
– No additional compressed air consumption.
No compressed air is taken from the system for regen-
eration.
– Long utility time of drying agent.
Thermal stress on the drying agent is low.
– Energy savings through lower regeneration temperature.
– Prefiltration of inlet air.
A pre-filter removes most of the oil, water droplets and
dirt particles from the compressed air.
– Postfiltration of dried compressed air.
Drying materials taken with the compressed air from the
drying tank must be filtered out of the compressed air.
Fig. 5.17 :
Adsorption material after 6 - 8 hrs drying time
Pressure
dew point
[ °C ]
to – 80°C
Through-
flow rate
[ m
3
/h ]
400 - 7400
Entry tem-
perature
[ °C ]
to + 40°C
Operating
pressure
[ bar
op
]
4 - 16 bar
1 = Bottom valve block
2 = Top valve block
3 = Non-return valve
4 = Heating register
5 = Fan
6 = Silencer
7 = Prefilter
8 = After-filter
Fig. 5.18 :
Op. diagram of an adsorption dryer,
Vacuum regeneration
5.4.6.4 Vacuum regeneration
Dry compressed air
B A
Regeneration
air
1
6
Moist compressed air
5
2 3
4
7
8
91
Compressed air treatment
5.4.7 Arrangement of the refrigeration
compressed air dryer
There are two basic possibilities for arranging a refrigeration
compressed air dryer in a compressor station. It can either
be installed before or after the compressed air receiver. No
general decision on this matter is possible because there are
advantages and disadvantages with both constellations.
Advantages:
– Dried air in the compressed air receiver.
No precipitation of condensate in the compressed air
receiver.
– Consistent compressed air quality.
Even with abrupt, heavy withdrawal of compressed air
the pressure dew point of the compressed air remains
unchanged.
Disadvantages:
– Large size dryer.
The dryer must be designed for the entire effective output
of installed compressor. The dryer is often over-dimen-
sioned if consumption is low.
– Drying of pulsating compressed air.
As a result of their construction, piston compressors in
particular deliver a pulsating flow of air. This puts stress
on the dryer.
– High entry temperature of compressed air.
The compressed air comes directly from the after-cooler
of the compressor.
– Drying of a partial air flow is not possible.
– Large quantity of condensate.
The entire quantity of condensate precipitates in the dryer.
– With systems containing several compressors, each
compressor must have a dryer connected.
Conclusion
Installing a dryer before the compressed air receiver can sel-
dom be recommended. However, an arrangement of this type
makes good sense when sudden peaks of requirement are
anticipated and the quality of the compressed air must not
deteriorate.
Fig. 5.19 :
Dryer before the compressed air receiver
5.4.7.1 Dryer before the compressed air
receiver
92
Compressed air treatment
Advantages:
– Favourable dryer size.
The dryer can be sized according to the actual consump-
tion of compressed air, or for a partial flow of compressed
air that needs to be dried.
– Drying of a non-turbulent volume flow.
– Low compressed air entry temperature.
The compressed air has the opportunity to cool down
further in the compressed air receiver.
– Low quantities of condensate.
The droplets of condensate collect in the compressed air
receiver and do not burden the rest of the system.
Disadvantages:
– Condensate in the compressed air receiver.
Moisture in the compressed air receiver leads to corrosion.
– Overload of the Dryer.
The dryer is overloaded if there is any abrupt, heavy
withdrawal of compressed air. The pressure dew point of
the compressed air rises.
Conclusion
In most cases, BOGE recommends installing the dryer be-
hind the compressed air receiver. The argument of economy
is in favour of it. A smaller dryer can normally be chosen. Its
efficiency rate is better.
Fig. 5.20 :
Dryer behind the compressed air receiver
5.4.7.2 Dryer behind the compressed air
receiver
93
Compressed air processing
5.5 Compressed air filters
5.5.1 Basic terminology of filters To assess and operate filters it is first necessary to define and
explain certain sizes and factors.
The filter separation rate η ηη ηη gives the difference in concen-
tration of impurities before and after the filter. It is also called
the efficiency rate. The filter separation rate η ηη ηη is a measure of
the efficiency of the filter. The minimum grain size [ µm ] that
the filter can separate must always be specified.
C
1
= Concentration of impurities before the fil-
ter.
C
2
= Concentration of impurities after the filter.
η = Filter separation rate [ %]
The concentration is usually measured in proportion of weight
per unit of volume [ g/m
3
] of compressed air. With weaker con-
centrations, the concentration is usually defined by counting
the particles per unit of volume [ Z/cm
3
]. The particles per unit
of volume method is nearly always used to measure the effi-
ciency of high-performance filters. Measuring the weight pro-
portion per unit of volume with sufficient accuracy would in-
volve a disproportionate amount of effort.
Example
Compressed air contains an impurity particle concentration of
C
1
= 30 mg/m
3
prior to filtering. The purified air after the filter
still has an impurity particle concentration of C
2
= 0,003 mg/
m
3
with particle sizes over 3 µm.
The filter has a separation rate in per cent of 99,99 % relative
to 3 µm.
   C
2
  
η ηη ηη = 100 –    ——– × ×× ×× 100   
   C
1
  
unfiltered
compressed
air ( C
1
)
Purified
air (C
2
)
Fig. 5.21 :
BOGE Pre-filter, series V
η = 99,99 % relevant to 3 µm
   0,003   
η ηη ηη = 100 –    ——–– × ×× ×× 100   
   30   
η ηη ηη = 99,99 %
5.5.1.1 Filter separation rate η ηη ηη [ %]
94
Compressed air processing
The pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is the difference in pressure before and
after the filter caused by flow. The pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in the
filter grows with time as particles of dust and dirt are collected
in the filter element.
– ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p
0
is the pressure drop for new filter elements.
It is between 0,02 and 0,2 bar, depending on the type of
filter.
– The economically acceptable limit for pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is
around 0,6 bar.
Devices that measure the pressure difference are installed in
most filters.
If the pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p exceeds the limit, either the filter must
be cleaned or the element replaced.
The maximum volume flow of a filter always refers to the norm
pressure p
op
= 7 bar. When pressure changes the maximum
through-flow rate of the filter also changes. The change to the
through-flow rate can be easily calculated with the aid of ap-
propriate conversion factors f.
Example
A BOGE pre-filter V50 with a nominal performance of 300
m
3
/h at a norm pressure of p
op
= 7 bar is to be operated at
p
op
= 10 bar.
R
10
= effective rate at p
op
= 10 bar
[ m
3
/h ]
R
7
= effective rate at p
op
= 7 bar
[ m
3
/h ]
f = Conversion factor for p
op
= 10 bar
At a pressure of p
op
= 10 bar the filter has an effective nominal
performance of 414 m
3
/h.
Fig. 5.22 :
General filter with ∆p measuring device
R
7
= 300 m
3
/h
p
op
= 10 bar ⇒ f = 1,38
R
10
= R
7
× ×× ×× f
R
10
= 300 m³/h × ×× ×× 1,38
R
10
= 414 m³/h
5.5.1.2 Pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p
5.5.1.3 Operating pressure
Pressure [ bar
op
] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Factor f 0,25 0,38 0,5 0,65 0,75 0,88 1 1,13 1,25 1,38 1,5 1,63 1,75 1,88 2
95
Compressed air processing
5.5.2 Dust separators After coming out of the compressor, the compressed air con-
tains water in the form of steam and also droplets of conden-
sate. These droplets are formed during the compression proc-
ess because the air is no longer able to accommodate it when
its volume is reduced.
This water normally deposits in the storage tank as the com-
pressed air become more inert. From there the condensate is
drained off.
Operating principle
The dust separator operates according to the principle of mass
inertia. It consists of a vortex cartridge and a catch pan. The
vortex cartridge is designed to put the compressed air into
rotary movement. Solid and liquid components in the air are
forced against the inside walls of the pan by their own mass
inertia. This causes heavy particles of dirt and water to sepa-
rate. These separated impurities flow past a baffle plate into
the collection chamber. The baffle plate also prevents the flow
of air from taking the separated liquid with it.
The condensate can be drained off automatically or by hand
from the collection chamber and properly disposed of or treated.
Features
– Almost complete separation of water droplets.
– Heavy particles of dust and dirt filtered out.
– The filtering capacity of the dust separator depends on the
flow speed of the air. The higher the flow speed, the more
efficient the filter is. Of course, when the flow speed in-
creases the pressure loss in the separator rises also.
Areas of application
– No compressed air receiver in the pipeline system.
– Large distances between the compressor and the receiver.
If the receiver is a long way from the compressor, then it
makes sense to install a cyclone separator directly down-
stream of the compressor. It prevents unnecessary „trans-
port of water“ in the pipeline.
– Rising lines between the compressed air receiver and the
compressor. The line between the compressor and the re-
ceiver goes vertically upwards. When the compressor is idle
the condensate flows back into the compressor. In this case
it makes sense to install a cyclone separator directly down-
stream of the compressor.
Pressure
difference
∆p [ bar ]
> 0,05 bar
Particle
size
[ µm ]
> 50 µm
Residual oil
content
[ mg/m
3
]
not influ-
enced
Separation
rate
[ %]
95 %
Fig. 5.23 :
Cyclone separator
1 = Vortex insert
2 = Baffle plate
3 = Collection chamber
4 = Condensate drain
1
2
3
4
Purified air
Compressed
air flowing in
96
Compressed air processing
5.5.3 Pre-filters Pre-filters filter solid impurities to a particle size of approx.
3 µm out of the compressed air but filter out very little oil and
moisture. Pre-filters take the load off high performance filters
and dryers when the air is very dusty. Finer filters can be dis-
pensed with if the demands on the quality of the compressed
air are low.
Operating principle
Pre-filters operate according to the principle of superficial fil-
tration. They have a purely sifting effect. The pore size deter-
mines the size of particle that can be filtered out. The impuri-
ties remain only on the outer surface of the filter elements.
Standard materials for filter elements are:
– Sintered bronze.
– Highly molecular polyethylene.
– Sintered ceramics.
– Bronze or brass wire ( coarse filtration ).
– Pleated cellulose paper inserts.
Air flows through the filter from the outside towards the in-
side. An opposite direction of flow would allow the separated
particles to build up inside the filter element. The growing col-
lection of solid matter would block the effective area of the
filter.
Features
– Re-usability.
Because the separated particles are only collected on the
surface of the pre-filter element it is possible to clean the
element.
Fig. 5.24:
Filtrations mechanism of surface filters
Pressure
difference
∆p [ bar ]
> 0,03 bar
Particle
size
[ µm ]
> 3 µm
Residual oil
content
[ mg/m
3
]
not influ-
enced
Separation
rate
[ %]
99,99 %
Fig. 5.25:
BOGE Pre-filter, Series V
97
Compressed air processing
5.5.4 Microfilters
Fig. 5.26 :
Filtrations mechanism of deep-bed filters
Microfilters are used when high quality compressed air is
required. They deliver technically oil-free compressed air.
Microfilters reduce the residual oil content of compressed air
to 0,01 mg/m³. They filter out dirt particles with a separation
rate of 99,9999 % relative to 0,01 µm.
Operating principle
Microfilters, also called high-performance filters, are deep-bed
filters. The filter the water and oil condensate phase from the
compressed air in the form of fine and ultra-fine droplets.
The deep-bed filter is a fibrous web consisting of a tangle of
very fine individual fibres. The fibres are randomly intertwined
and thus form a porous structure. Between the fibres there is
a labyrinth-like system of passages and openings. This sys-
tem has flow channels that are sometimes much larger than
the particles than the particles to be filtered. Filtration occurs
along the entire path travelled by the compressed air on its
way through the filter element.
Microfilters work with pleated filter material. This enlarges the
effective filter surface by approx.
1
/3 in comparison to wound
filters. The pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is also considerably reduced.
There are several advantages in this:
– Increased through-flow rate.
– Lower energy loss.
– Longer service life.
Air passes through deep-bed filters from the inside towards
the outside. The liquid phase from oil and water deposits on
the fibrous web when passing through the filter. The flow of air
then drives the condensate and growing droplets further on
through the filter towards the outside. A part of the conden-
sate leaves the filter element again as a result of this effect.
Following the laws of gravity, the condensate collects in the
collection chamber of the filter.
The working lives of the filters are longer because the con-
densate filtered out is no longer a burden to the element with
this direction of flow.
Fig. 5.28 :
BOGE-Microfilter, Series F
Fig. 5.27 :
Pleated and wound filter material
Filter material
Pressure
difference
∆p [ bar ]
> 0,1 bar
Particle
size
[ µm ]
> 0,01 µm
Residual oil
content
[ mg/m
3
]
> 0,01
Separation
rate
[ %]
99,9999 %
98
Compressed air processing
Fig. 5.29
Mechanisms of deep-bed filtration
Filter mechanisms
Three different mechanisms operate together to separate fine
particles from the air.
– Direct contact.
Larger particles and droplets hit the fibres of the filter
materials directly and are bound.
– Impact.
Particles and droplets hit the randomly arranged fibres of
the filter material. There they bounce off, are directed out
of the path of flow and are absorbed by the next fibre.
– Diffusion.
Small and ultra-fine particles coalesce in the field of flow
and following Brown’s law of molecular movement come
together to form ever-growing particles. These particles are
then filtered out.
Borosilicate fibre in the form of fibreglass layers is the most
widespread material in high performance filters. It is used as a
material for deep-bed filters. The following are also used:
– Metallic fibres.
– Synthetic fibres.
Features
– Separation of oil in the liquid phase.
Hydrocarbons are found in two aggregate conditions in com-
pressed air: – in gaseous form as oil gas.
– liquid in the form of droplets.
A high-performance filter removes almost 100% of the oil
droplets. The oil gas can not be filtered out.
– Low operating temperatures.
The efficiency of the filter drops when the operating tem-
perature rises. Some of the oil droplets vaporise and go
through the filter. With a rise in temperature from +20° to
+30°C, 5 times as much oil passes through the filter.
– Recyclable.
The materials used are chosen with ecological aspects in
mind.
Filter medium
Unfiltered
compressed air
Technically oil-free and
clean compressed air
99
Compressed air processing
5.5.5 Active carbon filters
Pressure
difference
∆p [ bar ]
> 0,02 bar
Particle
size
[ µm ]
0,01
Residual oil
content
[ mg/m
3
]
> 0,005
Separation
rate
[ %]
99,9999
Fig. 5.30 :
BOGE-Filter combination, Series AF
An active carbon filter with microfilter connected in
series
After passing through high-performance filters and dryers, the
technically oil-free compressed air still contains hydrocarbons
and diverse odorous and taste substances.
There are many applications of pneumatics where these resi-
dues would lead to disruptions of production, adverse quality
and unpleasant smells.
An active carbon filter removes the hydrocarbon vapours from
the compressed air. The residual oil-content can be reduced
to 0.005 mg/m³. The quality of the compressed air is better
than that demanded for breathing air. The condensated drop-
lets of oil are already removed by the series-connected filter
( BOGE-Microfilter Series F ).
Operating principle
The filtration of compressed air by absorption is a purely physi-
cal process. The hydrocarbons are bound to the active car-
bons by powers of adhesion ( uneven molecular attraction ).
Chemical compounding does not take place in this process.
The dried and pre-filtered compressed air is directed through
a pleated active carbon filter element. The appearance of this
filter element is similar to that of the microfilter. As with the
microfilter, the compressed air is directed through the filter
element from the inside towards the outside.
Features
– Pre-filtration.
An active carbon filter must always be connected upstream
from a high-performance filter and a dryer. Unfiltered com-
pressed air destroys the adsorbant and reduces the filtra-
tion effect.
– No Regeneration.
The active carbon filling can not be regenerated. It must be
replaced, depending on the degree of saturation.
– Working life.
The filter element of an active carbon filter must be replaced
after approx. 300 - 400 hours of operation.
Areas of application
– Food and luxury food industry.
– Pharmaceuticals industry.
– Chemicals industry.
– Surface treatment.
– Medical equipment.
100
Compressed air processing
5.5.6 Active carbon adsorbers
Pressure
difference
∆p [ bar ]
> 0,1 bar
Particle
size
[ µm ]

Residual oil
content
[ mg/m
3
]
> 0,003
Separation
rate
[ %]

Pre-filter After-filter
Fig. 5.31 :
Op. plan of a BOGE active carbon adsorber
Type DC
After passing through high-performance filters and dryers, the
technically oil-free compressed air still contains hydrocarbons
and diverse odorous and taste substances. There are many
applications of pneumatics where these residues would lead
to disruptions of production, adverse quality and unpleasant
smells.
An active carbon adsorber removes the hydrocarbon vapours
from the compressed air. The residual oil-content can be re-
duced to 0.003 mg/m³. The quality of the compressed air is
better than that required for breathing air. The condensated
droplets of oil are already removed by the series-connected
filter ( BOGE-Microfilter Series F ).
Operating principle
The filtration of compressed air by adsorption is a purely physi-
cal process. The hydrocarbons are bound to the active car-
bons by powers of adhesion ( uneven molecular attraction ).
Chemical compounding does not take place in this process.
The dried and filtered compressed air is directed through a
diffusor into the loosely piled active carbon bed. The diffusor
distributes the compressed air evenly over the entire bed. This
allows long contact times and ideal use of the adsorption
material. After the adsorber bed the compressed air passes
through emission collector and leaves the active carbon
adsorber.
Features
– Pre-filtration.
An active carbon filter must always be connected upstream
from a high-performance filter and a dryer. Unfiltered com-
pressed air destroys the adsorbant and reduces the filtra-
tion effect.
– After-filtration.
For safety reasons a high performance filter should be con-
nected downstream from the adsorber. The compressed
air take very fine particles of carbon dust ( smaller than
1 µm ) from the active carbon bed with it.
– No Regeneration.
The active carbon filling can not be regenerated. It must be
replaced, depending on the degree of saturation.
– Long working life.
The active carbon filling must only be replaced after 8000
- 10000 hours of operation.
Areas of application
– As for active carbon filters.
101
Compressed air processing
5.5.7 Sterile filters
Pressure
difference
∆p [ bar ]
> 0,09 bar
Particle
size
[ µm ]
0,01
Residual oil
content
[ mg/m
3
]

Separation
rate
[ %]
99,9999
Living organisms such as bacteria, bacteriophages and vi-
ruses are a big health problem in many areas. Sterile filters
create 100 % sterile and germ-free compressed air.
Operating principle
The pre-purified flow of air is directed from outside towards
the inside through the filter element. The filter element is com-
posed of two filter stages. The pre-filter retains microorgan-
isms up to a size of 1 µm. The second filter stage consists of a
chemically and biologically neutral, three-dimensional micro-
fibre web made of borosilicate. The remaining organisms are
filtered out here. The filter elements are fixed in place by a
stainless steel cage.
The filters can be cleaned and sterilised up to 100 times. They
are steamed for this purpose. In this process, hot steam of up
to +200°C flows through the filter. The steam can be sent
through the filter from both sides. Sterilisation by other media
is also possible.
– Hot water
– Hot air
– Gas ( ethylene oxide, formaldehyde )
– H
2
O
2
Features
– Stainless steel material.
All metal parts of the filter are made of high-alloy stainless
steel. Stainless steel offers microorganisms no nutritive
substratum and can neither corrode nor rot.
– Resistent.
The filter medium is inactive and resistent to chemicals
and high temperatures. Bacteria can not grow on or through
it.
– Short sterile contact distances.
A sterile filter should be installed directly on the end con-
sumer device.
Areas of application
– Food and luxury food industry.
– Pharmaceuticals industry.
– Chemicals industry.
– Packing industry.
– Medical equipment.
Fig. 5.31 :
BOGE Sterile filter, Series ST
102
Disposal of condensate
6. Disposal of condensate
6.1 Condensate
Condensate consists primarily of the water contained in the
air drawn into the compressor and which forms during com-
pression. The Condensate also contains many impurities.
– Mineral oil aerosols and unburnt hydrocarbons from the
air.
– Particles of dust and dirt of the most varied kinds from
the air.
– Cooling and lubricating oil from the compressor.
– Rust, scuff, pieces of sealing material and weld from the
pipeline.
Condensate is highly contaminated because of its high con-
tent of harmful substances, and for this reason it must be dis-
posed of responsibly. The mineral oils in the condensate are
hard to biodegrade and are detrimental to oxygen enrichment
and material disintegration in sewage works. This reduces the
efficiency of the entire water treatment effort. The conse-
quences are a hazard to nature and human health.
Distinctions must be made between condensate from differ-
ent pneumatic systems. The condensate has different proper-
ties, depending on environmental conditions and the compres-
sor. For example :
– Oil lubricated compressor systems.
On compressors of this type the oil washes a part of the
aggressive and solid matter out of the air in the compres-
sion chamber. The result of this is that oil-lubricated sys-
tems normally produce condensate that has a pH-value in
the neutral range.
– Oil-free compressor systems.
Most of the harmful substances in oil-free systems are dis-
charged with the condensate. This is why the condensate
has an acidic pH-value. pH-values between 4 and 5 are not
uncommon.
The consistency of the condensates also changes with mar-
ginal conditions. Most condensates are as fluid as water. But
pasteous condensates can occur in exceptional cases.
103
Disposal of condensate
6.2 Condensate drains Everywhere condensate occurs in a pneumatic system it also
has to be drained. If it is not, the flow of air takes it with it, and
it enters the pipeline.
The fact that condensate collection tanks are under pressure
makes condensate drains costly. The condensate must be
drained off under control to unnecessary pressure loss.
It should also be taken into account that condensate does not
occur on a continuous basis. The quantity of condensate changes
with the temperature and moisture of air drawn in by the com-
pressor.
The summary shows the various construction types accord-
ing to their method of operation.
When selecting condensate drains, regardless of the construc-
tion type, the condensate itself and the marginal conditions
must always be taken into consideration. Special applications
require special forms of condensate drain :
– very aggressive condensates.
– pasteous condensates.
– explosion danger areas.
– low pressure and partial vacuum networks.
– high and very high pressure networks.
Condensate drains can not be used without heating in sub-
zero temperatures. The water component of the condensate
will freeze.
Types of condensate drains
Automatic Manual
Manual valve
Condensate drain
with float control
Condensate drain
with timer operated
solenoid valve
Condensate drain
with level control
Float operated
level control
Electronic level
control
104
Disposal of condensate
6.2.2 Condensate drains with float
control
6.2.1 Condensate drains with manual
valves
The condensate collects in an appropriate tank (vessel). The
servicing or operating staff must check the level of the collec-
tion tank at regular intervals. If necessary, the condensate must
be drained off with the aid of a valve fitted to the bottom of the
tank.
Features
– Simple, inexpensive construction.
– No electricity connection required.
– No alarm function.
– Regular checks necessary.
The condensate must be drained at regular intervals.
Inside the condensate tank there is a float which controls an
outlet valve at the bottom of the tank by means of a lever. If the
level in the tank rises above a certain level, the outlet valve is
opened. Excess pressure in the system forces the conden-
sate out. If the level in the tank falls below the minimum, the
valve closes automatically before compressed air can escape.
The condensate is now separated from the compressed air
and can now be sent by pipe to the treatment equipment.
Features
– Simple, inexpensive design.
– No electricity connection required.
Ideal for use in explosion danger areas.
– No blowing off of compressed air.
– Susceptible to malfunctions.
The moving parts of the system can solidify, stick or
corrode through direct contact with condensate.
– Regular servicing required.
As a result of its susceptibility to malfunctions, it does
require regular servicing.
– No external alarm signal.
– Inflexible.
Float valves must be specially adapted for the condition
of the condensate.
Fig. 6.1 :
Condensate drain with float control
1
3
4
2
1 = Inlet line
2 = Outlet line
3 = Drain plug
4 = Vent
105
Disposal of condensate
6.2.3 Condensate drains with
timer operated solenoid valves
The condensate is collected in an appropriate tank. At fixed,
regular intervals ( 1.5 to 30 min. ) a solenoid valve with timer
opens the drain at the bottom of the tank. After an opening
time of 0.4 to 10 s the valve closes again. The condensate is
forced out of the drain by system pressure.
The drain valve is connected condensate disposal facility by
pipes.
Note
If you wish to avoid having condensate in the pipe system the
entire volume of condensate must be drained off. Individually
adjustable opening times for the solenoid valve guarantee per-
fect drainage of the condensate.
The quantity of condensate in Summer is far greater than in
Winter because atmspheric humidity is higher. If the opening
times set in Summer for the high humidity are not changed
later for Winter, low temperatures will cause high pressure
loss because the magnetic valves will be open for too long.
Not only the condensate but also large quantities of com-
pressed air will be blown off too.
To minimise compressed air loss the cycle times of the valves
must always be adjusted to suit local conditions.
Because the weather is not always consistent, it is not possi-
ble to set time intervals and valve opening times and not lose
compressed air at all. Either a part of the condensate remains
in the system or some compressed air is lost.
Features
– Very reliable operation.
The system operates reliably, even with problematic
condensates.
– Electricity connection required.
– No external malfunction signal.
– No alarm function.
– The solenoid valve operates when the pneumatic station
is switched on, even if no compressed air is required
( e.g., at weekends ).
Fig. 6.2 :
Solenoid operated drain valve
106
Disposal of condensate
6.2.4 Condensate drains with electronic
level control
Operation
The condensate is collected in an appropriate tank. As soon
as the capacity level sensor Ni2 reports that maximum level, a
magnetic valve opens a pre-control line. The pressure on the
valve diaphragm is released and the outlet line is opened. The
excess pressure in the housing forces the condensate out
through the line to the reprocessing facility.
As soon as the level reaches capacity sensor Ni1, the mag-
netic valve is electronically closed. The valve diaphragm closes
before compressed air can escape.
Features
– Very reliable operation.
The system operates reliably, even with problematic
condensates.
– Large cross-section.
Even large impurities and coagulated matter can be
discharged without difficulty.
– No pressure loss.
– Electricity connection required.
– Flexible application.
The system adapts itself automatically to changing
operating conditions( e.g., varied condensate viscosity
and pressure fluctuations ).
– Alarm function.
If there is a malfunction in draining the condensate the
alarm mode is switched after 60 s. The magnetic valve
then opens the valve diaphragm at certain intervals.
– External malfunction signal.
A red LED blinks and a potential-free signal is ready.
– Wide performance range.
1 = Inlet line
2 = Collection tank
3 = Pre-control line
4 = Magnetic valve
5 = Valve diaphragm
6 = Dipstick
7 = Valve seat
8 = Outlet line
Fig. 6.3 :
Condensate drain with electronic volume measure-
ment
1
3
4
5
Ni1
Ni2
2
8
7
6
2
Ni1
Ni2
107
Disposal of condensate
6.2.5 Condensate drains with float
operated level control
The collected condensate is directed into the collection cham-
ber of the condensate drain. A float moves on a guide together
with the level of the condensate in the chamber. The guide
has three contacts that electronically register the level in the
chamber. As soon as the float reaches Contact 2, the elec-
tronic control opens the magnetic valve. The pressure on the
valve diaphragm is released via a pre-control line and the outlet
line is opened. The system pressure forces the condensate
out of the condensate drain through a rising pipe.
The level of condensate in the pipe drops and after a set time
t the control closes the drain before compressed air can es-
cape. If the condensate level does not reach Contact 1 inside
the time t, the drain is opened at fixed time intervals and re-
closed after a set period. This guarantees that the condensate
collection chamber is completely emptied.
If the condensate level reaches Contact 3, the control actu-
ates the main alarm. The switching intervals and opening times
remain unchanged.
Features
– Cleaning cycle times.
Even with longer idle times there is no dried condensate.
– No pressure loss.
– electricity connection required.
1
3
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
1 = Collection tank
2 = Level float
3 = Guide
4 = Rising pipe
5 = Valve diaphragm
6 = Magnetic valve
7 = Control line
Fig. 6.4 :
Condensate drain with level float for measuring the
level
108
Disposal of condensate
6.3 Condensate treatment
Condensate from oil-lubricated compressors has an oil con-
tent of between 200 and 1000 mg/l, depending on the season.
This means that the condensate is around 99 % water and
only 1 % oil. Even so, the law requires that this condensate be
treated as waste water containing oil. As such it may not be
discharged into the public sewers. The stipulations for water
purity are set forth in § 7a of the [German] Water Purity Act
( WHG ). This states that the level of harmful substances in
waste water is to be kept as low as the „generally recognised
practices of engineering“ allow. These practices have been
defined by the German government in general administrative
rules.
According to ATV ( Waste Water Association, a non-profit-mak-
ing German organisation ) worksheet A 115 the limit for re-
sidual oil content in waste water is 20 mg/l. However, the local
authorities have the final word. In some areas the limits for
residual oil content are well below 20 mg/l.
This means that condensate from oil lubricated compressors
must either be disposed of properly or treated. One other
solution is the use of biodegradable compressor oils.
Disposal
Disposal by a specialised company is a safe but involved and
very expensive procedure. Disposal costs currently run at
around 250 € per m
3
of condensate. The costs for approved
collection tanks and pipelines must also be taken into account.
Local treatment
Because of the high water content, it is always worth treating
oily condensate on site. Properly treated water can be dis-
charged into the public drainage lines. The oil separated from
it must be disposed of in an environmentally safe way.
The legal limits can not be reached by using normal light liquid
separators as per DIN 1999 and simple gravity separators.
Standard oil-water separators provide excellent law-compli-
ant treatment.
109
Disposal of condensate
The oil-water separator is suitable for treating condensates
that occur during the operation of screw compressors with
oil injection cooling and 1- and 2-stage piston compressors.
The oil-water separator parts condensate from piston and
screw compressors without difficulty as long as oils that do
not emulsify are used.
Operation
The oily condensate is directed into the pressure relief cham-
ber of the oil-water separator. There the pressure reduces with-
out causing whirling movement in the vessel. The impurities
carried with the condensate gather in the removable collector.
Inside the separation vessel, the oil deposits on the surface
as a result of its lower specific density. Via a height-adjustable
overflow the oil is directed into the oil catch pan and is avail-
able for disposal.
The pre-purified condensate flows through a pre-filter that fil-
ters out the remaining droplets of oil. After that an adsorption
filter binds the last oil parts of the oil.
Note
All oil-water separation systems are water treatment plants
and must be licensed by law. The oil-water separator should
have a specification inspection symbol. The expensive licens-
ing process is then no longer required. All that needs to be
done is to register at the local water authority.
Features
– Weekly filter test.
A specimen of the condensate is compared with a
reference liquid. A change of filter is necessary after
the admissible cloudiness is reached.
– No separation of oil-water emulsions.
Special reprocessing systems with emulsion-splitting
apparatus is required for these stable emulsions.
6.3.1 Oil-water separators
10
1 2 4 5 6 8 9
3 7
1 = Condensate inlet
2 = Pressure relief chamber
3 = Impurity tank
4 = Overflow pipe
5 = Level reporter
6 = Pre-filter
7 = Adsorption filter
8 = Water outlet
9 = Oil overflow, height adjustable
10 = Specimen removal valve
Fig. 6.5:
Op. diagram of an oil-water separator
Fig. 6.6 :
Oil-water separator
110
Compressed air requirement
7. Compressed air
requirement
7.1 Consumption of
compressed air
by pneumatic devices
The first step in designing a compressor station and the re-
spective pneumatic network is to determine the requirement
for compressed air and the resulting FAD of the compressor.
The first value to be found when determining the capacity of a
compressor station is the expected total consumption. The
consumption of the individual consumer devices is added
together and adjusted to operating conditions with the aid of
calculations. The compressor can then be selected according
to the resulting FAD figure.
The procedure is similar for determining the size of pipelines.
Definition of the type and number of consumer devices on a
certain section of line comes first. The consumption of the
individual devices is added together and adjusted with the
appropriate factors. The diameter of the respective section of
piping can then be deduced according to the result.
Loss through leakage must also be taken into account when
determining the expected consumption of compressed air.
Determining the total consumption of compressed air is often
difficult due to lack of information about individual components.
This chapter provides guideline values for the requirements of
individual components.
The information given here concerning the consumption of
individual devices are average values. Please contact the
makers of the devices for exact figures.
The consumption of compressed air by nozzles of different
shapes can vary greatly and depends on various factors :
– Diameter of the nozzle.
The larger the nozzle, the greater the consumption.
– Operating pressure of nozzle.
The higher the operating pressure, the greater the
consumption.
– Shape of nozzle.
A simple, cylindrical through-hole consumes much
less compressed air than a conical or Laval-nozzle
( expansion nozzle ).
– Surface quality of aperture.
If the quality of the aperture is very good ( surface very
smooth, no grooves and unevenness ), more compressed
air can flow through.
– Spraying or blowing.
The consumption of compressed air rises if the air is
being used as a medium for paint, sand, or the like.
7.1.1 Consumption of nozzles
111
Compressed air requirement
Nozzles with a simple, cylindrical bore ( e.g., blow-out guns )
generate strong whirling and turbulence in the compressed
air that flows out. This reduces the speed of with which it flows.
Consumption is comparatively low.
The following table gives reference values for the compressed
air consumption of cylindrical nozzles depending on operat-
ing pressure and nozzle diameter :
7.1.1.1 Compressed air consumption
of cylindrical nozzles
Fig. 7.1 :
Blow-out gun
Nozzle Operating pressure [ bar
op
]
∅ ∅∅ ∅∅
[ mm] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0,5 8 10 12 15 18 22 28
1,0 25 35 45 55 65 75 85
1,5 60 75 95 110 130 150 170
2,0 105 145 180 220 250 290 330
2,5 175 225 280 325 380 430 480
3,0 230 370 400 465 540 710 790
Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.
112
Compressed air requirement
Nozzle Operating pressure [ bar
op
]
∅ ∅∅ ∅∅ Flat and broad spray
[ mm] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0,5 100 115 135 160 185 – –
0,8 110 130 155 180 225 – –
1,0 125 150 175 200 240 – –
1,2 140 165 185 210 250 – –
1,5 160 180 200 225 260 – –
1,8 175 200 220 250 280 – –
2,0 185 210 235 265 295 – –
2,5 210 230 260 300 340 – –
3,0 230 250 290 330 375 – –
Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.
Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.
7.1.1.2 Compressed air consumption
of paint spray guns
Paint applied by a spray gun must be even and not drip. The
nozzles of spray guns are therefore designed for an expand-
ing, non-turbulent volume flow with a high exit speed. The con-
sequence is high consumption of compressed air, well above
that of cylindrical nozzles.
The consistency and desired quantity of paint to be applied
determines the operating pressure and the nozzle diameter of
the spray gun. These two values considerably influence the
compressed air requirement.
With paint spray guns, a distinction is made between flat, broad
and round spray nozzles. The type of spray influences the
application of paint. There is also a difference in the com-
pressed air requirement. On many spray guns it is possible to
switch the types of spray.
The following table gives reference values for the compressed
air consumption of spray paint nozzles depending on operat-
ing pressure, nozzle diameter and type of spray:
Fig. 7.2 :
Paint spray gun with paint tank
Nozzle Operating pressure [ bar
op
]
∅ ∅∅ ∅∅ Round spray
[ mm] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0,5 75 90 105 – – – –
0,8 85 100 120 – – – –
1,0 95 115 135 – – – –
1,2 110 125 150 – – – –
1,5 120 140 155 – – – –
113
Compressed air requirement
7.1.1.3 Compressed air consumption
of jet nozzles
Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.
When spraying, the medium must hit the workpiece with great
kinetic energy i.e., with high speed. This is the only method
that will achieve the desired result.
For this reason jet nozzles are designed for an extremely high
exit speed of the compressed air. This leads to comparatively
high consumption of compressed air.
The following table gives reference values for the compressed
air consumption of jet nozzles depending on operating pres-
sure and nozzle diameter:
Nozzle Operating pressure [ bar
op
]
∅ ∅∅ ∅∅
[ mm] 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
3,0 300 380 470 570 700 – –
4,0 450 570 700 840 1000 – –
5,0 640 840 1050 1270 1500 – –
6,0 920 1250 1600 1950 2200 – –
8,0 1800 2250 2800 3350 4000 – –
10,0 2500 3200 4000 4800 6000 – –
114
Compressed air requirement
7.1.2 Compressed air requirement
of cylinders
Compressed air cylinders are especially used in the area of
automation. A distinction is made between two types of cylin-
der when determining the consumption of compressed air:
– The single-action cylinders use compressed air to gener-
ate the movement of the working stroke only. The return
stroke is performed by spring power or from the outside.
– Double-action cylinders use compressed air to generate
movement in both stroke directions. Force is used for both
strokes. Accordingly, he consumption of compressed air is
twice as high.
The compressed air consumption q of pressure cylinders is
determined by using the following formula:
q = Air consumption ( 1 bar
abs
and 20° C ) [ l/min ]
d = Piston diameter [ dm ]
S = Length of piston path ( Stroke ) [ dm ]
p = Operating pressure [ bar
abs
]
a = Work cycles per minute [ 1/min ]
b = 1 with single-action cylinders
2 with double-action cylinders
Example
A singe-action cylinder with a piston diameter of 100 mm is
required to work at an operating pressure of 7 bar
abs
. Its work-
ing stroke is 130 mm at 47 work cycles per minute.
This cylinder consumes approx. 336 Litres of compressed
air per minute.
1
2
× π × π × π × π × π
q = ———— × ×× ×× 1,3 × ×× ×× 7 × ×× ×× 47 × ×× ×× 1
4
q = approx. 336 l/min
d
2
× π × π × π × π × π
q = ———— × ×× ×× S × ×× ×× p × ×× ×× a × ×× ×× b
4
d = 100 mm ^
=
1 dm
S = 130 mm ^ ^
=
1,3 dm
p = 7 bar
abs
a = 47
b = 1
Fig. 7.3:
Clamping device with pneumatic cylinder
115
Compressed air requirement
7.1.3 Compressed air consumption
of tools
Pneumatic tools are among the most frequent consumers of
compressed air in industry and the crafts. They are large num-
bers of them in almost every environment.
They generally require a working pressure of 6 bar however,
there are versions that use other working pressures, depend-
ing on the application and the performance required. In these
cases the consumption of compressed air will differ from the
levels shown in the table.
The following table gives reference values for consumption of
compressed air by a number of pneumatic tools. These values
may vary for individual tools and should be regarded as aver-
ages.
Drill Drill up to 4 mm ∅ 200
4 – 10 mm ∅ 200 – 450
10 – 32 mm ∅ 450 – 1750
Screw machine M3 180
M4 – M5 250
M6 – M8 420
Drive screw M10 - M24 200 – 1000
Angle grinder 300 – 700
Vibration grinder
1
/4 Sheet 250
1
/3 Sheet 300
1
/2 Sheet 400
Belt grinder 300 – 400
Hand grinder Collet chucks 6 - 8 mm ∅ 300 – 1000
8 - 20 mm ∅ 1500 – 3000
Tacker, tack chuck 10 – 60
Tool Air consumption
Working pressure 6 bar
op
[ l/min ]
Fig. 7.4 :
Drive screw powered by compressed air
116
Compressed air requirement
Device Air consumption
Working pressure 6 bar
op
[ l/min ]
Nailer 50 – 300
Sash saw ( wood ) 300
Plastic and textile shears 250 – 350
Metal shears 400 – 900
Chamfer mortiser ( wood and plastic ) 250 – 400
Chamfer plane ( phases for welding seams ) 2500 – 3000
Rust remover ( descaler ) 250 – 350
Needle rust remover ( needle descaler ) 100 – 250
Light universal hammer 150 – 380
Rivet, chisel and mortise hammer 200 – 700
Light pick and shaft hammer 650 – 1500
Heavy pick and shaft hammer – 3000
Pneumatic spade 900 – 1500
Drill hammer 500 – 3000
Stamp hammer( foundries ) 400 – 1200
Stamp hammer ( concrete and earth ) 750 – 1100
Vibrator ( inside - outside ) 500 – 2500
117
Compressed air requirement
7.2 Determining compressed air
requirement
When determining the compressed air requirement of a pneu-
matic network, it is not simply a case of adding the consump-
tion values of the individual devices. Other factors that influ-
ence consumption must also be taken into account.
Most pneumatic devices, such as tools, spray paint guns and
blow-out guns are not in continuous use. They are switched
on and off when needed. It is therefore necessary to find out
the average usage rate UR in order to obtain an accurate fig-
ure for the compressed air requirement.
The following formula is used to determine the average usage
rate UR:
Example
A semiautomatic screwdriver is in use for 25 min in the course
of one hour.
25
UR = ——— × ×× ×× 100 %
60
UR = 41,6 %
The usage rate UR of the tool is 41,6 %.
The average usage rates UR of some widely used pneumatic
devices is given in the following table. The figures are based
on general experience and may deviate sharply in special
cases.
7.2.1 Average operation time
Tool Average usage rate
Drill 30 %
Grinding machine 40 %
Mortise hammer 30 %
Stamp hammer 15 %
Forming machine 20 %
Blow-out gun 10 %
Tooling machine 75 %
T
U
UR = ——— × ×× ×× 100 %
T
R
UR = average usage rate [ %]
T
U
= usage time [ min ]
T
R
= reference time [ min ]
T
U
= 25 min
T
R
= 60 min
Fig. 7.5 :
Average operation time
ON
OFF
118
Compressed air requirement
7.2.2 Simultanity factor The simultanity factor f is an empirical value. It is based on
experience of pneumatic devices that are not in use at the
same time. The simultanity factor f is a multiplier that adjusts
the theoretical total consumption of a number of devices to
realistic conditions.
The following table gives the generally recognised values for
the simultanity factor f:
Qty. consumer devices Simultanity factor f
1 1,00
2 0,94
3 0,89
4 0,86
5 0,83
6 0,80
7 0,77
8 0,75
9 0,73
10 0,71
11 0,69
12 0,68
13 0,67
14 0,66
15 0,64
16 0,63
The simultanity factor f is used with the following pneumatic
devices:
– Non-automatic nozzles as described in chapter 7.1.2.
– Non-automatic pneumatic tools as described in chapter
7.1.3.
– Machine tools, production machinery and the like,
if no other requirement is specified.
Fig. 7.6 :
Supplying several consumer devices on a pneumatic
network
119
Compressed air requirement
7.2.3 Defining compressed air
requirement
When defining the total compressed air requirement for a pneu-
matic network the consumer devices are divided into two
groups:
– Automatic consumer devices.
– General consumer devices.
The consumer group includes automatic pneumatic cylinders,
machinery in continuous operation and longer work cycles
that require compressed air. These must be calculated at total
individual consumption q when working out the requirement.
7.2.3.1 Automatic consumer devices
Automatic consumer devices Working Quantity Individual
pressure consump. Q × ×× ×× q
[ bar
op
] Q [ Units ] q [ l/min ] [ l/min ]
Automatic compressed air cylinders 6 2 336 672
Working machinery 5 1 310 310
Total T
Q
compressed air consumption of all automatic devices [ l/min ] ∑ ∑∑ ∑∑ 982 l/min
120
Compressed air requirement
7.2.3.2 General consumer devices Most work cycles only run some of the time. An average us-
age rate UR can be calculated for these processes. Also, the
consumer devices are not usually all in use at the same time.
The average usage rate UR and the simultanity factor f are
used for general consumer devices as requirement-reducing
multipliers when making the calculation.
General compr. air consumers Working Usage Quantity Individual Q × ×× ×× q × × × × × UR / 100
pressure rate consump.
[ bar
op
] UR [ %] Q [ Units ] q [ l/min ] [ l/min ]
Spray paint guns ∅ 1,5 mm 3 40 1 180 72
Blow-out guns ∅ 1,0 mm 6 10 3 65 19,5
Drive screw M10 6 20 3 200 120
Drills up to ∅ 20 mm 6 30 1 700 210
Angle grinders 6 40 2 500 400
Total T air consumption of all general consumer devices[ l/min ] ∑ ∑∑ ∑∑ 821,5
Simultanity factor f 0,71
Air consumption T
f
of general consumer devices T
f
= f × ×× ×× T [ l/min ] 583,3
The theoretical total compressed air consumption T



is the sum
of the consumption of automatic and general devices.
However, the total compressed air consumption is not yet a
suitable figure for determining the capacity of the compressor
and the size of the pipes. Several allowances still have to be
made.
7.2.3.3 Total compressed air consumption
T

= T
Q
+ T
f
T

= 982 + 583,3
T

= 1565,3 l/min = 1,57 m³/min
121
Compressed air requirement
7.2.4 Allowances for losses and
reserves
Several allowances must be taken into account to bring the
total consumption figure for individual devices to the actual
output requirement of a compressor:
Losses v [ %]
Losses v through leakage and friction occur in all parts of a
pneumatic system. New systems require an allowance of
approx. 5 % of total FAD to be added for losses. Since leak-
ages and friction losses generally increase when the equip-
ment gets older, losses of up to 25 % should be assumed for
older systems.
Reserves r [ %]
A pneumatic system is sized according to a current estimate
of compressed air consumption. Experience shows that con-
sumption usually rises later. It is advisable to take short and
medium-term extensions of the network into account when
planning the size of the compressor and main pipelines. If this
is not done, later extension of the system can be unnecessar-
ily expensive. An allowance for reserves r of up to 100 % can
be taken, depending on the outlook.
Margin for error f [ %]
Despite the care taken in calculation, the figures for expected
compressed air consumption are still usually wrong. An exact
figure can seldom be arrived at because of marginal condi-
tions that are mostly unclear. If a pneumatic system is de-
signed too small and needs to be extended later it will cause
additional costs ( equipment out of action ), and so an allow-
ance f of 5 - 15 % is advisable to provide a margin for error.
When calculating the FAD required L
B
, allowances of 5 % for
losses, 10 % for reserves and a 15 % margin for error are
added to the calculated total consumption value T

The FAD quantity L
B
, required to give consumer devices an
adequate supply of compressed air is approx. 2035 l/min. This
value is the basis for determining the size of the compressor
and the main pipeline.
T

= 1565,3 l/min
v = 5 %
r = 10 %
e = 15 %
T

× ×× ×× ( 100 + v + r + e )
L
B
= ———————————
100
1565,3

× ×× ×× ( 100 + 5 + 10 + 15 )
L
B
= —————————————
100
L
B
= 2035 l/min = 2,04 m³/min
Allowances [ %]
Losses 5 - 25
Reserves 10 - 100
Error 5 - 15
7.2.5 FAD Required L
B
122
Compressed air requirement
7.3 Compressed air loss
Compressed air loss is consumption of air ( leakage ) in the
pipelines without work being performed. These losses can
amount to 25 % of the entire FAD of the compressor in unfa-
vourable circumstances.
The causes are numerous:
– Leaking valves.
– Leaking screw and flange joints.
– Leaking weld seams or soldered points.
– Damaged hoses and hose connections.
– Defective solenoid valves.
– Jammed float drains.
– Incorrectly installed dryers, filters and service facilities.
– Corroded lines.
Leaks in a pipeline act like nozzles from which compressed
air escapes at high speed. These leaks consume compressed
air 24 hours per day. The energy needed to compensate for
this loss can be considerable. This does not cause physical
injury, but the resulting expense can seriously diminish the
cost-effectiveness of the pneumatic system.
One example demonstrates the magnitude of the addi-
tional cost :
With a network pressure of 8 bar approx. 75 l/min = 4,5 m³/h
escape from a leak of 1mm diameter. A motor output of 0,6 kW
is required for this volume flow. At a price of 0,10 €/kWh and
8000 hours of operation, the additional annual cost amounts
to approx. € 480,– depending on the efficiency of the motor.
7.3.1 Costs of compressed air loss
Leak Air escaping Losses
hole - ∅ ∅∅ ∅∅ at 8 bar
op
Energy Cash
[ mm ] Size [ l/min ] [ kW] [ €/Y ]
1 75 0,6 480
1,5 150 1,3 1040
2 260 2,0 1600
3 600 4,4 3520
4 1100 8,8 7040
5 1700 13,2 10580
123
Compressed air requirement
7.3.2 Quantifying leakage The first step in minimising compressed air loss is to quantify
the leakage V

L
. There are two ways of doing this:
The simplest way of quantifying leakage V

L
is by emptying the
compressed air receiver.
The supply line to the receiver is plugged . All consumer
devices in the system must be switched off. The receiver pres-
sure p
S
drops as a result of the leak to pressure p
F
. The time t
is measured.
The following formula is used to roughly quantify the volume
of leakage V

L
:
V

L
= Volume of leakage [ l/min ]
V
T
= Volume of receiver [ l ]
p
S
= Receiver pressure at start [ bar
op
]
p
F
= Receiver pressure at finish [ bar
op
]
t = Time measured [ min ]
Example
A compressed air receiver with a large pipeline system has a
volume of 1000 l. Within 2 min. the receiver pressure drops
from 8 to 7 bar
op
.
The leakage volume of this pneumatic system is approx.
500 l/min.
Note
This method of measuring is only suitable for systems where
the pipeline system is less than 10 % of the volume of the
receiver. Otherwise the results are too inaccurate.
1000 × ×× ×× ( 8 − −− −− 7 )
V

L
= ———————
2
V

L
= 500 l/min
7.3.2.1 Quantifying leakage
by emptying the receiver
V
T
= 1000 l
p
S
= 8 bar
p
F
= 7 bar
t = 2 min
V
T
× ×× ×× ( p
S
− −− −− p
F
)
V

L
= ———————
t
V
T
V

L
p
S
p
F

124
Compressed air requirement
Example
A compressor with an effective FAD

V



of 1,65 m³/min has five
actuations during a measuring time of T = 180 s. Its total run-
ning time Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ t during the measuring time T is 30 s.
The leakage volume of this pneumatic system is approx.
275 l/min.
1,65 × ×× ×× 30

× ×× ×× 1000
V

L
= ———–—————
180
V

L
= 275 l/min
7.3.2.2 Quantifying leakage by measuring
working time
The second method of quantifying the volume of leakage V

L
is
by measuring the operating time of the compressor. This
method can only be used with compressors having intermit-
tent and idling operation modes.
The consumer devices in the network are switched off. The
leaks in the system consume compressed air and the network
pressure drops. The compressor must replace this volume.
The total running time Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ t of the compressor is measured over
a period of time T. To obtain a realistic result, the measuring
time T should last for at least 5 cycle intervals of the com-
pressor.
The following formula is used to roughly quantify the volume
of leakage : V

L
V

L
= Volume of leakage [ l/min ]
V

= Compressor FAD [m
3
/min
]
Σ t = Total running time of compressor [ s ]
Σ t = t
1
+ t
2
+ t
3
+ t
4
+ t
5
T = Measuring time [ s ]
V

× ×× ×× Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ t

× ×× ×× 1000
V

L
= ———————
T
m³/min × ×× ×× s × ×× ×× 1000 l
l/min = —————-–———
s × ×× ×× m³
V

= 1,65 m³/min
Σ t = 30 s
T = 180 s
[ Time ]
[ Time ]
125
Compressed air requirement
7.3.4 Measures for minimising
compressed air loss
Unfortunately, compressed air loss through leakage is inevita-
ble in normal pneumatic systems. The additional costs caused
by leakage reduce the cost-effectiveness of the system con-
siderably. Measures can be taken to reduce the loss, but this
causes costs money as well. At some point, these costs will
outweigh the savings made by cutting the loss of compressed
air. The objective must therefore be to minimise the loss of
compressed air at acceptable expense.
There are therefore some levels of leakage that should be
tolerated for reasons of economy:
– max. 5 % on smaller networks.
– max. 7 % on medium-sized networks.
– max. 10 % on larger networks.
– max. 13 - 15 % on very large networks.
e.g., foundries, steel mills, shipyards etc.
Staff should be instructed to report leaks and damage to the
network to the persons in charge. Damage should be rectified
immediately. If a system is looked after on a permanent basis,
there will normally be no need for expensive reconstruction of
the network. Compressed air loss will be kept at an accept-
able level.
Leaks
It is usually quite easy to find leaks. Large leaks can be heard.
However, small and very small leaks are harder to find and
can not usually be heard. In these cases, the joints, branches,
valves etc. are covered with seal checker or soapy water. Bub-
bles form immediately where there are leaks. Another easy
method is the use of on ultrasonic leakage detector. This de-
vice detects the ultrasonic noises caused by a leakage.
7.3.3 Limits for leakage
126
Compressed air requirement
If the leakage volume lies clearly above the levels specified in
chapter 7.3.3, reconstruction of the system should be con-
sidered.
When reconstructing a pneumatic system the following meas-
ures should be taken to reduce compressed air loss:
– Tighten leaking joints or reseal them.
– Replace leaking joints and slides.
– Replace leaking hoses and hose connectors.
– Weld leaks on pipelines.
– Upgrade condensate drains.
Replace mechanical float drains and time-controlled
solenoid valves with level-controlled condensate drains.
– Upgrade compressed air preprocessor.
Remove harmful impurities such as water, oil and dust
from the compressed air.
– Check solenoid valves.
If possible, install normally closed valves.
– Flush or replace old pipelines.
The inside diameter of old pipes is often reduced by
deposits. This causes a drop in pressure.
– Check couplings and pipe connections.
Reductions in the size of cross-sections causes a drop
in pressure.
– Reduce the size of the system for limited periods.
Cut off parts of large systems with stop valves when not
needed.
7.3.5 Reconstructing a pneumatic
network
127
Determining the size of the compressor station
Fig. 8.1:
BOGE screw compressor, Series S
8. Determining the size of the compressor station
The primary decision when installing a compressor station is
choosing the type of compressor. Screw or piston compres-
sors are the right choice for nearly all applications.
Screw compressors are particularly suitable for certain appli-
cations.
– Long usage rate UR.
Screw compressors are particularly suitable in situations
where consumption of compressed air is continuous and
without large peak loads ( UR = 100 %). They are excel-
lent as base load machines in composite compressor sys-
tems.
– High FAD.
The screw compressor is the most economical type where
high FAD is needed.
– Pulse-free volume flow.
Through uniform compression the screw compressor can
also be used for very sensitive consumer devices.
– Screw compressors operate economically with final com-
pression pressures of between 5 and 14 bar.
The normal maximum pressure p
max
categories for screw
compressors are 8 bar, 10 bar and 13 bar.
Piston compressors also have their special areas of applica-
tion. They are an ideal supplement to those of the screw com-
pressors.
– Intermittent requirement.
Piston compressors are suitable for fluctuating consump-
tion of compressed air with load peaks. They can be used
as peak-load machines in a compressor group system.
These compressors are the best choice for frequently
changing loads.
– Small FAD quantities.
When FAD quantities are small, the piston compressor is
more economical than the screw compressor.
– Piston compressors can compress to high final pressures.
The normal maximum pressure p
max
categories for piston
compressors are 8 bar, 10 bar, 15 bar, 30 bar and 35 bar.
8.1 The type of compressor
8.1.1 Screw compressors
8.1.2 Piston compressors
Fig. 8.2:
BOGE piston compressor with horizontal
compressed air receiver
128
Determining the size of the compressor station
8.2 Maximum pressure p
max
The next step in determining the size of a compressor with
compressed air receiver and air treatment is to define the maxi-
mum pressure of the compressor p
max
.
The basis for the maximum pressure ( cutout pressure p
max
)
is the cycle difference ( p
max
- p
min
) of the compressor control,
the maximum operating pressure of the consumer devices
and the total pressure loss within the network.
The receiver pressure, which fluctuates between p
min
and p
max
,
must always be much higher than the operating pressures of
the consumer devices in the network. Pressure loss always
occurs in pneumatic systems. This is why the pressure loss
caused by the various components of a pneumatic system
must be taken into consideration.
The following values must be considered when defining the
cutout pressure p
max
:
– Normal pneumatic networks ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,1 bar
The network should be designed so that the total pressure
loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p of the entire network does not exceed 0.1 bar.
– Large pneumatic networks ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,5 bar
On widely branched networks, e.g., in mines, quarries or
large building sites, a pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p up t 0.5 bar can be
allowed.
– Treatment of compressed air by dryer.
Diaphragm compressed air dryer with Filter ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,6 bar
Refrigeration compressed air dryer ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,2 bar
Adsorption compressed air dryer with filter ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,8 bar
– Compressed air treatment by filters and separators.
Dust separator ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,05 bar
Filters generally ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0,6 bar
The pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p through filters rises from soiling. The
latest time at which the filter must be changed is specified.
– The cycle difference of the compressor.
Screw compressors 0,5 - 1 bar
Piston compressors p
max
- 20 %
– Reserves.
Unforeseen pressure loss occurs time and again in pneu-
matic systems. An adequate contingency reserve should
always be planned for in order to avert performance loss.
8.2.1 Factors influencing cutout
pressure p
max
Fig. 8.3:
Behaviour of pressure in a compressed air receiver
Behaviour of pressure
129
Determining the size of the compressor station
8.3 Determining the volume of a
compressed air receiver
Compressed air receivers are tanks used for storing com-
pressed air, damping pulsation and separating condensate in
the pneumatic system. The receiver must be of the correct
size to be able in particular to fulfill its task of storing com-
pressed air.
Determining receiver volume V
R
is accomplished primarily by
values gained from experience. BOGE recommends the fol-
lowing ratios of compressor FAD V

[ l/min ] to receiver volume
V
R
[ l ] :
– Piston compressors. V
R
=V

Intermittent running is aimed for due to the properties of
the compressor.
– Screw compressors V
R
=
V

/3
Constant running is aimed for due to the properties of the
compressor.
After defining the volume of the receiver, with piston compres-
sors it is time to work out the cycle interval, which comprises
the compressor running and idling times. The number of com-
pressor cycles results from this.
Compressed air receivers are available in sensibly graduated
volume sizes. A standard size should always be chosen to
save unnecessary costs for custom-made equipment.
The maximum pressure for which the receiver is designed is,
for safety reasons, always at least 1 bar above the maximum
pressure of the compressor. 10 bar compressors have, for
instance, a compressed air receiver designed for 11 bar. The
safety valve is adjusted for 11 bar.
The following table shows the sizes of compressed air receiver
available for various operating pressures:
8.3.1 Recommendations for the volume
of compressed air receivers
8.3.2 Norm series and operating
pressures for sizes of
compressed air receivers
Fig. 8.4:
Vertical compressed air receiver
Compressed air Operating pressure up to
receiver vol. [ l ] 11 [ bar ] 16 [ bar ] 36 [ bar ]
18 •
30 •
50 • •
80 •
150 • • •
250 • • •
350 • • •
500 • • •
750 • • •
1000 • • •
1500 • • •
2000 • • •
3000 • • •
5000 • • •
130
Determining the size of the compressor station
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ m
3
]
V

= FAD of compressor [ m
3
/min ]
L
B
= Required FAD [ m
3
/min ]
Al = Allowed motor cycles / h [ 1/h ]
( see chapter 8.4.3 )
p
max
= Cut-out pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
p
min
= Cut-in pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
The ideal capacity of compressed air receiver for a compres-
sor can be defined more precisely with the aid of a formula.
The formula is ideal when long idle periods are planned with
intermittent operation. The volume of the pneumatic system
can be considered as a part of the receiver volume.
V
R


V

L
B
Fig. 8.5:
Compressor and compressed air receiver
V

× ×× ×× 60 × ×× ×× [
LB
/V• - (
LB
/V• )² ]
V
R
= ——————————
Al × × × × × ( p
max
- p
min
)
8.3.3 Volumes of compressed air
receivers for compressors
Despite taking all influencing factors into account, it is advis-
able to check the determined receiver size against the allowed
motor cycles of the compressor.
Obviously, compressors with small receiver volumes V
R
switch
on and off more often. This is a strain on the motor. In contrast,
with a large receiver volume V
R
and a constant output the
motor of a compressor switches on less often. This spares the
motor.
Simple formulae for determining the size of the compres-
sed air receiver
Piston compressor Screw compressor
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ m
3
]
Q = FAD of compressor [ m
3
/min ]
15 or 5 = Constant factor
Al = Allowed motor cycles / h [ 1/h ]
( see chapter 8.4.3 )
∆p = Pressure differential ON/OFF
Q × ×× ×× 15
V
R
= —-—-—-
Al × × × × × ∆p
Q × ×× ×× 5
V
R
= —-—-—-
Al × × × × × ∆p
131
Determining the size of the compressor station
The cycle interval is an important factor in a pneumatic sys-
tem. To check the correct size of the receiver in relation to the
FAD and compressed air consumption the cycle interval must
first be calculated. This is done by calculating the compressor
running time t
R
and the compressor idle time t
I
, the sum of
which provides the cycle interval.
During the compressor idle time t
I
the compressed air require-
ment is covered from the volume of air stored in the receiver.
The pressure in the receiver thus drops from the cutout pres-
sure p
max
to the cut-in pressure p
min
. During this time the com-
pressor does not deliver compressed air.
The following formula is used to determine the compressor
idle time t
I
:
8.4 Compressor cycle intervals
8.4.1 Compressor idle times
8.4.2 Compressor running times During running time the compressor compensates the pres-
sure loss in the receiver. At the same time the current com-
pressed air requirement is covered. The output V

is higher than
the actual consumption L
B
. The pressure in the receiver rises
back to p
max
.
The following formula is used to determine the compressor
running time t
R
:
V
R
× ×× ××

( p
max
- p
min
)
t
I
= ———————
L
B
t
I
= Idle time of compressor [ min ]
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ l ]
L
B
= Required FAD [ l/min ]
p
max
=Cut-out pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
p
min
= Cut-in pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
V
R
× ×× ××

( p
max
- p
min
)
t
R
= ———–———
(
V

- L
B
)
t
R
= Running time of compressor [ min ]
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ l ]
L
B
= Required FAD [ l/min ]
V

= FAD of compressor [ l/min ]
p
max
= Cut-out pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
p
min
= Cut-in pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
132
Determining the size of the compressor station
The maximum motor cycle speed depends on the size of the
drive motor. The drive motor can be damaged if the maximum
number of cycles is exceeded.
To determine the number of expected motor cycles A for the
compressor, the compressor running time t
R
and idle time t
I
are added together, and the reference time ( normally 60 min )
divided by the result.
The compressed air receiver must be larger if the result is
above the maximum allowed number of cycles Al.
A second possibility would be to increase the cycle diferential
( p
max
- p
min
).
8.4.3 Determining
the motor cycle speed
60
A = ————
t
I
+ t
R
Motor power rating Allowed cycles/ h Al
[ kW] [ 1/h ]
4 - 7,5 30
11 - 22 25
30 - 55 20
65 - 90 15
110 -160 10
200 - 250 5
A = Cycle speed [ 1/ h ]
t
R
= Running time of compressor [ min ]
t
I
= Idle time of compressor [ min ]
The following table gives the allowed number of cycles for an
electric motor per hour depending on the power rating of the
motor.
133
Determining the size of the compressor station
8.5.1.1 Determining the maximum
pressure p
max
In chapter 7.2.5 the required FAD of L
B
= 2035 l/min was
determined for a number of consumer devices. The maximum
required working pressure in this example is 6 bar
op
. A piston
compressor is dimensioned for this case of application.
The maximum compressor pressure p
max
of the pneumatic
system must now be determined. Starting from the working
pressure of the consumer devices, all components in the pneu-
matic system must be taken into consideration:
– Maximum working pressure in the system 6 bar
op
– Pneumatic network Pressure loss 0,1 bar
– Filters Pressure loss 0,6 bar
– Refrig.compressed air dryer Pressure loss 0,2 bar
————
Minimum pressure in receiver 6,9 bar
op
The cut-in pressure p
min
must always
be above this pressure.
– Cycle differential of piston compressors approx. 2 bar
————
The cut-out pressure p
max
is at least 8,9 bar
op
Selected maximum compressor pressure 10 bar
op
( cut-out pressure of compressor )
8.5.1 Sample calculation
for piston compressors
8.5 Examples for compressor configuration
Fig. 8.6:
Compressor station with piston compressor, com-
pressed air receiver, refrigeration compressed air
dryer and filter system
134
Determining the size of the compressor station
The choice is:
Piston compressor Type RM 4150-213
Max. pressure p
max
: 10 bar
FAD V

: 3350 l/min
Motor rating : 30 kW ⇒ Al = 20
8.5.1.2 Determining compressor size
Fig. 8.7:
BOGE piston compressor, type RM 3650-213
V

min
= L
B
/ 0,6
V


min
= 2035 / 0,6
V


min
= 3392 l/min
Piston compressors are designed with reserves of approx.
40 %. Reserves are included from experience, in order to have
a contingency for possible extensions to the system and to
use the compressor intermittently. Intermittent operation means
less wear.
The ideal usage rate UR for a piston compressor is around
60 %. BOGE piston compressors are designed for 100 % UR =
continuous operation. When calculating the ideal compressor
size this means: the required FAD L
B
must be divided by 0.6 in
order to obtain the minimum FAD V

min
of the piston compres-
sor.
8.5.1.3 Volume of the compressed air
receiver
The volume of the compressed air receiver should be deter-
mined using the BOGE recommendation, compressor FAD
V


volume of compressed air receiver V
R
. The graduations
among standardised sizes for receivers must be taken into
consideration.
V

= 3350 l/min ⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ V
R
= 3000 l
135
Determining the size of the compressor station
After defining the size of the compressed air receiver it is nec-
essary to determine the compressor running and idle times in
order to check the motor cycle rate C.
The following formula is used to find the compressor idle time
t
I
:
V
R
= 3000 l
p
max
= 10 bar
op
p
min
= 8 bar
op
L
B
= 2035 l/min
V
R
× ×× ××

( p
max
- p
min
)
t
I
= ———––———
L
B
3000 × ×× ××

( 10 - 8 )
t
I
= ————————
2035
t
I
= 2,95 min
The following formula is used to determine the compressor
running time t
R
:
V
R
× ×× ××

( p
max
- p
min
)
t
R
= ————–———
(
V

- L
B
)
3000 × ×× ××

( 10 - 8 )
t
R
= ————–———
( 3350 - 2035)
t
R
= 4,56 min
V
R
= 3000 l
p
max
= 10 bar
op
p
min
= 8 bar
op
V

= 3350 l/min
L
B
= 2035 l/min
t
I
= Idle time of compressor [ min ]
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ l ]
L
B
= Required FAD [ l/min ]
p
max
= Cut-out pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
p
min
= Cut-in pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
t
R
= Running time of compressor [ min ]
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ l ]
L
B
= Required FAD [ l/min ]
V

= FAD of compressor [ l/min ]
p
max
=Cut-out pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
p
min
= Cut-in pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
8.5.1.4 Compressor cycle interval
136
Determining the size of the compressor station
The motor cycle rate is calculated from the compressor run-
ning and idle time and compared with the allowed figure Al.
t
I
= 2,95 min
t
R
= 4,56 min
Motor output rating 22 kW ⇒ Al = 25
60
C = ————
t
I
+ t
R
60
C = ———–——
2,95 + 4,56
C = 8
Approx. 8 cycles per hour is well below the allowed number for
the 30 kW motor ( Al = 20 ). The compressed air receiver is of
a good size. It could even be somewhat smaller because of
the large reserve of motor cycles.
Note
If the exact compressed air consumption is not defined, 50%
of the of the compressor FAD can be assumed as consump-
tion when determining the motor cycle rate. In this case the
idle and running times of the compressor are the same. This
results in the maximum number of motor cycles.
C = Cycles [ 1/ h ]
t
R
= Running time of compressor [ min ]
t
I
= Idle time of compressor [ min ]
8.5.1.5 Motor cycle rate of compressor
137
Determining the size of the compressor station
8.5.2.1 Example for determining the
maximum pressure p
max
8.5.2.2 Determining compressor size
Fig. 8.8:
Compressor station with screw compressor, com-
pressed air receiver, refrigeration compressed air
dryer and filter system
8.5.2 Sample calculation for screw
compressors
In chapter 7.2.5 the required FAD of L
B
= 2,04 m³/min was
determined for a number of consumer devices. The maximum
required working pressure in this example is 6 bar
op
. A screw
compressor is sized for this application.
The maximum compressor pressure p
max
of the pneumatic
system must now be determined. Starting from the working
pressure of the consumer devices, all components in the pneu-
matic system must be taken into consideration:
– Maximum working pressure in the system 6 bar
op
– Pneumatic network Pressure loss 0,1 bar
– Filters Pressure loss 0,6 bar
– Refrig.compressed air dryer Pressure loss 0,2 bar
————
Minimum pressure in tank 6,9 bar
op
The cut-in pressure p
min
must always
be above this pressure.
– Cycle differential of screw compressors 1 bar
–––––––
The cut-out pressure p
max
is at least 7,9 bar
op
Selected maximum compressor pressure 8 bar
op
( cut-out pressure of compressor )
The ideal usage rate UR of a screw compressors is 100 %.
This means, the required FAD L
B
is equal to the minimum
output V

min
of the compressor.
L
B
= 2,04 m³/min = V


min
= ca. 2 m³/min
The choice is:
Screw compressor, Type S 21
Maximum pressure p
max
: 8 bar
FAD V

: 2,42 m
3
/min
Motor output rate : 15 kW ⇒ Al = 25
Fig. 8.9:
BOGE screw compressor
138
Determining the size of the compressor station
8.5.2.3 Dimensioning the compressed air
receiver
V
R
= Volume of compressed air receiver [ m
3
]
V

= FAD of all compressors [ m
3
/min ]
L
B
= Required FAD [ m
3
/min ]
Al = Allowed motor cycle rate [ 1/h ]
p
max
= Cut-out pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
p
min
= Cut-in pressure of compressor [ bar
op
]
The volume of the compressed air receiver for screw com-
pressors is calculated with the aid of the following formula.
The usual sizes of standard compressed air receivers should
be taken into account.
V
B
V

Q
Fig. 8.10:
Compressor and compressed air receiver
V

= 2,42 m
3
/min
L
B
= 2,04 m
3
/min
LB
/V

= 0,843
Al = 25 1/h
p
max
= 9 bar
op
p
min
= 8 bar
op
V



× ×× ×× 60 × ×× ×× [
LB
/V• - (
LB
/V• )² ]
V
R
= ——————————
Al × × × × × ( p
max
- p
min
)
2,42 × ×× ×× 60

× ×× ×× [ 0,843 - 0,843² ]
V
R
= ——————————————
25 × × × × × ( 9 - 8 )
V
R
= 0,77 m
3
Selected receiver volume:
V
R
= 0,75 m
3
= 750 l
The volume of the compressed air receiver can also be de-
fined according to the BOGE recommendation, compressor
FAD to volume of compressed air receiver V
R
=
V

/3.
V

= 2,46 m
3
/min ⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ V
R
= 0,81 m³
8.5.2.4 Compressor cycle interval The cycle intervals and maximum allowed cycle rate of the
motor do not have to be checked with BOGE screw compres-
sors because the microcontroller in the BOGE ARS control
unit does not allow the maximum rate to be exceeded.
139
Determining the size of the compressor station
If a company expects fluctuating consumption of compressed
air and is planning later extensions, it needs a compressor
designed for intermittent operation. A piston compressor is
the ideal choice. If the FAD of a compressor can cover the
constant compressed air requirement then a screw compres-
sor should be used.
Both compressor systems are available with full silencing.
Both are supplied ready for use.
The choice of the right system should not depend on the pur-
chase price, because the system pays for itself quickly if over-
head operating costs are saved. Overhead operating costs
are not only the energy costs to produce compressed air but
also the costs of idling.
Piston compressor work in intermittent operation. The do not
have an idle mode. Screw compressors must, because of their
small cycle differential and relatively small compressed air
receiver, automatically run in idle mode in order to avoid hav-
ing too many motor cycles.
The ARS control unit aims for intermittent operation with mini-
mum idling time.
8.5.3 Summary on compressor
selection
140
Determining the size of the compressor station
The working pressure of consumer devices should always be
complied with. The performance of a pneumatic device always
drops disproportionally if the network pressure p
N
falls below
its working pressure.
The following table shows the dependence of performance on
working pressure using the average pneumatic tools and ham-
mers as examples:
Example
The consequences of network pressure that is too low can be
shown using a pneumatic cylinder as an example.
If the pneumatic cylinder of a clamping device is not supplied
with the required working pressure, the clamping power of the
cylinders falls and the workpiece is no longer held with the
necessary force.
The workpiece falls loose from the clamp while being proc-
essed by a machine tool. This can result in the destruction of
the workpiece and may also injure to the machine operator.
Effective Relative Relative
pressure performance air consumption
[ bar ] [ %] [ %]
at tool drill tool drill
connection hammer hammer
7 120 130 115 120
6 100 100 100 100
5 77 77 83 77
4 55 53 64 56
8.6.1 Performance
and working pressure
Fig. 8.13:
Pneumatic clamp
8.6 Information on compressor configuration
Fig. 8.12:
Valveless pneumatic hammer
Fig. 8.11:
Impact wrench with pneumatic drive
141
Determining the size of the compressor station
If the working pressure of the various consumer devices var-
ies widely, the situation requires closer examination.
Some devices with a low compressed air requirement need a
much higher working pressure than others.
In this case a second, small compressor station with a sepa-
rate pneumatic network and an appropriately higher cut-out
pressure p
max
should be installed.
The unnecessary overcompression of the main volume flow
of the pneumatic system causes considerable costs. In most
cases, these additional costs justify the installation of a sec-
ond system.
The second system usually amortises itself quickly by reduc-
ing operating costs.
For users of compressed air with high, heavily fluctuating con-
sumption, a single, large compressor is not the best solution.
The alternative is to have a combined compressor system con-
sisting of several compressors. Greater operational reliability
and greater economy are the arguments for this option.
One or more compressors cover the continuous basic require-
ment for compressed air ( basic load ). If the requirement rises,
additional compressors are switched on ( medium and peak
load ), until the output covers the requirement. If the require-
ment drops, the compressors are switched back off again,
one after the other.
The configuration of individual compressors ( free air deliv-
ered ) in a combined compressor system is individually so
different that no general statement are possible. The configu-
ration depends on the pneumatic behaviour of all consumer
devices connected to the system.
Advantages
– Operational reliability.
Operations heavily reliant on compressed air can guaran-
tee their supply at all times with a combined compressor
system. If one compressor fails, or if servicing work needs
to be done, the other compressors take over the work.
– Economy.
Several small compressors are easier to adjust to com-
pressed air consumption than one large compressor. This
fact makes a system of this type more economical. If the
system is only running at half-load, there are no high run-
ning costs for a large compressor but low idling costs for
small compressors in readiness in a combined system.
8.6.2 Varying working pressure of
consumer devices
8.6.3 Combined compressor systems
Fig. 8.14:
Diagram of a combined compressor system
142
The pneumatic system
9. The pneumatic system
9.1 The compressed air receiver The size of the compressed air receiver is determined by the
FAD of the compressor, the control system, and compressed
air consumption. Compressed air receivers have various im-
portant tasks in a pneumatic system.
The compressor builds up a store of compressed air inside
the receiver. The compressed air requirement can be covered
at intervals from this store. The compressor does not supply
compressed air during this time. It is in readiness and does
not use electricity. Additionally, fluctuating use of compressed
air is compensated for and peak requirements covered. The
motor is switched on less often and wear on it reduced.
In some circumstances several receivers are needed to build
up an adequate store of compressed air. Very large pneu-
matic systems usually have an adequate storage capacity. In
this case, smaller receivers can be used.
Due to the way they operate, piston compressors generate a
pulsing volume flow. These pressure fluctuations impair the
operation of various consumer devices. Process control and
measuring equipment in particular react to pulsing volume flow
by making errors. The compressed air receiver is used to bal-
ance out these fluctuations in pressure.
This is much less the case with screw compressors because
they generate an almost even volume flow.
9.1.1 Storing compressed air
9.1.2 Pulsation damping
Fig. 9.1:
Horizontal compressed air receiver
143
The pneumatic system
Compression causes the moisture in the air to form droplets
of water ( condensate ). This water is usually drawn into the
compressed air receiver with the volume flow. This is where
compressed air is stored. Heat is given off to the cooler sur-
rounding by the large surface of the receiver and the com-
pressed air cools down. This causes a large part of the con-
densate to precipitate on the walls of the receiver. The con-
densate collects on the floor of the receiver and is removed
by a suitable condensate collector.
Compressed air receivers that are only emptied at irregular
intervals can be corroded by the condensate. One protection
against corrosion is to galvanise the receiver in a dip-tank. It
is not absolutely essential to galvanise the receiver if the
condensate is drained regularly. Galvanising is also a useful
option if the condensate contains a high concentration of
aggressive components.
Compressed air receivers may only be continuously used for
compressors with intermittent and idling modes. The area of
pressure fluctuation ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p must not exceed 20 % of the maxi-
mum operating pressure ( max. compressor pressure 10 bar,
∆p = 2 bar ). If pressure fluctuations are greater, the welding
seams may break as a result of fatigue over the course of
time. The compressed air receiver must then be specially
designed for fluctuating stress.
The compressed air receiver should be installed in a cool place
whenever possible. This will cause more condensate to form
inside, which means that less will enter the pneumatic system
and the pre-processing unit.
Compressed air receivers should be installed so that they are
or can be made accessible for periodic inspections, and with
the factory specification plate well visible.
The compressed air receiver should be installed on a suitable
foundation with plenty of space for inspections. It should be
taken into account that the stress on the foundation increases
during pressure testing when the tank is filled with water.
Compressed air receivers must be installed so as not to be a
hazard for the staff or other people. The necessary safety zones
and distances must be observed.
The compressed air receiver and its ancillary equipment must
be protected against mechanical influence from the outside
( e.g., from vehicles ), so that they are not a hazard for people
or equipment.
9.1.5 Installation of compressed air
receivers
9.1.3 Condensate collection
Fig. 9.2:
Vertical compressed air receiver
9.1.4 Operation of compressed air
receivers
144
The pneumatic system
9.1.6 Safety rules for compressed air
receivers
Depending on their size and pressure, compressed air receiv-
ers are subject to a number of various rules and directives.
Most important of them all is Pressure Equipment Directive
97/23/EC concerning the manufacture of compressed air re-
ceivers with a pressure content product exceeding 10,000 bar*l
as well as the Simple Pressure Vessel Directive 87/404/EEC
for compressed air receivers having a pressure content prod-
uct of up to 10.000 bar*l. In addition, the user of a compressed
air system is required to observe a number of national require-
ments. In Germany, the Industrial Safety Regulations (Betr
SichV) apply for the most part.
Compressors as a whole are considered machines subject to
EC machinery Directive 98/37/EC.
Compressed air receivers are subject to various registration
and inspection obligations. Directive 97/23/EC serves to di-
vide such compressed air receivers into different groups in
respect of their pressure content product [bar*l] and trans-
ported media. In conformity with their classification, require-
ments for inspection and control may vary, which particularly
applies to repetitive inspection intervals.
Periodic inspections are to be repeated at max. 5 years inter-
vals for interior inspection, and at max. 10 years intervals for
strength testing. In order to comply with any particular require-
ments such intervals may be shortened by the competent tech-
nical inspection authorities. Not all inspections have to be
carried out by the inspection authorities. Under certain cir-
cumstances inspections can be carried out by the operator’s
own specially qualified and authorized personnel.
The relevant approved inspection authorities are defined in
§ 14 of the general product safety directive. Those authorities
must be both specified and accredited with their tasks tradi-
tionally being carried out by expert personnel. After a transi-
tional period through the end of 2007, terminology will change
and tasks will be conveyed to the specified authorities.
A qualified person within the meaning of the general product
safety directive is a person who, by virtue of his/her industrial
training, professional experience and up-to-date job training,
has full command of expert knowledge as may be required for
inspecting said equipment (§ 2 clause 7). This, in its broadest
sense, corresponds to the previous definition of proficient
persons.
9.1.6.1 Registration and inspection
obligations
9.1.6.2 Approved inspection authorities
and authorized personnel
145
The pneumatic system
9.1.6.3 Inspection prior
to commissioning
9.1.6.4 Registration
9.1.6.5 Repetitive inspections
Any compressed air system subject to control (i.e. compressed
air systems as defined in the 97/23/EC and 87/404/EEC di-
rectives) may only be put into initial and/or post-modification
operation after inspection by an approved authority under con-
sideration of its intended use and with view to proper assem-
bly, installation, setting-up and its safe functioning.
Smaller compressed air receivers as defined in the 87/404/
EEC directive and having a pressure content product of less
than 200 bar*l need not be inspected by an approved author-
ity but may be inspected by any authorized personnel.
Based on a safety assessment analysis, the user is obliged
to determine all applicable inspection intervals for the entire
compressed air receiver system and its components. This has
to be effected during inspection prior to commissioning of
the system. Maximum intervals for interior inspection may not
exceed 5 years whereas intervals for strength testing may not
exceed 10 years.
Inspection delays for system components and/or the entire
system are to be reported to the competent authority within
six months after commissioning of the compressed air receiver
system along with all applicable system related data.
Any compressed air receiver systems and components thereof
which are subject to inspection control may be required to be
inspected by an approved authority for proper functioning and
operation. Said inspections include technical testing of the
system itself in conformity with the respective inspection rules
as well as a proper functioning check.
As regards compressed air receivers with a pressure content
product exceeding 1.000 bar*l, such inspections are to be re-
peated at max. 5 years intervals for interior inspection, and at
max. 10 years intervals for strength testing.
Compressed air receivers having a pressure content product
of less than 1.000 bar*l my be inspected by any authorized
personnel.
146
The pneumatic system
Repetitive inspections are to include the following steps:
Interior inspection (max. 5 years intervals)
Disconnect compressed air receiver from network to make
sure that it is not under pressure. Open inspection aperture
and thoroughly clean inside of receiver. Walls must be me-
tallically clean. After examination of the interior condition of
the receiver a certificate of proper functioning is issued by the
inspector.
Pressure test (max. 10 years intervals)
Disconnect compressed air receiver from network to make
sure that it is not under pressure. Unscrew all fittings and plug
any openings prior to completely filling receiver with water
and connecting hand pump for pressure test. Use hand pump
to generate 1.43 or 1.5 times the operating pressure, depend-
ing on receiver, before receiver is checked for leakage by the
inspector.
As regards subject exterior and interior inspections, similar
and equivalent methods may be employed for examination
whereas with view to strength testing, equivalent non-destruc-
tive methods may be implemented in lieu of static pressure
tests if, because of the design or the mode of operation of the
receiver, such strength tests apparently do not fit the purpose.
147
The pneumatic system
9.1.7 Fittings on the compressed air
receiver
The compressed air receiver is not simply a naked steel con-
tainer. It needs a number of fittings to allow it to operate prop-
erly and assure the required safety.
– Pressure switch.
The switch is for controlling the compressor.
– Non-return valve.
A non-return valve must always be installed in the supply
line from the compressor to the receiver. With piston com-
pressors it prevents compressed air flowing back into the
compressor during breaks in operation. With screw com-
pressors the valve is integrated in the system.
– Safety valve.
The installation of a safety valve on compressed air receiv-
ers is required by law. If the internal pressure of the re-
ceiver p
N
( network pressure ) rises 10 % ove the nominal
pressure, the safety valve opens and blows out the excess
pressure.
– Control flange.
The control flange with aperture is used by the inspection
authorities to connect a calibrated manometer for the pres-
sure test.
– Pressure gauge.
The manometer shows the internal pressure of the receiver.
– Ball shut-off valve.
The ball shut-off valve isolates the receiver from the pneu-
matic system or the compressor.
– Condensate drain.
Condensate precipitates inside the receiver and therefore
it requires an appropriate connection for the condensate
collector.
– Inspection aperture.
The inspection aperture can take the form of a socket end
or hand-hole flange. It is used to check and clean the in-
side of the receiver. The minimum size of the aperture is
prescribed by law.
– High pressure hose.
The high pressure hose connects the receiver with the com-
pressor. It is used instead of a pipe so as not to transmit
vibration from the compressor to the pneumatic system
and to correct size deviations on connection to the system.
The pressure switch, high pressure hose and non-return valve
are not typical fittings for compressed air receivers. But it it is
sensible to have them installed.
1
2 7
4
6
5
8
3
1 = Pressure switch
2 = Non-return valve or
ball shut-off valve
3 = Safety valve
4 = Control flange
5 = Pressure gauge
6 = Ball shut-off valve
7 = Condensate drain
8 = Mounting for fittings
9 = Inspection aperture
10 = High pressure hose
9
10
Fig. 9.3:
Compressed air receiver with fittings
148
The pneumatic system
9.1.7.1 Safety valve The installation of a safety valve on compressed air receivers
is prescribed by law.
If the internal pressure of the receiver p
N
( network pressure )
rises to the maximum operating pressure of the tank ( e.g.,
the maximum compressor pressure 10 bar, tank operating pres-
sure 11 bar ), the safety valve must slowly open.
If the system pressure rises to 1.1 times the nominal pressure
( e.g., tank pressure 11 bar, safety valve 12.1 bar ), the safety
valve must open fully and blow off the excess pressure. Care
must be taken that the cross-section of the outlet aperture of
the safety valve is of a size that allows the entire output of all
connected compressors to be blown off without the pressure
in the receiver rising.
When an existing pneumatic system is extended at a later
date the number of compressors increases. An appropriate
upgrading of the safety valve can easily be overlooked when
this happens. If the safety valve is no longer able to blow off
the entire output of the compressors the operating pressure in
the receiver will rise. This can cause the receiver to explode in
extreme cases.
Safety inspection
The safety valve must be checked every time a compressor
station is extended so as not to have a valve with too low a
capacity.
The mains connection to the receiver must be shut off. The
press switches must then be bridged, so that the compres-
sors can no longer switch off automatically.
The pressure in the receiver rises until the safety valve switches.
The receiver pressure must not exceed 1.1 times the limit ( e.g.,
receiver pressure 11 bar, safety valve 12.1 bar ). If this does
happen, the safety valve is below par and must be replaced.
Fig. 9.4:
Safety valve on combined compressed air-oil re-
ceiver of an oil-injection cooled screw compressor
Fig. 9.5:
Diagram symbol for a safety valve
149
The pneumatic system
9.2 The compressed air circuit A central compressed air supply needs a pipeline circuit to
deliver compressed air to the individual devices. The circuit
must meet various conditions in order to guarantee reliable
and economical operation of the devices:
– Adequate volume flow.
Each device in the circuit must be supplied with the re-
quired volume flow at all times.
– The necessary working pressure.
Each device in the circuit must have the necessary air pres-
sure at all times.
– Quality of compressed air.
Each device in the circuit must have compressed air of the
required quality at all times.
– Low pressure loss.
The pressure loss in the circuit must be as low as possible
for economic reasons.
– Secure operation.
The supply of compressed air should be guaranteed as far
as possible. If lines are damaged, repair and maintenance
work must not put the entire circuit out of use.
– Safety rules.
The relevant safety rules must be followed at all times in
order to prevent accidents and the resulting rights of re-
course.
A pipeline circuit is made up of individual sections. This allows
an ideal connection to be made between the compressor and
dependent devices.
The main line connects the compressor station with the com-
pressed air treatment and the compressed air receiver. Distri-
bution lines are connected to the main line. The main line must
be of a size that allows the entire output of the compressor
station to be delivered now and in the near future, and with the
minimum loss of pressure.
The pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in the main line should be no higher
than 0.04 bar.
9.2.1 The structure of a compressed air
circuit
9.2.1.1 The main line
Fig. 9.6:
Main line of a compressed air circuit
Compressed air receiver
Compressor
Dryer
Condensate
drain
Main line
150
The pneumatic system
The distribution lines are laid through the entire operation and
bring compressed air to the devices. They should always take
the form of a ring line wherever possible. This increases the
economy and security of operation of the line as a whole.
Pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in the distribution lines should be no higher
than 0.03.
9.2.1.2 The distribution line- ring line
Fig. 9.7:
Compressed air supply with ring line
1 = Compressor
2 = Non-return valve
3 = Compressed air receiver
4 = Condensate drain
5 = Safety valve
6 = Compressed air dryer
7 = Compressed air connections
1
3 5
6
2
4
7
Main line
Ring line
Connection line
A ring line forms a closed distribution ring. It is possible to
isolate individual sections of the network without interrupting
the supply of compressed air to other areas. This provides
assurance that compressed air will be available for most de-
vices, even when servicing, repairs and extension work is being
carried out.
If the compressed air is supplied through a distribution ring,
the compressed air has a shorter route to travel than with
stub lines. This means that lower pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is needed.
When dimensioning the ring line one can calculate with half
the flow pipe length and half the volume flow allowing smaller
pipe dimensions.
151
The pneumatic system
The distribution lines are laid through the entire operation and
bring compressed air close to the devices. They can also take
the form of a stub line.
The pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in the distribution lines should be no
more than 0.03 bar.
9.2.1.4 The connection line
9.2.1.3 The distribution line- stub line
1 = Screw compressor
2 = Non-return valve
3 = Compressed air receiver
4 = Condensate drain
5 = Safety valve
6 = Compressed air dryer
7 = Compressed air connections
1
3 5
6
2
4
7
Main line
Stub line
Connection line
Fig. 9.8:
Compressed air supply with stub line
Stub lines branch off from larger distribution lines or the main
line and end at the consumer device. Outlying consumers can
be supplied through stub lines. It is also possible to supply a
complete compressed air system with stub lines. They have
the advantage of needing less material than ring lines. But
they also have the disadvantage that they must be of larger
size than ring lines and frequently cause high pressure losses.
Stub lines should always have a non-return valve which can
isolate them from the system. This makes servicing and repair
work easier.
The connection lines come from the distribution lines. They
supply consumer devices with compressed air. Since the de-
vices operate with different pressures it is normally necessary
to install a service unit with a pressure regulator in front of the
device. The network pressure is reduced to the working pres-
sure of the device by the regulator. Service units comprising
filters, separators, regulators and oilers are not needed if the
compressed air is pre-treated.
The pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in the connection lines should be no
higher than 0,03 bar.
Note
For industrial applications the recommended pipe size is
DN 25 ( 1" ). This size has next to no cost disadvantages
compared with smaller sizes and nearly always guarantees a
reliable supply of compressed air. Consumer devices requir-
ing up to 1800 l/min can be supplied through line lengths of up
to 10 m with hardly any pressure loss.
152
The pneumatic system
Attention must be paid to the following points when connect-
ing several compressors to a common (collective) line.
9.2.1.5 Connecting to a collective line
with multiple systems
1 = Screw compressor
2 = Water separator
3 = Condensate drain
4 = Connection line
5 = Collection line
Fig. 9.9:
Collective lines
Compressed air and condensate collection lines
1. Collection line with gradient.
The line must be laid with a gradient of approx. 1.5 - 2 %
in the direction of flow.
2. Connection line from above.
The connection line must be connected to the collective
line from above.
Compressed air collective lines
3. Water separator on longer rising lines.
On longer lines that rise to a collective line a water sepa-
rator with automatic drainage must be installed after the
compressor in order to catch the water flowing back.
Vent collective lines
Points 1 and 2 also apply when vent lines are brought
together in collective lines.
Vent collective lines must also have an expansion vessel
and vent silencer installed.
1 = Screw compressor
2 = Piston compressor
3 = Connection line
4 = Collection line
5 = Expansion vessel
6 = Vent silencer
7 = Oil-water-separator
Compressed air Condensate
3
5 4
1 2
1 1
4 3
1 2
5
6
7
153
The pneumatic system
Compressed air lines should be straight wherever possible.
On corners that can not be avoided, do not use knee and
T-pieces. Long curves and Y-pieces provide better flow con-
ditions and therefore less pressure loss Dp. Abrupt changes
in the diameter of the line should also be avoided due to the
high loss of pressure this causes.
Large pipe systems should be subdivided into several sec-
tions, each of which should be equipped with a non-return
valve. It is important to be able to isolate parts of the system,
particularly for inspections, repairs and conversions.
In some situations it may be of benefit to have a second com-
pressor to supply the system from a different point. This short-
ens the distance the compressed air has to travel. As a result,
the pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is lower.
Main lines and large distribution lines should be welded with
V-seams. This means there are no sharp edges and points
inside the pipes. There is therefore less resistance in the pipes
and the burden on filters and tools caused by detached parti-
cles of welded metal is reduced.
9.3 Tips for planning pipe systems
9.3.1 General planning tips
Fig. 9.10:
Unfavourable flow conditions: T and knee-piece
Fig. 9.11:
Favourable flow conditions: Y-tube and curved pipe
154
The pneumatic system
Compression causes the water in the air to form droplets ( con-
densate ). If the compressed air is not pre-processed by a
compressed air dryer, water must be expected in the entire
pipeline network.
In this situation there are various guidelines to be followed
when installing the pipeline, in order to prevent damage to
consumer devices.
– Temperature gradients.
Where possible, the compressed air lines should be laid
so that the air does not cool down when flowing through.
The air should be heated gradually. If the absolute humid-
ity is constant, the relative humidity will then fall. Conden-
sate will then be unable to form.
– Pipelines with gradients.
The pipelines must be laid with a gradient of approx. 1.5 - 2 %
in the direction of flow. The condensed water in the pipe-
line will then collect at the lowest point of the line.
– Vertical main line.
The main line directly behind the compressed air receiver
should rise vertically. The condensate that occurs when
cooling takes place can then flow back into the receiver.
– Condensate drain.
Condensate drains must be installed at the lowest points
of the system in order to drain off the condensate.
– Connection lines.
The connection lines must branch off upwards in the direc-
tion of flow. The pipeline here must be as straight as possi-
ble to avoid unnecessary pressure loss.
– Fittings.
A service unit with filter, water separator and pressure re-
duction valve should always be installed. A compressed air
lubricator may also be needed, depending on the applica-
tion.
9.3.2 Pipeline without
compressed air dryer
Pipeline with 1.5 - 2
o
/oo gradient
Fig. 9.12:
Examples of correctly laid piping
right
wrong
155
The pneumatic system
9.3.3 Pipeline system with
compressed air dryer
If there is a compressed air dryer with an appropriate filter
installed in the system, many of the measures taken against
condensate can be dispensed with.
– Pipelines.
The lines can be laid horizontally because there is almost
no water left in the system. The other measures concern-
ing the way the lines are laid are also unnecessary.
– Condensate drain.
Condensate drains are only fitted at the filters, the com-
pressed air receiver and the dryer.
– Connection lines.
The connection lines can be joined vertically downwards
with T-pieces.
– Fittings.
Only pressure reduction valves have to be fitted to the con-
sumer devices. A lubricator may be required, depending
on the application.
This considerably reduces the price of the installation. Some-
times, even the money saved here justifies installing a com-
pressed air dryer.
156
The pneumatic system
9.4 Pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p
Every pneumatic pipeline is resistance for compressed air in
flow. This resistance is internal friction which occurs with the
flow of all liquid and gaseous media. It results from the effect
of force among the molecules( viscosity ) of the flowing me-
dium ad the walls of the pipeline. This is the cause of pressure
loss in pipelines.
Quite apart from internal friction, the type of flow inside the
line also affects pressure loss. Air can move in two completely
different ways.
Laminar flow
Laminar flow is even-layered flow. The individual molecules of
the compressed air move in parallel, adjacently flowing layers.
This type of flow has two main properties:
– low pressure loss.
– low heat transition.
Turbulent flow
Turbulent flow is whirly and uneven. The axially directed flow
is surrounded by constantly changing additional movement at
all points. The paths of flow all have an effect on each other
and form small whirls. This type of flow has two main proper-
ties:
– high pressure loss.
– high heat transition.
The type of flow can be defined using the Reynolds number
Re. This gives the criterion for laminar and turbulent flow. The
Reynolds number Re is influenced by various factors:
– The kinematic viscosity of the compressed air.
– The mean speed of the compressed air.
– The inside diameter of the pipe.
The flow in the pipeline remains laminar until what is known
as the critical Reynolds number Re
crit
is exceeded. It then takes
on the condition of unevenness and turbulence.
Note
The high flow speeds that lead to Re
crit
being exceeded do not
normally occur in pneumatic networks. The prevailing flow in
pneumatic networks is laminar. Turbulent flow only occurs at
points where there are massive flow disturbances.
The speed of flow in compressed air lines must not exceed
20 m/s, since noise and turbulent flow will otherwise occur.
9.4.1 Type of flow
9.4.2 The Reynolds number Re
Fig. 9.14:
Image of flow and speed with turbulent flow
v
max
Fig. 9.13:
Flow and speed development with laminar flow
v
max
157
The pneumatic system
The amount of pressure lost is influenced by several compo-
nents and circumstances of the network:
– length of pipe.
– clear inside diameter of the pipe.
– pressure in the pipe network.
– branches and bends in the pipe.
– narrowing and widening.
– valves.
– fittings and connections
– filters and dryer.
– leakage points.
– surface quality of the pipelines.
These factors must be taken into account when planning the
system, otherwise increased pressure loss will occur.
Each change in the line hinders the flow of compressed air
within it. The laminar flow is disturbed and higher pressure
loss results.
9.4.3 Pressure loss in the pipe system
2
D
-
C
u
r
v
e
3
D
-
C
u
r
v
e
T
-
P
i
e
c
e
R
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
B
r
a
n
c
h
i
n
g

o
f
f
W
i
d
e
n
i
n
g
F
l
a
n
g
e
d

c
o
n
n
e
c
t
i
o
n
L
e
a
k
a
g
e
s
V
a
l
v
e
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
[
b
a
r
]
Path [ m]
Pressure loss
Fig. 9.15:
Pressure loss in a pipeline
158
The pneumatic system
9.5 Dimensioning pipelines Correct dimensioning of the pipes in a system is of great im-
portance for economical operation. Pipes with too small a
diameter cause high losses of pressure. These losses must
be compensated for by high compression in order to guaran-
tee the performance of consumer devices.
The main factors influencing the ideal inside diameter d
i
of
the pipe are:
– Volume flow V

.
The maximum throughput of air should be assumed when
determining d
i
. Increased pressure loss has a greater
impact when the requirement for compressed air is at a
maximum.
– Effective flow length of pipeline.
The length of the pipeline should be determined as accu-
rately as possible. Fittings and bends are unavoidable in
pipeline systems. When determining the effective flow length
of the pipeline these must be taken into account as an
equivalent section of pipe.
– Operating pressure.
When determining d
i
the compressor cut-out pressure p
max
is to be assumed. At maximum pressure the pressure drop
∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is also highest.
The pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in a pipeline with a maximum pressure
p
max
of 8 bar
op
and above should not exceed a certain total
loss by the time it reaches the consumer device:
– Pipe system ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0.1 bar
The following values are recommended for the individual sec-
tions of the system:
– Main line ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0.04 bar
– Distribution line ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0.04 bar
– Connection line ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 0.03 bar
In pipe systems with lower maximum pressures ( e.g., 3 bar
op
)
a pressure loss of 0,1 bar is higher in relative terms than in an
8 bar
op
system. In this case, a different value is recommended
for the system as a whole:
– Pipe system ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ≤ ≤≤ ≤≤ 1,5 % p
max
9.5.1 Maximum pressure drop ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p
159
The pneumatic system
9.5.2 Nominal width of pipelines
Comparison [ DN – Inch ]
Medium-weight threaded pipes made of standard structural
steel ( DIN 17100 ), which are often used for pipe systems,
are made according to the DIN 2440 standard. This standard
prescribes certain graduations of nominal width ( inside diam-
eter d
i
) and certain designations. For this reason, fittings and
pipes are only available in the corresponding sizes.
The graduations of nominal diameter also apply for other pipe
materials and standardisations.
The standard nominal widths must always adhered to when
dimensioning pipelines. Other nominal widths are only avail-
able if specially made and are disproportionately expensive.
The following table contains standard graduations in DN
( Diameter Nominal ) mm and inches, and the most important
basic data for pipes according to DIN 2440:
Nominal pipe width Outside Inside Inside Wall
acc. to DIN 2440 diameter diameter cross-section thickness
[Inches ] [ DN ] [ mm] [ mm] [ cm2 ] [ mm]
1/8" 6 10.2 6.2 0.30 2.00
1/4" 8 13.5 8.8 0.61 2.35
3/8" 10 17.2 12.5 1.22 2.35
1/2" 15 21.3 16.0 2.00 2.65
3/4" 20 26.9 21.6 3.67 2.65
1" 25 33.7 27.2 5.82 3.25
1 1/4" 32 42.4 35.9 10.15 3.25
1 1/2" 40 48.3 41.8 13.80 3.25
2" 50 60.3 53.0 22.10 3.65
2 1/2" 65 76.1 68.8 37.20 3.65
3" 80 88.9 80.8 50.70 4.05
4" 100 114.3 105.3 87.00 4.50
5" 125 139.7 130.0 133.50 4.85
6" 150 165.1 155.4 190.00 4.85
160
The pneumatic system
9.5.3 Equivalent pipe length A major factor in dimensioning the inside diameter of a pipe d
i
is the pipe length. Pipelines are not only made up of straight
sections of pipe, the flow resistance of which can quickly be
deduced. Installed bends, valves and other fittings consider-
ably increase flow resistance inside the pipeline. This is the
reason that the effective pipe length L must be determined,
taking into account the fittings and bends.
For simplification, the flow resistance values of various fittings
and bends have been converted into equivalent pipe lengths.
The following table gives the equivalent pipe length in depend-
ency on pipe nominal width and the fitting:
These values must be added to the actual pipe length to
obtain the effective pipe length L.
Note
Complete information about fittings and bends are not gener-
ally available at the start of planning a pipeline system. The
effective pipe length L is therefore calculated by multiplying
the straight pipe length by 1.6.
Fittings Equivalent Pipe Length [ m]
Pipe and Fitting Nominal Width [ DN ]
DN 25 DN 40 DN 50 DN 80 DN 100 DN 125 DN 150
Check valve 8 10 15 25 30 50 60
Diaphragm valve 1.2 2.0 3.0 4.5 6 8 10
Gate valve 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Knee bend 90° 1.5 2.5 3.5 5 7 10 15
Bend 90° R = d 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Bend 90° R = 2d 0.15 0.25 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.5
T-Piece 2 3 4 7 10 15 20
Reduction piece D = 2d 0.5 0.7 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.5 4.0
161
The pneumatic system
9.5.4 Determining the inside diameter d
i
of the pipe by calculation
The following approach formula can be used to dimension
the inside diameter of the pipe. It assumes the maximum
operating pressure p
max
( compressor cutout pressure ),
the maximum volume flow V

( required output L
B

) and the
effective pipe length L. ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p is the target pressure loss.
d
i
= Inside diameter of pipeline [ m ]
V

= Total volume flow [ m
3
/s ]
L = Effective pipe length [ m ]
∆p = Target pressure loss [ bar ]
p
max
= Compressor cut-out pressure [ bar
abs
]
Example
The inside pipe diameter d
i
of a pneumatic connection line
with a target pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p of 0,1 bar is to be determined
using the approach formula. The maximum operating pres-
sure p
max
( compressor cutout pressure ) is 8 bar
abs
. A vol-
ume flow V

of 2 m³/min will flow through pipeline with an
approximate length of 200 m.
V

= 2 m
3
/min = 0,033 m
3
/s
L = 200 m
∆p = 0,1 bar
p
max
= 8 bar
abs
1,6 × × × × × 10
3
× ×× ×× V

1,85
× ×× ×× L
d
i
= ——————————
10
10
× ∆ × ∆ × ∆ × ∆ × ∆p × ×× ×× p
max
5
1,6 × × × × × 10
3
× ×× ×× 0,033
1,85
× ×× ×× 200
d
i
= ————————————
10
10
× × × × × 0,1 × ×× ×× 8
d
i
= 0,037 m = 37 mm
Nominal width selected: DN 40
5
The inside diameters of pipes are standardised in certain sizes.
But it is rare to find a standard nominal width that matches the
calculated inside diameter. In such cases the next largest stand-
ard nominal width is taken.
162
The pneumatic system
9.5.5 Determining the inside diameter
of the pipe d
i
by graphics
The pipe inside diameter d
i
can be determined easier and
faster with a nomogramme than by calculation. The major in-
fluencing factors are the same with calculation method as with
the graphical method.
Start by reading the intersection of the volume flow V

and the
operating pressure p
max
. Proceed by following the thick line in
the example in the direction of the arrow.
Example
Volume flow V

= 2 m³/min
Effective pipe length L = 200 m
Pressure loss ∆p = 0,1 bar
Operating pressure p
max
= 8 bar
abs
Pipe inside diameter d
i
= app. 38 mm
The nominal width selected for the pipeline is DN 40
Pipe length L [ m]
P
i
p
e

i
n
s
i
d
e

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

d
i


[
m
m
]
V
o
l
u
m
e

f
l
o
w

V



[
m
3
/
m
i
n
]
Pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p in the pipeline[ bar ]
Operating pressure p
max
[ bar
abs
]
163
The pneumatic system
9.5.6 Determining the inside diameter
of the pipe d
i
with the aid of a bar
graph
The third and simplest method of determining the pipe inside
diameter d
i
is the bar graph. However, this method is very
limited in application. Two conditions must be met for the bar
graph method to be used:
– A maximum pressure p
max
in the network of 8 bar
op
.
– A target pressure loss ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p of 0,1 bar.
The bar chart is very easy to use:
Take the determined maximum volume flow V

and the effec-
tive pipe length and find the respective line or column in the
graph. The resulting intersection indicates the correct pipe
nominal width to meet the requirements.
Example
Pressure loss ∆p = 0,1 bar
Operating pressure p
max
= 8 bar
op
Effective pipe length L = 200 m
Volume flow V

= 2000 l/min
The nominal width of the pipe obtained is DN 40
164
The pneumatic system
9.6 Choosing the material
for pipelines
System pipelines are normally made of steel, non-ferrous metal
or plastic. They must meet various criteria, which limits the
choice of material for some applications:
– Protection against corrosion.
The question of resistance to corrosion is always a prime
consideration unless the compressed air is dried in a pre-
treatment unit. The pipes must not rust through over the
course of time.
– Maximum operating temperature.
Some materials lose tensile strength at high temperatures
and become brittle at low temperatures.
– Maximum operating pressure.
The maximum operating pressure drops with increasing
thermal stress.
– Low pressure loss.
Low pressure loss is obtained by high surface quality on
the inside of the pipe.
– Low-cost installation.
Installation prices can be reduced by a multitude of pre-
shaped parts, fast and easy installation and cheap mate-
rial.
Steel threaded pipes compliant with DIN 2440, DIN 2441 and
DIN 2442 ( medium-weight and heavyweight versions ) are in
widespread use in pneumatic systems. They are used par-
ticularly in small and medium-sized distribution and connec-
tion lines. Threaded pipes are used everywhere where the
demands on the quality of compressed air are not high. They
are available in black and galvanised metal.
– Size DN 6 - DN 150
– Maximum operating pressure max. 10 - 80 bar
op
– Maximum operating temperature 120°C
Advantages
Threaded pipes are inexpensive and quickly installed. There
are many different and useful shaped parts and fittings to use
with them. The joints can be disconnected and the individual
parts reused.
Disadvantages
Threaded pipes have a high flow resistance and the joints
tend to leak over time. An experienced fitter is needed to in-
stall them. Ungalvanised threaded pipes should not be used
in networks without a dryer, because they corrode.
9.6.1 Threaded pipes
165
The pneumatic system
9.6.2 Seamless steel pipes Seamless mild steel pipes compliant with DIN 2448 are chiefly
mainly used in main and distribution lines with medium and
large pipe diameters. They are available in black and galva-
nised finishes.
– Sizes 10.2 - 558,8 mm
– Maximum operating pressure max. 12.5 - 25 bar
op
– Maximum operating temperature 120°C
Advantages
Seamless mild steel pipes are available in sizes up to
558,8 mm. They are completely airtight if properly laid. Leak-
age is therefore practically zero. The pipes are cheap, and
there are relatively many shaped parts to choose from.
Disadvantages
An experienced fitter is needed to lay seamless, mild steel
pipes because they must be welded and flanged. Ungalva-
nised mild steel pipes should not be used in networks without
a dryer, because they corrode.
Stainless steel pipes compliant with DIN 2462 and DIN 2463
are only used in pneumatic networks requiring the highest
quality. They are also often used in the „wet“ sections of a
conventional system between the compressor and the dryer.
– Sizes 6 - 273 mm
– Maximum operating pressure max. 80 bar
op
, part. higher
– Maximum operating temperature 120°C
Advantages
Stainless steel pipes are completely corrosion-proof and have
only low flow resistance ( low pressure loss ). They are abso-
lutely airtight if properly laid. Leakage is therefore practically
zero.
Disadvantages
An experienced fitter is needed to lay seamless, stainless steel
pipes because they must be welded and flanged. The pipes
are very expensive and the availability of shaped parts is
limited.
9.6.3 Stainless steel pipes
166
The pneumatic system
9.6.4 Copper pipes Copper pipes conforming to DIN 1786 and DIN 1754 are used
for small and medium pipes as process control lines. The seam-
less pipes are available in hard, semi-hard and soft qualities.
– Sizes soft 6 - 22 mm
semi-hard 6 - 54 mm
hard 54 - 131 mm
– Maximum operating pressure max. 16 - 140 bar
op
– Maximum operating temperature 100°C
Advantages
Copper pipes are available in long sections, they can be bent
if the diameter is small, and they are easy to work with. It is
therefore possible to use one piece for longer sections of the
network. This reduces the number of joints. The occurrence of
leaks is also lower.
Copper pipes are corrosion-proof and pressure loss is low
due to the smooth surface of the inside walls.
Disadvantages
An experienced fitter is needed to install copper pipes since
fittings are normally soldered to them. The joints can not be
disconnected.
The material is expensive, but there are many shaped parts
to choose from because copper pipes are also used in the
sanitary area.
If the lines are longer, the expansion of copper due to heat
must be taken into account. The coefficient of length expan-
sion for copper is greater than that for steel.
If the compressed air contains moisture, particles of copper
may form local galvanic elements in subsequent steel piping,
leading to pitting. Copper vitriol can also arise.
167
The pneumatic system
9.6.5 Plastic pipes There are plastic pipes as pipe systems from various makers
and in various materials. There are also polyamide pipes for
high pressures and polyethylene pipes for large diameters.
This means that there are plastic pipes with the appropriate
properties for almost every area of application. For this rea-
son it is difficult to generally apply information about sizes,
operating pressures and temperatures.
Advantages
Because plastic pipes do not corrode, there is no need for any
protective surface material. They are up to 80 % lighter than
steel. This simplifies installation and there are fewer demands
placed on the pipefittings.
The inside surface is very smooth. Flow resistance is low ( low
pressure loss ) and deposits such as calcium and rust etc.
have practically no chance to build up. Plastic pipes are usu-
ally harmless from a toxicological and hygienic standpoint.
PVC pipe systems and the like have a large number of shaped
parts and fittings available for them. Installation is very easy.
The pipe sections are fitted together and given an airtight seal
with special adhesive. No special knowledge is necessary for
installation. Pressure loss and leakage is generally very low in
plastic piping.
Disadvantages
The low-cost PVC pipe systems have a maximum operating
pressure of only 12.5 bar at 25°C. It must also be carefully
noted that the maximum operating pressure of these plastic
pipes drops heavily if the temperature is increased. For this
reason plastic pipes may not be used in the hot areas of a
compressor station and must be protected from direct sun-
light.
Plastic pipes have large coefficients of linear expansion and
their mechanical stability is not particularly high.
Resistance to certain condensates and types of oil is not al-
ways guaranteed with some plastics. The composition of con-
densates in the network must therefore be checked before-
hand.
Plastic pipes are not made in large quantities for high pres-
sures or large diameters. This makes them expensive and the
number of shaped parts available is limited. An experienced
plastic welder is needed to install these pipes.
Fig. 9.16:
An assortment of plastic shaped parts and fittings
168
The pneumatic system
9.7 Marking pipelines Pipelines must be marked clearly according to the type of
medium they contain according to German law and DIN 2403.
Unambiguous marking also eases correct installation, the plan-
ning of extensions and firefighting.
The marking should indicate possible dangers in order to avert
accidents and physical injury. Appropriate marking also makes
it easier to follow pipelines in a complicated network. For this
reason, the direction of flow of the medium must always be
indicated.
Pipes are marked with ID numbers ( groups ) and colours, both
of which are defined in DIN 2403.
Medium Group Colour Colour number
ID number
Air 3 grey RAL 7001
Water 1 green RAL 6018
Combustible liquids 8 brown RAL 8001
Gas 4/5 yellow RAL 1013
Water steam 2 red RAL 3003
Acids 6 orange RAL 2000
Alkalis 7 violet RAL 4001
Oxygen 0 blue RAL 5015
Colour markings and markings in writing must be applied at
certain points:
– In writing at the start of the line.
– In writing at the end of the line.
– In writing at branches.
– In writing where the line passes through a wall.
– In writing at fittings and distribution points.
– In colour by way of rings or continuous paint for the
entire length of the line.
Marking plates
Direction of flow.
Colour matches colour code for medium.
Sub-group number ( different line networks ).
Group number of medium.
Fig. 9.18:
Marking plates with ID numbers
Fig. 9.17:
Marking plates with cleartext
169
The Installation Room
10. The Installation Room
10.1 Cooling the compressor
The installation room of a compressor must satisfy a num-
ber of conditions for correct operation to be assured. When
considering the significance of a well-planned and well-kept
installation room it is important to know that around 2/3 of
all compressor malfunctions are caused by faulty installation,
inadequate ventilation and a lack of servicing.
The general rules for accident prevention and environmental
protection must also be adhered to.
When designing a compressor station it must be remem-
bered that the compression process inside the compressor
generates a large amount of waste heat. The main principle
of thermo-dynamics applies, which states that the entire elec-
trical power intake of the compressor is converted into heat.
The waste heat must be extracted reliably since there may
otherwise be an accumulation of heat in the compressor. If the
temperature inside the compressor is too high for too long it
can lead to mechanical damage in the compressor stage and
the drive motor.
The required cooling medium (air or water) can be supplied in
two ways:
– Air-cooling.
Air-cooling is the most common cooling method for all types
of compressor. When it is used, ventilation of the installa-
tion room is of particular importance. It must be well planned
and implemented. If not, thermal problems with the com-
pressor are bound to occur.
– Water-cooling.
Water cooling may be necessary in larger compressors
if the heat can not be properly extracted by air-cooling.
Water-cooling places fewer demands on ventilation inside
the installation room.
This chapter deals primarily with the requirements and rules
applying to installation rooms for air-cooled compressors. With
the exception of information concerning ventilation, the mate-
rial in this chapter can be used equally for water-cooled com-
pressors.
Fig. 10.1:
Heat distribution in a screw-type compressor
with oil injection cooling.
100 %
Electricity
intake from the
mains
4 %
Residual heat
in the com-
pressed air
2 %
Heat
radiated off
13 %
Compressed air
aftercooler
9 %
Heating
the motor
72 %
Oil cooler
94 %
of energy intake
is extracted by
the cooling medium
( water/air )
and available for heat
recovery
170
The Installation Room
10.2 Compressor installation When installing compressors and the other components of a
compressor station there are certain conditions to observe
which, if not complied with, may lead to malfunctions. There
are also certain accident prevention and environmental pro-
tection rules to be followed.
The installation room should be clean, free of dust, dry and
cool. Strong sunlight must not be allowed to enter. The room
should be located on the north side of a building wherever
possible, or in a well-ventilated basement.
There should be no heat-emitting pipes or assemblies in the
installation room of a compressor. If this can not be avoided,
the pipes and assemblies must be adequately insulated.
Easy accessibility and good lighting should be provided for
servicing work and periodic inspections of the compressed air
receivers.
A compressor installation room must always be properly ven-
tilated to prevent the ambient temperature from exceeding the
maximum admissible levels.
Compressors operate ideally at ambient temperatures between
+20° and +25°C. The following ambient temperatures apply
for piston and screw-type compressors:
– Minimum +5°C.
If the temperature falls below +5°C, pipelines and valves
can ice up. This can cause the compressor to malfunction.
Screw-type compressors switch off automatically if the
temperature is below the minimum admissible compres-
sion temperature.
An additional anti-freeze facility allows ambient tempera-
tures down to -10°C.
– Maximum +40°C.
Maximum +35°C with sound-insulated piston-type com-
pressors.
If the ambient temperature rises above the maximum level,
the compressed air outlet temperature may exceed the
maximum statutory level. The quality of the compressed
air deteriorates, the components of the compressor are
subjected to more strain, and the servicing intervals are
shorter. Screw-type compressors switch off automatically
if the temperature is above the maximum admissible com-
pression temperature.
10.2.1 General information regarding
the installation room
Fig. 10.2:
Compressor station with 2 screw-type compressors,
refrigerant air dryer, compressed air receiver and
oil/water separator.
10.2.2 Admissible ambient temperature


171
The Installation Room
The following rules apply for rooms where compressors with
oil injection cooling are to be installed:
– The room must have special fire protection if the com-
pressor motor rating is over 40 kW.
– Compressors with a motor rating of over 100 kW must
be installed in a separate fire-protected room.
Requirements for fire-protected installation rooms:
– The walls, ceilings, floors and doors must be Fire safety
category F30 or better.
– No inflammable liquids may be stored in the installation
room.
– The floor area around the compressor must not be made
of combustible material.
– Leaking oil must not be allowed to spread on the floor.
– There must be no inflammable substances within a radius
of at least three metres from the compressor.
– No combustible system parts, such as cable lines, may
be laid over the compressor.
The inducted air contains water in the form of vapour which
turns into condensate during compression. This condensate
contains oil. It may not be allowed into the public sewage net-
work without being processed.
Always follow the appropriate drainage rules set by the local
authority.
BOGE recommends the ÖWAMAT for processing the conden-
sate. The purified water can be drained into the public sewage
lines. The oil is caught in a catch pan and must then be dis-
posed of in a responsible manner.
10.2.3 Fire safety rules for installation
rooms
10.2.4 Disposal of condensate
172
The Installation Room
When installing compressors, the following general points must
be observed, regardless of ventilation:
– When installing a compressor or compressed air receiver
a flat industrial floor without foundation will suffice. Special
mountings are not generally needed..
– Compressors should always be located on elastic mount-
ings. This stops vibration being transmitted to the floor, and
the compressor noise being carried to other parts of the
building.
– The compressor should be connected to fixed lines with a
BOGE high pressure hose of approx. 0.5 m in length. This
prevents vibration from the compressor being transmitted
to the compressed air line and compensates inaccurate
lines.
– The compressor must be fitted with paper intake filters if
there is a heavy dust occurrence at the installation point.
This keeps wear on the compressor to a minimum.
– Compressor units must never be covered by hoods or clad-
ding. Measures of this type always lead to thermal prob-
lems. An exception to this is the original BOGE sound insu-
lation hood, which is specially designed for each individual
compressor.
A compressor requires a certain amount of space, and this
depends on the construction and type of compressor con-
cerned. From this arise compressor-specific minimum dis-
tances in all directions.
– The compressor must be installed to allow easy access for
operation and servicing.
– For the cooling of a compressor to be assured, there must
be a certain minimum distance between the ventilator or
cooler and the neighbouring wall or other systems. If this is
not provided for, the effect of the ventilator or cooler is much
reduced and efficient cooling is no longer guaranteed.
– When several compressors are installed adjacently the
heated cooling air of one compressor must not be used as
the cooling air of another.
The minimum distances to walls and neighbouring equipment
and machinery can sometimes vary greatly, depending on the
types and versions of the compressors. These are to be taken
from the respective operating instructions.
10.2.5 Compressor installation
instructions
10.2.6 The space requirement of a
compressor
Fig. 10.3:
Space requirement plan for a sound-insulated
screw-type compressor, model S 21 - S 30
Compres-
sed air
connection
Air
supply
Air supply possible
Operating side
Wall mounting possible
Corner
inst.
possible
173
The Installation Room
10.2.7 Conditions for installing
compressed air receivers
Certain accident prevention rules must be followed when in-
stalling compressed air receivers.
– Compressed air receivers must be protected from external
damage ( e.g., falling objects ).
– The receiver and its equipment must be able to be oper-
ated from a safe location.
– Safety areas and distances must be observed.
– The receiver must be safe where it stands. It must not move
or tilt by the application of external force. This includes
the additional weight during pressure testing! A reinforced
foundation may be necessary for large compressed air
receivers.
– The factory specification plate must be well visible.
– Compressed air receivers must have reasonable protec-
tion against corrosion.
– Vertical receivers are brought horizontally into the com-
pressor rooms and then set up on their feet. The diagonal
height of the receiver must therefore be taken into account
in the dimensions of the room, otherwise it will be impos-
sible to set up the receiver.
174
The Installation Room
The most important requirement for operating air-cooled com-
pressors is an adequate flow of cooling air V

c
. The waste heat
generated by the compressor must be reliably extracted at
all times. There are three different possibilities for ventilation,
depending on the rooms available, and the type and model
of the compressor:
– Natural ventilation.
Ventilation through the air inlet and outlet apertures in
the side walls or the ceiling by natural means i.e., without
assistance from a ventilator.
– Artificial ventilation.
Ventilation through the air inlet and outlet apertures in
the side walls or the ceiling with the assistance of an outlet
ventilator.
– Air inlet and outlet ducts.
Ventilation by means of appropriate ducts, usually with the
assistance of an exhaust ventilator.
– With water-cooled compressors the main heat is extracted
by the cooling water. The residual heat ( radiated from the
motor ) must be extracted by cooling air.
A compressor generates a certain amount of waste heat de-
pending on its drive rating. On air-cooled compressors this
heat must be extracted by a flow of cooling air V

c
.
The volume of cooling air V

c
is influenced by several factors as
well as the drive rating of the compressor:
– Transmission heat
A part of the heat generated is emitted as transmission
heat by the walls enclosing the installation room ( includ-
ing the windows and doors ). The constitution of the walls,
the ceiling, the floor, doors and windows have a consider-
able influence on the flow of cooling air V

c
.
– Room temperature.
The higher the temperature of the installation room, the
greater the requirement for cooling air.
– Temperature gradient.
The greater the difference ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t between the outside and in-
side temperature, the lower the requirement for cooling air.
– Room height and site.
The greater the height and size of the room, the better the
distribution of the generated heat, and the requirement for
cooling air drops accordingly.
10.3 Ventilation
of a compressor station
10.3.1 Factors influencing
the flow of cooling air of a V

c
of a compressor
175
The Installation Room
To obtain generally applicable values for the flow of cooling
airV

c
the following outline conditions have been set that influ-
ence the volume of cooling air V

c
.
– Room temperature 35°C = 308 K
– Temperature gradient ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t 10 K
– Wall thickness 25 cm
The surrounding walls are assumed to be homogenous
brick walls without windows and doors.
– Room height and size.
The room height is defined as being lower than 3 m and
the area of the room less than 50 m².
The defined outline conditions above assume the least favour-
able admissible environment for operating the compressor. The
values calculated for the flow of cooling air V

c
are generally
applicable because conditions in real installation rooms are
normally better.
Thermal problems will not occur if the recommended flow of
cooling air V

c
for a compressor is assured.
10.3.2 Definition of the factors
influencing the flow of cooling air
V

c
to and

from a compressor
176
The Installation Room
This chapter specifies the most important conditions concern-
ing air supply and extraction that must be satisfied by the in-
stallation room of one or more air-cooled compressors. They
are based on the requirements set forth in VDMA specifica-
tion sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for air-cooled
compressors“.
– Hot air always rises. To allow an effective exchange of heat,
the (inlet) apertures for the supply of cold air must be lo-
cated close to the ground and the (outlet) exhaust aper-
tures must be in the ceiling or in a side wall at the top.
– The compressor must be installed next to the air inlet aper-
ture A
in
so that it draws fresh air for compression and cool-
ing air for ventilation directly from the inlet aperture A
in
.
– The compressor must be positioned so that it can not re-
induct its own heated exhaust air..
– The inlet apertures or ducts of the compressor must be
arranged so that dangerous admixtures ( e.g., explosive or
chemically unstable substances ) can not be inducted.
– The exhaust air should flow from the compressor via the
compressed air receiver ( if fitted ) to the outlet aperture
A
out
. The assemblies in the installation room should be
arranged accordingly.
– Adjustable roller shutters must be installed in the air inlet
apertures A
in
. This allows the flow of cold air from the out-
side to be reduced and the temperature should then not
fall below the minimum admissible level in Winter. If this is
not sufficient, the compressor must be equipped with its
own heater. The accessories required can be obtained from
BOGE.
– When installing several compressors in one room, care must
be taken that there is no thermal interaction between them.
If one compressor draws in the exhaust air from another
compressor, the system will overheat. The ventilation must
cater for the total cooling-air requirement for all compres-
sors. Ideally, each compressor should have its own air inlet
aperture of a size according to its need.
10.3.3 General information for ventilation
of compressor rooms
Fig. 10.4:
Arrangement of air inlet and outlet apertures
Air inlet apertures
with roller shutters
Air outlet aperture
with ventilator,
if required
Fig. 10.5:
Installation room with three sound-insulated
compressors
177
The Installation Room
10.3.4 Natural ventilation With natural ventilation, the circulation of air is controlled by
an air inlet aperture A
in
and an air outlet aperture A
out
in the
side walls of the installation room. Heat is exchanged by the
natural circulation of air only, since hot air rises. For adequate
ventilation to be provided, the air inlet aperture must be lo-
cated as far as possible below the air outlet aperture.
Experience shows that this method of ventilation is only suit-
able for compressors with ratings of up to 22 kW. Even smaller
compressors can have ventilation problems, depending on the
conditions in the installation room.
An adequate flow of cooling-air V

c
can only be obtained with
natural ventilation if the air inlet and outlet apertures are of an
appropriate size.
The figures in the following table are based on VDMA speci-
fication sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for air-
cooled compressors“.
10.3.4.1 Outlet air aperture required
for natural ventilation
In principle, the air inlet A
in
and outlet apertures A
out
should
be of equal size. The cooling air has to pass through both
apertures. But taking into account the installation of roller shut-
ters, grids and the like, the air inlet aperture should be approx.
20 % larger than the air outlet aperture A
out
. If this is not the
case, the maximum admissible ambient temperature may be
exceeded.
Note
When defining the flow of cooling-air V

c
for a compressor sta-
tion, the cooling-air requirement of a refrigerant compressed
air dryer or heat-generating absorption dryer must be included
in the calculations.
Fig. 10.6 :
Natural ventilation of a compressor installation
room with a sound-insulated BOGE screw-type
compressor
A
in
A
out
V

K
Drive Required flow Required ventil-
rating of cooling-air ation apertures
P V

c
A
in
and A
out
[ kW] [ m³/hr ] [ m² ]
3,0 1350 0,20
4,0 1800 0,25
5,5 2270 0,30
7,5 3025 0,40
11,0 3700 0,50
15,0 4900 0,65
18,5 6000 0,75
22,0 7000 0,90
178
The Installation Room
10.3.5 Artificial ventilation In many cases natural ventilation of the installation room is
insufficient. Due to structural aspects or the high output of the
installed compressor the flow of cooling air is inadequate for
the task. In these cases, the hot air must be extracted with the
aid of a ventilator.
Artificial ventilation increases the flow speed of cooling air
inside the installation room and guarantees the required flow
of air by forced ventilation. There are greater reserves when
outside temperatures are high. The inlet air aperture must be
modified to cater for the ventilator output.
The ventilator(s) should, for reasons of economy, be control-
led in several stages by a thermostat. The control depends on
the temperature in the installation room. The higher the tem-
perature rises, the greater the output rate of the ventilator.
As with natural ventilation, the required flow of cooling air V

c
is
derived from the output of the installed compressor. The waste
heat generated by the compressor must be reliably extracted.
The ventilator output V

V
is approx. 15 % greater than the re-
quired flow of cooling-air V

c
. This guarantees perfect cooling,
even in high Summer.
The figures in the following table are based on VDMA speci-
fication sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for air-
cooled compressors“.
10.3.5.1 Required ventilator output with
artificial ventilation
Fig. 10.7:
Artificial ventilation of a compressor room with a
sound-insulated BOGE screw-type compressor
A
in
Ventilator
V

V
Drive Required
rating ventilator output
P V

V
[ kW] [ m³/hr ]
4.0 1800
5.5 2270
7.5 3025
11.0 3700
15.0 4900
18.5 6000
22.0 7000
30.0 9500
37.0 11000
45.0 14000
55.0 17000
65.0 20000
75.0 23000
90.0 28000
110.0 34000
132.0 40000
160.0 50000
200.0 62000
250.0 70000
179
The Installation Room
10.3.5.2 Required inlet air aperture
with artificial ventilation
With artificial ventilation, the exhaust ventilator determines the
size of the air outlet aperture.
The aperture needed for an exhaust ventilator is normally much
smaller than that required for natural ventilation.
The size of the air inlet aperture A
in
depends on the ventilator
output V

V
and the maximum flow speed v
S
in the inlet aper-
ture.
It is preferable to calculate with a flow speed of v
S
= 3 m/s.
However, if structural considerations do not permit the size of
aperture resulting from this calculation, it is also possible to
use a flow speed of v
S
= 5 m/s.
The minimum size of the air inlet aperture is calculated with
the aid of the following formula:
V

V
A
in
= —————
3600 × ×× ×× v
S
m³/hr
m² = ———————
3600 s/h × ×× ×× m/s
A
in
= minimum area of air inlet aperture [ m
2
]
V

V
= Ventilator output [ m
3
/h ]
v
S
= maximum flow speed [ m/s ]
Note
It is to be remembered when choosing exhaust ventilators,
that the flow of cooling-air is subject to the same laws of phys-
ics as the compressed air. Even when cooling-air flows through
ducts and apertures, when flow speed increases the dynamic
pressure ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p ( pressure loss ) rises. A ventilator can only over-
come dynamic pressure that lies below its defined surface
pressure. If the dynamic pressure is higher than the surface
pressure of the ventilator, no volume flow can occur.
The maximum dynamic pressure is determined from the shape
and size of the air inlet and outlet apertures together with the
respective ducts ( if fitted ). The flow speed must also be taken
into account.
A ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆p = 100 Pa ( 10 mmWH ) can be assumed for simple
apertures without unfavourable diversion (ducting).
180
The Installation Room
A screw-type compressor, model S 21, is to be operated to-
gether with a refrigerant compressed air dryer D 27 in a small
installation room. Structural considerations do not allow natu-
ral ventilation. Artificial ventilation with a ventilator is therefore
required.
BOGE screw-type compressor, model S 21
Output V

: 2.42 m³/min
Motor rating : 15 kW
Cooling-air req. V

V1
: 4900 m³/hr
Refrigerant compressed air dryer, model D 27
Through-flow rate V

: 2.66 m³/min
Cooling air req. V

V2
: 770 m³/min ( see data sheet )
The two flows of cooling air must be added together. The
result is the required ventilator output that must be provided
in the installation room.
Ventilator output V

V
ttl
: 5670 m³/hr
The required size of air inlet aperture is calculated using ven-
tilator output V

V
ttl
and the maximum flow speed v
S
= 3 m/s:
10.3.5.3 Example of artificial ventilation
of a compressor station
Fig. 10.8:
Compressor station with screw-type compressor,
cooling compressed air dryer, compressed air
receiver
A
in
= minimum area of air inlet aperture [ m
2
]
V

V
ttl
= Ventilator output [ m
3
/hr ]
v
S
= maximum flow speed [ m/s ]
V

V
ttl
A
in
= —————
3600 × ×× ×× v
S
5670
A
in
= —————
3600 × ×× ×× 3
A
in
= 0.525 m²
A ventilator with an output of 5670 m³/hr must be installed in
the installation room ( The dynamic pressure of the apertures
must be taken into account when choosing the ventilator ).
The air inlet aperture A
in
should be at least 0.525 m² in size.


181
The Installation Room
The circulation of cooling air through inlet and outlet ducts is
an elegant solution to thermal problems in a compressor in-
stallation room.
Duct ventilation is possible with sound-insulated compressors.
The cool air is directed over the compressor and kept together
for extraction. BOGE screw-type compressors are fitted with a
cooling ventilator that generates a surface pressure of approx.
60 Pa ( approx. 6 mm WH ). This means that it can force ex-
haust air through a straight outlet duct of approx. 5 m in length
and with the recommended cross-section.
The ducts can be connected to the apertures in the sound
insulation hood without difficulty. There is normally no need
for an additional exhaust ventilator inside the duct.
The cool-air ducts direct the air out into the open. But they can
also be fitted with flap controls to use the heated air for room
heating in Winter. If the compressor rooms are unheated, it
may be desirable in Winter to use an air circulation system
with part of the heated cooling air being released into the com-
pressor room.
It is also possible in principle to supply cooling air to compres-
sors by way of ducts. However, an air inlet duct reduces the
induction volume flow ( dynamic pressure ) and thus has a
negative effect on the output of the compressor. For this rea-
son, cooling air should only be supplied through ducts in the
following situations:
– Unclean environment.
The induction air at the location of the compressor con-
tains a high proportion of dirt, dust, chemical impurities or
it contains too much moisture. Under these conditions
the air supply should be drawn from a cleaner part of the
building.
– High ambient temperature.
The temperature at the compressor’s location is distinctly
higher than that in neighbouring rooms or outside the build-
ing. This is possible if a lot of heat is given off by systems
and machinery in the compressor room.
10.3.6.1 Air inlet ducts
10.3.6 Circulation of cooling-air
with inlet and outlet ducts
Fig. 10.9:
Circulation of cooling-air in a BOGE screw-type
compressor from series S 21 - S 150
182
The Installation Room
10.3.6.2 Extraction of air through
a cool-air duct
Compressor rooms containing individual units can usually be
cooled by a appropriately arranged exhaust ventilator or by
natural ventilation. When there are several compressors set
up in one installation room, the use of cool-air ducts is always
recommended.
When ducts are fitted, the installation room is not heated as
much by waste heat from the compressor.
The difference in temperature ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t between the inlet and outlet
air is approx. 20 K. The flow speed in the outlet ducts should
not exceed 6 m/s. The cross section (radius) required for the
duct is therefore much smaller than the wall aperture when
using natural or artificial ventilation.
The figures for the required flow of cooling air V

d
with ducts
given in the following table are based on VDMA specification
sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for air-cooled com-
pressors“. An increase in the temperature of the cooling-air of
∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t = 20 K is assumed.
The calculation used to determine the required free cross-
section of the duct A
d
are based on a maximum dynamic pres-
sure in the duct of 50 Pa ( 5 mm WH). This corresponds to
approx. 5 m of straight outlet duct, with no bends, tapering or
objects inside, a flow speed of 4 – 6 m/s.
10.3.6.3 Required flow of cooling-air V

d
and cross-section of duct A
d
when using a cool-air duct
Fig. 10.10:
Extraction of air from a compressor room with a
BOGE screw-type compressor, emitting the air into
the open
A
in
V

d
A
d
Drive Required flow of Required
rating cooling-air free cross-
with exhaust duct section for duct
P V

d
A
d
[ kW] [ m³/hr ] [ m² ]
4.0 800 0.08
5.5 1000 0.10
7.5 1300 0.13
11.0 1700 0.13
15.0 2900 0.15
18.5 4500 0.23
22.0 4500 0.26
30.0 4500 0.33
37.0 6500 0.41
45.0 6500 0.48
55.0 8000 0.59
65.0 8600 0.64
75.0 9200 0.68
90.0 16000 0.85
110.0 16000 1.11
132.0 24400 1.24
160.0 24400 1.61
200.0 27800 2.06
250.0 33600 2.49
183
The Installation Room
All objects or features inside ducts, such as diversions, filters,
roller-shutter flaps, curvatures, T-pieces and silencers cause
an increase in flow resistance and thus an obstacle to the flow
of air. If the duct has many such features and is very long, the
size of the recommended free cross-section (radius) of the
duct must be checked by an expert.
There are appropriate fire safety measures prescribed to pre-
vent fire from spreading through ventilation ducts. DIN 4102,
part 6 requires the installation of automatic fire safety flaps
whenever ventilation ducts pass through a wall.
If the duct is long or unfavourably laid, the dynamic pressure
can be over 50 Pa ( 5 mm WH ). In this case there is a risk that
the cooling ventilator of a screw-type compressor can not over-
come the dynamic pressure in the duct. This means that cool-
ing air stops flowing and the entire cooling effort for the com-
pressor collapses. In this case an auxiliary ventilator will have
to be installed.
The air inlet and outlet flaps as well as the ventilators should,
for economical reasons, be controlled by a thermostat in the
installation room.
The cooling-air ducts must never be mounted directly on the
compressor housing. Compensators that remove tension and
stop the transmission of vibration must always be used.
A cooling-air duct with sound-insulation cladding radiates less
heat to the surroundings and also suppresses noise that comes
out of the compressor with the exhaust air.
BOGE generally recommends that the task of installing the
ducts and any associated construction work be given to a spe-
cialist company.
With multiple units, each compressor must have its own air
inlet and outlet duct.
When using a collective duct for multiple units, automatic check
flaps must be used to prevent heated cooling-air flowing over
a compressor that is switched off in the installation room and
heating the inlet air.
10.3.6.4 Information concerning ventilation
by ducting
184
The Installation Room
10.3.6.5 Dimensioning the air inlet aperture
when using an outlet duct
A
in
= minimum area of outlet aperture [ m
2
]
V

d
= Ventilator output [ m
3
/h ]
v
S
= maximum flow speed [ m/s ]
V

d
A
in
= —————
3600 × ×× ×× v
S
m³/h
m² = ———————
3600 s/h × ×× ×× m/s
The size of the air inlet aperture A
in
is dependent on the flow
of cooling-air V
d
and the maximum flow speed v
S
in the aper-
ture itself.
It is preferable to calculate with a flow speed of v
S
= 3 m/s.
However, if structural considerations do not permit the size of
aperture resulting from this calculation, it is also possible to
use a flow speed of v
S
= 5 m/s.
The minimum size of the air inlet aperture is calculated with
the aid of the following formula:
185
The Installation Room
10.3.6.6 Variations of duct-type ventilation
The duct directs the hot exhaust air directly into the open. This
method is recommended if there are high temperatures in the
compressor room.
When the outdoor temperature is cold (in Winter) duct directs
all or some of the heated cooling-air from the compressor into
other rooms in the building in order to heat them. When out-
door temperatures are hotter ( in Summer ) the duct emits the
air directly into the open.
With this configuration, the inlet air is mostly drawn from heated
rooms. This guarantees that the cooling-air is warm enough
when ambient temperatures are low. The compressor then
always operates above the minimum admissible temperature.
Air filters and silencers should be installed in the outlet duct in
order to reduce dust and noise in the rooms heated.
The outlet duct directs the hot cooling-air directly into the open.
When temperatures in the installation room are cold, hot ex-
haust air is added to the cold room air through a circulation
flap. The circulatory ventilation prevents the unit from freezing
when outside temperatures are below zero. It is also recom-
mended to have auxiliary heating to prevent a cold compres-
sor from freezing during the start-up phase.
When this method is used, it is necessary to have an air outlet
aperture dimensioned according to the flow of cooling-air in
addition to the outlet duct itself.
Fig. 10.11:
Extraction of air into the open using an outlet duct
Cooling-air
Fig. 10.12:
Outlet duct with circulation flap
Cooling-air
Winter operation
Cooling-air
Summer operation
Fig.10.13:
Using hot cooling-air for heating
Cooling-air
Summer operation
Cooling-air
Winter operation
Inlet air
186
The Installation Room
10.4 Example installation plans
10.4.1 Installation of a screw-type
compressor: an example
Bedienungsseite
Abluft
Zuluft
nach VDE 0100
Kondensatleitung
Druckluftbehälter
Kondensatableiter
Öl-Wasser-Trenner
Öl
Kälte-Drucklufttrockner
Druckluft-Austritt
Wasser
Filter
HD-Schlauch
Bypass
Schraubenkompressor
Sicherheitsabstand
1
2
0
0
Outlet air
Compressed air receiver
Filter
Compressed air
emission
Oil/water separator
Bypass
Condensate diverter Water Oil
Condensate line
Refrigerant air dryer
Operating side
Safety distance
acc. to VDE 0100
Screw-type compressor
HP hose
Inlet
air
187
The Installation Room
Bedienungsseite
Kolbenkompressor
SCL 1160-25
1000 l
F 30
A 30
G 3/4
Öwamat 2
D 12
mit Bekomat 2
erf. Zuluftöffnung 0,4m
2
Bypass
Wasser Öl
Wartungsabstand Aktivkohlefilter
Submikrofilter
Kälte-Drucklufttrockner
Wartungsabstand
Öl-Wasser-Trenner
Wartungsabstand
Kondensatableiter Bekomat 2
Druckluftbehälter
HD-Schlauch
Druckluft-Austritt
Kompressoren Kompressoren Kompressoren Kompressoren
Kompressoren Kompressoren Kompressoren Kompressoren
7
5
5
1
4
1
0
2
3
1
0
5
6
0
1
2
0
0
6
0
0
2
5
0
1
1
6
0
780
1200 800 360 300 600
1
0
0
4
9
0
4
4
5
5
0
0
8
0
0
800 800
8
0
0
Sicherheitsabstand
Kondensatleitung
5
0
10.4.2 Installation of piston-type
compressor: an example
Servicing space
Piston-type compressor
SCL 1160-25
Compressed air receiver
1000 l
Sub-micro filter
F 30 Active carbon
filter A 30
Compressed air
emission
G 3/4
Oil/water separator
Water Refrigerant air dryer
D 12
with Bekomat 2
Condensate diverter Bekomat 2
HP hose
req. air inlet
aperture 0.4m²
Condensate line
Operating side
Servicing space
Servicing space
Safety distance
188
Heat recovery
11. Heat recovery
Rising energy costs and increasing environmental awareness
led many compressor-users to the view that the enormous
potential of compressor heat must not longer be allowed to
escape unused. They approached the compressor makers who
developed high performance heat recovery systems. Since
then, the heat given off by compressors has been utilised. It
serves to heat rooms, and to heat utility and heating water.
To be able to appreciate the possibilities of heat recovery from
compressors it must be taken into account that on the basis
of the first principle of thermodynamics the entire electricity
intake of a compressor is converted into heat. In order to make
this heat useful one must know where it occurs and what pro-
portion of it can be economically reclaimed for further use.
The heat is always discharged with the aid of a coolant. This
coolant contains approx. 94 % of the electrical energy enter-
ing the compressor in the form of heat. Approx. 4 % remains in
the compressed air as residual heat and approx. 2 % is lost to
the atmosphere by radiation.
When drawing up the balance sheet, assumptions should not
be based only on the output from the motor that the compres-
sor needs to compress the air. The electric motor itself con-
verts energy into heat. One must also consider the efficiency
rate of the motor, which according to the drive rating lies
between 80 % and 96 %. This again increases the amount
of heat emitted.
11.1 The heat balance of a
compressor station
100 %
Electrical
intake from the
mains
4 %
Residual heat
in the com-
pressed air
2 %
Radiated
heat
13 %
Compressed air
after-cooler
9 %
Heating
the motor
72 %
Oil cooler
94 %
of energy intake
is extracted by
the cooling medium
( water/air )
and available for heat
recovery
Fig. 11.1:
Distribution of heat in a screw compressor with oil
injection cooling
189
Heat recovery
The most obvious use for compressor heat is to heat rooms.
With the simplest method of room heating the compressor
is installed in the room to be heated. This means that the
compressor is installed directly in the workshop or storeroom,
usually close to workplaces.
In this case, the only ducts required are those to discharge
hot air into the open during Summer. The heating air does not
require to be transported over long distances.
Of course, there must be adequate cooling for the compres-
sor. Sound insulation is normally required by safety rules.
To utilise the heat emitted by a central compressor station the
heated flow of cooling air must be brought through ducts into
the rooms to be heated. This is only recommended for larger
compressors since smaller ones do not provide enough usable
heat.
The flow of cold air passes over the compressor and drive
motor. The cooling air absorbs the emitted heat and is drawn
into an outlet duct with the aid of a ventilator. In this process
the cooling air normally heats up to +50° / +60°C.
One use of compressor heat for room heating requires a si-
lenced compressor with ducted cooling air. BOGE screw com-
pressors are all silenced and fitted with an internal ventilator.
For this reason they can be connected to a ducting system
without difficulty. Non-silenced compressors ( e.g., most pis-
ton compressors ) can not be upgraded later for utilisation of
emitted heat, even if an adjusted sound-insulation hood is
fitted.
11.2.1 Room heating through ducting
11.2 Room heating
1 = Silenced compressor
2 = Inlet duct
3 = Outlet duct
4 = Additional exhaust ventilator
5 = Control flaps
( thermostatically controlled )
6 = Air outlet duct
( Room heating )
7 = Heat exchanger
8 = Air outlet duct
( into the open for Summer operation )
9 = Air inlet flap
Fig. 11.2:
Op. diagram of ducting
1 2 4 3
8
5 6
7
6
5
9
190
Heat recovery
11.2.2 Operation of room heating Insulated ducts conduct the warm cooling air of a compressor
or compressors at low outside temperatures into the building.
This heats the respective rooms. If the outside temperatures
are high, a duct directs the cooling air directly into the open.
The flow of cooling air is directed by inlet and control flaps.
These flaps and the ventilators should be controlled by an
adjustable room thermostat which monitors the temperature
in the heated rooms.
Fire safety measures are prescribed to prevent fire spreading
through the ventilation ducts. DIN 4102, Part 6 requires that
self-closing fire safety flaps be installed if the ventilation flaps
pass through a wall.
It is possible to heat exchangers in the ducts. With the aid of
these heat exchangers, water can be heated to a temperature
of approx. +40°C. This hot water can assist a central heating
system or be used as utility water.
The installation costs of room heating can be very high in pro-
portion to to energy costs saved. Before installing an expen-
sive system, it should be checked that enough heat is gener-
ated to justify the expense of a ducting system. It should be
taken into account that the flow of hot air inevitably cools down
if it has to travel long distances through a ducting system. The
investment must be in the correct proportion to the heating
costs saved.
The cost savings increase the more the compressor is used.
The more the compressor runs, the more effective the room
heating is.
11.2.3 Economy of room heating
191
Heat recovery
11.3 The Duotherm
heat exchanger
For screw compressors with oil injection cooling there are
special heat recovery systems for heating utility water or heat-
ing water. A heat exchanger is installed in the main flow path
of hot oil in the compressor. Utility or heating water is heated
by this hot compressor oil.
The Duotherm heat exchangers operate independently of the
type of compressor cooling because the heat exchanger is
installed as a pre-cooler before the actual air and water cooler.
The Duotherm BPT-System is used for heating water or hot
production water. The heart of this system is a plate heat
exchanger consisting of a number of profiled, stainless steel
plates. The piled plates form a mutually isolated two channel
system. A Special process of hard-soldering connects these
layered plates together. Seals, which have the inherent risk of
leaks, are not required. The resulting heat exchanger works
very effectively and reliably.
Operating principle
The oil heated to approx. +90°C by the compressor circuit
flows through the plate heat exchanger. The water coming in
reverse flow through the exchanger is heated up to +70°C.
The heated quantity of water is independent of the tempera-
ture difference in this process.
There is a thermostatic oil control valve before and after the
heat exchanger. Depending on the oil temperature the flow
of oil is either sent through the oil cooler and also the heat
exchanger or through a bypass.
Features
– When the stop valves in the water inlet and outlet are closed
an enclosed space is formed at the same time. When the
water heats in this space it expands and the pressure rises.
An expansion vessel and safety valve must be installed in
order to prevent damage to the plate heat exchanger.
– If the water is very dirty, a dirt pan with a maximum pore
width of 0.6 mm should be installed in the line.
– Flush connections for cleaning the heat exchanger must
be fitted.
– This heat exchanger is normally integrated in the com-
pressor cabinet. It can be set up separately or fitted on site
later.
11.3.1 Duotherm BPT
Fig. 11.3:
The heat reclamation system
BOGE-Duotherm BPT
1 = Intake filter
2 = Suction controller
3 = Compressor stage
4 = Combined compressed air/oil vessel
5 = Oil separator
6 = Thermostatic oil control valve
7 = Oil cooler
8 = Oil filter
9 = Min. pressure non-return valve
10 = Compressed air aftercooler
11 = Heat exchanger
Fig. 11.4:
Flow diagram of BOGE-Duotherm BPT
1 2 3
4
5
6
6
7
8
9 10
11
Compressed air outlet
Return
Advance
192
Heat recovery
11.3.2 Duotherm BSW The Duotherm BSW-System is used to heat drinking and util-
ity water. Since other rules apply in the sanitary area, this is a
safety heat exchanger. Two independent circuits are kept apart
by a separation liquid.
The BSW-System is a pipe bundle heat exchanger in which
one pipe is inserted into another without making contact. The
safety area in this double pipe is filled with a non-toxic separa-
tion liquid. The liquid transmits the heat and in the event of
damage it prevents the water from mixing with the oil. The
drinking water can therefore not be contaminated.
A pressure monitor switches immediately in the event of pipe
breakage. The emitted impulse can be processed elsewhere
( e.g., for an alarm or to shut down the system).
Operating principle
The oil from the compressor circuit heated to approx. +90°C
flows through a pipe bundle. The separating liquid transmits
the heat to the utility water in the second bundle. The water
coming in reverse flow through the second pipe bundle can be
heated to approx. 55°C. The quantity of water heated depends
on the temperature difference. The heated water is subse-
quently directed to a appropriate container ( boiler ) from where
it can be transported to the hot water circuit.
There is a thermostatic oil control valve before and after the
heat exchanger. Depending on the oil temperature the flow of
oil is either sent through the oil cooler and also the heat ex-
changer or through a bypass.
Features
– The pressure monitor must be set to a value that is at least
20 % below the minimum pressure of the media used.
– Conditions for use
Minimum water pressure 0,5 bar
Maximum water pressure 16 bar
Maximum oil pressure 16 bar
Maximum pressure of separating liquid 10 bar
Maximum temperature ( oil and water ) +100°C
If the maximum temperature is exceeded, malfunctions will
follow and an alarm will be actuated.
– Because of its size, the BSW safety heat exchanger is in-
tegrated in the compressor cabinet. It can also be set up
separately or fitted later on site.
Fig. 11.5:
The heat reclamation system
BOGE-Duotherm BSW
1 = Intake filter
2 = Suction controller
3 = Compressor stage
4 = Combined compressed air/oil vessel
5 = Oil separator
6 = Thermostatic oil control valve
7 = Oil cooler
8 = Oil filter
9 = Min. pressure non-return valve
10 = Compressed air aftercooler
11 = Safety heat exchanger
12 = Pressure monitor for aperture
13 = Expansion vessel
Fig. 11.6:
Flow diagram of BOGE-Duotherm BSW
Compressed air outlet
1 2
3
4
5
6
6
7
8
9 10
11
Return
Advance
12
13
193
Heat recovery
11.3.3 How much energy
is it possible to save ?
The Duotherm-System makes available 75 % of the electrical
power taken into the compressor. This takes in the form of
heat discharged by the compressor oil.
The values given in the table for the quantity of heat and water
have been calculated on the basis of energy retention and the
general laws of heat transfer. They are in principle applicable
for both Duotherm systems. When using a Duotherm BWT
system it is not economical to heat utility water to above +55°C
because the amount of water heated is too small.
The values given assume continuous compressor operation,
and heat loss is not taken into account because local condi-
tions vary. The calculation of savings for heating costs is based
on conventional oil heating :
– Specific heating value H for heating oil 38.0 MJ/l
– Price of heating oil 0.20 €/l
– Heating efficiency 75 %
– Operating hours 1000 hrs
Drive- Discharged Usable Quantity of water at Cost
rating power quantity of ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t 25 K ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t 35 K ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆t 50 K savings at
heat 313 → →→ →→ 338 K 293 → →→ →→ 328 K 293 → →→ →→ 343 K 1000 hrs
[ kW] [ kW/h ] [ MJ/h ] [ m
3
/h ] [ m
3
/h ] [ m
3
/h ] [ € ]
11.0 8.9 32.0 0.305 0.217 0.152 225.–
15.0 12.3 44.2 0.420 0.300 0.210 310.–
18.5 14.8 53.2 0.509 0.363 0.255 373.–
22.0 17.7 63.7 0.609 0.435 0.305 447.–
30.0 24.4 87.8 0.835 0.596 0.417 616.–
37.0 30.3 109.0 1.040 0.743 0.520 765.–
45.0 37.7 135.7 1.295 0.925 0.647 952.–
55.0 45.5 163.8 1.565 1.118 0.782 1149.–
65.0 54.9 197.6 1.885 1.346 0.942 1387.–
75.0 63.1 227.1 2.170 1.550 1.085 1594.–
90.0 74.0 266.4 2.545 1.818 1.272 1869.–
110.0 90.0 324.0 3.095 2.210 1.547 2274.–
132.0 110.5 397.0 3.800 2.714 1.900 2786.–
160.0 133.5 480.6 4.590 3.278 2.295 3373.–
200.0 168.3 605.8 5.790 4.136 2.895 4251.–
250,0 208,9 752,0 7,180 5,128 3,590 5277.–
194
Heat recovery
11.4 Closing remarks concerning
heat recovery
Compressors offer enormous possibilities for saving energy
and costs through exploitation of heat emission. However, it is
not wise to attempt to force heat from a small compressor. It is
normally only worth the expense with large screw and piston
compressors and combined systems. The usable energy rises
with the capacity of the compressor.
The investment costs for a heat recovery system depend much
on local conditions. They must be taken into account because
they are a big influence on the amortisation time of the sys-
tem.
A principle decision must be made whether to use the emitted
heat for room heating or for utility and heating water. Remem-
ber that room heating is seldom used in Summer.
Compressor usage is also a major factor. The longer it oper-
ates, the more heat there is, and it is available continuously
and in ample supply.
Before such a system is installed, a needs analysis should
always be made for the heat requirement. This analysis can
then be compared with the average running time of the com-
pressor.
This comparison then allows the true value of the heat recov-
ery system to be seen. It will also show whether reclamation
can cover the demand for heating or whether a second heat-
ing system is needed.
195
Sound
12. Sound
12.1 The nature of sound
Sound waves are mechanical vibrations of an elastic medium.
Starting from a sound source, a vibrating body, they spread
in solid bodies, liquids and gases in the form of pressure
fluctuations( pressure waves ). The study of sound is called
acoustics.
Vibrating bodies of all aggregate conditions can transmit sound
waves. These are known as sound sources. These can be strings,
rods, plates, columns of air, membranes, machines etc.
If the vibrations are emitted from the ambient air they are known
as airborne sound.
The vibrating bodies, gases and liquids can transmit the vi-
brations to solid objects. In this case they are known as struc-
ture-borne sound.
There are the following connections between the vibrations of
airborne sound coming from the vibrations of a sound source
and the human perception of sound:
Amplitude of vibration
The amplitude is the periodic deviation of pressure that oc-
curs in a sound wave.
It corresponds to the impression of loudness perceived by
human beings.
Frequency of vibration
The frequency is the number of pressure fluctuations during
a unit of time. It is normally measured in Hz ( vibrations per
second ).
This corresponds to the impression of tone perceived by human
beings.
Vibration form
A distinction is made between different forms of vibration which
cause the different impressions of sound:
– Tone.
A tone ( pure tone ) is a sinus vibration.
– Sinusoidal sound.
This is the superimposition of several tones. Several sinu-
soidal vibrations superimpose and form a non-sinusoidal
vibration. The tone with the lowest frequency defines the
overall perception of the sound. The other tones ( top tones )
give the impression of sound colour.
– Transient noise.
Transient noise is an irregular vibration. It is a mixture of
very many frequencies or different magnitudes.
– Crack.
A crack is a single, short and sharp report.
12.1.1 Sound perception
Fig. 12.1:
Impressions of sound
Tone
Sinusoidal sound
Transient noise
Crack
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

(
s
o
u
n
d

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
)
Time
196
Sound
12.2 Important terminology in acoustics
12.2.1 Sound pressure Sound pressure p
~
is the periodic pressure deviation ( over
and under pressure and alternating pressure ) that occurs in
a sound wave. It is measured in Pa ( 10
-5
bar ).
In gaseous media sound pressure is superimposed over the
existing gas pressure p. Sound pressure is heavily dependent
on various factors e.g., the sound output of the source, the
spatial circumstances etc.
Sound pressure moves between approx. 2 × 10
-4
Pa with the
ticking of a clock and approx. 65 Pa with the start of an aircraft
in the direct vicinity.
To be able to handle acoustic sizes better, the value is set in
proportion with a reference size put in a logarithm. The levels
as logarithm of a proportional size are dimensionless. The
designation dB ( Decibel ) is added.
The sound pressure level is set in proportion to the reference
pressure p
0
= 2 × ×× ×× 10
-5
Pa and pu in a logarithm. The following
applies for the sound pressure level:
12.2.2 Sound level
p
~
L
p
= 20 lg —— dB
p
0
L
P
= Sound pressure level [ dB ]
p
~
= Sound pressure [ Pa ]
p
0
= Reference sound pressure [ 2 × 10
-5
Pa ]
The other sizes in acoustics are treated in similar fashion.
Acoustics uses almost only levels to indicate sizes.
The sound intensity indicates the sound energy radiated by a
sound source per second. It is a machine-specific size ( emis-
sion size ) and can be influenced by sound insulation meas-
ures among other methods.
Using the sound intensity of a machine, it is possible to calcu-
late the sound pressure level of a certain location, taking into
account the distance, the structural conditions and other sound
sources near to the sound intensity. There is often no need to
carry out extensive measuring.
12.2.3 Sound intensity
197
Sound
The human ear can normally only hear frequencies from 16 to
20000 Hz . Higher frequencies are described as supersonic,
lower ones as infrasonic. The perceptible sound pressure is
between 10
-5
Pa and 100 Pa, whereby a sound pressure of
100 Pa nearly always leads to the immediate loss of hearing
in humans.
The human sense of hearing does not perceive the various
sound pressures and frequencies with the same intensity. The
audibility range offers a summary of the sound pressure and
frequency ranges perceptible to humans. The bottom limit of
the curve shows the audibility threshold and top curve the
pain threshold. The largest range of sound pressure percep-
tible to the human ear is at around 1000 Hz.
Sound pressure is a physical size and can therefore be
measured. The intensity at which a person perceives sound
pressure is a physiological size that depends on the sense of
hearing.
The level of loudness is an empirically determined size. The
perception of loudness has been tested in series of experi-
ments with different people and an average value formed. The
level of loudness is given in Phon.
At 1000 Hz the sound intensity level matches the unassessed
sound pressure level. The sound intensity level can not be
measured with technical instruments. This is why comparative
measurements are very difficult, if not impossible.
Acoustic sizes must be adapted to the perception range of the
human ear in a way that they make also technical sense. De-
pending on the frequency, the real sound pressure level is
adjusted with certain values to the sensitivity of the ear. There
are valid international evaluation curves for these adjustment
values.
Some areas of application for different evaluation curves are
given below.
A – Evaluation curve for L
N
= 30 - 60 Phon.
B – Evaluation curve for L
N
= 60 - 90 Phon.
C – Evaluation curve for linear audibility range.
D – Evaluation curve for aircraft noise.
An evaluated sound level is indicated by having the letter of
the evaluation curve e.g., dB ( A ) suffixed.
The A-evaluation curve is the one primarily used in measuring
the noise of compressors and other machinery. Sound meas-
urement as standardised in DIN 45635 uses A-evaluated sound
pressure levels.
12.3.2 Assessed sound level dB ( A )
12.3 Human perception of sound
Audibility threshold
Pain threshold
Audibility range
S
o
u
n
d

i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
[
d
B
]
Frequency [ Hz ]
Fig. 12.2:
The human hearing range
12.3.1 The sound intensity level
198
Sound
12.3.3 Loudness in comparison The following diagram shows the hearing range of an average
person, which lies between the audibility threshold and the
pain threshold, together with various examples of differing
loudness.
n
o
r
m
a
l

a
u
d
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

t
h
r
e
s
h
o
l
d
S
o
u
n
d

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

l
e
v
e
l

[
d
B
]
Pain threshold
Frequency [ Hz ]
The ticking of a clock corresponds to a sound pressure level
of approx. 20 dB ( A ).
Normal conversation at a distance of around 1 m corresponds
to a sound pressure level of approx. 70 dB ( A ).
199
Sound
12.4 Behaviour of sound The dissemination and general behaviour of sound depends
on various factors. It must also be taken into account that the
sound output of a machine ( the sound source ) remains con-
stant.
The sound pressure generated from the source always dimin-
ishes with increasing distance. The constant sound output of
a source disseminates over a greater area (dispersion) with
increasing distance. The form of the sound wave plays an
important part in this. Machinery and compressors nearly al-
ways radiate sound energy in the form of a semisphere be-
cause they are normally on a firm base.
The sound pressure level then goes down, with reference to
the 1 m distance value, as shown in the following table:
These starting values refer to an unrestricted dissemination
of sound over an open area. A certain amount of reflection
from normal, reverberant ground is taken into account.
Example
An ultra-silenced BOGE screw compressor S 21 is installed in
a large hall. It generates according to DIN 45635 a sound pres-
sure level of 69 dB ( A ). At a distance of 10 m the sound pres-
sure generated by the compressor is only around 53 dB ( A ).
A part of the sound is reflected by the walls and other objects.
In rooms, reflection causes a diffuse field of undirected sound
waves. The general level of sound pressure in the room is
increased by reflected sound. This reflected sound is known
as reverberation.
Reverberant materials with smooth surfaces, such as brick
walls, reflect a large amount of occurrent sound. The shape of
the surface heavily influences the reflections. If a room is pad-
ded with specially arranged insulative pyramids the result is
an acoustically dead room without reflection. Rooms of this
type are used to measure sound pressure and the like with
scientific accuracy.
The sound not reflected is absorbed by walls or objects. The
material conducts the absorbed sound further and damps it.
It is usually transmitted back to the air at another point. Mate-
rials with a high elasticity module, such as steel, conduct sound
very well. The damping effect is usually low.
12.4.1 Distance from the sound source
12.4.2 Reflection and Absorption
Distance from the sound source [ m] 1 2 5 10 25 50 100
Sound pressure level reduction[ dB ( A ) ] 0 5 12 16 23 28 32
Fig. 12.2:
The dissemination of sound in an enclosed space
Reflections
direct sound
200
Sound
Damping is the conversion of sound energy into heat gener-
ated by the friction of particles against each other. The sound
is absorbed in this process. Damping of airborne sound is
achieved by porous or fibrous absorption materials with a low
elasticity module and a large area mass ( kg/m² ). The extent
to which sound is damped by appropriate materials also
depends on the frequency spectrum of the sound. Some fre-
quencies are affected more and others less.
Sound damping by the air depends much on the temperature
and humidity of the air. Under normal conditions it is only per-
ceptible from a distance of 200 m. When humidity is high e.g.,
in fog, the damping effect is greater.
Special laws apply for the dissemination of sound in pipes and
ducts. A flowing medium and the reflections in a narrow duct
assist the dissemination of sound. Measures must be taken
against the unrestricted dissemination of sound in ducts, par-
ticularly when the hot outlet air of a compressor is being used
for room heating.
Coming from a silenced compressor, a sound wave is directed
into the air outlet duct. The sound, which here is not affected
by the silencer, continues through the duct system. It proceeds
unimpeded through the ventilation apertures and into the
heated rooms.
There are various measures that can be taken to reduce the
continuation of sound in ducts or pipes:
– Linear insulation.
The ducts are lined with strongly absorbent materials. This
reduces the sound energy and the sound pressure level in
the duct.
– Absorption insulation.
A part of the duct is loosely filled with sound absorbent
material ( e.g., rock wool ). This absorbs a large part of the
sound energy, similar to walls. The great drawback of this
form of insulation lies in its high resistance to flow. Insula-
tion of this type is not recommended in duct systems with-
out a big exhaust ventilator.
12.4.3 Damping sound
Incident sound
Reflected
Sound
Absorbed sound
Sound
Fig. 12.3:
Sound insulation (damping) by walls
12.4.5 Dissemination of sound
in pipes and ducts
Fig. 12.4:
Absorption silencer with straight elements
201
Sound
12.4.6 Sound pressure level from
many sound sources
If there are several sources of sound in one room, the sound
pressure level will rise. The more sound energy emitted, the
higher the sound pressure. The perceived intensity of the sound
increases. The correlations are not linear. They depend much
on the structure of the room, the sound pressure levels of the
individual sources and their frequency spectrum. Therefore,
when looking at the correlations, only the two simplest cases
are given here.
The numbers given here should be seen as reference values
only. They may deviate sharply in individual cases because
many influencing factors are not taken into consideration.
When there are two or more sound sources with the same
sound pressure level in a large room, the correlation is rela-
tively simple. The following table shows the increase of the
overall sound pressure level without taking possible reflection
or transient noise into account:
To obtain the overall sound pressure level the increase in sound
pressure must be added to the sound pressure levels of the
individual sources.
Example
There are three ultra-silenced BOGE screw compressors S 21
in a large hall. Each generates according to DIN 45635 sound
pressure of 69 dB ( A ). The overall sound pressure level is
therefore at 74 dB ( A ) [ 69 + 5 ].
The total sound pressure of two different sound pressures
( L
1
+ L
2
) can be determined with the aid of a diagram. When
there are several sound sources with different levels the cor-
relations are very complicated.
The diagram shows by how many Decibels ( ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆L ) the higher of
the two sound levels L
1
rises in dependency on the difference
between the two levels( L
1
- L
2
).
Example
A compressor with a sound pressure according to DIN 45635
of 69 dB ( A ) and a compressor with a sound pressure of
74 dB ( A ) are installed in the same room. The total sound
pressure in this case is approx. 75.3 dB ( A ).
[ 74 – 69 = 5 → 74 + 1.3 = 75.3 ]
Number of sound sources 2 3 4 5 10 15 20
Increase of sound pressure level [ dB ( A ) ] 3 5 6 7 10 12 13
12.4.6.1 Several sound sources
with the same level
12.4.6.2 Two sound sources
with different levels
∆∆ ∆∆ ∆
L

[

d
B

(
A
)

]
L
1
- L
2
[ dB ( A ) ]
L
1
+ L
2
→ →→ →→ L
1
+ ∆ ∆∆ ∆∆L
Fig. 12.5:
Sound strengthened by two sources with different
levels
202
Sound
12.5 The effects of noise
One form of sound is noise. This is undesired, annoying or
painful sound. Noise has various adverse effects depending
on its sound pressure:
– Disturbed concentration
– Sound pressure of approx. 70 dB ( A ) disturbs speech
communication.
– Sound pressure of 85 dB ( A ) usually leads to a tempo-
rary reduction of hearing after an 8-hour shift. If this acous-
tic stress continues for several years it can cause perma-
nent damage to hearing.
– Sound pressure of 110 dB ( A ) leads to a reduction of
hearing in a very short time. If this stress continue for sev-
eral hours it is very likely to result in permanent damage to
hearing.
– Sound pressure of 135 dB ( A ) and above causes imme-
diate deafness in most cases.
Fig. 12.6:
Noise as a health hazard
S
o
u
n
d

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

l
e
v
e
l

[

d
B

(

A

)

]
psychic
reactions
Anger
Irritation
vegetative
reactions
nervous effects, stress
falling work-rate
falling concentration
mechanical
damage
deafness
Hearing
impairment
noise deafness
damage to inner
ear, incurable
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
203
Sound
12.7 Silencing on compressors
When measuring noise at compressors and similar machin-
ery the main method used is the enveloping surface method
of DIN 45635 or other norms like Cagi-Pneurop or PN 8 NTC
2.3. These norms define the conditions for measuring the noise
emitted by compressors and machinery to the outside air
( noise output ) according to standard methods, thus making
the results comparable.
Noise is mainly measured at compressors and machinery
to find out whether certain requirements are being met. The
results determined are useful for:
– Comparing similar machinery.
– Comparing different machinery.
– Estimating sound levels at a distance.
– Checking noise emissions with respect to safety laws.
– Planning noise protection measures.
Compressors sometimes emit sound levels of over 85 dB ( A )
when in operation. This can be much higher if there are sev-
eral unsilenced compressors in one room. Since the Work
Safety Act recommends the wearing of protective equipment
from 85 dB ( A ) upwards and prescribes it from 90 dB ( A ), it
is often beneficial to install silenced compressors.
Silenced compressors can be installed close to workplaces.
This avoids the cost of long lines and separate compressor
rooms, and reduces pressure loss in pneumatic lines.
Certain demands are placed on sound-insulation materials:
– Not combustibility.
– Insensitivity to dust.
– Insensitivity to oil.
The silencing material used for compressors is therefore usu-
ally mineral cotton ( rock wool or fibreglass ) and fluorocarbon-
free, hardly flammable, self-extinguishing foam material, that
is installed in the steel sheet case.
12.6 Noise measurement
Fig. 12.7:
Silenced BOGE screw compressors
204
Costs of compressed air
13. Costs of compressed air
13.1 Composition of
compressed air costs
The operating costs for compressed air comprise three fac-
tors:
– Servicing and maintenance costs.
The servicing costs are for the wages of the fitter, spare
parts and consumed materials such as lubrication and cool-
ing oil, air filters, oil filters and the like.
– Energy costs.
The energy costs include the costs for electricity and fuel.
These are needed to heat the compressor.
– Capital service.
Capital service includes the interest and repayment on the
items invested in ( compressor, pre-processing and pipe-
line ). These are the depreciation and interest costs.
The individual factors can vary in size, depending on the hours
of operation per year. With single shift operation this is normally
2000 hrs/yr, 4000 hrs/yr with 2-shift operation, and 7500 hrs/yr
with 3-shift operation.
In determining the cost ratios, calculations are based on elec-
tricity costs of 0,10 €/kWh and a depreciation period of 5 years
with an interest rate of 8 %.
13.1.1 Cost factor ratios
It is easy to see that energy is the greatest cost factor. The
servicing and maintenance costs are more or less negligible,
and the costs for service of capital equipment are hardly a
major item in the long term. The main criterion in acquiring a
compressor system must therefore be energy consumption.
There is a breakdown of energy costs on the following page.
Fig. 13.1:
Composition of compressed air costs with differing
operating hours per year
Cost factors Hours of operation per year
2000 Oh/y 4000 Oh/y 7500 Oh/y
[ %] [ %] [ %]
Servicing and
maintenance 2 2.5 2.7
Energy costs 73 84 87
Capital service 25 13.5 10.3
2000 Bh/J 4000 Bh/J 7500 Bh/J
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
2000 Bh/J 4000 Bh/J 7500 Bh/J Oh/Y Oh/Y Oh/Y
Servicing and maintenance costs
Energy costs
Capital service
205
Costs of compressed air
13.2 Cost-effectiveness calculation for energy costs
Maker BOGE
Type Screw compressor
Model S 40
( 1 ) FAD of complete system ( V

) m
3
/ h 303
acc. to PN2 CPTC2
Ambient temperature t = 20° C
Operating pressure bar 8
( 2 ) Electrical power requirement
of compressor kW
of drive belt kW
of transmission kW
of fan kW
of overall system ( P
e
) kW 31.89
( 3 ) Motor efficiency rating ( (( (( η ηη ηη ) )) )) 92.5
with IP 54 protection
( 4 ) Total intake ( P
i
) kW 34.47
from electricity supply
P
i
= P
e
( 2 ) × ×× ×× 100 / η ηη ηη ( 3 )
( 5 ) Electricity price ( c ) €/ kWh 0.10
( 6 ) Electricity costs per hour €/ h 3.45
C = P
i
( 4 ) × ×× ×× c ( 5 )
( 7 ) Costs per m
3
compressed air €/ m
3
0.0114
C
V
= C ( 6 ) / V

( 1 )
( 8 ) Costs per year
Compressed air requirement ( A
R
) m
3
/ h 300
Hours of operation per year Bh 2000
Compressed air requirement per year m
3
600.000
A
R
/Y = Oh × ×× ×× A
R
( 9 ) Total costs per year €/ Year 6840,–
C
Y
= A
R
/Y ( 8 ) × ×× ×× C
V
( 7 )
( 10 ) Additional costs per year
The energy cost calculation takes no account of possible idling times.
206
Appendix
A.1 Symbols
Compressor, general Diaphragm compressor Rotary piston compressor
Liquid ring compressor Reciprocating compressor Roots Compressor
Screw compressor Turbo-Compressor Rotary vane compressor
Rotary Compressor
Fluid filter, general
Filter apparatus, general
Liquid filter, general Gas filter, general
Air filter, general
Active carbon filter Gas-sorption filter
A.1.1 Picture symbols defined by
DIN 28004
Compressors and pumps
The following picture symbols are standardised by DIN 28 004,
part 3. Only the parts of the norm relevant for compressed air
generation are reproduced here.
These picture symbols are used for standard representation in
flow diagrams for process systems.
Flow diagrams are used for communication among all persons
involved with the development, planning, installation and op-
eration of process systems, and to show the procedure used.
Filters
207
Appendix
Shut-off fitting, general Shut-off through valve Shut-off 3-way valve
Shut-off through cock 3-way cock
Main slide valve Butterfly valve
Non-return fitting, general Non-return through-valve Non-return flap
Fitting with constant setting action Fitting with safety function
Separator, general Centrifugal separator, Rotation
separator
Dust separator
Gravity separator
Deposit chamber
Separators
Dryer, general Condensate drain Vessel/receiver, general
Miscellaneous
Fittings
208
Appendix
Compressor Vacuum pump Pneumatic motor with one direc-
tion of flow
Pneumatic motor with two direc-
tions of flow
Single-action cylinder, return stroke
by external power
Single-action cylinder, return
stroke by spring power
Double-action cylinder Double-action cylinder with single-
side, non-adjustable damping
Double-action cylinder with two-
side, adjustable damping
A.1.2 Symbols for contact units and
switching devices as per ISO 1219
Energy transformation
The following symbols are standardised by ISO 1219 ( 8.78 ).
Only excerpts from the norm are reproduced here.
The symbols are used to make pneumatic and hydraulic circuit
diagrams for describing the operation of respective controls
and systems.
Non-return valve without spring Non-return valve with spring Controlled non-return valve
Throttle valve with constant
restriction
Throttle valve, adjustable One-way restrictor
Non-return valves
Flow control valves
209
Appendix
Diaphragm non-return valve Pressure relief valve, adjustable Pressure control valve without
drain aperture, adjustable
2/2-Way valve
with open neutral position
2/2-Way valve
with shut-off neutral position
3/2-Way valve with
shut-off neutral position
3/2-Way valve
with open neutral position
3/3-Way valve
with shut-off middle position
4/2-Way valve
4/3-Way valve
with shut-off middle position
5/2-Way valve
4/3-Way valve
Middle position Work direction
vented
Direction valves
Emergency valve
adjustable, with air vent
Pressure control valve with drain
aperture, adjustable
Throttle valve
adjustable, manually operated
Short description of connections
Pressure valves
R, S, T Drain, vent
X, Y, Z Control lines
A, B, C Work line
P Pneumatic connection
210
Appendix
Compressed air source Work line Control line
Pressure connection
( closed )
Line intersection Line connection ( fixed )
Pressure connection
( with connecting line)
Flexible line
Drain with pipe connection
Compressed air receiver
Filter Water separator, hand-operated
Dryer Lubricator
Water separator, automatic
emptying
Filter with automatic water
separator
Cooler Service unit
( simple representation )
Energy transmission
211
Appendix
Pressure measuring device Differential pressure measuring
device
Temperature measuring device
Compressed air measuring device
Ammeter
Flow measuring device
Volumemeter
Pressure switch
Flow probe Pressure probe Temperature probe
Miscellaneous devices
212
Conversion Table
Length
from x to • from x to
mm 0,03937 inch 25,4 mm
m 3,281 foot 0,3048 m
m 1,094 yard 0,914 m
Surface
from x to • from x to
mm² 1,55 x 10-3 sq.inch 645,16 mm²
cm² 0,155 sq.inch 6,452 cm²
m² 10,76 sq.ft. 0,0929 m²
Volume
from x to • from x to
cm³ 0,06102 cu.inch 16,388 cm³
dm³(litre) 0,03531 cu.ft. 28,32 dm³(litre)
dm³(litre) 0,22 gallon(U.K.) 4,545 dm³(litre)
dm³(litre) 0,2642 gallon(US) 3,785 dm³(litre)
m³ 1,308 cu.yard 0,764 m³
Volume flow
from x to • from x to
l/min 0,0353 cfm 28,3 l/min
m³/min 35,31 cfm 0,0283 m³/min
m³/h 0,588 cfm 1,7 m³/h
Pressure
from x to • from x to
bar(abs) 14,5 psia 0,07 bar(abs)
bar(abs) 14,5+Atm. psig 0,07+Atm. bar(abs)
Force
from x to • from x to
N 0,2248 pound force(lbf) 4,454 N
kW 1,36 HP 0,736 kW
Temperature
from x to • from x to
°C (°C x 1,8) + 32 °F (°F -32) / 1,8 °C
213
Index
A
Absorption 85
Adsorption 86
Active carbon Adsorber 100
ARS 59
Atmospheric humidity 72
Autotronic 60
B
Basic units 6
Blaise Pascal law 3
Boyle-Mariotte law 7
C
Choice of compressor 139
Collective line 152
Combined compressor
systems 141
Compressed air
Advantages 14
Applications 2, 21
Composition 7
Costs 204
Energy costs 205
Filters 93
History 1
Impurities 68, 71
Loss 122
Possible applications 18
Properties 7
Quality 79
Compressed air consumption
Cylinders 114
Cylindrical nozzles 111
Nozzles 110
Spray nozzles 113
Spray paint guns 112
Tools 115
Total 120
Compressed air quality
Planning tips 69
Compressed air receiver 142
Compressed air storage 142
Condensate separation 143
Determining volume 129
Fittings 147
Installation 143
Norm series 129
Pulsation damping 140
Set-up 173
Compressed air
requirement 110, 117
Allowances 121
Mean operation time 117
Simultaneity factor 118
Compressor 24
Ambient temperature 170
Cooling air flow V

K
174
Cycle interval 131
Diaphragm 29
Free piston 30
Heat balance 188
Liquid ring 32
Lubricant 50
Reciprocating piston 27
Rotary vane 31
Running time 131
Screw 33
Space requirement 172
Stop time 131
Summary 26
Notes for installation 172
Types of construction 25
Compressor installation 170
Compressor layout
Piston compressor 133
Screw compressor 137
Compressors
Axial 35
Displacement 24
Dynamic 24
Radial 36
Roots 34
Condensate 102
Disposal 171
Condesate drain 103
Condensate quantity 74
Condensate separator
Compressed air receiver 143
Dust separator 95
Condensate treatment 108
Connection line 151
Control 51
Control unit
ARS concept 59
Cooling air flowV

K
174
Costs
Compressed air 204
Compressed air loss 122
D
Dew point 73
Distribution line 150, 151
Drive motor 48
Dryer
Arrangement 91
Operating conditions 81
Duotherm heat exchanger
Cost savings 193
Duotherm BSW 191, 192
Dust separator 95
Dying 80
Absorption 85
Adsorption 86
Membrane drying 84
Over-compression 82
Refrigerated drying 83
F
Filter
Active carbon 99
Micro- 97
Operating pressure 94
Pre- 96
Pressure loss ∆p 94
Sterile 101
Filter mechanisms 98
Filter separation rate 93
Fire safety rules 171
Flow 13, 156
Fluidics 5
Frequency control 57
H
Harmful area 38
Heat exchanger 191
Heat reclamation 188
I
Idling control 54
Idling mode ( L1 ) 52
Inspection 144, 146
Installation room 169
Intake filter 49
Intermittent control 54
Intermittent control, delayed 55
Isobar 8
Isochor 8
Isotherm 8
214
Index
L
Laws
Pressure Equipment Directive 144
Leakage 123
Leakage quantity 123
Determining 123, 124
Loudness 198
level 197
M
Main line 149
MCS 62
Motor cycles
Determining 132
Allowed 132
Multiple systems 152
N
Noise
Safety directives 203
Effects 202
Norms
DIN 28004, Part 3 206
ISO 1219 ( 8.78 ) 208
O
ÖWAMAT 109
Oil-water separator 109
Operating modes 52
Operation mode ( L2 ) 53
Output 38
P
Part-load 53
Part-load control 56
Physical fundamentals 8
Picture symbols 206
Piston compressor 37
Area of application 125
Assemblies 41
Control 40
Cooling 39
Example installation 187
Pipe inside diameter di
Bar diagramme 163
Determining by calculation 161
Determining by graph 162
Pipe length, equivalent 160
Pipeline
Dimensioning 158
Marking 168
Material 164
Nominal width 159
Pipeline material 164
Copper pipes 166
Plastic pipes 167
Seamless steel pipes 165
Stainless steel pipes 165
Threaded pipes 164
Pipe system 149
Pressure loss ∆p 157
with compressed air dryer 155
without dryer 154
Pneumonics 5
Pressure 10
Pressure definitions 51
Pressure dew point 73
Determining 77
on pressure relief 78
Pressure loss ∆p 156
Pressure ranges 17
Q
Quality classes 79
R
Ratiotronic 60
Refrigeration drying 81
Regeneration 86
Cold 87
External hot 89
Internal hot 88
Vacuum- 90
Reynolds number Re 156
Ring main 150
Room heating 189
Economy 190
S
Safety rules
Compressed air receiver 142
Safety valve 49, 148
Screw compressor 42
Area of application 127
Assemblies 47
Compression process 42
Example installation 186
Method of operation 43
SI-System 6
Sound 199
Sound dissemination 200
Sound intensity level 196
Sound level 196
Assessed, dB ( A ) 197
Sound perception 195
Sound pressure 196
Stopped/stationary ( L0 ) 52
Stub line 151
Suction rate 38
Supertronic 61
Switching symbols 208
T
Temperature 9
Tongue valve 49
Treatment 68
Types of control 54, 60
V
Vacuum pumps 24
Ventilators 24
Ventiliation 174
Air inlet ducts 181
Artificial 178
Compressor rooms 176
Cool air duct 182
Ducting 181
Natural 177
Volume 9
Volume flow V

11
compendium
compressed air
c
o
m
p
e
n
d
i
u
m
c
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
e
d

a
i
r
Otto-Boge-Str. 1-7
D-33739 Bielefeld
info@boge.com
www.boge.com
C
o
m
p
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n
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m

o
n
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:

w
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w
.
d
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.
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Revised 6th edition 2004 The existing publication has been carefully developped. However, author and publisher do not assume liability for the correctness of statements, notes and advice as well not for eventual errata. All rights reserved. Reproduction, including that of excerpts, is forbidden. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any way (photocopy, microfilm or any other medium) or be used, copied or distributed on electronic systems, educational purposes included, without the prior written consent of the publisher. © 2004. All rights reserved by BOGE. Published by BOGE, Otto-Boge-Str. 1-7, D-33739 Bielefeld Author of editions 1-5: Ulrich Bierbaum (BOGE) 6th edition revised by Jürgen Hütter (BOGE) Printed on 80 g woodfree paper with mineralfree colours Distribution: Hoppenstedt Bonnier Zeitschriften GmbH, D-64295 Darmstadt Print: Druckhaus Darmstadt GmbH, D-64295 Darmstadt Printed in Germany ISBN: 3-935772-12-2

Table of contents

Contents
Part 1 Fundamentals of compressed air

Chapter

Page

1.1 The history of compressed air ............................................... 1 1.1.1 The origin of compressed air ................................................ 1 1.1.2 The first applications of compressed air ............................... 2 1.2 Units and formula symbols .................................................... 6 1.2.1 Basic units ............................................................................ 6 1.2.2 Compressed air units ........................................................... 6 1.3 What is compressed air ? ....................................................... 7 1.3.1 The composition of air .......................................................... 7 1.3.2 The properties of compressed air ........................................ 7 1.3.3 How does compressed air behave? ..................................... 7 1.4 Physical fundamentals ........................................................... 8 1.4.1 Temperature ......................................................................... 9 1.4.2 Volume ................................................................................. 9 1.4.3 Pressure ............................................................................. 10 1.4.4 Volume flow ........................................................................ 11 1.5 Compressed air in motion .................................................... 13 1.5.1 Flow behaviour ................................................................... 13 1.5.2 Types of flow ...................................................................... 13

Part 2 Applications for pneumatics

2.1 The advantages of compressed air ..................................... 14 2.2 Pressure ranges .................................................................... 17 2.3 Possible applications for compressed air ........................... 18 2.3.1 Tensioning and clamping with compressed air ................... 18 2.3.2 Conveyance by compressed air ......................................... 18 2.3.3 Pneumatic drive systems ................................................... 19 2.3.4 Spraying with compressed air ............................................ 19 2.3.5 Blowing and flushing with compressed air .......................... 19 2.3.6 Testing and inspection with compressed air ....................... 20 2.3.7 Using compressed air for process control .......................... 20 2.4 Examples of specialised applications ................................. 21

Part 3 Compressed air generators

3.1 Compressors (compactors) .................................................. 24 3.1.1 Dynamic compressors ( Turbo-compressors ) .................... 24 3.1.2 Displacement compressors ................................................ 24 3.2 Types of compressor ............................................................ 25 3.2.1 Standard compressors ....................................................... 26 3.2.2 Piston (reciprocating) compressor ...................................... 27 3.2.3 Diaphragm compressor ...................................................... 29 3.2.4 Free piston compressor ...................................................... 30 3.2.5 Rotary vane compressor .................................................... 31 3.2.6 Liquid ring compressor ....................................................... 32 3.2.7 Screw compressor ............................................................. 33 3.2.8 Roots compressor .............................................................. 34 3.2.9 Axial compressor ................................................................ 35 3.2.10 Radial compressor ............................................................. 36

I

Table of contents

Chapter

Page

3.3 Piston compressors .............................................................. 37 3.3.1 General .............................................................................. 37 3.3.2 Suction capacity - output .................................................... 38 3.3.3 Cooling ............................................................................... 39 3.3.4 Coolant ............................................................................... 40 3.3.5 Control of reciprocating piston compressors ...................... 40 3.3.6 Advantages of reciprocating piston compressors ............... 40 3.3.7 Components of a piston compressor .................................. 41 3.4 Screw compressors .............................................................. 42 3.4.1 General .............................................................................. 42 3.4.2 Compression process ........................................................ 42 3.4.3 Method of operation ........................................................... 43 3.4.4 Oil circuit ............................................................................ 44 3.4.5 Pneumatic circuit ................................................................ 45 3.4.6 Heat reclamation ................................................................ 46 3.4.7 Intake control ...................................................................... 46 3.4.8 Advantages of screw compressors ..................................... 46 3.4.9 Main components of a screw compressor .......................... 47 3.5 Components .......................................................................... 48 3.5.1 Drive motor ......................................................................... 48 3.5.2 Drive belts .......................................................................... 48 3.5.3 Belt tensioning .................................................................... 48 3.5.4 Inlet and pressure valves ................................................... 49 3.5.5 Safety valve ........................................................................ 49 3.5.6 Intake filter .......................................................................... 49 3.6 Compressor lubricants and coolants .................................. 50

Part 4 Control of compressors

4.1 Pressure definitions .............................................................. 51 4.2 Operating status .................................................................... 52 4.2.1 Stopped ( L0 ) ..................................................................... 52 4.2.2 Idle ( L1 ) ............................................................................. 52 4.2.3 Part-load ............................................................................ 53 4.2.4 Operating load ( L2 ) .......................................................... 53 4.3 Controlling individual compressors .................................... 54 4.3.1 Intermittent control ............................................................. 54 4.3.2 Idle mode control ................................................................ 54 4.3.3 Delayed intermittent control ................................................ 55 4.3.4 Part-load control ................................................................. 56 4.3.4.1 Proportional regulation ....................................................... 56 4.3.4.2 Frequency control ............................................................... 57 4.4. The ARS control concept ..................................................... 59 4.4.1 Autotronic ........................................................................... 60 4.4.2 Ratiotronic .......................................................................... 60 4.4.3 Supertronic ......................................................................... 61

II

......1 Basic terminology of filters .......5 Active carbon filters . 84 5.........5........ 83 5..........7 Sterile filters ...........1 Heatless regeneration .............. 94 5......2............. 88 5...............................4 Vacuum regeneration ....... 93 5...............1 Operating conditions ....................... 99 5................... 95 5......... 93 5........1 Atmospheric humidity ..............5.4 Quantity of condensate during compression .. 92 5.......4.......2 MCS 3 .4 Diffusion by membrane drying ........................2.......2 Pressure drop ∆p ..... 69 5...... 89 5........5............................. 91 5.....................1.1.......................4.........2 Dryer behind the compressed air receiver ........................ 93 5...........6 Quantity of condensate on a humid Summer day ..3 Operating pressure ...............................................5..................5. 96 5................4... 101 III ...................................8 Pressure dew point after removal of pressure ..........4.....................................5 Sorption by Absorption ...... 78 5............2...............5....5 MCS 6 ................................................................ 74 5......................................................................5 Example for calculating quantities of condensate ..... 65 4..4...3 Pre-filters .......................3......................... 71 5.....................................5 Compressed air filters ...................................2....................................... 70 5....7...............6...............2 Internal heat regeneration .................4.6.................5...........4.....2.................................. 100 5.......3 Consequences of poor treatment ......... 85 5............................................. 80 5.............5.........................Table of contents Chapter Page 4...........................................................4............5........... 72 5.. 75 5...........................................................1...7.......................... 68 5..........1.......................3 Compressed air quality ..... 62 4............... 96 5.....................................2........... 66 4..................4..............................2 Dust separators .......1 Quality classes defined in DIN ISO 8573-1 ............................................ 87 5....................3 Impurities in the air ....... 73 5....................... 86 5......... 62 4.........................4.... 72 5............................................................. 91 5..............................................1...2 Dew points .........5................ 76 5.... 82 5........................................3 MCS 4 .....4 MCS 5 ..1 Filter separation rate η [ % ] ........................................................................................................5......2 Water in the compressed air ..........2...........................................4............6 Sorption by Adsorption .................... 64 4.............4 Microfilters .........5.........5...........................4. 81 5.......3 Air moisture content ................1 Dryer before the compressed air receiver .....................................1 Why treatment ? ...............6 Active carbon adsorbers ..........................6 MCS 7 .............................. 63 4.........5 Control of several compressors .........6..... 90 5.................................3 External heat regeneration ............................. 73 5....3 Condensation by refrigeration drying .................7 Arrangement of the refrigeration compressed air dryer .................5.........4 Methods of drying ..... 79 5............1........ 94 5. 77 5.........................................................5... 79 5.........2 Planning information ...........................................2 Condensation by high pressure .......4........ 67 Part 5 Compressed air treatment 5.............5................1 MCS 1 and MCS 2 .............6.7 Determining the pressure dew point ....................2.........................................

127 8.....1 Compressed air consumption of cylindrical nozzles .... 130 IV . 113 7..............................1......3 Volumes of compressed air receivers for compressors ....................................................1 Screw compressors .4 Allowances for losses and reserves ........3 Defining compressed air requirement ...2 Compressed air consumption of cylinders ....................................................... 102 6... 117 7..2....3 Limits for leakage ........3............1 Costs of compressed air loss ....3 Determining the volume of a compressed air receiver .2 Quantifying leakage by measuring working time .............3........2........3 Condensate treatment ....... 127 8........1 Consumption of compressed air by pneumatic devices ........... 106 6.........2 Simultanity factor .......... 105 6... 128 8.................2..............................3 Total compressed air consumption .......3.2 Condensate drains with float control .........1.................................2 Determining compressed air requirement ... 126 Part 8 Determining the size of the compressor station 8...........1 Consumption of nozzles ........ 123 7...............5 Reconstructing a pneumatic network ......3............ 103 6.................. 115 7...... 127 8...................3.....2..............................................3......... 122 7................1 Condensate drains with manual valves ......................2................................ 104 6...... 122 7...1 Average operation time ...............2.........1.4 Condensate drains with electronic level control ......................... 109 Part 7 Compressed air requirement 7.........2 Quantifying leakage ..................2......2.................2........2..........................3.........................1 Automatic consumer devices ............................................3 Compressed air loss .1........3..................................................5 FAD Required LB ..3............................2..............................2 Piston compressors ....................... 110 7.....3.............................2.................................................2 General consumer devices ...1 Factors influencing cutout pressure Pmax ................. 119 7...........................1 Oil-water separators ..2.....3.....1 Quantifying leakage by emptying the receiver ...........1... 121 7............ 114 7............... 107 6.............1.. 128 8... 119 7............3... 120 7............................................... 104 6..................1.. 108 6..2........1........ 121 7..................... 125 7.............. 110 7.. 112 7..................1....2..5 Condensate drains with float operated level control ..1 The type of compressor ..................3 Compressed air consumption of tools ........1 Condensate ........ 111 7......... 125 7......1..Table of contents Chapter Part 6 Disposal of condensate Page 6........3.......................................................... 124 7.......... 129 8......3 Condensate drains with timer operated solenoid valves ................ 129 8..1.....1 Recommendations for the volume of compressed air receivers ..................3...........2 Condensate drains ........... 120 7........2 Maximum pressure Pmax .....................4 Measures for minimising compressed air loss .....2........2 Compressed air consumption of paint spray guns ....................................... 129 8............... 117 7.. 123 7....3 Compressed air consumption of jet nozzles .... 118 7.....2 Norm series and operating pressures for sizes of compressed air receivers ..........

...................... 141 Part 9 The pneumatic system 9.........................5........1....1........5 Motor cycling rate of compressor ...2 Determining compressor size .... 143 9........1.........................5........2.......Table of contents Chapter Page 8.......... 141 8....1...... 145 9.2......................7 Fittings on the compressed air receivers .................................4 Operation of compressed air receivers ..................................................1... 131 8...1.......................2.1....................1............1.........................1 The compressed air receiver .............. 144 9......... 147 9.........................................2 The distribution line... 149 9... 134 8.....stub line ...........5.. 138 8....3 Inspection prior to commissioning .5 Installation of compressed air receivers ...............3 The distribution line.........5 Repetitive inspections ........1............2......5............................2.....................2..2.......................6................ 148 9... 136 8.............................................................1 Example for determining the maximum pressure Pmax ..................3 Condensate collection .......... 137 8......................................5......................2 Approved inspection authorities and authorized personnel .2 Varying working pressure of consumer devices .......1............. 142 9...1 The main line .........................................1..5...................6... 142 9...............1...3 Determining the motor cycle speed ......1............................................2 Determining compressor size . 133 8............................................................ 140 8.1..........................6...............1 Storing compressed air ..........5 Connecting to a collective line with multiple systems ............4 Compressor cycle interval .................1 Determining the maximum pressure Pmax ...4 Compressor cycle intervals ......... 133 8..4 The connection line ...............................1................2........3 Summary on compressor selection .....4.1 Performance and working pressure ..........1.1......ring line .5.................6........................ 144 9....................4 Compressor cycle interval ........ 138 8.......2 Compressor running times .....................5. 139 8......3 Dimensioning the compressed air receiver ......... 144 9................... 137 8........4..........1............. 145 9....1........1.......1.. 131 8......2. 142 9..6 Safety rules for compressed air receivers . 140 8..5 Examples for compressor configuration .... 137 8..1 Registration and inspection obligations .....6.... 150 9............. 131 8................2 Pulsation damping ....................................7..6.....4 Registration ........2 The compressed air circuit .............. 152 V ...2..6 Information on compressor configuration ......... 132 8.....................................1 Samples calculation for piston compressors ..................6....6..................................3 Volume of the compressed air receiver ................. 133 8..................... 134 8...1 Safety valve .... 151 9....3 Combined compressor systems ............ 145 9.... 143 9.......5....... 149 9........... 151 9....................1 The structure of a compressed air circuit ....5.......1 Compressor idle times ....4........ 135 8.....5............1........................ 149 9............................5. 143 9.......2 Samples calculation for screw compressors ..

......... 167 9...........................2............ 156 9..........6..... 178 10.......5.......4................2 Admissible ambient temperature ............. 174 10.....2 Pipeline without compressed air dryer ..........5 Compressor installation instructions .... 164 9.......4.. 165 9...........3 Ventilation of a compressor station .............3.................3........................1 Cooling the compressor .2 Seamless steel pipes ..............4 Determining the inside diameter di of the pipe by calculation . 163 9...........................................6 Choosing the material for pipelines .........2...........2 The Reynolds number Re ...........3 Pipeline system with compressed air dryer ...... 153 9........ 159 9.......3 General information for ventilation of compressor rooms .. 162 9..............4.... 177 10...........5............... 176 10...3 Fire safety rules for installation rooms ..................................... 166 9.3 Equivalent pipe length .............. 170 10......3..2........................7 Conditions for installing compressed air receivers .......3.........1 Maximum pressure drop ∆p ............................ 173 10...................3.......... 172 10......2........................ 156 9.............................................................1 General information regarding the installation room ....2............. 178 10...2.. 158 9............... 171 10....... 175 10......... 179 VI ............5....2 Compressor installation ...................................................................................3............5................3....4 Natural ventilation ......................................6..................1 Outlet air aperture required for natural ventilation ............................ 161 9.2 Nominal width of pipelines Comparison [ DN – Inch ] ....... 160 9.. 155 9..................4.. 171 10.............. 168 Part 10 The Installation Room 10................. 170 10..........................5 Dimensioning pipelines ........1 Type of flow ..6...5...........1 Required ventilator output with artificial ventilation ...3........2 Definition of the factors influencing the flow of • cooling air Vc to and from a compressor ........................7 Marking pipelines ........ 165 9....6 Determining the inside diameter of the pipe di with the aid of a bar graph ...5 Determining the inside diameter of the pipe di by graphics .............. 174 10............... 170 10............5 Artificial ventilation ....................................Table of contents Chapter Page 9............................................................................4 Disposal of condensate ......6..3........1 Factors influencing the flow of • cooling air of a Vc of a compressor ...6 The space requirement of a compressor .5 Plastic pipes ........................ 177 10......................................................... 169 10...................3 Pressure loss in the pipe system .........................................5...............1 Threaded pipes .........3 Stainless steel pipes ...................... 153 9....2 Required inlet air aperture with artificial ventilation ....................1 General planning tips ..............................................5....3 Tips for planning pipe systems . 164 9...3....................................................................................... 172 10........................ 158 9.......................5............3..................6..............................4 Pressure loss ∆p ...................4 Copper pipes ....... 156 9............. 154 9................... 157 9.........2....

........................6 Noise measurement .......................3 10........................5 Dimensioning the air inlet aperture when using an outlet duct ................................. 200 12.... 180 Circulation of cooling-air with inlet and outlet ducts .3...................... 190 11... 184 10..............5................. 199 12................7 Silencing on compressors .. 197 12..2 Reflection and Absorption ......... 199 12.....1 The nature of sound ..............3...4........................4...........................................6 Variations of duct-type ventilation ............ 201 12............... 181 Extraction of air through a cool-air duct .......................1 Sound pressure ..5 Dessemination of sound in pipes and ducts ...................3 Damping sound .....4... 201 12.4 Information concerning ventilation by ducting .................................1....6..............3 How much energy is it possible to save? ..........3.........2 Installation of piston-type compressor: an example .... 196 12.....................4 Closing remarks concerning heat recovery ................. 203 12..............1 Distance from the sound source .................................................2 10............. 193 11.........................1 Duotherm BPT ...........1 Installation of a screw-type compressor: an example .... 198 12.....3........................................2 Two sound sources with different levels ..................................... 197 12....................... 182 10......2 Room heating ......... 182 • Required flow of cooling-air Vd and cross-section of duct Ad when using a cool-air duc ... 203 VII ........ 187 Part 11 Heat recovery 11... 202 12...........3.... 196 12..................6........2........................................... 196 12..3 Economy of room heating .......3.......2...................................... 195 12.. 196 12...........3....................3 The Duotherm heat exchanger ......................4..5 The effects of noise ............................2 Important terminology in acoustics ...3.........6........................................................1 Several sound sources with the same level ......... 186 10...............6.......................1 10.3.... 197 12..3.....Table of contents Chapter 10.....2 Duotherm BSW ........6....................................6....2 Sound level ........6 Sound pressure level from many sound sources ..1 Room heating through ducting .........1 Sound perception ....................... 199 12............... 181 Air inlet ducts .3 Page Example of artificial ventilation of a compressor station ............... 192 11......................6..................................... 195 12..............................4 Example installation plans ......... 194 Part 12 Sound 12....... 185 10..................3....................... 191 11.................. 201 12...2..........4...................................................3 Human perception of sound ........3 Loudness in comparison . 183 10.. 191 11........................1 The heat balance of a compressor station ....3 Sound intensity ..............4.............................3........................2 Operation of room heating... 190 11......................... 189 11............1 The sound intensity level ....................................2 Assessed sound level dB ( A ) ................................6....4............ 189 11.............3........................... 188 11...2.3.. 186 10....................................4............................2....4 Behaviour of sound ....................4.................6 10........ 200 12.......................2...........

.............. 208 Part 15 Index 15..........................1 Symbols .......................... 205 Part 14 Appendix A......................................2 Cost-effectiveness calculation for energy costs ...1 Conversion Table .............................. 204 13.. 206 A.......................... 204 13....1..................1 Cost factor ratios .......................................1........2 Symbols for contact units and switching devices as per ISO 1219 ........................1...........1 Picture symbols defined by DIN 28004 ..1 Composition of compressed air costs .. 212 VIII .............................Table of contents Chapter Part 13 Costs of compressed air Page 13................................................ 206 A..

In a healthy condition.1 The origin of compressed air The first compressor . the possibilities. 1. copper. More powerful aids than the lung were needed to generate temperatures of over 1000° C. Its development was only furthered where it was seen to have advantages over other technologies. In doing so it generates a pressure of 0. the reliability of the human compressor is unsurpassed and it costs nothing to service. and so clever people were always thinking about how to put it to better use. The further development of the „lung“ However. together with electricity. Egyptian and Sumerian goldsmiths made use of the blast pipe. 1.Fundamentals of compressed air 1. is the most frequently used carrier of energy in industry and the crafts today. People’s comprehension of compressed air grew parallel to their understanding in other technical fields.02 . However. the lung could be called a kind of natural compressor. this is only useful for melting small quantities of metal.1: The first compressor . which increased the temperature decisively. advantages and essentials of compressed air are far less understood.0. Later.the lung Many technical applications originate from the earliest days of mankind. But whereas we learn to use electricity and electrical appliances from a very early age. further development of compressed air technology was essential.1 Fundamentals of compressed air The history of compressed air Compressed air. the lung proved to be wholly inadequate when people began to smelt pure metals such as gold. The human lung can process 100 l/min or 6 m3 of air per hour. The capacity and performance of this compressor is extremely impressive. Even today. And when they started to make high grade metals. tin and lead more than 5000 years ago. Fig.the lung 1 . 1. Indeed. such as iron from ore. The air used for blowing was compressed in the lungs. The first use of compressed air was blowing on tinder to fan a flame. goldsmiths all over the world use a similar device.1. But compressed air was always being used. At first they used the high winds on uplands and the crests of hills.08 bar. This brought air directly into the embers.

With the aid of air compressed in a cylinder.3: The catapult of Ktesibios Temple doors Expansion and the performance of work Heron.the bellows The first mechanical compressor.2 The first applications of compressed air Recognising the properties of compressed air Hydraulic organ Storage and suppression of pulsation The first deliberate exploitation of energy in the air is handed down to us by the Greek Ktesibios ( ca. for his catapult. an engineer living in Alexandria in the first century BC. It was the birth of compressed air as we know it today. 1. found a way to open the doors of a temple automatically by keeping the flame at the altar inside the building permanently alight. Fig. The much more powerful foot-powered bellows was invented around 1500 BC. This progress was necessary when the alloying of copper and tin to make bronze developed into a stable manufacturing process.4: The temple doors of Heron 2 . that it was possible to perform work by changing the condition of air. Heron recognised. 285 to 222 BC ).1. Catapult Storage of energy Ktesibios used another property of compressed air. The secret was to use the expansion of hot air to force water out of one container and into another. He built a hydraulic organ and used compressed air for the storage and reduction of vibration.Fundamentals of compressed air The first mechanical compressor . Fig.2: Picture of the foot-powered bellows in ancient Egypt 1. stored energy. was developed in the middle of the third millennium BC. the hand-powered bellows. 1.1. Fig. the Greek’s catapult generated enough tension to propel missiles. The development can be seen in a wallpainting of an ancient Egyptian grave. even if unwittingly.

Papin thus laid the foundation stone for pneumatic conveyance. In 1869 Westinghouse introduced his pneumatic brake.e. His brake motor followed three years later.. 1. He exploited the slight difference in pressure inside a pipe. Brake systems based on this principle are still used in HGVs today. 1. 3 . trains were being powered by compressed air. 1. 1870 This was the first use of a fail-safe system. He found that the energy exerted by one man at one end of a closed container of water was equivalent to the energy exerted by 100 men at another end. the full braking effect is obtained if there is a drop in pressure e.5 : Compressed air to increase energy It was only in the 17th century that a series of learned people began to study the physical laws applicable to compressed air. In doing so he found out that energy was generated at an object inside the pipe.. Transporting objects through pipes Pneumatic conveyance p1 p2 Fig.7 : Pneumatic brakes in a train ca. In 1663 Blaise Pascal published an essay on increasing energy by using liquids ( hydraulics ). In this system the brakes were applied by over-pressure i. by the bursting of a hose.Fundamentals of compressed air Pascal’s law Increasing energy Fig.6 : Compressed air as a means of transport Taking up where Heron left off. Pneumatic brakes Power transmission As early as around 1810. the French physicist Denis Papin described in 1667 a method of transporting objects through pipes. Fig.g. that was also valid for the technology of compressed air. This was recognition of the advantage of the high work speeds obtainable by using air.

1. People had not only seen the possibility of transporting energy. The all-round success of the pneumatic network was underlined by the invention of a clock. but also of moving signals over great distances through a pneumatic network. the minute hand of which was moved on every sixty seconds by an impulse from the compressor station. This system was much more flexible than the heavy. Even today. pneumatic post systems are still used in large industrial operations. Pneumatic post networks soon sprung up in Berlin. It was put into commission in 1888 with a central compressor output of 1 500 kW. 1. It featured small trolleys moving completely inside conveyor tubes and was designed to transport postal bags and parcels. New York and Paris.8 : Pneumatic drills in tunnel construction Pneumatic networks Central generation of compressed air and signal transmission The experience gained using networks of pneumatic lines and the development of more powerful compressors led to a pneumatic network being installed in the sewage canals of Paris. atmospheric railways of 1810. When in 1871 the breakthrough in the tunnel was achieved. there were over 7 000 m of pipelines on both sides. Fig. pneumatic tools of even greater performance and versatility were developed. The Paris network reached its peak length of 437 km in 1934. From 1861 they used pneumatically-powered percussion drills. Fig. By 1891 its output rating had already reached 18 000 kW.9 : Compressed air station in Paris 1888 4 . these being supplied with compressed air from compressors at both ends of the tunnel. Thus. In 1863. In both cases the compressed air was transported over long distances. for the first time. the transportability of energy was demonstrated and made known to a wide public as one of the advantages of compressed air. the new technology was used in a pneumatically-powered hammer drill to cut through the rock.Fundamentals of compressed air Pneumatic post Conveyance by compressed air The idea of trains powered by compressed air was not forgotten. and is still in use. Pneumatic tools Transporting energy When the tunnel through Mont Cenis was being built in 1857. And from here on. The pneumatic network in Paris is unique to this day. Latimer Clark together with an engineer named Rammel built a pneumatic conveyance system in London. and led eventually to the introduction of pneumatic post.

001 to 1.Fundamentals of compressed air Signal processing Compressed air for the transmission and processing of signals Fig. Immunity to electromagnetic radiation from exploding nuclear weapons gives fluidics a special advantage in several sensitive areas. The high operating precision of the fluidic logic elements under extreme conditions allowed them to be used in the space and defence programmes of the USA and the USSR. 1. 5 . allow the integration of logical switching functions in the form of fluidic elements in a very small area at pressures of 1.10 : Four-stage adding device with wall radiation elements In the 1950s in the USA the high flow speed of compressed air was first used for the transmission and processing of signals. Even so. also known as fluidics or pneumonics ( pneumatic logic ).1 bar. Low-pressure pneumatics. over the course of time fluidics has largely been superseded by electrical and microelectronic technology in the fields of signal and information processing.

1.2 Compressed air units Engineering uses measures derived from the basic units. Unit Force Pressure Area Volume Speed Mass Density Temperature Work Energy Tension Frequency Formula symbol F p A V v m ρ T W P U f Symbol [N] [ Pa ] [ bar ] [ m2 ] [ m3 ] [l] [m/s] [ kg ] [t] [ kg / m3 ] [ °C ] [J] [W] [V] [ Hz ] Name Newton Pascal Bar 1 bar = 100 000 Pa Square metre Cubic metre Litre 1 m3 = 1 000 l Metre per Second Kilogramme Tonne 1 t = 1 000 kg Kilogramme per cubic metre Degree Celsius Joule Watt Volt Hertz 6 . The basic units are defined independent units of measure and form the basis of the SI-system.1 Basic units Basic unit Length Mass Time Strength of current Temperature Strength of light Qty of substance Formula symbol l m t I T I n Symbol [m] [ kg ] [s] [A] [K] [ cd ] [ mol ] Name Metre Kilogramme Second Ampere Kelvin Candela Mol 1.10. They have been generally prescribed since 16.1971.2 Units and formula symbols The SI-units ( Système International d'Unités ) were agreed at the 14th General Conference for Weights and Measures.2.2. The following table shows the most frequently used units of measure for compressed air.Fundamentals of compressed air 1.

Compressed air is a carrier of heat energy.Fundamentals of compressed air 1.3. consists of: Nitrogen 78 % 78 % Nitrogen 21 % Oxygen Oxygen 21 % 1 % other gases ( e.3. 1. Compressed air Pressure energy Heat Compressed air can bridge certain distances ( in pipelines ). and the higher the pressure generated.11: The composition of air 1.3 1.. ( Boyle-Mariotte’s Law ) 7 .13: Air in a closed container Boyle and Mariotte carried out experiments with enclosed volumes of gas independently of each other and found the following interrelationship: The volume of gas is inversely proportional to pressure. the atmosphere. then these molecules bounce off the walls of the tank and generate pressure p. the greater the movement of air molecules.1 What is compressed air ? The composition of air The air in our environment.12: Air compression 1. If the air is enclosed in a tank ( constant volume ). carbon-dioxide and argon ) other gases 1% Fig. 1.3. The molecules are held together by molecular force. 1. the air consists of molecules. Volume ( V ) = constant V p p Temperature ( T ) = is increased Pressure ( p ) = rises T Fig. The higher the temperature.g.3 How does compressed air behave? p p p p p p p p p p As with all gases.2 The properties of compressed air Compressed air is compressed atmospheric air. Fig. be stored ( in compressed air receivers ) and perform work ( decompress ).

T 1 constant volume isochore compression p0 —— p1 = T0 —— T1 Temperature constant ( isotherm ) Pressure and volume variable p0 . T 1 constant pressure isobar compression V0 —— V1 = T0 —— T1 8 . T 0 p1 . V0 .4 Physical fundamentals The condition of compressed air is determined by the 3 measures of thermal state: T V p = Temperature = Volume = Pressure p × V ———— T = constant This means: Heat Volume constant ( isochore ) Pressure and temperature variable When the temperature is increased and the volume remains constant.Fundamentals of compressed air 1. p0 . the volume increases. constant temperature isotherm compression p0 × V0 = p1 × V1 = constant Heat Pressure constant ( isobar ) Volume and temperature variable When the temperature is increased and the pressure remains constant. the pressure rises. V 1 When the volume is reduced and the temperature remains constant. V 0 p1 . T 0 V1 . the pressure rises.

1. 760 Torr = 1. Bm3 ] Compressed air in compressed state The volume in operating state refers to the actual condition.4. When specifying the operating volume the pressure must always be given. air pressure and air humidity must be taken into account as reference points.15 K = 0 °C Norm volume 0°C + 8% = Volume 20 ° C Operating volume Voperat [ Bl. It is measured in l or m3 and relative to 20 ° C and 1 bar. Nm3 ] Compressed air in expanded state under normal conditions The normal volume refers to the physical normal state as specified in DIN 1343. is compressed and only occupies 1/8 of the original volume.g.4. 1 m 3 at 7 bar means that 1 m 3 expanded (relaxed) air at 7 bar = 8 bar abs. by the size of a cylinder. m3 ] Compressed air in expanded state. T [K] 0°C = t [ °C ] + 273. The temperature. It is 8 % less than the volume at 20 ° C.2 Volume Volume V [ l. open air The volume is determined. e.15 Fig.. The numbers in our documentation always refers to compressed air in its expanded state.Fundamentals of compressed air 1. 0 barabs 8 barabs 9 . for example.01325 barabs = 101 325 Pa 273.14: Showing temperature 1. d2 × π ———— × h 4 VCyl = Volume d = Diameter h = Height [m3] [m] [m] VCyl = Volume (V) Normal volume VNorm [ Nl.1 Temperature The temperature indicates the heat of a body and is read in °C on thermometers or converted to Kelvin ( K ).

pressure is usually specified as over-pressure.16: Illlustration of different pressures 1 bar = 10195 mmWH 10 .1.1. barometric air pressure pabs pabs pvac = pamb + pop Partial vacuum According to the SI-System pressure is given in Pascal [ Pa ]. pop Overpressure Absolute pressure pabs [ bar ] The absolute pressure pabs is the sum of the atmospheric pressure pamb and the over-pressure pop. however. It is dependent on the density and height of the atmosphere. Fig.3 Pressure Atmospheric pressure pamb [ bar ] Atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of the air that surrounds us. The old measure atm ( 1 atm = 0.981 bar-op ) is no longer used. In practice. At sea level. pamb Force 100 % Vacuum Pressure = ———— Area F p = —— A pamb pop pvac pabs = = = = Atmospheric pressure Over-pressure Partial vacuum Absolute pressure 1 Pascal = 1 Newton ———— 1 m2 1N 1 Pa = —— 1 m2 [ mm water head ] Fig.4.15: Atmospheric pressure Over-pressure pop [ barop ] Over-pressure is the pressure above atmospheric pressure. it is still mostly given in „ bar “.Fundamentals of compressed air 1. 1 013 mbar = 1. and in bar without the index „ op“.01325 bar = 760 mm/Hg [ Torr ] = 101 325 Pa Under constant conditions atmospheric pressure decreases the higher the measuring location is. In compressed air technology.

It is the product of the cylinder size ( piston capacity ). 1.. m³/h ] TDC Output rate The output rate of a compressor is normally declared as the volume flow. is an important consideration for the design of a compressor.. • VWor Fig. Volume flows can only usefully be compared when measured under the same conditions. The working volume flow is given in l/min.e. ISO 1217 or PN2 CPTC2 and given in l/min. i. The effective volume flow. the volume flow is not a calculated value. This is why when calculating the induction state the measured volume flow to induction pressure must be „ relaxed“ and to induction temperature it must be „ re-cooled“ and „dryed“ to a relative humidity of 0 %. • Working volume flow VWor [ l/min. but one measured at the pressure joint of a compressor and calculated back to the induction state. m³/min. 1. BDC In contrast to the working volume flow. DIN 1945. The volume flow is measured according to VDMA 4362..4 Volume flow A distinction is made between the working volume flow ( induction rate ) and the volume flow ( output rate ) of a compressor. m3/min or m3/h. pressure. TDC = Top dead centre BDC = Bottom dead centre Fig. The volume flow is dependent on the final pressure relative to the induction conditions of pressure. temperature and relative humidity.Fundamentals of compressed air • Volume flow V [ l/min. m³/h ] Induction rate Volume flow Output rate The working volume flow is a calculable quantity on piston compressors. the output that can actually be used. Working volume flow Induction rate 1. This means that the induction temperature. relative air humidity and measured pressure must match. m³/min or m³/h.18: Cylinder movement 11 . compressor speed ( number of strokes ) and the number of cylinders working.4. m³/min. m³/min.17: Working volume flow and volume flow = A × s × n × c • VWor A s n c Working volume flow [ l / min ] Cylinder area [ dm2] Stroke [ dm] Number of strokes [ 1/ min ] (compressor speed) = Number of working cylinders = = = = • Volume flow V [ l/min. m³/h ] The volume flow describes the volume ( l or m³ ) per unit of time ( minute or hour ).

Nm3/min. To be able to compare the operating volume flow with the other volume flows. 1 barabs Fig. Nm3/h ] As with the volume flow.19: Norm volume flow Volume flow 20°C Temperature Pressure Air density rel.01325 bar ( 760 mm HG ) 1.15 K ( 0 °C ) 1.20: Operating volume flow 8 barabs 12 . 1. the norm volume flow is also measured.Fundamentals of compressed air • Norm volume flow VNorm [ Nl/min.294 kg/m3 ( dry air ) 0% • Operating volume flow VOperat [ Ol/min. Om3/min or Om3/h. However. the pressure of he compressed air must always be given in addition to the dimension Ol/min. humidity = = = = 273. Om3/min. but to a theoretical comparative value. it does not refer to the induction state. With the physical norm state the theoretical values are: Norm volume flow + 8 % = 0°C Fig. 1. Om3/h ] The operating volume flow gives the effective volume flow of compressed air.

Laminar flow ( even flow ) low drop in pressure slight heat transition Fig.23: Turbulent flow 13 . 1.1 Flow behaviour The volume flow is calculated from area and speed. 1. 1.5.2 Types of flow Flow can be laminar or even (Ideal). v2 = The result of the formula is that: The speed of flow is inversely proportional to the cross section. A2 = v1.5. 1. A1 A2 • V = A 1 × v1 = A2 × v2 A1 v2 —— = —— v1 A2 v1 v2 • V = A 1 .Fundamentals of compressed air 1.21: Flow behaviour 1. Volume flow Cross section Speed Fig.5 Compressed air in motion Different laws apply to compressed air in motion than to stationary compressed air.22: Laminar flow Turbulent flow ( whirl flow ) high drop in pressure great heat transition Fig. or turbulent ( with backflow and whirling ).

Clean and dry Compressed air does not cause soiling or leave drops of oil if the lines are defective. 2. a work cycle can be completed even if the power network fails. leather. Transportable compressed air bottles can also be used at locations where there is no pipe system (e. If there is a storage tank integrated in a pneumatic network. Since outlet air escapes into the open.1 Applications for pneumatics The advantages of compressed air Pneumatics faces increasing competition from mechanical. and there is plenty of it. 14 . the compressor only needs to work when the pressure drops below a critical level. And because there is always a cushion of pressure. Easily stored It is easy to store compressed air in purpose-built tanks. Compressed air can be transported over great distances in pipelines. This allows the installation of central generation stations that can supply points of consumption via ring mains with a constant working pressure. hydraulic and electrical appliances on all fronts. e. food.g. Cleanliness in fitting and operation are extremely important factors in many sectors of industry.g. and packing. textiles. under water). This makes a big difference with manual and percussion tools ( pneumatic screwdrivers and hammers). Electrical and hydraulic systems need a return line to the source. The energy stored in compressed air can be widely distributed in this way. there is no need for return lines. Lightweight Pneumatic devices are usually much lighter than comparable equipment and machinery with electrical power units.. But pneumatic devices have fundamental advantages over the other technologies: Easily transported Air is available everywhere.Applications for pneumatics 2..

For this reason it is very robust and not susceptible to malfunctioning. Pneumatic components are easy to install and can be re-used later without difficulty. Straight-line movements can be executed without extra mechanical parts such as levers. Installation times are short because of the simple design. Accident-proof Pneumatic elements are very safe with regard to fire. particularly in mechanisation and automation. e. In damp-rooms or outdoors too.. as with hydraulic equipment. This is a major point. 15 . There is no need for regular medium changes. Pneumatic devices and lines that are untight are no risk to the safety and serviceability of the system. eccentric disks. for instance. cams.g. This reduces costs and the servicing requirement. there is no danger with pneumatic equipment. Pneumatic components are cheaper than the equivalent hydraulic components. It can also be used where there are very high temperatures.50 times more economical than muscle power. They therefore have a long working life and a low failure rate. The fitters require no expensive special training. Pneumatic systems and components in general wear very little. explosion and extreme weather conditions. Simple The design and operation of pneumatic equipment is very simple. screw spindles and the like. pneumatic elements can be used without large and expensive safety apparatus. and increases operating times. Even in areas where there is a risk of fire. for operating forge presses and blast furnace doors.Applications for pneumatics Safe to use Compressed air works perfectly even when there are great temperature fluctuations and the temperatures are extreme. Rational and economical Pneumatics is 40 . explosion and electrical hazards.

In contrast to electrical systems. the output of a pneumatic network can be overloaded without risk of danger. Fully adjustable Travel speeds and exerted force are fully and easily adjustable. torque and speeds can be fully adjusted without difficulty by using throttles. the work can not be done. 16 . This is why they are considered to be overload-proof. force. Maximum control speeds in signal processing lie between 30 and 70 m/s at operating pressures of between 6 and 8 bar. Fast work medium The very high flow speeds allow rapid completion of work cycles. Hydraulic applications only manage 5 m/s. Compressed air can achieve flow speeds of over 20 m/s. Both with linear and rotary movement. With pressures of less than 1 bar it is even possible to obtain signal speeds of 200 to 300 m/s. but there will be no damage to the network or its working elements. If the pressure drops too much. This provides short cut-in times and fast conversion of energy into work.Applications for pneumatics Overload-proof Compressed air equipment and pneumatic working parts can be loaded until they stop without being damaged. The pneumatic cylinders reach linear piston speeds of 15 m/s.

High pressure compressors are used in power stations. High pressure range Medium pressure range Low pressure range Compressors used : – two-stage piston compressors – single-stage screw compressors ( up to 14 bar ) with oil-injection cooling High pressure range to 40 bar The compressors in this pressure range are generally used for starting large diesel engines. rolling mills and steel works and for leak testing. Compressors used: – three and four-stage piston compressors 17 . There are also other special machines that operate with such pressures. such as oxygen. Compressors used : – one and two-stage piston compressors – single-stage screw compressors with oil-injection cooling – two-stage compressors – rotary compressors Compaction pressure in bar High pressure range Medium pressure range to 15 bar HGV and other heavy vehicle tyres are filled with compressed air from 15 bar compressors.2 Pressure ranges Low pressure range to 10 bar Most pneumatic applications in industry and the crafts lie in the low pressure range of 10 bar and below.Applications for pneumatics 2. testing pipelines and flushing plastic tanks. Compressors of this type are also used for compressing utility gases. Fig 2.1 : Pressure ranges Compressors used : – two and three-stage piston compressors – multi-stage screw compressors High pressure range to 400 bar One example of the use of compressed air in the high pressure range is the storage of breathing air in diving bottles.

The range of possible applications is diverse and all-embracing. Another variation of pneumatic transport is the conveyance of bulk material and liquids through pipes.3: Bridging the heights with a pneumatically powered elevator 18 . The energy in the compressed air is converted directly into force and movement through the exertion of pressure.3 Possible applications for compressed air Compressed air is used intensively in all sectors of industry.2: Pneumatic-mechanical clamp 2. as does the turn-around of tools and other items on longer conveyor belts. granulates. and everyday life. With this method.Applications for pneumatics 2. Pneumatic cylinders or motors fix and position the tools needed for work processes. In these applications. 2. This can be done by linear and rotary movement. Automated storage and receipt also belongs in this category. powder and small parts can be quickly and comfortably conveyed over relatively long distances. Fig. In view of the versatility of this medium it is only possible to outline a few of the possible applications. or according to work processes. Some of the technical uses are mentioned and explained briefly below. 2. The pneumatic post concept also belongs in this category. and also by swivel movement.1 Tensioning and clamping with compressed air Tensioning and clamping with compressed air is mainly used in applications involving mechanisation and automation. The arrangement of the chapter can not be unambiguous since the criteria for assessment and differentiation are too varied. The amount of tensioning force required must be dispensed with precision. corn. the crafts. Fig.2 Conveyance by compressed air Conveyance by compressed air is found in mechanisation and automation. 2.3.3. motors and cylinders are used for timed or untimed conveyance.

Applications for pneumatics 2. Compressed air in this form can also be used to let off heat. Linear movement with the aid of cylinders in particular is seen as a highly economical and rational application. This procedure is used to apply or atomise various substances. 2.6: Air gun with spiral hose 19 . for spraying weedkillers and insecticides.3. e. Examples of this type of work are blowing out glass or plastic bottles.3. pneumatic hammers) are of great importance in this category.3 Pneumatic drive systems Pneumatic drive systems are found in all areas of industry and the crafts. Pneumatic percussion machinery and tools (e. These can perform rotary and linear movements. Fig.5 Blowing and flushing with compressed air When blowing and flushing the compressed air itself is the work medium and tool.. The utility work is performed by dropping the pressure and changing the volume of the compressed air.g.5: Arc-type metal spraying system If high temperatures are also used. Pneumatic power is also used by a multitude of valves and slides.. such as sand and gravel blasting. Fig. the energy of the expanding compressed air is used to force materials or liquids through a spray nozzle.. compressed air can be utilised for applying liquid metals. 2. The flow speed generated by dropping pressure and/or the expanding volume performs the utility work.4 Spraying with compressed air With Spraying applications. 2.g. Concrete and mortar are also applied using this method. The energy in the compressed air is converted into kinetic energy for a moving piston. tools. blowing out and cleaning tools and moulds.3.4: Valveless pneumatic hammer 2. fixing light tools for processing or conveyance and flushing out metal chips and residue. feed systems and vehicles. shot peening and painting with spray-guns belong to this category. Fig. Arc-type spraying is an example worthy of mention here. Surface treatment processes. adjustment devices. Another application is the atomisation of liquids through spray nozzles. Vibrators and jolting devices belong to this category. 2.

2.6 Testing and inspection with compressed air In pneumatic testing and inspection procedures. Pneumatics (fluidics) is also used for information processing and logical switching. This process is an integral part of many sorting. weights and changes in shape. They require much more space.7: Reflex nozzle with impulse emitter 2. by mechanical switches. Fig.3.7 Using compressed air for process control All pneumatic applications must be controlled by some means. The results determined by pneumatic process control systems can be used directly by direction valves or press-switches. fluidics can offer an alternative.8: Diagram of a BOGE screw compressor. These logic plans are comparable with integrated electronic circuits. but are characterised by high operating precision in certain applications. This allows passing articles to be counted. or by hand. cams. They must receive instructions. If the demands on the logic elements are not too high.3. slides. Fig. the changes in pressure at the measuring point are used to determine spacings. It is used for the remote control of valves. e.. correct positioning to be checked and the presence of workpieces to be ascertained. direction valves and so forth. In general this is done by press-switches.Applications for pneumatics 2. Pneumatics is of great importance for checking flow processes with liquids and gases. positioning and processing systems. These control mechanisms are in turn actuated in many different ways. and flaps in large industrial installations. 2.g. air-cooled version with fully-adjustable output control 20 . Electrical and magnetic switches are also in widespread use.

Construction trade – Drill and demolition hammers ( hand rams ) – Concrete compactors – Conveyor systems for brickworks and artificial stone factories – Conveyor systems for concrete and mortar Mining – Rock drilling hammers and carriage systems – Loading machinery. This can therefore only be an incomplete summary of typical applications to be found in the various sectors of the economy. Obviously. shuttle and demolition cars – Pneumatic hammers and chisels – Ventilation systems Chemicals industry – Raw material for oxidation processes – Process control – Remote-controlled valves and slides in process circuits Energy industry – Inserting and withdrawing reactor rods – Remote-controlled valves and slides in steam and coolant circuits – Ventilation systems for boiler houses 21 . it is not possible to list all the possibilities for pneumatics since new areas appear and old ones become disused in the course of development and progress.4 Examples of specialised applications The following list will give the reader an idea of the many applications of compressed air in industry. and mentioning all would be beyond the scope of this manual. A list of the typical applications in general mechanical engineering has not been included.Applications for pneumatics 2. since pneumatics touches practically every area. the crafts and everyday life.

glue and veneer presses – Contact and transport control of wooden boards – Removal of chips and sawdust from work areas – Automatic pallet nailing Steel mills and foundries – Carbon reduction in steel production – Jolt squeeze turnover machines – Bundling machinery for semi-finished products – Coolants for hot tools and systems Plastics industry – Transport of granulate in pipes – Cutting and welding equipment – Blowing workpieces from production moulds – Locking mechanisms for casting moulds – Shaping and adhesive stations Agriculture and forestry – Plant protection and weed control – Transport of feed and grain to and from silos – Dispensing equipment – Ventilation systems in glasshouses 22 .Applications for pneumatics Health system – Power packs for dentists’ drills – Air for respiration systems – Extraction of anaesthetic gases The crafts – Staplers and nail guns – Paint spray-guns – Drills and screwdrivers – Angle grinders Wood processing industry – Roller adjustment for frame saws – Drill feed systems – Frame.

embossing and pressing machinery – Monitoring of paper reels Textiles industry – Thread detectors – Clamping and positioning equipment in sewing machines – Sewing needle and system cooling – Stacking devices – Blowing out residual material and dust from sewing Environmental technology – Forming oil barriers in the water – Enriching water with oxygen – Keeping lock gates free of ice – Slide actuation in sewage plants – Increasing pressure in the drinking water supply – Mammoth pump for submarine applications Traffic and communications – Air brakes in HGVs and rail vehicles – Setting signals.Applications for pneumatics Food and semi-luxury food industry – Filling equipment for drinks – Closing and checking devices – Bulk packing and palleting machinery – Labelling machines – Weighing equipment Paper-processing industry – Roller adjustment and feed machinery – Cutting. points and barriers – Road-marking equipment – Starting aids for large diesel engines – Blowing out ballast tanks in submarines 23 .

3. 3. by which running wheels equipped with blades accelerate the gas to be compressed. Displacement compressors are to be preferred for small quantities of medium and high medium pressures.1 Compressors ( compactors ) Dynamic compressors ( Turbo-compressors ) Dynamic compressors are for instance turbo-compressors. Vacuum pumps are machines that induct gases and steam in order to create a vacuum. Compressed air generators Compressors (compactors) are engines used for pumping and compressing gases to any pressure.1. 24 . With ventilators only slight changes to density and temperature occur. Fixed direction gear on the blades converts speed energy into pressure energy.Compressed air generators 3. Ventilators are flow machines that pump nearly atmospheric air.2 Displacement compressors On displacement compressors the compression chamber closes completely after taking in the air. The volume is reduced and the air compressed by force.1 3.1. Dynamic compressors are to be preferred for large quantities of medium and low medium pressures.

Compressors ( compactors ) displacement compressors Turbo-compressors Axial compressor Radial compressor oscillatory rotary with crank drive without crank drive single-shaft multipleshaft piston compressor Spiral type compressor Rotary vane compressor Screw compressor Plunger compressor Diaphragm compressor Free-piston compressor Crosshead compressor Liquid ring compressor Rootscompressor 25 .Compressed air generators 3.2 Types of compressor The summary shows the compressors divided according to their operating principle. With all compressors. a distinction is drawn between non-oillubricated and oil-lubricated compressors.

diagram Pressure range [ bar ] Volume flow [ m3 / h ] 120 600 Plunger compressor 10 ( 1-stage ) 35 ( 2-stage ) Crosshead compressor 10 ( 1-stage ) 35 ( 2-stage ) 120 600 Diaphragm compressor low low Free piston compressor limited use as gas generator Rotary vane compressor 16 4 500 Liquid ring compressor 10 Screw compressor 22 3 000 Roots compressor 1.2.1 Standard compressors The table shows the typical areas of work for various standard types of compressor.6 1 200 Axialcompressor 10 200 000 Radialcompressor 10 200 000 26 .Compressed air generators 3. Type Symbol Op.

Compressed air generators

3.2.2

Piston (reciprocating) compressor

Piston compressors draw in air by way of pistons moving up and down, compress it and then push it out. The processes control induction and pressure valves. By arranging several compression stages in series it is possible to generate various pressures, and differing quantities of air can be generated by using several cylinders.

Fig. 3.1: Symbol for piston compressor

Plunger compressor On plunger compressors, the piston is connected directly to the crankshaft via the con-rod.

Fig. 3.2: Op. diagram of plunger compressor

Crosshead compressor The piston is powered by a piston rod and that by the crosshead. Crosshead

Properties of piston compressors: – Highly efficient. – High pressures.
Fig. 3.3: Op. diagram of crosshead compressor

27

Compressed air generators

The piston compressors are differentiated according to the arrangement of their cylinders: – Vertical cylinders. No stress on the piston or piston ring through the weight of the piston. Small base area.
Fig. 3.4: V-type plunger compressor

– Horizontal cylinders. Only as multi-cylinder compressor in Boxer construction. Low forces of gravity. This benefit is only noticeable when output is greater. – V-, W- or L-type compressors. Good mechanical balance. Low space requirement.

Fig. 3.5: W-type plunger compressor

Fig. 3.6: Crosshead compressors Horizontal, L-type, V-type, W-type

28

Compressed air generators

3.2.3

Diaphragm compressors

The diaphragm compressor belongs to the family of displacement compressors. An elastic diaphragm causes the compression. Instead of a piston moving linear between two end positions, the diaphragm is moved in non-linear vibrations. The diaphragm is attached to the side and is moved by a con-rod. The stroke of the conrod depends on the elasticity of the diaphragm.

Fig. 3.7: Symbol for diaphragm compressor

Features: – Large cylinder diameter. – Small stroke. – Economical with low output quantities, low pressures, and when generating a vacuum.

Fig. 3.8: Op. diagram of diaphragm compressor

29

Compressed air generators

3.2.4

Free piston compressor

The free piston compressor belongs to the family of displacement compressors. It is a compressor with an integrated two-stroke diesel engine. Compressed air acts on the raised pistons and pushes them back inside, thereby starting the compressor. The combustion air thus compressed in the engine cylinder drives the pistons apart again upon combustion of the injected fuel. The enclosed air is compressed. After letting out the necessary scavenging air the greater part of the compacted air is pushed out through a pressure holding valve. Any remaining air is pushed back in by the piston for the new cycle. The induction valves draw in new air again.

a b c d a b c d = = = = Pneum. outlet aperture Inlet aperture Fuel injection nozzle Exhaust aperture b

Features: – Highly efficient. – Smooth-running. – Simple principle, but seldom used. In practice, the piston movements need to be synchronised and extensive control equipment fitted.

Fig. 3.9: Op. diagram of free piston compressor

30

Fig. The compression chamber between the rotor and the housing is divided by slides into individual cells ( work chambers).5 Rotary vane compressor The rotary vane compressor ( lamellar or rotary multi-vane compressor) is one of the rotary displacement compressors.2. The housing and rotary pistons moving inside form the chamber for inducting and compressing the medium. – Low space requirement and easy to service. the volume increases or decreases during a rotation.Compressed air generators 3.11: Op. The rotor ( drum) has radial slots along its entire length. 31 . diagram of rotary vane compressor Features: – Very quiet running. As a result of the eccentric arrangement of the rotor. The injected oil can be separated from the compound of oil and air after compression and directed back to the oil circuit. – Low efficiency. Fig. By injecting larger quantities of oil into the compression chamber one achieves. in addition to lubrication. slides move in a radial direction. – Pulse-free and even output of air. Inside the slots. 3. a cooling effect and a sealing of the slides against the inner wall of the housing. 3. – High maintenance costs due to wear on the slides. The pressure chambers are lubricated by loss lubrication or oil injection.10: Symbol for rotary vane compressor When the rotor reaches a certain speed. A cylindrical rotor on eccentric bearings turns inside a closed housing. the working slide is pressed outwards against the inner walls of the housing by centrifugal force.

Fig. The content of the chamber is changed by the rotation of the shaft.2. The liquid generally used is water. a b c d e = = = = = Paddle wheel Housing Inlet aperture Outlet aperture Liquid Fig. The eccentrically borne shaft in the housing with fixed radial paddle displaces the sealing liquid during rotation.13: Op.6 Liquid ring compressor The liquid ring compressor belongs to the category of rotary displacement compressors. This forms the liquid ring that seals the spaces between the paddles against the housing. diagram of liquid ring compressor 32 . 3. – Low sensitivity to soiling and chemicals.Compressed air generators 3. – Liquid disperser required because auxiliary liquid is forced continually into the pressure chamber. – Low degree of efficiency. compressed and transported.12: Symbol for liquid ring compressor Features: – Oil-free air ( through oil-free transport medium). causing air to be inducted. 3.

7 Screw compressor The screw compressor is a rotary displacement compressor. The secondary rotor turns without contact. the two rotors are connected by a synchronised transmission so that the surface profiles do not touch. ( with oil-injection cooling) Fig.2. Fig.16: Section through screw compressor stage 33 .Compressed air generators 3.15: Op. which continuously decrease in size due to the rotation of the rotors until the final pressure is reached. and with which the air in the compression chamber does not come into contact with oil. and is then forced out of the discharge outlet. 3. – Continuous air production. 3. The intake air is compressed in chambers. 3. Features: – Small size.14: Symbol of screw compressor Oil-free screw compressors On screw compressors that seal without oil. Screw compressors with oil-injection cooling Fig. – Low final compression temperature. Two parallel rotors with differing profiles work in opposite directions inside a housing. diagram of screw compressor On screw compressors with oil-injection cooling only the main rotor is under power. The chambers are formed by the casing walls and the meshing helical gears of the rotors.

18: Op. When the wing turns further. Two symmetrically shaped rotary pistons turn in opposite directions inside a cylindrical chamber. Constant compression takes place. the content of the transport chamber is pressed out against the full counter pressure. 3. Fig.2. – Air contains no oil. and therefore no lubrication is required. 3. The compressor must always work against the full dynamic pressure.8 Roots compressor The Roots compressor belongs to the displacement family of compressors. Fig. They are connected by a synchronised transmission and operate without contact.17: Symbol of Roots compressor Features: – No wear on the rotary piston. – Sensitive to dust and sand. It is enclosed in the chamber between the wing and case.Compressed air generators 3. The air to be compressed is directed from the intake side into the compressor case. diagram of Roots compressor 34 . At the moment in which the piston releases the edge to the pressure side the gas flows into the discharge outlet and fills the pressure chamber.

9 Axial compressor Axial compressors are flow devices by which the air flows in alternatingly in an axial direction through a series of rotating and stationary paddles.Compressed air generators 3. The air is first accelerated and then compressed. Fig. 3. 3.19: Symbol of turbo-compressor Features: – Uniform output. – Sensitive to changes in load and stress.20: Op. – No oil content in air.2. Fig. The paddle ducts form randomly expanded channels in which the kinetic energy generated by circulation of the air delays and is converted into pressure energy. – Minimum output quantities required. diagram of axial compressor 35 .

– Sensitive to changes in load and stress. – No oil content in air.2. diagram of radial compressor 36 . The rise in pressure is caused by the accelerated air being directed through a diffusor before it reaches the next running wheel.Compressed air generators 3.22: Op. Fig. 3.21: Symbol of turbo-compressor Features: – Uniform output. The kinetic energy (speed energy) converts into static pressure during this process. Fig. – Minimum output quantities required. 3.10 Radial compressor Radial compressors are flow devices in which the air is directed to the centre of the rotating running wheel. The air is moved by centrifugal force against the periphery.

3. So a compressor with a low speed and large stroke can have a high piston speed.1 Piston compressors General Piston compressors operate according to the displacement principle. Piston speeds With compression the compression speed or even the motor speed is of secondary importance. Fig.3. compressors with high speeds and a small stroke can have low piston speeds. The air is compressed and forced out of the pressure valve. In contrast. Intake Fig. The piston speed.24: Principles Compression 37 . Piston compressors are available with one and several cylinders. It closes at the start of the downwards stroke. Multi-cylinder compressors are used for higher outputs. The most important factor in assessing wear is the piston speed. The piston is driven by a crank drive with crankshaft and conrods. measured in m/s.3 3. Double action compressors Two compression actions with one rotation of the crankshaft. and in one and multiple-stage versions. Single stage compression Compression to the final pressure in one piston stroke. 3. is extremely low with BOGE piston compressors.23: BOGE piston compressor Single action compressors One compression action with one rotation of the crankshaft. This means minimal wear. The piston intakes air through the intake valve during the downwards stroke.Compressed air generators 3. Two stage compression The air compressed in the cylinder in the first stage ( low pressure stage ) is cooled in the intermediate cooler and then compressed to the final pressure in the second stage ( high pressure cylinder ). multistage compressors for higher pressures.

compressor speed (number of strokes ) and the number of intake cylinders. Only at this stage and during the continued downstroke of the piston is air sucked in from outside. It is the product of cylinder capacity. The stroke volume flow is given in l/min.output Suction rate .Volume flow The suction rate (stroke volume flow) is a calculated size for piston compressors. C = Clearance area S = Stroke R = Re-expansion Fig.2 Suction capacity . 38 . DIN 1945. The ratio of output to induction rate is the volumetric efficiency rate.3. m3/min and m3/h. leakages also occur. 3.25: Suction rate and free air delivered C R Clearance area The clearance area is a specific dimension located between the top dead centre of the piston and the bottom edge of the valve. the air sucked in heats up and re-expansion occurs in the compression space.26: Clearance area S The difference between the suction rate and the output occurs because during suction the pressure of the air already drops in the inlet filter.Compressed air generators 3. The clearance area includes: – Design tolerances – Cavities in the valves and valve seats – Individual design considerations During the down stroke of the piston the air in the compression expands to atmospheric pressure. Fig. ISO 1217 or PN2 CPTC2. Suction rate Suction rate Volume flow Output The output ( free air delivered FAD ) is measured according to VDMA Unit Sheet 4362. 3.Output Stroke volume flow .

The higher the final pressure. According to safety rules. High compressed air temperatures can be dangerous as a small amount of lubrication oil is absorbed into the compressed air during compression. The compressed air must also be cooled by an intercooler between the first and second stages and an the aftercooler behind the second stage. The cylinders are located in the best position in the air flow of the cooling ventilator wherever possible. a maximum 20 kW motor rating and maximum 10 bar may be up to 220 °C. It is also beneficial for the consumer to have a low compressor air outlet temperature. However. the final compression temperature on compressors with oil-lubricated pressure chambers and single stage compression.27: Direction of cooling air on a piston compressor Fig. but with higher temperatures the danger of compressed air explosion is potentially greater because the ratio of oxygen contained is far greater than atmospheric air.28: After-cooler as turbulence lamellar cooler 39 . Each compressor stage therefore has an intercooler and aftercooler installed in order to cool the compressed air. Higher pressure compressors have two. 3. 10 . Safety regulation VGB 16 § 9 for oil-lubricated reciprocating compressors stipulates that the cooling air temperature must fall to between 60 °C and 80 °C after the last compression stage. this could be flammable. depending on the quality of the compressor. or more cylinders. In order to intensify heat extraction.Compressed air generators 3. With multiple stage compression and pressures of over 10 bar the maximum final compression temperature is 160 °C. because the cooler compressed air contains less moisture. the intensive cooling and ribbing of the compressor is not enough to obtain a minimum compressed air temperature. If this cooling is not sufficient. Apart from this. The air outlet temperature on air-cooled piston compressors is approx. Fig. downstream equipment. multi-stage compression is necessary.3. The quantity of heat to be removed by cooling depends on the free air delivered and the pressure. A fire in the line or the compressor would be the least danger. such as the compressor receiver and air treatment components can be designed for low compressed air temperatures and thus be purchased at less cost. the surfaces of the cylinders and cylinder heads are produced with generous ribbing. The greatest part of compression heat must therefore be expelled. three.3 Cooling Heat is generated in all compression processes. the higher the compression temperature.15°C above ambient temperature. 3. With higher pressures and motor ratings a maximum temperature of 200 °C is allowed. The degree of heating depends on the final pressure of the compressor.

Compressed air generators

3.3.4

Coolant

Piston compressors are mainly of the air-cooled variety. Cold air has the advantage that it is almost everywhere in unlimited quantities. The cold air is generated by a ventilator. The ventilator forces the cold air over the intercooler and aftercooler and over the compressor. During compression and cooling stage of the compressed air, condensate forms inside the cooler. Because of the flow speed of the compressed air, the condensate is taken out of the aftercooler by the air, and into the pipe network and compressed air tank.

3.3.5

Control of reciprocating piston compressors

Piston compressors are normally controlled by pressure switches. The pressure switches must be located in a calm area of the compressed air. This is in the compressed air receiver, for example, and not in the pipeline between the compressor and the receiver. The pressure switch stops the compressor at maximum pressure and switches it back on at 20 % below maximum pressure. The actuation is therefore 8 :10 bar and 12 :15 bar. A smaller differential is not recommended because the compressor will then cycle too often and the wear on the compressor and the motor increases. The cut-in pressure can be lowered with the cut-out pressure remaining constant. This has the advantage that the compressor has longer running times but longer stationary times too. The cut-in pressure may not be lower than the minimum pressure of the pneumatic network. Piston compressors do not continue running (running-on) but switch off immediately after the maximum pressure is reached (intermittent operation). Piston compressors are particularly suitable as peak load machines. The compressor only switches on when there is an increased demand for compressed air and switches off without run-on time when the maximum pressure is reached, i.e., saving approx. 30 % energy consumption in idling mode.

Fig. 3.29: Pressure switch

3.3.6

Advantages of reciprocating piston compressors

– Compression of nearly all technical gases possible – Economical compression of pressures up to 40 bar – Can be used as a booster compressor – Easy control – Economical start-stop-operation ( no idle running time )

40

Compressed air generators

3.3.7

Components of a piston compressor

Crank case

Inlet filter

Cooler

Drive motor Pressure switch

Safety valve

Condensate drain Compressed air connection

Fig. 3.30: Layout of a piston compressor

41

Compressed air generators

3.4
3.4.1

Screw compressors
General In contrast to the piston compressor, the screw compressor is a relatively new construction. Although the principle was developed as early as 1878 by Heinrich Krigar in Hannover, the construction was only perfected after the second world war. The Swedish company "Svenska Rotor Maskiner" ( SRM ) developed the screw compressor technically to series standard. Screw compressors operate on the displacement principle. Two parallel rotors with different profiles work in opposite directions inside a housing.

Fig. 3.31: Section through a screw compressor air end

3.4.2

Compression process
Suction side

The intake air is compressed to final pressure in chambers which continuously decrease in size through the rotation of the screw rotors. When the final pressure is reached the air is forced out through the discharge outlet. The compression chambers are formed by the casing walls and the meshing helical profiles of the rotors.

Pressure side

Intake ( 1 )
Suction side

The air enters through the inlet aperture into the open screw profiles of the rotors on the intake side.

Pressure side

Compression ( 2 ) + ( 3 ) The air inlet aperture is closed by the continued rotation of the rotors, the volume reduces and the pressure increases. Oil is injected during this process.

Suction side

Pressure side

Suction side

Discharge ( 4 ) The compression process is completed. The final pressure is reached and the discharge begins.
Pressure side

Fig. 3.32: The compression process in a screw compressor stage

42

Compressed air generators

3.4.3

Method of operation

9

8

1

11

10 12 6

2 4 3 7

5
Fig. 3.33: Sectional diagram of a BOGE S-series screw compressor

1 = Intake filter with paper microfilter insert 2 = Multifunction suction controller 3 = Oil injection 4 = Compressor air end 5 = Oil separator tank 6 = Spin-on oil separator cartridge 7 = Minimum pressure valve 8 = Oil cooler 9 = Aftercooler parallel to flow of cool air 10 = Oil microfilter 11 = Thermostat valve 12 = Cleaning aperture

BOGE screw compressors draw in atmospheric air through the cyclonic suction filter 1 fitted with a paper microfilter cartridge and with soiled filter facility. After passing through the multi-function suction controller 2 the air enters the compressor stage and is compressed 4. Continuously cooled BOGE oil is injected 3 into the compressor stage. The oil absorbs and removes the heat generated during the compression process which increases in temperature to approx. 85°C. According to EC machinery guidelines the final maximum compression temperature may not exceed 110°C. A large proportion of the oil is separated from the compressed air in the combined air/oil separation vessel 5. The residual oil is removed by the spin-on fine oil separator 6, which removes the residual oil in the compressed air down to only approx. 1-3 mg/m3. The compressed air then passes through a minimum pressure valve 7 into the compressed air aftercooler 9 where it is cooled down to a temperature of only 8 °C above ambient and is then directed through the standard BOGE stop valve into the compressed air system. The oil in the oil separator is cooled from 85°C to 55°C in the amply dimensioned oil cooler 8. It then passes through a replaceable spin-on oil filter 10. A thermostatic valve 11 in the oil circuit ensures that the oil temperature is ideal in every operating phase.

43

4 = Oil filter The oil filter retains impurities from the oil and prevents problems of contamination in the oil circulation system. 4 Fig.. 6 = Scavenging line The compressor air end draws any residual oil that has collected in the separator back into the oil circuit via the scavenging line. where it is separated by gravitational forces. 3 = Oil cooler (air or water) The oil cooler reduces the oil temperature to optimum conditions prior to injection into the compressor stage. 3.4. 2 2 = Thermal bypass valve The thermal bypass valve directs the oil through the oil cooler or through a bypass (e.34: Components of the oil circuit 3 44 . in the warm-up stage).g.4 Oil circuit The oil injected into the compressor stage performs the following functions: 6 – Extraction of compression heat (cooling) – Sealing the gap between the rotors and their housing – Lubricating the bearings 5 1 1 = Compressed air/oil separator vessel The oil is separated from the compressed air by reducing the air flow velocity in the separator vessel in which the oil collects System pressure forces this oil out of the separator vessel into the compressor stage.The oil is thus always at its optimum operating temperature.Compressed air generators 3. 5 = Compressor air end The oil injected in the compressed air is directed back into the compressed air/oil vessel.

7 = Compressed air aftercooler (air cooled) The compressed air is cooled in the aftercooler.Compressed air generators 3. 4 = Compressed air/oil vessel Inside the compressed air/oil vessel the compressed air and oil are separated by gravity. 5 = Oil separator The oil separator removes the residual oil from the compressed air. 3 = Compressor air end The compressor stage compresses the intake air. During this phase.5 bar. which causes a fast build-up of system pressure and assures lubrication in the start-up and pressure phase of the compressor. 1 2 1 = Intake filter The intake filter cleans the air drawn in by the compressor stage. depending on the operating status of the compressor. Fig.5 Pneumatic circuit The air sucked into the compressor air end is compressed to final pressure by the rotors. 8 = Stop valve The screw compressor can be isolated from the system via the stop valve located at the outlet of the compressor. 8 7 6 6 = Minimum pressure valve MPV This valve opens only when the system pressure has risen to 3. When the compressor is switched off the minimum pressure valve prevents compressed air from flowing out of the compressor.4. a large proportion of the moisture in the air condenses out.35: Components of the pneumatic circuit 45 . 3 4 5 2 = Suction controller The suction controller opens (operation mode) or closes (idling mode and stopped) the intake line. 3.

3. The water passing through the heat exchanger is heated to +70°C.4.  Fig.8 Advantages of screw compressors – when compressed air is required on a continuous basis – ideal as a base load machine – economical with 100 % operating availability – proportionale control possible – ideal for use with frequency controller 46 . When using a heat exchanger the heat can be extracted from the oil and used for utility or water heating. – Seals hermetically on idling.4. The quantity of water heated depends on the temperature difference.4.7 Intake control The suction controller controls the intake line of the screw compressor.37: Intake control with ventilation/control valve 3.Compressed air generators 3.6 Heat reclamation The oil removes approx 85% of compression heat from screw compressors with oil injected cooling. stopped and emergency cutout. Fig.36: Heat exchanger BOGE-DUOTHERM 3. 3. – Fully unloaded start-up through closed controllers.

9 Main components of a screw compressor Control panel Intake filter Oil filter Compressed air/oil combi-cooler Suction controller Oil separator Compressor air end Cabinet air inlet filter Fig.Compressed air generators 3.4. 3.38: Layout of a screw compressor Drive motor Compressed air/oil separator vessel 47 .

The appropriate compressor speed is obtained by drive belt transmission. 3. start-up torque and running torque.5.1 Components Drive motor Drive motors are normally AC motors and mainly operate at a a speed of 3. drive belts are practically maintenance-free and have a calculated design life of up to 25. Normal drive motor supply is TEFV (totally enclosed fan vented) IP 55 class F insulation.2 Drive belts The compressor is driven via drive belt transmission.40: BOGE-GM-drive system 48 . Using the BOGE patented GM-drive system on screw compressors. The plate is fitted with a threaded central spindle which together with parallel guides ensure accurate alignment of the drive belts across the pulleys.39: Drive motor with belt and tensioner 3. 3. without the need for retensioning and alignment on belt change. BOGE screw compressors are equipped with the patented BOGE-GM-drive system. and ensures that compressors have constant belt tension in every operating stage.5 3. Fig.000 min-1. Fig. 3. This take account of different belt tension forces caused by motor weight.5.5. depending on site conditions.000 hours.3 Belt tensioning Motors on piston compressors are normally located on a sliding plate for belt tensioning.Compressed air generators 3.

Fig.42: Safety valve on screw compressor 3.6 Intake filter Paper filter insert Dust separator Screw compressors draw in atmospheric air through the air inlet filter inside the compressor cabinet and through the suction filter with paper microfilter cartridge. BOGE-ferax ® -tongue valves have fewer components than conventional valves. allowing soiled filters to be recognised at an early stage.5. The filter inserts can be cleaned on larger compressors..5.g. 3. Automatic dust extraction Fig. In dusty conditions ( e.1 times the nominal pressure of the compressed air tank.Compressed air generators 3.5. The inlet filter separates solid impurities such as dust particles from the intake air.43: Intake filter with paper insert 49 . Fig. 3.5 Safety valve The safety valve must blow off the full output of the compressor at 1.41: BOGE-ferax ® -Tongue valve 3. minimal dead space flow resistance. higher valve working life expectancy and practically no carbonised oil deposits on the valves. These have a higher separation rate than standard wet air or foam filtration.4 Inlet and pressure valves The tongue valve controls the inlet and outlet of air in the cylinder chamber of the piston compressor. cement works ) paper insert filters are used. which can be produced by high compression temperatures. This means more FAD. 3. with friction-free operation. minimising wear in the compressor and providing the customer with clean compressed air. There is a possibility to monitor the intake filter for pressure differential.

g.6 Compressor lubricants and coolants Compressor oils are standardised to DIN 51506. Other advantages of synthetic oils are the lower volatility of synthetic oils. Synthetic oils have a much higher oxidation and ageing stability than mineral oils. Appropriate oil-water-separators can be used to minimise disposal costs. Fir. Even a short trial run without oil (e. Piston compressors Synthetic-base oils allow compressor running times of up to 8. to check the direction of rotation) can lead to damage. 3. Screw compressors The lifetime of mineral oils for screw compressors is typically about 3.Compressed air generators 3. When compressed air is used in the food or pharmacy industry and accidental contact with the product is possible.000 operating hours. USDAH1 oils have to be used that fulfil the strict requirements of the food and drugs industry. An increased lifetime is the positive result. Mineral oils have a useful life of around 2. The first oil change is made after the running-in period (approx. resulting in lower oil carry over and residual oil content. especially at high temperatures and a better viscosity-temperature-behaviour. HD oils tend to emulsify and thus quickly lose their lubricating properties. They must be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The oil filter must be cleaned or replaced each time the oil is changed.. Also unwished deposits in the oil circuit are prevented. ensuring good and stable lubrication in a wider temperature range. Synthetic oils can reach a lifetime of up to 9. Mineral and synthetic oils are allowed.44: Oil level check with a dipstick Compressor oils and the condensate from oil-lubricated compressors may not be discharged into the public drains. Synthetic oils can be changed at longer intervals.000 operating hours. 300 to 500 operating hours). No HD (high density) oils may be used to lubricate compressors. 50 . Compressors must not be operated with too little oil.000 operating hours.000 operating hours under normal operating conditions. The oil level of the compressor must be checked regularly.000 to 3.

1 Pressure definitions Network pressure pN [ bar op ] The network pressure pN is the pressure at the compressor outlet behind the outlet valve. This is the pressure in the pipeline network. depending on the construction type. Cut-in pressure pmin [ bar op ] The cut-in pressure pmin is the pressure below which the compressor will cut-in. cut-in pressure 9 bar. On screw compressors the cut-out pressure pmax should be 0.5 to 1 bar over the cut-in pressure ( e.. The network target pressure pNs [ bar op ] The network target pressure pNs is the minimum pressure that must be available in the network.5 bar above the network target pressure pNs.Control of compressors 4. – the absorbed power of the compressor motor. size and area of application: – the final pressure ( network pressure ). Cut-out pressure pmax [ bar op ] The cut-out pressure pmax is the pressure above which the compressor switches off. – the generated volume flow. Controlling the final pressure is the most important of all control tasks. There are various types of control. Control of compressors The aim of control is to minimise energy consumption and wear and maximise availability. System pressure pS [ bar op ] The system pressure pS is the pressure inside a screw compressor up to the minimum pressure non-return valve. The cut-in pressure pmin should be at least 0. The cutout pressure pmax for piston compressors should be approx. 51 . cut-out pressure 10 bar ).. 4. – the inlet pressure. 20 % more than the cut-in pressure ( e. cut-out pressure 10 bar ). cut-in pressure 8 bar. – the climatic conditions of compressor humidity after the compressor stage.g.g.

52 . 4. No volume flow can occur. High pressure losses occur and it is essential that a non-return valve be installed. The flowback method is suitable for start-up relief. The operating status is the basis for compressor control.2 Operating status The operating status is the current operating mode of a compressor. because the first working stroke is already completely relieved.2. 4. The pressure losses are low. The compressed air can not be emitted. thus reducing wear. The air does not compress. Flowback switching The intake valves of the compressor are open during the compression process. it flows back to the intake side. Various techniques are used to control the idle mode: Circulation switching The intake line is connected directly to the pressure line.Control of compressors 4. Pressure line closure A valve closes the pressure line of the compressor.1 Stopped ( L0 ) The compressor is stopped but ready for operation. If compressed air is needed it switches on automatically.2. Intake line closure A valve closes the intake line of the compressor. If compressed air is needed it switches to operating mode without delay. Idle operating mode reduces the motor cycles.2 Idle ( L1 ) The compressor is running off load and no air is being compressed (Energy used for compression is saved). The intake volume is reduced to zero and there is no air available for compression.

The energy consumption falls slightly if the output is lower. These can also be combined if necessary: Speed control Changing the motor speed also varies the output of the compressor. Flowback control ( piston compressors only ) The output of the compressors is reduced by opening the intake valves during the compression stroke. the compressor takes in more air. As soon as system pressure becomes constant the throttle valve closes and the compressor operates in idling mode.4 Operating load ( L2 ) The compressor delivers its maximum output and consumes the maximum energy. This occurs mainly with engine-driven compressors. Emergency chamber control ( piston compressors only ) By increasing the dead space there is a stronger reverse expansion of the compressed air. When the system pressure drops. 25 . The output varies between 0 . With electrically-powered compressors speed control is usually accomplished with the aid of a frequency converter. 53 .100 %. The electrical power requirement does not fall below 70 % during this time.100 % of output is possible. 4. A part-load control of approx. The output is economically continuously controlled from 25 . There are several methods of varying volume flow. and the output rises. The network pressure pN is constant.3 Part-load The output of the compressor is adjusted to the relevant compressed air requirement. If several emergency chambers are opened one after the other the output can be reduced in steps.2. Proportionale regulation An adjustable throttle in the intake line reduces the intake volume.Control of compressors 4. There are also variations by which an emergency chamber can be continuously expanded. the valve opens accordingly.100 %. The opening time of the intake valves determines the amount by which compressed volume flow is reduced. When the intake valve is open for the full compression stroke the output drops back to zero.2.

4. depending on network pressure. The compressor switches Operating mode ( L2 ). The compressor switches to operating mode ( L2 ). A large storage volume also reduces the number of motor cycles. In Idle mode ( L1 ) the drive motor continues to run. 4.3 Controlling individual compressors Compressor control has two objectives: Energy-saving and minimisation of wear. The method used depends on marginal conditions. It is recommended when there is a large compressed air receiver. diagram of idle mode control – The system pressure pN rises to cut-out pressure pmax. The electrical power demand falls to approx. 54 . 4. but the compressor does not produce any compressed air. The compressor switches to Stopped ( L0 ). in order not to exceed the maximum switch cycles of the drive motor. – The network pressure pN rises to the cut-out pressure pmax. Behaviour of pressure Continuous operation of the drive minimises the number of motor cycles.3. which especially with large motors causes increased wear. To meet these objectives.2 Idle mode control A pressure switch or pressure transducer switches the compressor to operating load or idle mode depending on network pressure. – The network pressure pN drops to cut-in pressure pmin.3. Operating mode ( L2 ) and Stopped ( L 0 ). Idle operating mode is used in pneumatic systems with relatively small storage volumes. the 4 operating modes of compressors are combined in various control methods.1 : Op. Behaviour of pressure Behaviour of electrical intake Fig. diagram of cutout control The intermittend control is the typical control of piston compressors. This arrangement has the best energy consumption of all types of control.2 : Op. 30 % of the operating mode requirement. Behaviour of electrical intake Fig.1 Intermittent control With intermittent control a pressure switch or pressure transducer actuates the compressor. 4. – The network pressure pN drops to cut-in pressure pmin. The compressor switches to idle mode ( L1 ). The compressor has two operating modes.Control of compressors 4.

4. On reaching the cut-out pressure ( pmax ) the timer tV starts. It is a middle path with lower energy consumption than the idling control method. The compressor switches to stopped ( L0 ). 1st Variant – The system pressure pN rises to cut-out pressure pmax. diagram of delayed intermittent control 55 .Control of compressors 4. – System pressure pN reaches cut-in pressure pmin before expiry of the time tV . – The system pressure pN has not reached cut-in pressure pmin after expiry of the time tV. The compressor switches to operating mode ( L2 ). The compressor switches to idle mode ( L1 ). Switching on the compressors ( pmin ) starts the timer tV. The modes are linked with each other via the timer tV . Idle mode ( L1 ) and Stopped ( L0 ). Fig. 2nd Variant – The system pressure pN rises to cut-out pressure pmax. The delayed intermittent control operates with two switching variants: Behaviour of electrical intake Behaviour of pressure 1.3 Op. The compressor switches to idle mode ( L1 ).3. 2.3 Delayed intermittent control A pressure switch or pressure transducer works in conjunction with a timer and controls the compressor independently of system pressure. This provides shorter idling times and therefore lower energy costs as with 2. The compressor goes through the modes of Operating mode ( L2 ). The compressor switches to operating mode ( L2 ). The delayed intermittent control combines the benefits of intermittent control and idling control. 2. – System pressure pN drops below cut-in pressure pmin. There are 2 possibilities to activate the timer tV : 1.

The fluctuations of pN vary depending on the method of part-load control used. Ideal characteristic line Power intake [ % ] Economical zone Uneconomical zone Idling absorbed power The proportional regulation from BOGE is set at the factory to a production rate of between 50 and 100% of FAD.5a: Correlation between FAD and absorbed power when using proportional regulation 56 .1 Proportional regulation Characteristic control line for Proportional regulation In addition to the ARS control unit. FAD [ % ] Fig. the compressor is working uneconomically. The number of cycles drops. This method of regulating the FAD is cheaper than the more common frequency control and can be ideally used in a peak load compressor with low changing air demands to use the cost saving potential.4 Part-load control The volume control of the compressor is adjusted to the respective requirement for compressed air.Control of compressors 4. BOGE offers an optional proportional regulation for screw compressors with oil injection cooling. The network pressure pN is largely constant due to the variable output control. diagram of part-load control 4. By adapting the FAD to the actual compressed air demand a constant net pressure is reached as the delivered volume corresponds to the air volume taken from the net. With this method onoff-cycles and idling times are minimised and energy is saved. Behaviour of pressure Behaviour of electrical intake Fig.3. 4.3. The net pressure can thus be reduced to a lower level and additional energy can be saved by preventing energy consuming over pressure. It adapts the FAD to the actual compressed air demand.4. Depending on the switching cycle the compressor either switches off or continues on idle mode. If FAD drops to below 50%. 4. The part-load control method is used with systems with small storage capacities and / or heavy consumption fluctuations.4 Op. This control intervenes in the processes of the suction control and operates according to the suction throttle principle.

85% the use of the proportional regulation is far more economical. it is obvious that at average flow rates between 100% up to approx. If the output falls below 25%. Due to the extensive range of frequency adjustments. the frequency control serves to almost proportionally reduce the absorbed power at the same time.1 bar tolerance. Hence follows that the frequency control is ideally suited for use even at low flow rates with considerably varying compressed air demand. 4. On the other hand.4. when adjusting the delivered air quantity by changing the speed of the motor and.3.2 Frequency control Characteristic control line for frequency control Characteristic control line for Proportional regulation The frequency control allows for a very large FAD regulation from 25% up to 100%. can be of some advantage in the supply of energy. at full load. can thus be avoided resulting in energy savings from 6% up to 10% for every 1 bar of high compression. switching operations and idle mode are widely avoided thus enabling the screw compressor to actually work in continuous operation in the most efficient manner possible. Taking into account the two identification lines. approximately between 3% and 5% higher than that of a noncontrolled compressor. consequently. to adapt the air delivery to the actual demand in compressed air and to almost completely avoid switching and idle operation. as is normal with non-controlled compressors due to the difference between switch-on and switch-off pressures. Under ideal circumstances the flow rate control can be used to constantly maintain the net pressure at a 0. The frequency control proves to be specially advantageous when it comes to smaller flow rates where the proportional regulation by means of suction control appears to work in a rather inefficient manner. Due to frequency converter occasioned losses. the compressor is working uneconomically. in case of extreme drive performance. the starting current does not exceed its rated current which.5b: Correlation between FAD and absorbed power when using proportional regulation and frequency control 57 . it is possible. Any excess compression. Owing to the variable adaptation of air delivery. the absorbed power of a frequency controlled compressor is. Depending on the switching cycle the compressor either switches off or continues on idle mode. Adaptation to differing compressed air requirements is assured by infinite speed adjustment of the drive motor which is actuated by a frequency converter with simultaneous speed adjustment of the compressor air end. whereas for lower values the frequency control has considerable advantages. Power intake [ % ] Ideal characteristic line Idling absorbed power FAD [ % ] Fig.Control of compressors 4. the speed of the compressor air end. Even during the switch-on phase. The frequency converter is designed for soft starts and stops of the drive motor. even in case of little air consumption.

Depending on prevailing circumstances.Control of compressors Owing to its continuous and wide ranging volume flow regulation the frequency control is perfectly suited for strongly varying demands in compressed air consumption with view to both single compressors and peak load compressors in a compressor system. all energy savings resulting from the use of a frequency control are immense. Saving potentials can be achieved by elimination of high compression. minimization of idling times and losses due to compressor switch cycles as well as adaptation of the absorbed power to the actually needed and delivered quantity of compressed air. Also for the earlier mentioned case of proportional regulation by using the suction regulator similar saving potentials can be achieved in cases of lower air flow fluctuations. 58 .

– Extending the lifetime of the compressor by allowing only as little wear as possible. 59 . The stored information is thus still available in the event of a power failure. Piston compressors only use economical intermittent operation. thus increasing the availability of the compressors.4. ARS is an integrated control and monitoring concept with two objectives: – Energy-saving and thus a reduction of running costs. The controls can be rapidly replaced in the event of failure. permissible motor cycles. Modular design The ARS-control comprises standard components that are individually obtainable. The ARS control concept BOGE screw-type compressors and supersilenced piston compressors are equipped with the modern ARS-control concept ( Autotronic. Supertronic ). Ratiotronic.Control of compressors 4. There is therefore no need for time-consuming and costly examination by specialists. The ARS-control on screw compressors uses a microcontroller to obtain the cheapest intermittent operation while taking into account the max. The ARS-control differs in features and control functions. All programmed data are stored in an EEPROM storage module that can be electronically written to and erased. Components can also easily be added at a later date. The controls can therefore be ideally configured for the individual requirements of the customer.

all values are displayed directly and precise – Automatic selection of the best operating mode – Operating hours counter – Programmable control – Protection of important program-parameter by code request Fig. Fig.4.7 : The BOGE Ratiotronic 60 .6 : The BOGE Autotronic – Accurate pressure sensors instead of pressure switches – Permanent display of actual compression temperature and pressure – Digital pressure and temperature display – Automatic freeze protection for temperatures to –10°C – Idle mode control for extreme short time rating – Display of fault and maintenance notifications.Control of compressors 4. – On-site software update possible – Optional RS 485 interface 4. 4.1 Autotronic The Autotronic is an intelligent control and monitoring unit for screw and piston compressors. It offers the following additional features: – Connection to diverse bus systems – Local or remote operation – Monitoring of a compressed air preparation component – Additional system pressure sensor – Ring buffer for the last 30 faults – Potential free contacts for fault and maintenance messages and operating mode.4. It offers: – Convenient and well arranged operating panel with 7-segment display with international symbols.2 Ratiotronic The Ratiotronic is an extension of the Autotronic for screw or piston compressors. 4.

– Access to all functions with a few additional keystrokes. In comparison to the other control units it has comprehensive additional functions: – Well-arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters (digits) and clear text. 4.display.Control of compressors 4. – All operating parameters can be adjusted via the keyboard.8 : The BOGE Supertronic for screw compressors – Comprehensive display and monitoring of major operating data.4. Fig. – Adjustment of network pressure by keyboard. – Comprehensive compressor monitoring Malfunction and warning messages shown on the LCD . 61 . Operated via keyboard.3 Supertronic The Supertronic is a complex operating and monitoring unit for screw compressors. – Integrated electronic real-time clock for switching on and off.

The compressors are cyclically changed and switched on and off via their own pressure switches. large compressor is not the best solution.1 MCS 1 and MCS 2 MCS 1 controls 2 compressors of the same size as basic load and peak load. – Time lag cycling of the compressors by the control unit through pressure graduation.5.Control of compressors 1. These facts provide the greater economy. In these cases.1 4. Several small compressors can be adjusted more easily to compressed air consumption than one large compressor.8 bar Fig.9: The BOGE Master Control System 2 MCS 2 controls up to 3 compressors of the same size as basic load. 4. – Constant pressure in the pressure range. A combined compressor is operated economically and low on wear by a master control system. – Even use of compressors.5 Control of several compressors For users of compressed air with high. much fluctuating consumption a single. The control unit offers: – Cyclic change via a timer.10: The circuit diagram of the BOGE MCS 2 62 . The idling costs of a large compressor are moreover higher than those of small. The upgrade to 3 compressors and the greater cycle difference is the only difference to the MCS 1. The features are otherwise the same. the other compressors continue the supply. If one compressor fails or servicing work is necessary. – Minimal cycle difference ∆p = 1. Organisations that are very dependent on compressed air can guarantee their supply at all times by a combined compressor system. a combined compressor system consisting of several compressors is much the better alternative. 4. Greater operating reliability and economy are the aguments in favour of this. stand-by compressors. 4. – Minimal cycle difference ∆p = 0. The compressors are cyclically changed and switched on and off via their own pressure switches. medium load and peak load.1 bar Fig.

4.5 bar a very small cut-in difference. uniform usage of compressors. The compressors cut-in dynamically according to requirement via set intermediate pressure values. The compressors switch on and off dynamically. The speed of pressure rise and fall is measured. – Possibility of checking all inlets and outlets via a testmenu. or 12 compressors of the same and/or different size and type in a system. ( no over-compression → energy saving ) – Time dependent allotment of compressors in rank stages for shift operation with differing compressed air requirement.5. The MCS 3 has at 0. – Well arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters and clear text.11: The BOGE Master Control System 3 The control offers: – Dynamic pressure control by microcontroller in connection with electronic pressure controllers for a minimum cut-in difference of 0. Fig. 8. They are then controlled from their own pressure switches. All compressors are controlled by a common pressure sensor on the compressed air receiver. The individual compressors are not given fixed cut-out and cut-in pressures.Control of compressors 4.12: Circuit diagram of the BOGE MCS 3 Cut-in pressure [bar] Compressors 1-12 Cycle difference – Adjustable basic load changeover cycle. 4.2 MCS 3 MCS 3 controls a maximum of 4. – Time offset allocation of compressors if demanded by the control unit. – Individual assignment of individual compressors to load range groups. 63 . – Independent rotation of compressors into the load range groups. All compressors work in the same pressure range ( ∆p = 0. Fig. – Automatic reverting to pressure switches of individual compressors in the event of voltage loss.5 bar. – The individual compressors work independently without the MCS 3.5 bar ).

– minimal cut-in difference of 0.3 MCS 4 MCS 4 controls a maximum of 4 or 8 compressors of the same and/or different sizes and types in a system.5. – Well-organised LCD-display with 2 x 20 characters and clear text output. The basic load with this control unit is normally covered by the largest compressor or combination of compressors. 4. – Two potential-free timer contacts for control of additional components. – Possibility to check all inlets and outlets via a test menu. Compressors of the same size change over in providing the basic load. – The individual compressors operate independently without the MCS 4. diagram of the BOGE MCS 4 – Time adjusted use of compressors on demand by the control unit.8 Cycle difference – need-oriented use of the various compressors and compressor combinations.Control of compressors 4. They are then controlled by their own pressure switches. Fig. 64 . It selects the compressor that most closely matches the requirement. 4. The smallest compressor takes the peak load.13: The BOGE Master Control System 4 The control offers: Cut-in pressure [bar] Compressors 1. Fig. All compressors are controlled by a common pressure sensor at the compressed air receiver. The MCS 4 computes compressed air consumption continually from programmed compressor performance data and information from the pressure sensor. ( no over-compression → energy-saving ) – three different pressure profiles per day by a timer programme to adapt the control to differing compressed air requirement.14: Op.5 bar. – ideal use of the benefits of screw and piston compressors. – Automatic switchover to pressure switches in the event of voltage loss.

dependng on the level of priority. – Well arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters and clear text output. ( no over-compression → energy savings ) – Time-independent allocation of compressors in level of priority for shift operation with differing compressed air demand. Cut-in pressure [bar] Compressors 1. Fig.4 MCS 5 MCS 5 controls a maximum of 4. – Adjustable basic load change cycle.5 bar. 8. diagram for the BOGE MCS 5 65 . – Possibility to check all inlets and outlets via a test menu.16: Op. – Automatic change to pressure switches of individual compressors in the event of voltage loss. If the compressed air demand drops this compressor switches off and the medium load compressor takes over via its infinite output control. – Independent rotation of compressors in the load range groups. The control unit offers: – Adaptation of FAD to the compressed air demand by infinite output control by the peak load compressor. – Time adjusted use of compressors on demand by the control unit. – The individual compressors operate independently without the MCS 5. – Dynamic pressure control by microcontroller in conjunction with the electronic pressure control for a minimum cut-in difference of 0.5.15: The BOGE Master Control System 5 Up to their use of infinite control the MCS 3 and MCS 5 are similar. – Individual allocation of compressors in the load range groups with even usage of compressors. All compressors are controlled by a common pressure sensor on the compressed air receiver.Control of compressors 4. or 12 compressors with infinite output control of the same and/or different size and construction in a system. – Minimal pressure fluctuations in the pneumatic network. The peak load compressor controls accordingly the requirement of compressed air via its infinite output control. They are then controlled by their own pressure switches. 4.12 Cycle difference Fig. 4.

All compressors in the system are controlled through a common pressure sensor on the compressed air receiver. When the compressed air demand falls this compressor switches off and the medium load compressor takes over the control through its speed frequency control. – Automatic switchover to the pressure switches of individual compressors in the event of power failure.18: Op. Fig. – Adjustable basic load change cycle.Control of compressors 4. ( no over-compression → energy saving ) Fig. 8. – Minimum pressure fluctuations in the pneumatic system. – Independent rotation of compressors in the load range groups. 66 . diagram for the BOGE MCS 6 Cut-in pressure [bar] Compressors 1. – Time adjusted use of compressors on demand by the control unit. The peak load compressor controls the compressed air demand via its speed frequency control.5 bar. – Dynamic pressure control by microcontroller in conjunction with the electronic pressure controller for a minimum cut-in difference of 0. – Well-arranged LCD-display with 4 x 20 characters and clear text output. or 12 compressors with speed frequency control of the same.5 MCS 6 MCS 6 Controls a maximum of 4. 4. – The individual compressors work independently without the MCS 6. and/or different size and design/type in a system. 4.17: The BOGE Master Control System 6 Apart from the speed frequency control the MCS 3 and the MCS 6 systems are similar.5. – Individual allocation of individual compressors in the load range groups with even work rates among the compressors. They are then controlled by their own pressure switches. The control system offers: – Adaptation of the FAD to the compressed air demand through speed frequency control of the peak load compressor. – Possibility to check all inlets and outlets via a test menu.12 Cycle difference – Time-dependent allocation of compressors in priorities for shift operation with differing compressed air demand.

6 MCS 7 MCS 7 controls.5. 4. – 10 Bekomats. This makes servicing and repair of the compressor system much simpler. – 2 Adsorption dryers.20: Op.Control of compressors 4. – 2 Refrigeration compressed air dryers. Fig. – System visualisation in master control equipment (optional) Comprehensive information can be obtained about the entire compressed supply. – Storage of operating. – 2 Potentional-free switch channels for control of additional devices. 4. – Control and monitoring of the compressed air treatment components and the pneumatic system.12 Cycle difference Fig. Version 2 Version 2 offers an extended software program of MCS 5. Cut-in pressure [bar] Compressors 1. It uses pressure-dependent control of up to 8 or 12 compressors of the same and/or different size with speed frequency control. diagram for the BOGE MCS 7 Version 3 Version 3 offers an extended software program of MCS 6. 67 . The basic features include: – 8 Compressors. It uses pressure-dependent control of up to 8 or 12 compressors of the same and/or different size with infinite output control. – BUS-coupling with Profibus ( optional ) This allows connection to a central control facility. In addition to the basic individual software functions the control offers: – Recording of the operating status of the compressors and additional components of the compressor station. warning and malfunction messages. It uses pressure-dependent control of up to 8 or 12 compressors of the same and/or different size by priorities and timer programmes. regulates and monitors a complete pneumatic station with the Siemens-control S 5 ( S7 ) and the operator terminal OP 15.19: The BOGE Master Control System 7 The MCS 7 is available in three versions: Version 1 Version 1 offers an extended software program of MCS 3.

Correct treatment of compressed air brings benefits : – Increased working life of consumer devices. oil-free and sterile compressed air. The impurities in our atmosphere are usually invisible to the naked eye.03 mg/m3 Oil in the form of mineral oil aerosols and unburnt hydrocarbons – Traces of heavy metals such as lead. – Improved and consistent product quality. – Fewer malfunctions. Lubrication oil and scuff also passes from the compressor in the compressed air. 68 .01 and 100 µm in size. Compressors draw in atmospheric air and the impurities they contain and concentrate them many times. 5. – 5 .Compressed air treatment 5. 1 m3 of atmospheric air contains many impurities such as – Up to 180 million particles of dirt. The many conditions in which it is used range from untreated blowing air to absolutely dry. mercury. – Lower pressure loss from leakage and flow resistance. – 0. 5. – Pneumatic lines free of condensate and rust. and have an adverse effect on the quality of products.01 to 0. – Lower energy consumption due to lower pressure loss. Fig.1 Compressed air treatment Why treatment ? Modern production equipment needs compressed air.40 g/m³ Water in the form of atmospheric humidity. But they can seriously impede the reliable operation of a pneumatic system and consumer devices. In 1 m3 compressed air there will then be up to 2 billion particles of dirt. iron.1 : Concentration of impurities in the air during compression – Pipelines without condensate collectors. cadmium. At compression of 10 bar-op ( 10 bar over-pressure = 11 bar absolute ) the concentration of impurities rises by 11 times. – Lower servicing outlay. These are between 0.

air Pneumatics Spray painting with higher quality requirements Surface treatment 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 Medical equipment Conveyance air with higher quality requirements Food and luxury food industry 1 1 1 1 1 1 3-4 3-4 3-4 Breweries Dairies Pharmaceuticals industry 1 1 1 1 1 1 1-3 1-3 1-3 *) The dust separator is not required under certain circumstances.2 Planing information BOGE recommends the air treatment described on this page for the various applications of compressed air. 1991 BOGE screw and piston compressors Sterile filter Prefilter prefilter Oil 69 .1.Compressed air treatment 5. Spray painting Conditioning Fluid elements 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 Dental laboratories Photo laboratories Breathing air Instrument. Refrigeration dryer Dust separator *) Adsorption dryer Membrane dryer Area of application of compressed air Quality classes Compressor Active carbon filter Active carbon absorber Microfilter DIN ISO 8573-1** Particle Water General air Blowing air — — — — — — Sand blasting Simple varnishing work — — 3 3 — — General works air Conveyance air Simple spray painting Sandblasting with higher quality requirements 5 5 5 5 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 Pneumatic tools Control air Process control eqpt. **) DIN ISO 8573-1.

– Formation of ice in the pneumatic network. 70 . – Formation of electrical elements.3 Consequences of poor treatment If the impurities and water from atmospheric air remain in the compressed air the consequences can be unpleasant.Compressed air treatment 5. In low temperatures water in the network can freeze and cause frost damage. – Chemically aggressive particles. reduce pipe diameter and block pipes. This applies to the pipeline and the consumer devices. Solid matter particles in compressed air – Wear on pneumatic systems. Dust and other particles cause scuff. In some applications the use of compressed air without adequate treatment is dangerous and a health hazard. – Oil-free compressed air. Resinified oil can reduce pipe diameters and cause blockages. This increases flow resistance.1. Oil in the compressed air – Old and different oil in the pneumatic system. Rust forms in the pipelines and operating elements and causes leaks. and products can also suffer if the quality of compressed air is poor. – Gaps in lubricant films. Electrical elements can form when some metals come in contact with water. With pneumatic conveyance. – Particles that are hazardous to health. oil can stick to the product being conveyed and thus cause blockages. Water in the compressed air – Corrosion in the pneumatic system. In the food and pharmaceutical industries compressed air must be free of oil for health reasons. Gaps in lubricant films lead to mechanical defects. This effect is increased if the particles combine with lubricating oil or grease to form a grinding paste.

This chapter contains a general summary of the type.50 Average values [ mg/ m3 ] 15 In the town 10 . smoke Sub-microscopically detectable Oil vapour Tabacco smoke Soot Dust Microscopically detectable Spray Drops.1 4 68 2 1.Compressed air treatment 5.1.3 Impurities in the air In our atmosphere there are particles of dirt that are not visible to the naked eye.01 4 68 2 0. vapour.500 100 In large factory plants 50 . size and concentration of these particles. grains Visually detectable Fertiliser. ground limestone Coal dust Cement dust Sulphurous mist Paint pigment Dried milk Sea-salt grains Gascous molecules Viruses Bacteria Water vapour Spores Pollen dust Flour Airborne sand 71 .100 30 In an industrial area 20 . Concentration of particles in atmospheric air In the country Limits [ mg/ m3] 5 .0 4 68 2 10 4 68 2 100 4 68 Mist 1000 2 4 68 2 10000 4 68 Steam.001 2 0.900 200 Particle diameter [ µm ] 0.

2. This is known as atmospheric humidity and its content varies depending on the time and place.2 5.1 Water in the compressed air Atmospheric humidity There is always a certain amount of moisture in the atmosphere. atmospheric air usually contains less than this maximum amount. Maximum humidity humax [ g/m3 ] Maximum humidity humax ( saturation quantity ) means the maximum quantity of moisture that 1 m³ air can hold at a certain temperature. On cooling to dew point.2 : Maximum humidity depending on dew point ϕ = relative humidity [%] hu = absolute humidity [ g/m 3 ] humax = maximale humidity [ g/m 3 ] Since maximum humidity humax depends on the temperature the relative humidity changes with the temperature. 5. Absolute humidity hu [ g/m3 ] Absolute humidity hu means the actual quantity of moisture held by 1 m³ air. even if the absolute humidity remains constant. Relative humidity ϕ [ % ] Relative humidity ϕ means the ratio of absolute to maximum humidity. Maximum humidity humax [ g /m3 ] ϕ = hu ——— humax × 100 % Dew point [ °C ] Fig. At any temperature a certain volume of air can only contain a maximum quantity of moisture. 72 . the relative humidity rises to 100 %. The maximum humidity does not depend on pressure. However.Compressed air treatment 5.

351 +51° 230.960 -35° 1.660 -47° 0. The atmospheric dew point is of minor importance for pneumatic systems.751 -31° 2.156 -34° 1.212 +49° 212.380 -39° 1.575 +43° 166.471 +63° 362.Compressed air treatment 5.987 -9° 11. dew max.800 -45° 0.244 -57° 0.017 0. The pressure dew point depends on the final compression pressure. dew max.209 +71° 480.672 +16° 48.067 0.510 -38° 1.050 -42° 73 .209 -22° -23° -24° [ g/m3] [ °C ] 0.830 +1° 21.970 +4° 25.359 -19° 5.130 +33° 108.144 -70° 0.2 Dew points Atmospheric dew point [ °C ] Atmospheric dew point means the temperature to which atmospheric air ( 1 bar abs ) can be cooled without precipitation.953 -20° 5.490 +8° 31.730 -46° 0.317 +9° 33.124 +62° 340.784 -14° 8.252 -1° 18.181 +15° 45.173 +27° 82.021 0. dew max.469 +59° 311.191 -2° 17.495 +35° 118.027 0.048 0.820 +19° 55.732 -16° 7.401 +72° 497.593 +14° 43.117 -80° 0.143 +2° 22.274 +17° 50.961 -12° 9.827 +53° 19.487 -25° 4.367 -6° 13.172 -4° 15.019 0.840 +52° 239.00060 0.276 -10° 10.339 -33° 2.257 +26° 78.772 +20° 58.806 +54° 258.103 +40° 146.885 +67° 417.889 -27° 3.038 0.238 -29° 2.513 -28° 3.150 -41° 1.935 +66° 403.00330 0.186 +61° 336.600 -11° 9. dew max.960 -43° 0. dew point humidity point humidity point humidity point humidity point humidity point humidity point humidity [ °C ] [ g/ m3 ] [ °C ] [ g/m3 ] [ °C ] 248.199 +34° 113.246 -17° 6.054 0.659 +38° 134.234 -15° 7.660 +60° 324.880 -44° 0.078 +6° 28.984 -30° 2.308 +68° 432.093 -90° [ g/m3] 0.034 0.148 -3° 16.800 -36° 1.507 +42° 159.330 -54° 0. dew max.848 +21° 61.3 Air moisture content The following table shows the maximum air humidities at certain dew points: max.015 0.491 +25° 74.00010 +100° 588.213 +46° 188. If pressure drops.356 -13° 8.483 +29° [ g/m3] [ °C ] 90. the pressure dew point drops with it.020 +36° 123.200 +32° 103.429 +45° 180.550 -49° 0.010 0.125 +73° 514.286 +47° 196.286 +11° 37.650 -37° 1.071 +75° 550.537 -32° 2.570 -21° 5.453 +31° 98.508 +13° 41.394 +70° 464.160 -65° 0.130 -75° 0.00130 0.198 -59° 0.654 +41° 153.119 +69° 448.883 +30° 94.135 -26° 3.989 +18° 53.790 -18° 4.017 +56° 279. 5.322 +12° 39.744 +7° 30.648 +48° 204.395 +23° 68.083 0.600 -48° 0.271 -56° 0.013 0.410 -52° 0.186 +57° 290.510 -50° 0.386 0° 4.2. dew max.524 +3° 24.771 +39° 140.247 +28° 86.075 0.142 +50° 221.00640 0.855 +44° 173.868 [ g/m3 ] [ °C ] 6. Pressure dew point [ °C ] The pressure dew point means the temperature to which compressed air can be cooled without precipitation of condensate.871 +24° 71.488 +5° [ g/m3] [ °C ] 26.00025 0.229 +10° 35.225 +64° 375.178 -60° 0.220 -58° 0.616 +58° 301.301 -55° 0.460 -51° 0.043 0.024 0.739 -8° 11.208 +76° +99° +98° +97° +96° +95° +94° +93° +92° +91° +90° +89° +88° +87° +86° +85° +84° +83° +82° +81° +80° +79° +78° +77° 569.246 -5° 14.056 +22° 64.578 20.684 +37° 129.370 -53° 0.531 -7° 12.375 +74° 532.278 +55° 268.030 0.380 +65° 389.060 0.270 -40° 1.2.104 -85° 0.

When compressing 6. The example assumes a humid Summer day with 35° C and 80 % atmospheric humidity.2. 5. when air is compressed the water precipitates in the form of condensate. 74 . Atmospheric air can be imagined as a moist sponge. qc = V1 × humax 1 × ϕ1 ——————— 100 - V2 × humax 1 × ϕ2 ———————— 100 0.59 × 39. The maximum humidity of the air depends on temperature and volume. humidity at 35° C ϕ1 ϕ2 = relative humidity of V1 = relative humidity of V2 Because the water that comes out of the compressed air is the part the air can not store. Compressed air is very similar. the humidity ϕ of the compressed air rises to 100 %.5 m3 air to 10 bar pressure.108 g - abs p2 = 10 bar-op = 11 bar abs T ϕ2 = 35° C = 100 % qc V1 V2 = precipitated condensate = Volume at 0 bar-op = Volume at 10 bar-op [g] [ m3 ] [ m 3] [ g/m3 ] [%] [%] humax = 39.286 × 80 qc = ————–———– 100 m³ × g / m³ × % qc = ———————– % qC V1 p1 T ϕ1 = 6.59 m3 qc = 181.3 : A wet sponge being squeezed The following examples illustrate the quantity of condensate to be expected qc when air is compressed.108 g water will precipitate in the form of condensate.4 Quantity of condensate during compression Air contains water in the form of moisture.4 : Precipitation of condensate during compression humax 1 = max.5 × 39. It can take in a certain amount of water when it is relaxed. But if it is squeezed. Since air can be compressed and water can not. Fig. 5.Compressed air treatment 5. Some of the water will always stay in the sponge regardless of how hard it is squeezed.286 g/ m3 Fig. It does not depend on quantity. part of the water runs out.286 × 100 ————–————– 100 m³ × g / m³ × % ————————– % 6. at a constant temperature 181.5 m3 = 0 bar-op = 1 bar = 35° C = 80 % V2 = 0.

5 : Condensate precipitation when compressing with a dryer 75 .79 g/h ^ 76. Ambient air p1 T1 ϕ1 humax 1 =1 = 33° = 80 = 35.86 g/h ^ 64.317 bar abs C % g/m³ • V1 = 2 720 m³/h The atmospheric air contains a certain amount of water under these conditions: • qw = V1 × humax 1 × ϕ1 /100 g/h = m³/h × g/m³ × %/% qw = 2 720 × 35.5 × 5. A considerable amount of condensate collects there: • qc1 = qW – ( V2 × humax 2 × ϕ 2 /100 ) qc1 = 76 849.87 l/h = • V = 236.5 40° 100 50. • • qc2 = ( V2 × humax 2 ) – ( V2 × humax 3 ) qc2 = ( 236.317 × 80/100 qW = 76 849.Compressed air treatment 5. The task here is to calculate the occurrence of condensate on • a screw compressor with an output of V = 2 720 m³/h and a final compression pressure of pop = 10. 5.5 × 50. It is to be noted that the condensate occurs at several points of the compressor station and at different times.5 Bm3/h q c1 After this the compressed air is cooled down in the refrigeration compressed air dryer to a temperature corresponding to a pressure dew point of 3°C. Connected in series to the compressor are a compressed air tank and a refrigeration compressed air dryer.85 l/h = Compressor p2 = = T2 = ϕ2 humax 2 = 11.953 bar abs C % g/m³ • V2 = 236.5 × 50.672 × 100/100 ) qc1 = 64 865.672 bar abs C % g/m³ • V1 • V2 = ––––– = 236.5 m3/h Refrigeration compressed air dryer p3 = T3 = = ϕ3 humax 3 = 11.672 ) – ( 236.04 g/h ^ 10. the temperature rises above the pressure dew point of the compressed air.5 3° 100 5.79 – ( 236. The condensate precipitates in the dryer and is drained off.5 bar. The first condensate occurs and is taken with the air into the compressed air receiver.5 Example for calculating quantities of condensate An example shows the amount of condensate qc that actually occurs when air is compressed.5 Bm3/h P2 During the compression process.953 ) = qc2 = 10 576. and therefore no moisture will precipitate.58 l/h q c2 Fig. The volume flow calms down and the droplets of water precipitate.2. In the aftercooler of the compressor the compressed air is cooled down to T2 = 40°C.

2. This means.6 g/D = 1810.9 g/h = 75. with the basic assumptions unchanged: Condensate quantity qcD = 1810605. i. 8 10 l buckets of condensate precipitate in 24 hours With 3-shift operation working at 100 % efficiency the compressor is running 24 hrs. 5.. per day.6 l/h With 3-shift operation working at 100 % efficiency the compressor is running 24 hrs. Condensate quantity qc = 122. Condensate quantity qc Condensate quantity qc = qc1 + qc2 = 75441.6 : Approx.e.6 Quantity of condensate on a humid Summer day The quality of compressed air must always remain the same if the surrounding conditions are unchanged. the pressure dew point of the compressed air must be 3°C even on a humid Summer day with an air temperature of 40°C and 90 % atmospheric humidity. This means.6 l/D The following quantity of condensate will then occur in one year: Condensate quantity qcY = 659 060 438 g/Y = 659 060 l/Y 5.Compressed air treatment In addition to the individual flows of condensate. there is also the quantity of condensate that needs to be dealt with by the condensate treatment equipment.4 l/h Fig. per day. • FAD V1 = 2 720 m³/h Inlet pressure p1 Inlet temperature T1 Relative humidity ϕ1 Pressure dew point T3 = = = = 1 bar abs 40° C 90 % 2° C Under these conditions the quality of compressed air remains constant but the quantity of condensate is much higher. with the basic assumptions unchanged: Condensate quantity qcD = 2 943.3 l/D The following quantity of condensate will then occur in one year: Condensate quantity qcY = 1 071 358 l/Y 76 .

82°C Fin al c om pre ssio n pr ess ure m pe ra tu re 77 . The pressure dew point depends on the final compression pressure. 73°C Example 2 Intake air – relative atmospheric humidity ϕ = 80 % – inlet temperature T = 35°C Compressed air – Final compression pressure pabs = 10 bar ⇒ The pressure dew point is approx.2.Compressed air treatment 5.7 Determining the pressure dew point The pressure dew point means the temperature to which the compressed air can be cooled without condensate precipitating. the pressure dew point drops with it. If the pressure drops. The following diagrams are used to determine the pressure dew point of the compressed air after compression: In let te Example2 Example1 Relative humidity ϕ [ % ] Pressure dew point [ °C ] Example 1 Intake air – relative atmospheric humidity ϕ = 70 % – inlet temperature T = 35°C Compressed air – Final compression pressure pabs = 8 bar ⇒ The pressure dew point is approx.

2. The following table is used to determine the new pressure dew point and atmospheric dew point after relaxation: max. – 8°C 78 . humidity [ g/m3 ] Pressure dew point [ °C ] Ov erp res su re p Example1 op [b arop ] Example 2 Atmospheric dew point [ °C ] Example 1 Compressed air – pabs = 35 bar air pressure – Pressure dew point 10°C relaxed compressed air – pabs = 4 bar air pressure ⇒ The new pressure dew point is approx. –22°C Example 2 Compressed air – pabs = 7 bar air pressure – Pressure dew point 20°C relaxed compressed air – atmospheric air pressure pabs = 1 bar ⇒ The atmospheric dew point is approx.8 Pressure dew point after removal of pressure When compressed air relaxes (pressure released) the pressure dew point drops.Compressed air treatment 5.

79 .3. Particle size and density Definition of the size and concentration of solid matter particles that may remain in the compressed air.1 Compressed air quality Quality classes defined in DIN ISO 8573-1 The quality classes for compressed air defined in DIN ISO 8573-1 make it easier for the user to set his requirements and choose the equipment he needs to treat the air. The pressure dew point changes with the air pressure. Pressure dew point Definition of the temperature to which the compressed air can be cooled without condensation of the moisture it contains.3 5. The norm is based on maker’s specifications giving defined limits for their equipment and machinery pertaining to purity of compressed air.Compressed air treatment 5. The DIN ISO 8573-1 norm defines quality classes for compressed air according to: Oil content Definition of the residual quantity of aerosols and hydrocarbons contained in the compressed air.

4 Methods of drying The summary presents the methods of drying compressed air according to their principle of operation. heat regeneration Adsorption Ext. Sorption is drying by removal of moisture.Compressed air treatment 5. sorption and diffusion. A distinction is always made between condensation. Process of drying compressed air High pressure Condensation Refrigeration drying Diffusion Membrane drying Solid dryers Absorption Soluble dryers Liquid dryers Sorption Heatless regeneration Int. heat regeneration Vacuum regeneration 80 . Condensation is the separation of water by going below the dew point. Diffusion is drying by molecular transfer.

15 1. These factors differ in the various drying processes.62 0. The performance data given for the equipment is only correct under these conditions: – Operating pressure – Ambient temperature – Entry temperature p = 7 barop tA = 298 K tEn = 308 K ^ = 8 barabs ^ = 25° C ^ = 35° C If a dryer is used under different operating conditions.00 1.4.09 35 0.09 t = 0.75 m3/h RAd R f t = = = = Adjusted through-flow rate Through-flow rate [ m3/h ] [ m3/h ] Conversion factor for p = 10 barop Conversion factor for tA = 40° C With changed operating conditions the dryer has through-flow rate of 38. R p tA = 45 m3/h = 10 barop = 40° C ⇒ ⇒ f = 1. – Intake pressure – Intake temperature p = 0 barop ^ = 1 barabs ^ = 20° C T0 = 293 K Drying equipment is designed according to DIN ISO 7183 for certain operating conditions. ISO 1217 ( DIN 1945 Part 1 ). 81 .12 1.04 9 10 11 1.85 1.06 1.17 43 0.94 [ °C ] 25 1.1 40 0.92 8 1.1 Operating conditions The through-flow rate of a dryer refers to the intake rate of air during compression by a compressor according to PN2 CPTC2.81 0. It is operated at an average ambient temperature of tA = 40° C and an operating pressure of p = 10 barop.75 A BOGE refrigeration compressed air dryer.79 RAd RAd RAd = R 3 × f × t = 45 m /h × 1.09 × 0. pressure p [ barop ] Factor f Ambient temperature tA Factor t 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 30 0.75 m3/h. model D8.Compressed air treatment 5.72 0. appropriate conversion factors must be taken into account.79 12 14 16 0. has a through-flow rate R of 45 m3/h.79 = 38. Example for the layout of a refrigeration compressed air dryer Conversion factors for operating conditions and ambient temperature: Op.89 0.

– 18°C.2 Condensation by high pressure Operating pressure [ barop ] Volume flow [ m3/h ] Entry temperature [ °C ] – The air is compressed far beyond the necessary pressure. Pressure dew point [ °C ] approx. If the compressed air is now relaxed. The dew point is 10°C. After reducing to 4 bar the compressed air has a new pressure dew point of approx. and afterwards cooled and reduced to operating pressure.4.Compressed air treatment 5. The condensate precipitates. p = 4 bar – No expensive refrigeration and drying equipment. Depends on Depends on compressor compressor Example: Compressed air is pre-compressed to 36 bar. The absolute humidity of the air goes down. Fig. – Only economical for small output quantities. Features mK p = 36 bar – Simple process with continuous volume flow. the relative humidity drops and with it the dew point. – 70°C Operating principle With rising pressure and thus reduced volume the air is able to hold less water.7 : Over-compression with subsequent relaxation p = 1 bar – Very high energy consumption. During pre-compression at high pressure a large amount of condensate precipitates. 5. 82 .

4. air loses its ability to hold water. – Lower pressure loss in the dryer. The moisture contained in the air precipitates in the form of condensate.8 : Op. Refrigeration drying is a process by which compressed air is cooled down by a dryer in a heat exchanger. compressed air can be cooled down in a refrigeration dryer. Refrigeration drying is the most economical process in approx. 5.Compressed air treatment 5. 4 Features: 6 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 = = = = = = Air/Air heat exchanger Air/refrigerant heat exchanger Refrigerant/air heat exchanger Condensate drain Refrigerant compressor Vapour outlet 4 – Highly economical. 2nd Phase The compressed air flows through a refrigerant/air heat exchanger and cools down almost to freezing point. Pressure dew point [ °C ] to – 2°C Operating pressure [ barop ] to 210 Through. 1st Phase Inside an air/air heat exchanger the compressed air already cooled by the refrigeration dryer cools new air flowing in. 0. The pressure loss ∆p from the dryer is approx.Entry temflow rate perature [ °C ] [m3/h ] 11-35 000 to +50°C Dry compressed air Moist compressed air 1 2 3 Operating principle Refrigeration drying runs in two phases. To reduce the moisture content. This is done to improve effectiveness and to obtain maximum use of the refrigerant. Fig. – Separation of impurities. Almost 100 % of all solid particles and water droplets larger than 3 µm are separated.2 bar. diagram of a refrigeration compressed air dryer 83 . 70 % of the moisture contained in the air precipitates here in the form of condensate. The precipitated condensate is directed off before re-heating in the first cooling phase.3 Condensation by refrigeration drying When the temperature falls. 90 % of all applications. The quantity of condensate that precipitates rises with the difference between the entry and exit temperature of the compressed air.

There are no moving parts in the dryer. – Compact construction. The flushing air flows around the hollow fibres and provides the necessary concentration gradient of moisture. – Low pressure loss in the dryer. The moisture contained in the air penetrates through the layer of coating on the hollow fibres towards the outside. No liquid water is created with this method. – No moving parts. A filter must always be connected upstream of the membrane dryer. 0.130 2° to 60°C The principle of the membrane dryer is based on the fact that water penetrates a specially coated hollow fibre 20 000 times faster than air. – No servicing. The membrane dryer consists of a bundle of thousands of coated hollow fibre membranes.5 Moist air Operating principle The moist compressed air flows through the inside of the hollow fibres ( internal flow ). To do this a concentration gradient of moisture is required between the inside and outside of the hollow fibres. If installed directly downstream of the compressor. The hollow fibres ( membranes ) are installed in a pipe where the inner channel of the fibres is open at the end. A quantity of air for flushing is taken from the main volume flow of the compressors and relaxed (decompressed). The flushing air can escape unfiltered into the open and is lost for the system. the filter should be connected to dust separator. The dryer can be installed as a component of the pipeline.01 µm.2 bar. The pressure loss ∆p from the dryer is max.Compressed air treatment 5. – No precipitation of condensate during drying – No additional energy costs. Since the maximum air humidity depends on volume. – Silent. Pressure Operating dew point pressure [ °C ] [ barop ] 0 to – 20°C 5 -12. The flushing air becomes very dry.4 Diffusion by membrane drying Through. Dry air Fig. Their inside surface is coated with an ultra-thin (less than the length of a light wave) coating of a second plastic.Entry temflow rate perature [ °C ] [ m3/h ] 11 . temperature and pressure-resistant plastic. The water is removed in vapour form. in order to filter out particles up to a size of 0.9 : The principle of a membrane dryer 84 . – No motor. Moist flushing air Inside flow Water vapour Dry flushing air Features – Low level of particles in the air.4. These hollow fibres are made of a solid. 5. – No fluorocarbons. the relative air humidity drops.

There are 3 different types of drying agent. Since the absorption properties of the drying agent diminish over time. 5. High temperatures soften the drying agent and bake it together. This can cause considerable damage. During this it gives up some of its moisture to the drying agent. A drain directs the condensate to a floor tank. 85 . – No input of outside energy. Due to its properties. periodic renewal is necessary. The solid and liquid agents react with the moisture without changing their aggregate status. The pressure dew point achieved here is between 18 and 22°C. absorption drying has only become established in fringe applications of pneumatic engineering. 1 2 3 4 = = = = Screen Solid drying agent Cover Condensate drain Fig. – Very corrosive drying agents. The soluble agents liquify with increased absorption. The dried compressed air can take drying agent with it into the pneumatic system.5 Sorption by Absorption Pressure dew point [ °C ] Depends on entry temperature Operating pressure [ barop ] – Throughflow rate [ m3/h ] – Entry temperature [ °C ] to 30°C With absorption drying the moisture is separated by a chemical reaction with a hygroscopic drying agent.10 : Absorption dryer with solid drying agent Features – Low entry temperature.Compressed air treatment 5.4. The pressure dew point is lowered by 8 – 12 %. One example of this is its use for compressed treatment air in laboratories. 1 2 Solid Dehydrated chalk oversour magnesium salt Drying agent Soluble Lithium chloride Calcium chloride Liquid Sulphuric acid Phosphoric acid Glycerine Triethylene glycol 1 Operating principle 4 3 During absorption the compressed air flows upwards through a drying middle bed. Example Compressed air enters a dryer operating with calcium chloride at a temperature of + 30°C.

The adsorption material must be regenerated when the adhesive forces are balanced by water deposits. silicagel. AlO2. This means that the water must be removed from the adsorption material.4.6 Sorption by Adsorption Drying compressed air by adsorption is a purely physical process. which dries the compressed air. active carbon and molecular screens. For this reason there must be two parallel drying tanks with continual operation.800 *) The properties of the adsorption material change with the pressure and temperature of the gas to be dried Operating principle During the drying process the moist compressed air flows through an adsorption tank. dew point [ °C ] Silicagel ( SiO2 ). Different adsorption materials are used for the various regeneration processes. The most common adsorption materials are aluminium oxide. Adsorption material Obtainable press.380 750 . raw Silicagel ( SiO2 ).The moisture stays on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption material without a chemical reaction taking place. The moisture is bound. A B The following processes are mainly used to regenerate the adsorption material: – heatless regeneration – internal hot regeneration – external hot regeneration – vacuum regeneration 86 .180 120 .800 200 . The active tank A dries the compressed air.Compressed air treatment 5. This process generates heat.180 175 . spherical Activated Aluminium oxide ( Al2O3 ) Molecular screens ( Na. The adsorption material has an open porous structure and a large inner surface. The moisture is bound to the drying agent by force of adhesion ( unbalanced molecular attraction ). while the inactive tank B regenerates without pressure.350 Surface [ m2/g ] 500 .315 200 . SiO2 ) – 50 – 50 – 60 – 90 Properties of Adsorption material *) Entry temperature [ °C ] + 50 + 50 + 40 + 140 Regeneration temperature [ °C ] 120 .300 230 .

– Prefiltration of intake air.5600 to + 60°C Fig. This dry air then flows through the regeneration drying tank B.07 7. A prefilter removes most of the oil. 5. They are taken from the correlation between air moisture and compressed air pressure relief. – Simple dryer construction.16 4 . dew point – 25° to – 40°C – 40° to –100°C 25. – The percentage ratio of regeneration air to the output of the compressor falls with a higher final compression pressure.Entry temdew point pressure flow rate perature [ °C ] [ barop ] [ m³/h ] [ °C ] to – 70°C 4 .6. diagram of an adsorption dryer. The regeneration air is taken from the pneumatic system and can not be used further. Specific calculations for the regeneration air demand have to be done for every application. dew point Press. cold regeneration 87 . 5. With this method the desorption ( regeneration ) takes place without additional input of heat.46 27. – Low volume of drying agent.39 5.49 7. Cold regeneration adsorption dryers operate according to the pressure alternation process.1 Heatless regeneration With heatless regeneration the drying and regeneration time is around 5 min.22 11. Features Pressure Operating Through. pressure [ barabs ] 5 7 10 15 20 Ratio of regeneration air [ % ] Press. – High operating costs. water droplets and particles of dirt. 5 min.83 17. In this process it takes on the moisture stored in the drying agent and directs it out into the open through an outlet valve.1 12. – Can be used at high ambient temperatures. Fig. 2 3 2 Dry compressed air A Regeneration air B Final comp. drying time – Economical on smaller systems with low volume flows.4. For this reason the moisture only deposits on the outer surface of the drying agent.11 : Adsorption material after 5 min.14 18.12 : Op.47 5 4 Moist compressed air 1 2 3 4 5 6 = = = = = = Valve block Non-return valve Perforated cover Outlet valve Pre-filter After-filter 1 These values are physically fixed and it is not possible to go below them. Drying and regeneration times approx. A part of the dried volume flow is branched off.77 5. – Postfiltration of dried compressed air.Compressed air treatment 5. This part-flow relaxes to a pressure of just over 1 bar and is thus extremely dry. Drying material taken with the compressed air from the drying tank must be filtered out. 6 – Regeneration without outside energy.

2 Internal heat regeneration Pressure Operating Through. To reverse this process heat must be brought from outside. During the long drying time the moisture deposits on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption material. 2 . water droplets and dirt particles from the compressed air.14 : Op. the lower the regeneration temperature of the dryer.6. cover 2nd Phase Heating Stop valve Outlet valve Prefilter After-filter Fig.8 hrs drying time With internal regeneration the heat is transmitted directly from a heater in the drying tank to the adsorption material. If the regeneration temperature of the drying material is exceeded by heat from outside.8 hrs. – Simple dryer construction.5600 to + 50°C With heat regeneration the drying and regeneration times are around 6 . This happens in two phases: 1st Phase Drying tank B is slowly heated by the internal heating to the necessary regeneration temperature.16 200 . the surface energies that occur outweigh the adhesive forces in the drying material and the water evaporates. internal hot regeneration 88 .Entry temdew point pressure flow rate perature [ °C ] [ barop ] [ °C ] [ m3/h ] to – 40°C 2 . The internal heating is no longer operating at this point. Approx. A second diversion line opens for this purpose. 5. – Prefiltration of intake air.Compressed air treatment 5. Drying materials taken with the compressed air from the drying tank must be filtered out of the compressed air. 2nd Phase Dry compressed air 4 2 3 5 9 A B In a cooling phase the operating pressure drops back to the temperature of the drying bed. diagram of an adsorption dryer. Approx.4. Fig. – Little dried compressed air is required to regenerate the dryer. The regeneration temperature depends on the pressure dew point of the regeneration air. This flow of regeneration air absorbs the moisture and directs it out into the open through an outlet valve. The lower it is. Features 8 Regeneration air Moist compressed air 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = = = = = = = = = Valve block Non-return valve Diversion line with perf. 5. A small flow of regeneration air drains off the moisture. cover 1st Phase Diversion line with perf. A pre-filter removes most of the oil. the moisture releases itself from the adsorption material. 5 % of the compressor FAD is directed through drying tank B. If the regeneration temperature is exceeded. – Postfiltration of dried compressed air. 1 6 7 – Economical with high volume flows.13 : Adsorption material after 6 .3 % of the dried flow of compressed air from the compressor relaxes and at slight pressure is directed through a diversion line through drying tank B.

For this purpose the heating register of the fan is switched off and cold air from the atmosphere is directed through the drying tank. To reverse this process heat must be brought from outside.3 External heat regeneration Pressure Operating dew point pressure [ °C ] [ barop ] to – 40°C 2 . diagram of an adsorption dryer.16 Though flow rate [ m3/h ] Entry temperature [ °C ] 500 . This happens in three phases: 1st Phase The drying tank B is slowly heated to the necessary regeneration temperature by the flow of hot air. – Prefiltration of inlet air. 5. relaxed compressed air flows from the compressor and through the drying tank. 6 Fig.8 hrs. water droplets and dirt particles from the compressed air.8 hrs drying time 2 3 Dry compressed air 7 4 5 9 A B 8 Regeneration air 1 Moist compressed air 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = = = = = = = = = Bottom valve block Top valve block Diversion line with perf. A small flow of regeneration air drains off the moisture.4.15 000 to + 50°C With heat regeneration the drying and regeneration times are around 6 . Only a small part of the regeneration air is taken from the pneumatic system. The regeneration temperature depends on the pressure dew point of the regeneration air. 5. Once the regeneration temperature is reached. During the long drying time the moisture deposits on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption material. A pre-filter removes most of the oil. The lower it is.Compressed air treatment 5. Drying materials taken with the compressed air from the drying tank must be filtered out of the compressed air. Features – Economical with high volume flows – Higher regeneration temperatures allow a lower pressure dew point. the water releases itself from the Adsorption material.16 : Op. 2nd Phase In a cooling phase the operating temperature drops back to the temperature of drying tank B.6. the lower the regeneration temperature of the dryer.15 : Adsorption material after 6 . the surface energies that occur outweigh the adhesive forces in the drying material and the water evaporates. – Low additional consumption of compressed air. If the regeneration temperature of the drying material is exceeded by heat from outside. in order that the atmospheric does not bring moisture back into the dryer. cover 3rd Phase Heating register Fan Stop valve Non-return valve Prefilter After-filter At the end of cooling. This flow of regeneration air takes on the moisture and transports it into the open through an outlet valve. dry. – Postfiltration of dried compressed air. 3rd Phase Fig. With external regeneration air is drawn in from the atmosphere by a fan and heated in a heating register. The fan continues to supply hot regeneration air through drying tank B. external hot regeneration 89 .

The flow of regeneration air takes on the moisture and transports it into the open through an outlet valve. This flow of air is heated by a heating register and drawn through the drying tank. – Prefiltration of inlet air. A pre-filter removes most of the oil. If the regeneration temperature of the drying material is exceeded by heat from outside.17 : Adsorption material after 6 . diagram of an adsorption dryer. 1st Phase A vacuum pump draws in air from the outside.6. During the long drying time the moisture deposits on the inner and outer surfaces of the adsorption material. 2nd Phase In a cooling phase the operating temperature drops back to the temperature of the drying tank. the surface energies that occur outweigh the adhesive forces in the drying material and the water evaporates.4.8 hrs drying time With vacuum regeneration atmospheric air is drawn with a partial vacuum into the drying tank. To reverse this process heat must be brought from outside. Thermal stress on the drying agent is low. This flow of air heats externally.18 : Op. The lower it is. As with hot regeneration the drying and regeneration times are around 6 . Drying materials taken with the compressed air from the drying tank must be filtered out of the compressed air.Compressed air treatment 5. Fig. Vacuum regeneration occurs in two phases. 5. 5. – Long utility time of drying agent. Features – Economical with high volume flows 3 5 6 2 Dry compressed air 8 A B 7 Regeneration air 1 Moist compressed air 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = = = = = = = = Bottom valve block Top valve block Non-return valve Heating register Fan Silencer Prefilter After-filter 4 – No additional compressed air consumption. For this purpose the heating register is switched off and cold air from the atmosphere is directed through the drying tank.16 bar 400 . The regeneration temperature depends on the pressure dew point of the regeneration air. water droplets and dirt particles from the compressed air. Once the regeneration temperature is reached. – Energy savings through lower regeneration temperature. the water releases itself from the Adsorption material. A small flow of regeneration air drains off the moisture.8 hrs. – Postfiltration of dried compressed air. Fig. Vacuum regeneration 90 .7400 to + 40°C Vacuum regeneration is a variation of external hot regeneration.Entry temdew point pressure flow rate perature [ °C ] [ barop ] [ °C ] [ m3/h ] to – 80°C 4 . No compressed air is taken from the system for regeneration.4 Vacuum regeneration Pressure Operating Through. the lower the regeneration temperature of the dryer.

The compressed air comes directly from the after-cooler of the compressor. – High entry temperature of compressed air. – Drying of pulsating compressed air. However. heavy withdrawal of compressed air the pressure dew point of the compressed air remains unchanged. This puts stress on the dryer.4. – With systems containing several compressors. The dryer must be designed for the entire effective output of installed compressor. No general decision on this matter is possible because there are advantages and disadvantages with both constellations. It can either be installed before or after the compressed air receiver. 91 . an arrangement of this type makes good sense when sudden peaks of requirement are anticipated and the quality of the compressed air must not deteriorate.7 Arrangement of the refrigeration compressed air dryer There are two basic possibilities for arranging a refrigeration compressed air dryer in a compressor station. – Consistent compressed air quality. As a result of their construction. – Large quantity of condensate.7.19 : Dryer before the compressed air receiver – Large size dryer. – Drying of a partial air flow is not possible. piston compressors in particular deliver a pulsating flow of air.Compressed air treatment 5. Even with abrupt. Disadvantages: Fig.4. 5. 5. Conclusion Installing a dryer before the compressed air receiver can seldom be recommended. The entire quantity of condensate precipitates in the dryer.1 Dryer before the compressed air receiver Advantages: – Dried air in the compressed air receiver. The dryer is often over-dimensioned if consumption is low. each compressor must have a dryer connected. No precipitation of condensate in the compressed air receiver.

– Drying of a non-turbulent volume flow. – Overload of the Dryer. 5. A smaller dryer can normally be chosen. The compressed air has the opportunity to cool down further in the compressed air receiver.2 Dryer behind the compressed air receiver Advantages: – Favourable dryer size. Conclusion In most cases.Compressed air treatment 5. or for a partial flow of compressed air that needs to be dried. 92 . Moisture in the compressed air receiver leads to corrosion. – Low quantities of condensate.7.20 : Dryer behind the compressed air receiver Disadvantages: – Condensate in the compressed air receiver.4. The dryer is overloaded if there is any abrupt. Its efficiency rate is better. The argument of economy is in favour of it. The droplets of condensate collect in the compressed air receiver and do not burden the rest of the system. BOGE recommends installing the dryer behind the compressed air receiver. heavy withdrawal of compressed air. Fig. The pressure dew point of the compressed air rises. – Low compressed air entry temperature. The dryer can be sized according to the actual consumption of compressed air.

It is also called the efficiency rate.5. The filter separation rate η is a measure of the efficiency of the filter.5.99 %    η η × 100 The filter has a separation rate in per cent of 99. The particles per unit of volume method is nearly always used to measure the efficiency of high-performance filters.5 5.1 Compressed air filters Basic terminology of filters To assess and operate filters it is first necessary to define and explain certain sizes and factors. the concentration is usually defined by counting the particles per unit of volume [ Z/cm3 ]. η = Filter separation rate [%] Fig. 93 .21 : BOGE Pre-filter. C2 = Concentration of impurities after the filter. The purified air after the filter still has an impurity particle concentration of C2 = 0.  0. η  = 100 –   C2 ——– C1 × 100    unfiltered compressed air ( C1 ) Purified air (C2 ) C1 = Concentration of impurities before the filter.003 = 100 –  ——––  30 = 99. 5.1 Filter separation rate η [ % ] The filter separation rate η gives the difference in concentration of impurities before and after the filter.99 % relevant to 3 µm The concentration is usually measured in proportion of weight per unit of volume [ g/m3 ] of compressed air. Measuring the weight proportion per unit of volume with sufficient accuracy would involve a disproportionate amount of effort.99 % relative to 3 µm.1. With weaker concentrations. 5.003 mg/ m3 with particle sizes over 3 µm. Example Compressed air contains an impurity particle concentration of C1 = 30 mg/m3 prior to filtering. series V η = 99.Compressed air processing 5. The minimum grain size [ µm ] that the filter can separate must always be specified.

25 0.38 0. depending on the type of filter.75 1.2 bar.3 Operating pressure The maximum volume flow of a filter always refers to the norm pressure pop = 7 bar.13 1.38 = 300 m³/h × = 414 m³/h = effective rate at pop = 10 bar [ m3/h ] = effective rate at pop = 7 bar [ m3/h ] = Conversion factor for pop = 10 bar At a pressure of pop = 10 bar the filter has an effective nominal performance of 414 m3/h.22 : General filter with ∆ p measuring device 5. R7 = 300 m3/h pop = 10 bar ⇒ f = 1. It is between 0.1. Fig. – ∆p0 is the pressure drop for new filter elements. either the filter must be cleaned or the element replaced.6 bar.5 1.65 0.88 Example A BOGE pre-filter V50 with a nominal performance of 300 m3/h at a norm pressure of pop = 7 bar is to be operated at pop = 10 bar. When pressure changes the maximum through-flow rate of the filter also changes. 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2 Pressure [ barop ] Factor f 1 0.5.5 0.38 1. 5.2 Devices that measure the pressure difference are installed in most filters.02 and 0. 5. – The economically acceptable limit for pressure drop ∆p is around 0.Compressed air processing Pressure drop ∆p The pressure drop ∆p is the difference in pressure before and after the filter caused by flow.63 1. The pressure drop ∆p in the filter grows with time as particles of dust and dirt are collected in the filter element.38 R10 R10 R10 R 10 R7 f = R7 × f 1.75 0.5.88 1. The change to the through-flow rate can be easily calculated with the aid of appropriate conversion factors f. If the pressure drop ∆p exceeds the limit.1. 94 .25 1.

The baffle plate also prevents the flow of air from taking the separated liquid with it. 5. 1 Compressed air flowing in 2 Features 3 4 1 2 3 4 = = = = Vortex insert Baffle plate Collection chamber Condensate drain – Almost complete separation of water droplets. – The filtering capacity of the dust separator depends on the flow speed of the air. – Large distances between the compressor and the receiver. then it makes sense to install a cyclone separator directly downstream of the compressor.5. Of course. The condensate can be drained off automatically or by hand from the collection chamber and properly disposed of or treated. When the compressor is idle the condensate flows back into the compressor.2 Dust separators Pressure Separation rate difference [%] ∆p [ bar ] > 0. Fig. the more efficient the filter is. when the flow speed increases the pressure loss in the separator rises also. This causes heavy particles of dirt and water to separate. These separated impurities flow past a baffle plate into the collection chamber. It prevents unnecessary „transport of water“ in the pipeline. If the receiver is a long way from the compressor. Operating principle Purified air The dust separator operates according to the principle of mass inertia. the compressed air contains water in the form of steam and also droplets of condensate. – Heavy particles of dust and dirt filtered out. It consists of a vortex cartridge and a catch pan. These droplets are formed during the compression process because the air is no longer able to accommodate it when its volume is reduced. – Rising lines between the compressed air receiver and the compressor. Solid and liquid components in the air are forced against the inside walls of the pan by their own mass inertia. 95 .Compressed air processing 5. The vortex cartridge is designed to put the compressed air into rotary movement. This water normally deposits in the storage tank as the compressed air become more inert. From there the condensate is drained off. In this case it makes sense to install a cyclone separator directly downstream of the compressor. The higher the flow speed.05 bar 95 % Particle size [ µm ] > 50 µm Residual oil content [ mg/m3] not influenced After coming out of the compressor.23 : Cyclone separator Areas of application – No compressed air receiver in the pipeline system. The line between the compressor and the receiver goes vertically upwards.

The impurities remain only on the outer surface of the filter elements.24: Filtrations mechanism of surface filters – Bronze or brass wire ( coarse filtration ).3 Pre-filters Pressure Separation difference rate ∆p [ bar ] [%] > 0.Compressed air processing 5.25: BOGE Pre-filter. – Sintered ceramics. Because the separated particles are only collected on the surface of the pre-filter element it is possible to clean the element. An opposite direction of flow would allow the separated particles to build up inside the filter element. Finer filters can be dispensed with if the demands on the quality of the compressed air are low. Series V 96 . 5.03 bar 99. The pore size determines the size of particle that can be filtered out. 5. 3 µm out of the compressed air but filter out very little oil and moisture.5. Operating principle Pre-filters operate according to the principle of superficial filtration. The growing collection of solid matter would block the effective area of the filter.99 % Particle size [ µm ] > 3 µm Residual oil content [ mg/m3] not influenced Pre-filters filter solid impurities to a particle size of approx. – Highly molecular polyethylene. Fig. Standard materials for filter elements are: – Sintered bronze. Air flows through the filter from the outside towards the inside. – Pleated cellulose paper inserts. Features – Re-usability. They have a purely sifting effect. Pre-filters take the load off high performance filters and dryers when the air is very dusty. Fig.

9999 % relative to 0. Between the fibres there is a labyrinth-like system of passages and openings.01 µm. They deliver technically oil-free compressed air. The liquid phase from oil and water deposits on the fibrous web when passing through the filter. the condensate collects in the collection chamber of the filter. 1/3 in comparison to wound filters. > 0. They filter out dirt particles with a separation rate of 99. Series F 97 . This enlarges the effective filter surface by approx. Filtration occurs along the entire path travelled by the compressed air on its way through the filter element. Fig.01 µm Operating principle Microfilters. The deep-bed filter is a fibrous web consisting of a tangle of very fine individual fibres. are deep-bed filters.9999 % > 0.01 mg/m³. Fig.1 bar 99. – Longer service life. – Lower energy loss. Following the laws of gravity. A part of the condensate leaves the filter element again as a result of this effect.Compressed air processing 5.28 : BOGE-Microfilter. Fig. Microfilters reduce the residual oil content of compressed air to 0. This system has flow channels that are sometimes much larger than the particles than the particles to be filtered. 5.4 Microfilters Pressure Separation difference rate ∆p [ bar ] [%] Particle size [ µm ] Residual oil content [ mg/m3] > 0. 5. The fibres are randomly intertwined and thus form a porous structure. The filter the water and oil condensate phase from the compressed air in the form of fine and ultra-fine droplets.01 Microfilters are used when high quality compressed air is required.26 : Filtrations mechanism of deep-bed filters Filter material Microfilters work with pleated filter material.27 : Pleated and wound filter material Air passes through deep-bed filters from the inside towards the outside. The working lives of the filters are longer because the condensate filtered out is no longer a burden to the element with this direction of flow. The pressure drop ∆ p is also considerably reduced.5. The flow of air then drives the condensate and growing droplets further on through the filter towards the outside. There are several advantages in this: – Increased through-flow rate. also called high-performance filters. 5.

Technically oil-free and clean compressed air Borosilicate fibre in the form of fibreglass layers is the most widespread material in high performance filters. Filter medium – Diffusion. With a rise in temperature from + 20° to + 30°C. 98 . Fig. Unfiltered compressed air – Direct contact.29 Mechanisms of deep-bed filtration – Synthetic fibres. – Impact. Small and ultra-fine particles coalesce in the field of flow and following Brown’s law of molecular movement come together to form ever-growing particles. Features – Separation of oil in the liquid phase. A high-performance filter removes almost 100% of the oil droplets. The following are also used: – Metallic fibres. are directed out of the path of flow and are absorbed by the next fibre. – Recyclable. These particles are then filtered out. – Low operating temperatures. The efficiency of the filter drops when the operating temperature rises. Larger particles and droplets hit the fibres of the filter materials directly and are bound. There they bounce off. The oil gas can not be filtered out. Some of the oil droplets vaporise and go through the filter. The materials used are chosen with ecological aspects in mind. Particles and droplets hit the randomly arranged fibres of the filter material. – liquid in the form of droplets. It is used as a material for deep-bed filters.Compressed air processing Filter mechanisms Three different mechanisms operate together to separate fine particles from the air. Hydrocarbons are found in two aggregate conditions in compressed air: – in gaseous form as oil gas. 5. 5 times as much oil passes through the filter.

Series AF An active carbon filter with microfilter connected in series Features – Pre-filtration. The hydrocarbons are bound to the active carbons by powers of adhesion ( uneven molecular attraction ). The quality of the compressed air is better than that demanded for breathing air. the compressed air is directed through the filter element from the inside towards the outside. – Working life. – Medical equipment. Operating principle The filtration of compressed air by absorption is a purely physical process.Compressed air processing 5.30 : BOGE-Filter combination.400 hours of operation. 300 . The filter element of an active carbon filter must be replaced after approx. An active carbon filter removes the hydrocarbon vapours from the compressed air. Fig.005 Pressure Separation difference rate ∆p [ bar ] [%] > 0. 99 . The residual oil-content can be reduced to 0. – Surface treatment. – Pharmaceuticals industry. adverse quality and unpleasant smells. Chemical compounding does not take place in this process. Unfiltered compressed air destroys the adsorbant and reduces the filtration effect. It must be replaced.01 There are many applications of pneumatics where these residues would lead to disruptions of production. the technically oil-free compressed air still contains hydrocarbons and diverse odorous and taste substances. The dried and pre-filtered compressed air is directed through a pleated active carbon filter element. As with the microfilter. The condensated droplets of oil are already removed by the series-connected filter ( BOGE-Microfilter Series F ). The appearance of this filter element is similar to that of the microfilter.5. The active carbon filling can not be regenerated.9999 Particle size [ µm ] 0. Residual oil content [ mg/m3] > 0. – No Regeneration. – Chemicals industry.5 Active carbon filters After passing through high-performance filters and dryers. An active carbon filter must always be connected upstream from a high-performance filter and a dryer. 5. Areas of application – Food and luxury food industry. depending on the degree of saturation.02 bar 99.005 mg/m³.

After the adsorber bed the compressed air passes through emission collector and leaves the active carbon adsorber. adverse quality and unpleasant smells. – After-filtration. plan of a BOGE active carbon adsorber Type DC 100 .10000 hours of operation. The quality of the compressed air is better than that required for breathing air. An active carbon adsorber removes the hydrocarbon vapours from the compressed air. Operating principle The filtration of compressed air by adsorption is a purely physical process.31 : Op.Compressed air processing 5.003 mg/m³. 5.1 bar – Particle size [ µm ] – Residual oil content [ mg/m3 ] > 0. For safety reasons a high performance filter should be connected downstream from the adsorber. The condensated droplets of oil are already removed by the series-connected filter ( BOGE-Microfilter Series F ). The diffusor distributes the compressed air evenly over the entire bed. The compressed air take very fine particles of carbon dust ( smaller than 1 µm ) from the active carbon bed with it. Unfiltered compressed air destroys the adsorbant and reduces the filtration effect. The active carbon filling can not be regenerated.6 Active carbon adsorbers Pressure Separation difference rate ∆p [ bar ] [%] > 0.5. This allows long contact times and ideal use of the adsorption material. Areas of application – As for active carbon filters. depending on the degree of saturation. An active carbon filter must always be connected upstream from a high-performance filter and a dryer. the technically oil-free compressed air still contains hydrocarbons and diverse odorous and taste substances. Chemical compounding does not take place in this process. Pre-filter After-filter Fig. – No Regeneration. – Long working life. The active carbon filling must only be replaced after 8000 . The residual oil-content can be reduced to 0. The hydrocarbons are bound to the active carbons by powers of adhesion ( uneven molecular attraction ). Features – Pre-filtration. It must be replaced.003 After passing through high-performance filters and dryers. There are many applications of pneumatics where these residues would lead to disruptions of production. The dried and filtered compressed air is directed through a diffusor into the loosely piled active carbon bed.

The filter elements are fixed in place by a stainless steel cage.01 Residual oil content [ mg/m3 ] – Pressure Separation difference rate ∆p [ bar ] [%] > 0. – Hot water – Hot air – Gas ( ethylene oxide. bacteriophages and viruses are a big health problem in many areas. Sterilisation by other media is also possible. A sterile filter should be installed directly on the end consumer device. The pre-filter retains microorganisms up to a size of 1 µm. – Medical equipment.31 : BOGE Sterile filter. – Short sterile contact distances. All metal parts of the filter are made of high-alloy stainless steel. – Pharmaceuticals industry.9999 Operating principle The pre-purified flow of air is directed from outside towards the inside through the filter element. The steam can be sent through the filter from both sides. – Resistent. In this process. The filter medium is inactive and resistent to chemicals and high temperatures. Series ST 101 . The filters can be cleaned and sterilised up to 100 times.Compressed air processing 5. 5. hot steam of up to +200°C flows through the filter.5. – Packing industry. The remaining organisms are filtered out here.09 bar 99. The filter element is composed of two filter stages. Fig. Sterile filters create 100 % sterile and germ-free compressed air. formaldehyde ) – H2O2 Features – Stainless steel material. three-dimensional microfibre web made of borosilicate. Stainless steel offers microorganisms no nutritive substratum and can neither corrode nor rot. The second filter stage consists of a chemically and biologically neutral. Particle size [ µm ] 0. They are steamed for this purpose. – Chemicals industry. Areas of application – Food and luxury food industry. Bacteria can not grow on or through it.7 Sterile filters Living organisms such as bacteria.

scuff. This reduces the efficiency of the entire water treatment effort. pieces of sealing material and weld from the pipeline. and for this reason it must be disposed of responsibly. For example : – Oil lubricated compressor systems. depending on environmental conditions and the compressor. The condensate has different properties. The mineral oils in the condensate are hard to biodegrade and are detrimental to oxygen enrichment and material disintegration in sewage works. Distinctions must be made between condensate from different pneumatic systems. – Rust. This is why the condensate has an acidic pH-value. Most of the harmful substances in oil-free systems are discharged with the condensate. The Condensate also contains many impurities. The consistency of the condensates also changes with marginal conditions. On compressors of this type the oil washes a part of the aggressive and solid matter out of the air in the compression chamber. The consequences are a hazard to nature and human health. – Particles of dust and dirt of the most varied kinds from the air. The result of this is that oil-lubricated systems normally produce condensate that has a pH-value in the neutral range. 102 .Disposal of condensate 6. Condensate is highly contaminated because of its high content of harmful substances. pH-values between 4 and 5 are not uncommon. – Mineral oil aerosols and unburnt hydrocarbons from the air.1 Disposal of condensate Condensate Condensate consists primarily of the water contained in the air drawn into the compressor and which forms during compression. 6. – Oil-free compressor systems. But pasteous condensates can occur in exceptional cases. – Cooling and lubricating oil from the compressor. Most condensates are as fluid as water.

– high and very high pressure networks. It should also be taken into account that condensate does not occur on a continuous basis. – pasteous condensates. Special applications require special forms of condensate drain : – very aggressive condensates. If it is not.2 Condensate drains Everywhere condensate occurs in a pneumatic system it also has to be drained. 103 . The condensate must be drained off under control to unnecessary pressure loss. and it enters the pipeline. The summary shows the various construction types according to their method of operation. – low pressure and partial vacuum networks. – explosion danger areas.Disposal of condensate 6. Condensate drains can not be used without heating in subzero temperatures. regardless of the construction type. The fact that condensate collection tanks are under pressure makes condensate drains costly. The quantity of condensate changes with the temperature and moisture of air drawn in by the compressor. the flow of air takes it with it. the condensate itself and the marginal conditions must always be taken into consideration. The water component of the condensate will freeze. Types of condensate drains Manual Automatic Manual valve Condensate drain with float control Condensate drain with timer operated solenoid valve Condensate drain with level control Electronic level control Float operated level control When selecting condensate drains.

6. the valve closes automatically before compressed air can escape. – No blowing off of compressed air.2 Condensate drains with float control 4 Inside the condensate tank there is a float which controls an outlet valve at the bottom of the tank by means of a lever.1 Condensate drains with manual valves The condensate collects in an appropriate tank (vessel). If necessary. As a result of its susceptibility to malfunctions. 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 = = = = Inlet line Outlet line Drain plug Vent – No electricity connection required. The condensate is now separated from the compressed air and can now be sent by pipe to the treatment equipment. The servicing or operating staff must check the level of the collection tank at regular intervals. inexpensive construction. stick or corrode through direct contact with condensate. Ideal for use in explosion danger areas. If the level in the tank rises above a certain level. – Susceptible to malfunctions. – No electricity connection required. – Regular checks necessary. Features – Simple.2.2. Excess pressure in the system forces the condensate out. – Inflexible. The condensate must be drained at regular intervals. – No external alarm signal. the outlet valve is opened. inexpensive design. it does require regular servicing. Features – Simple.1 : Condensate drain with float control 104 . Float valves must be specially adapted for the condition of the condensate. – Regular servicing required. 6. The moving parts of the system can solidify. If the level in the tank falls below the minimum. Fig.Disposal of condensate 6. the condensate must be drained off with the aid of a valve fitted to the bottom of the tank. – No alarm function.

If the opening times set in Summer for the high humidity are not changed later for Winter. The system operates reliably. The drain valve is connected condensate disposal facility by pipes. Note If you wish to avoid having condensate in the pipe system the entire volume of condensate must be drained off. regular intervals ( 1. The quantity of condensate in Summer is far greater than in Winter because atmspheric humidity is higher.g. – No external malfunction signal.5 to 30 min. low temperatures will cause high pressure loss because the magnetic valves will be open for too long.. – Electricity connection required. After an opening time of 0.Disposal of condensate 6.4 to 10 s the valve closes again. Because the weather is not always consistent. 6.2.2 : Solenoid operated drain valve Features – Very reliable operation. – The solenoid valve operates when the pneumatic station is switched on. it is not possible to set time intervals and valve opening times and not lose compressed air at all. at weekends ). To minimise compressed air loss the cycle times of the valves must always be adjusted to suit local conditions. Either a part of the condensate remains in the system or some compressed air is lost. even if no compressed air is required ( e. ) a solenoid valve with timer opens the drain at the bottom of the tank. The condensate is forced out of the drain by system pressure. Not only the condensate but also large quantities of compressed air will be blown off too. – No alarm function. At fixed.3 Condensate drains with timer operated solenoid valves The condensate is collected in an appropriate tank. even with problematic condensates. Individually adjustable opening times for the solenoid valve guarantee perfect drainage of the condensate. 105 . Fig.

– Large cross-section.3 : Condensate drain with electronic volume measurement 106 . – Alarm function. 6. 2 Ni1 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 = = = = = = = = Inlet line Collection tank Pre-control line Magnetic valve Valve diaphragm Dipstick Valve seat Outlet line Fig. The pressure on the valve diaphragm is released and the outlet line is opened. – Flexible application. the magnetic valve is electronically closed. – Wide performance range. The excess pressure in the housing forces the condensate out through the line to the reprocessing facility.4 Condensate drains with electronic level control Operation The condensate is collected in an appropriate tank.. The system adapts itself automatically to changing operating conditions( e.g. a magnetic valve opens a pre-control line. even with problematic condensates.2. As soon as the level reaches capacity sensor Ni1. The magnetic valve then opens the valve diaphragm at certain intervals. A red LED blinks and a potential-free signal is ready. The system operates reliably. – Electricity connection required. As soon as the capacity level sensor Ni2 reports that maximum level. The valve diaphragm closes before compressed air can escape. Ni2 6 7 – No pressure loss. 1 3 Ni2 4 5 Ni1 Features 2 – Very reliable operation. varied condensate viscosity and pressure fluctuations ). Even large impurities and coagulated matter can be discharged without difficulty. – External malfunction signal. If there is a malfunction in draining the condensate the alarm mode is switched after 60 s.Disposal of condensate 6.

The system pressure forces the condensate out of the condensate drain through a rising pipe. As soon as the float reaches Contact 2. the drain is opened at fixed time intervals and reclosed after a set period. – No pressure loss. A float moves on a guide together with the level of the condensate in the chamber. – electricity connection required. 3 2 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = = = = Collection tank Level float Guide Rising pipe Valve diaphragm Magnetic valve Control line 1 1 Features – Cleaning cycle times.2. the control actuates the main alarm. Fig.5 Condensate drains with float operated level control 7 The collected condensate is directed into the collection chamber of the condensate drain.4 : Condensate drain with level float for measuring the level 107 . If the condensate level does not reach Contact 1 inside the time t.Disposal of condensate 6. The guide has three contacts that electronically register the level in the chamber. If the condensate level reaches Contact 3. The level of condensate in the pipe drops and after a set time t the control closes the drain before compressed air can escape. The switching intervals and opening times remain unchanged. the electronic control opens the magnetic valve. 6. This guarantees that the condensate collection chamber is completely emptied. Even with longer idle times there is no dried condensate. The pressure on the valve diaphragm is released via a pre-control line and the outlet line is opened.

3 Condensate treatment Condensate from oil-lubricated compressors has an oil content of between 200 and 1000 mg/l. it is always worth treating oily condensate on site. This states that the level of harmful substances in waste water is to be kept as low as the „generally recognised practices of engineering“ allow. Disposal Disposal by a specialised company is a safe but involved and very expensive procedure. the law requires that this condensate be treated as waste water containing oil. According to ATV ( Waste Water Association. the local authorities have the final word. Standard oil-water separators provide excellent law-compliant treatment. The oil separated from it must be disposed of in an environmentally safe way. The costs for approved collection tanks and pipelines must also be taken into account. Disposal costs currently run at around 250 € per m3 of condensate. 108 . The stipulations for water purity are set forth in § 7a of the [German] Water Purity Act ( WHG ). Local treatment Because of the high water content. In some areas the limits for residual oil content are well below 20 mg/l. Properly treated water can be discharged into the public drainage lines. One other solution is the use of biodegradable compressor oils.Disposal of condensate 6. Even so. depending on the season. The legal limits can not be reached by using normal light liquid separators as per DIN 1999 and simple gravity separators. This means that condensate from oil lubricated compressors must either be disposed of properly or treated. This means that the condensate is around 99 % water and only 1 % oil. a non-profit-making German organisation ) worksheet A 115 the limit for residual oil content in waste water is 20 mg/l. As such it may not be discharged into the public sewers. These practices have been defined by the German government in general administrative rules. However.

6. A change of filter is necessary after the admissible cloudiness is reached.6 : Oil-water separator 109 . Special reprocessing systems with emulsion-splitting apparatus is required for these stable emulsions. – No separation of oil-water emulsions. A specimen of the condensate is compared with a reference liquid. All that needs to be done is to register at the local water authority. 3 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = 10 = 7 10 Condensate inlet Pressure relief chamber Impurity tank Overflow pipe Level reporter Pre-filter Adsorption filter Water outlet Oil overflow. The oil-water separator should have a specification inspection symbol. Fig. 6.Disposal of condensate 6. The impurities carried with the condensate gather in the removable collector. Via a height-adjustable overflow the oil is directed into the oil catch pan and is available for disposal.5: Op. Operation The oily condensate is directed into the pressure relief chamber of the oil-water separator. The pre-purified condensate flows through a pre-filter that filters out the remaining droplets of oil. the oil deposits on the surface as a result of its lower specific density. Inside the separation vessel. diagram of an oil-water separator Features – Weekly filter test. After that an adsorption filter binds the last oil parts of the oil. There the pressure reduces without causing whirling movement in the vessel. 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 The oil-water separator parts condensate from piston and screw compressors without difficulty as long as oils that do not emulsify are used. height adjustable Specimen removal valve Note All oil-water separation systems are water treatment plants and must be licensed by law.3. The expensive licensing process is then no longer required.and 2-stage piston compressors. Fig.1 Oil-water separators The oil-water separator is suitable for treating condensates that occur during the operation of screw compressors with oil injection cooling and 1.

or the like. The higher the operating pressure. The larger the nozzle. 110 . The diameter of the respective section of piping can then be deduced according to the result. Compressed air requirement The first step in designing a compressor station and the respective pneumatic network is to determine the requirement for compressed air and the resulting FAD of the compressor. The consumption of the individual devices is added together and adjusted with the appropriate factors. The consumption of the individual consumer devices is added together and adjusted to operating conditions with the aid of calculations. – Shape of nozzle. – Spraying or blowing. the greater the consumption. The information given here concerning the consumption of individual devices are average values. 7. cylindrical through-hole consumes much less compressed air than a conical or Laval-nozzle ( expansion nozzle ). 7.1. A simple. – Surface quality of aperture. The first value to be found when determining the capacity of a compressor station is the expected total consumption. This chapter provides guideline values for the requirements of individual components. sand. Loss through leakage must also be taken into account when determining the expected consumption of compressed air. more compressed air can flow through. The consumption of compressed air rises if the air is being used as a medium for paint.1 Consumption of nozzles The consumption of compressed air by nozzles of different shapes can vary greatly and depends on various factors : – Diameter of the nozzle. Please contact the makers of the devices for exact figures. If the quality of the aperture is very good ( surface very smooth. The compressor can then be selected according to the resulting FAD figure. The procedure is similar for determining the size of pipelines. no grooves and unevenness ). – Operating pressure of nozzle. the greater the consumption.Compressed air requirement 7. Definition of the type and number of consumer devices on a certain section of line comes first.1 Consumption of compressed air by pneumatic devices Determining the total consumption of compressed air is often difficult due to lack of information about individual components.

1 Compressed air consumption of cylindrical nozzles Nozzles with a simple.0 2.5 2.1.Compressed air requirement 7.0 1. 111 . blow-out guns ) generate strong whirling and turbulence in the compressed air that flows out. Consumption is comparatively low..5 3. 7. The following table gives reference values for the compressed air consumption of cylindrical nozzles depending on operating pressure and nozzle diameter : Fig.g. This reduces the speed of with which it flows. cylindrical bore ( e.5 1.0 Operating pressure [ barop ] 2 8 25 60 105 175 230 3 10 35 75 145 225 370 4 12 45 95 180 280 400 5 15 55 110 220 325 465 6 18 65 130 250 380 540 7 22 75 150 290 430 710 8 28 85 170 330 480 790 Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.1.1 : Blow-out gun Nozzle ∅ [ mm ] 0.

2 Compressed air consumption of paint spray guns Paint applied by a spray gun must be even and not drip. 112 . non-turbulent volume flow with a high exit speed. a distinction is made between flat.0 1. On many spray guns it is possible to switch the types of spray.Compressed air requirement 7.0 1. well above that of cylindrical nozzles. 7. broad and round spray nozzles. Fig. The consequence is high consumption of compressed air. These two values considerably influence the compressed air requirement.5 3.2 1.1.0 2.2 1. The nozzles of spray guns are therefore designed for an expanding. nozzle diameter and type of spray: Nozzle ∅ [ mm ] 0. The consistency and desired quantity of paint to be applied determines the operating pressure and the nozzle diameter of the spray gun.5 0.8 1.0 2 100 110 125 140 160 175 185 210 230 Operating pressure [ barop ] Flat and broad spray 3 4 5 6 7 115 130 150 165 180 200 210 230 250 135 155 175 185 200 220 235 260 290 160 180 200 210 225 250 265 300 330 185 225 240 250 260 280 295 340 375 – – – – – – – – – 8 – – – – – – – – – Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.5 0.5 1. The type of spray influences the application of paint.8 1. With paint spray guns.2 : Paint spray gun with paint tank The following table gives reference values for the compressed air consumption of spray paint nozzles depending on operating pressure.1. Nozzle ∅ [ mm ] 0. There is also a difference in the compressed air requirement.8 2.5 2 75 85 95 110 120 Operating pressure [ barop ] Round spray 3 4 5 6 7 90 100 115 125 140 105 120 135 150 155 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 8 – – – – – Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.

This is the only method that will achieve the desired result.0 4.0 5. The following table gives reference values for the compressed air consumption of jet nozzles depending on operating pressure and nozzle diameter: Nozzle ∅ [ mm ] 3. with high speed. For this reason jet nozzles are designed for an extremely high exit speed of the compressed air.0 10.e. 113 .0 Operating pressure [ barop ] 2 300 450 640 3 380 570 840 4 470 700 1050 1600 2800 4000 5 570 840 1270 1950 3350 4800 6 700 1000 1500 2200 4000 6000 7 – – – – – – 8 – – – – – – 920 1250 1800 2250 2500 3200 Air consumption values in the table are given in l/min.Compressed air requirement 7.0 8.1. the medium must hit the workpiece with great kinetic energy i.. This leads to comparatively high consumption of compressed air.0 6.3 Compressed air consumption of jet nozzles When spraying.1.

Its working stroke is 130 mm at 47 work cycles per minute. Accordingly. 336 Litres of compressed air per minute. The compressed air consumption q of pressure cylinders is determined by using the following formula: d2 × π ———— 4 ×S×p×a×b q = q = Air consumption ( 1 barabs and 20° C ) Fig. The return stroke is performed by spring power or from the outside. A distinction is made between two types of cylinder when determining the consumption of compressed air: – The single-action cylinders use compressed air to generate the movement of the working stroke only.1. he consumption of compressed air is twice as high. 336 l/min This cylinder consumes approx. 114 . 7.3: Clamping device with pneumatic cylinder [ l/min ] [ dm ] [ dm ] [ barabs ] [ 1/min ] d = Piston diameter S = Length of piston path ( Stroke ) p = Operating pressure a = Work cycles per minute b = 1 with single-action cylinders 2 with double-action cylinders Example A singe-action cylinder with a piston diameter of 100 mm is required to work at an operating pressure of 7 barabs. Force is used for both strokes.3 dm = approx.3 × 7 × 47 × 1 4 q d S p a b = 100 mm = 130 mm = 7 = 47 = 1 barabs ^ = ^ = 1 dm q = 1. – Double-action cylinders use compressed air to generate movement in both stroke directions.Compressed air requirement 7. 12 × π ———— × 1.2 Compressed air requirement of cylinders Compressed air cylinders are especially used in the area of automation.

8 mm ∅ 8 . tack chuck 10 – 60 115 . The following table gives reference values for consumption of compressed air by a number of pneumatic tools. there are versions that use other working pressures. 7.1. In these cases the consumption of compressed air will differ from the levels shown in the table.3 Compressed air consumption of tools Pneumatic tools are among the most frequent consumers of compressed air in industry and the crafts. These values may vary for individual tools and should be regarded as averages.20 mm ∅ 300 – 1500 – 1000 3000 Tacker. They are large numbers of them in almost every environment. depending on the application and the performance required.4 : Drive screw powered by compressed air Tool Working pressure 6 barop Drill Drill up to 4 mm ∅ 4 – 10 mm ∅ 10 – 32 mm ∅ M3 M4 – M5 M6 – M8 M10 .Compressed air requirement 7. Fig. They generally require a working pressure of 6 bar however.M24 Air consumption [ l/min ] 200 450 200 – 450 – 1750 180 250 420 200 – 1000 Screw machine Drive screw Angle grinder 300 – 700 Vibration grinder 1 1 /4 Sheet /3 Sheet 1 /2 Sheet 300 250 300 400 – 400 Belt grinder Hand grinder Collet chucks 6 .

Compressed air requirement Device Working pressure 6 barop Nailer Air consumption [ l/min ] 50 – 300 Sash saw ( wood ) 300 Plastic and textile shears 250 – 350 Metal shears Chamfer mortiser ( wood and plastic ) Chamfer plane ( phases for welding seams ) Rust remover ( descaler ) 400 – 250 – 2500 – 250 – 900 400 3000 350 Needle rust remover ( needle descaler ) 100 – 250 Light universal hammer Rivet.outside ) 150 200 650 900 500 400 750 500 – – – – – – – – – 380 700 1500 3000 1500 3000 1200 1100 2500 116 . chisel and mortise hammer Light pick and shaft hammer Heavy pick and shaft hammer Pneumatic spade Drill hammer Stamp hammer( foundries ) Stamp hammer ( concrete and earth ) Vibrator ( inside .

7. Other factors that influence consumption must also be taken into account.2 Determining compressed air requirement When determining the compressed air requirement of a pneumatic network. Tool Drill Grinding machine Mortise hammer Stamp hammer Forming machine Blow-out gun Tooling machine Average usage rate 30 % 40 % 30 % 15 % 20 % 10 % 75 % Fig. It is therefore necessary to find out the average usage rate UR in order to obtain an accurate figure for the compressed air requirement. They are switched on and off when needed. 7.6 %.5 : Average operation time 117 .Compressed air requirement 7.2. The figures are based on general experience and may deviate sharply in special cases. The following formula is used to determine the average usage rate UR: TU ——— TR × 100 % UR = UR = average usage rate TU = usage time TR = reference time [%] [ min ] [ min ] Example A semiautomatic screwdriver is in use for 25 min in the course of one hour. such as tools. spray paint guns and blow-out guns are not in continuous use. it is not simply a case of adding the consumption values of the individual devices. ON UR = UR = 25 ——— 60 41. OFF TU = 25 TR = 60 min min The average usage rates UR of some widely used pneumatic devices is given in the following table.1 Average operation time Most pneumatic devices.6 % × 100 % The usage rate UR of the tool is 41.

63 Fig.69 0.71 0. 7.6 : Supplying several consumer devices on a pneumatic network The simultanity factor f is used with the following pneumatic devices: – Non-automatic nozzles as described in chapter 7. It is based on experience of pneumatic devices that are not in use at the same time.73 0.2 Simultanity factor The simultanity factor f is an empirical value.68 0.75 0.67 0. production machinery and the like.00 0. – Non-automatic pneumatic tools as described in chapter 7.66 0.83 0.64 0.94 0. The simultanity factor f is a multiplier that adjusts the theoretical total consumption of a number of devices to realistic conditions.86 0. 118 .89 0.2.1.Compressed air requirement 7.1.3. The following table gives the generally recognised values for the simultanity factor f: Qty.2.80 0. – Machine tools. consumer devices 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Simultanity factor f 1. if no other requirement is specified.77 0.

3. Automatic consumer devices Working pressure [ barop ] 6 5 Individual consump.3 Defining compressed air requirement When defining the total compressed air requirement for a pneumatic network the consumer devices are divided into two groups: – Automatic consumer devices.2. – General consumer devices.2. machinery in continuous operation and longer work cycles that require compressed air. 7. These must be calculated at total individual consumption q when working out the requirement. Q [ Units ] q [ l/min ] 2 1 336 310 Quantity Q×q [ l/min ] 672 310 Automatic compressed air cylinders Working machinery Total TQ compressed air consumption of all automatic devices [ l/min ] ∑ 982 l/min 119 .Compressed air requirement 7.1 Automatic consumer devices The consumer group includes automatic pneumatic cylinders.

The average usage rate UR and the simultanity factor f are used for general consumer devices as requirement-reducing multipliers when making the calculation.5 120 210 400 Spray paint guns ∅ 1. the total compressed air consumption is not yet a suitable figure for determining the capacity of the compressor and the size of the pipes.3.3 l/min = 1. air consumers Working pressure [ barop ] 3 6 6 6 6 Usage rate UR [ % ] 40 10 20 30 40 Individual consump.3 7.5 mm Blow-out guns ∅ 1.3.3 1565. Q [ Units ] q [ l/min ] 1 3 3 1 2 180 65 200 700 500 Quantity Q × q × UR / 100 [ l/min ] 72 19.71 [ l/min ] 583.2 General consumer devices Most work cycles only run some of the time.3 Total compressed air consumption • The theoretical total compressed air consumption T is the sum of the consumption of automatic and general devices. Several allowances still have to be made.2. the consumer devices are not usually all in use at the same time.57 m³/min However. Also. An average usage rate UR can be calculated for these processes. General compr.Compressed air requirement 7.2. • T • T • T = = = TQ 982 + Tf + 583.0 mm Drive screw M10 Drills up to ∅ 20 mm Angle grinders Total T air consumption of all general consumer devices[ l/min ] Simultanity factor f Air consumption Tf of general consumer devices Tf = f × T ∑ 821.5 0. 120 .

New systems require an allowance of approx.15 Several allowances must be taken into account to bring the total consumption figure for individual devices to the actual output requirement of a compressor: Losses v [ % ] Losses v through leakage and friction occur in all parts of a pneumatic system. later extension of the system can be unnecessarily expensive. An allowance for reserves r of up to 100 % can be taken. Reserves r [ % ] A pneumatic system is sized according to a current estimate of compressed air consumption. allowances of 5 % for losses. 2035 l/min. This value is the basis for determining the size of the compressor and the main pipeline. the figures for expected compressed air consumption are still usually wrong. 121 . If this is not done.3 × ( 100 + 5 + 10 + 15 ) LB = ————————————— 100 LB = 2035 l/min = 2.5 FAD Required LB When calculating the FAD required LB.2. If a pneumatic system is designed too small and needs to be extended later it will cause additional costs ( equipment out of action ). Experience shows that consumption usually rises later.04 m³/min The FAD quantity LB.3 l/min = 5 = 10 = 15 % % % • T × ( 100 + v + r + e ) ——————————— 100 1565. losses of up to 25 % should be assumed for older systems.4 Allowances for losses and reserves [%] 5 .2. Since leakages and friction losses generally increase when the equipment gets older. and so an allowance f of 5 .25 10 . depending on the outlook. Margin for error f [ % ] Despite the care taken in calculation. It is advisable to take short and medium-term extensions of the network into account when planning the size of the compressor and main pipelines. Allowances Losses Reserves Error 7. 5 % of total FAD to be added for losses. An exact figure can seldom be arrived at because of marginal conditions that are mostly unclear.15 % is advisable to provide a margin for error.Compressed air requirement 7.100 5 . 10 % for reserves and a 15 % margin for error are • added to the calculated total consumption value T • T v r e LB = = 1565. required to give consumer devices an adequate supply of compressed air is approx.

1 Costs of compressed air loss Leaks in a pipeline act like nozzles from which compressed air escapes at high speed. the additional annual cost amounts to approx. These losses can amount to 25 % of the entire FAD of the compressor in unfavourable circumstances. – Jammed float drains. but the resulting expense can seriously diminish the cost-effectiveness of the pneumatic system.2 480 1040 1600 3520 7040 10580 122 .5 2 3 4 5 75 150 260 600 1100 1700 0. 7. € 480. – Leaking weld seams or soldered points.3.– depending on the efficiency of the motor. – Incorrectly installed dryers.3 2.10 €/kWh and 8 000 hours of operation. A motor output of 0.6 kW is required for this volume flow. Leak hole .5 m³/h escape from a leak of 1 mm diameter. – Corroded lines.4 8. – Leaking screw and flange joints. The energy needed to compensate for this loss can be considerable. At a price of 0. filters and service facilities.0 4. The causes are numerous: – Leaking valves.∅ [ mm ] Size Air escaping at 8 barop [ l/min ] Losses Energy Cash [ kW ] [ €/Y ] 1 1. – Defective solenoid valves. One example demonstrates the magnitude of the additional cost : With a network pressure of 8 bar approx. This does not cause physical injury.3 Compressed air loss Compressed air loss is consumption of air ( leakage ) in the pipelines without work being performed.Compressed air requirement 7. – Damaged hoses and hose connections.8 13. 75 l/min = 4. These leaks consume compressed air 24 hours per day.6 1.

3. The receiver pressure pS drops as a result of the leak to pressure pF. All consumer devices in the system must be switched off. 1000 × ( 8 − 7 ) ——————— 2 500 l/min • VL • VL = = The leakage volume of this pneumatic system is approx.2 Quantifying leakage The first step in minimising compressed air loss is to quantify • the leakage VL. 500 l/min.2. The following formula is used to roughly quantify the volume • of leakage VL : 7.3. Within 2 min. Note This method of measuring is only suitable for systems where the pipeline system is less than 10 % of the volume of the receiver. The time t is measured. Otherwise the results are too inaccurate. 123 .1 Quantifying leakage by emptying the receiver VT • VL pS pF VT = 1000 pS pF t = 8 = 7 = 2 l bar bar min • VL = V T × ( pS − p F ) ——————— t • VL = Volume of leakage Volume of receiver Receiver pressure at start Receiver pressure at finish Time measured [ l/min ] [l] [ barop ] [ barop ] [ min ] VT = pS pF t = = = Example A compressed air receiver with a large pipeline system has a volume of 1000 l. the receiver pressure drops from 8 to 7 barop.Compressed air requirement 7. There are two ways of doing this: • The simplest way of quantifying leakage VL is by emptying the compressed air receiver. The supply line to the receiver is plugged .

The total running time Σ t of the compressor is measured over a period of time T.65 × 30 × 1000 ———–———— — 180 275 l/min = The leakage volume of this pneumatic system is approx. To obtain a realistic result. the measuring time T should last for at least 5 cycle intervals of the compressor. The compressor must replace this volume. 124 . Its total running time Σ t during the measuring time T is 30 s. 275 l/min. The leaks in the system consume compressed air and the network pressure drops. • VL • VL = 1.2.2 Quantifying leakage by measuring working time • VL = • V × Σ t × 1000 ——————— T [ Time ] m³/min × s × 1000 l l/min = —————-–——— s × m³ • V = 1. This method can only be used with compressors having intermittent and idling operation modes.65 m³/min s s • VL = Volume of leakage • V = Compressor FAD [ l/min ] [m3/min ] [s] [s] Σ t = 30 T = 180 Σ t = Total running time of compressor Σ t = t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 + t5 T = Measuring time Example • A compressor with an effective FAD V of 1. The following formula is used to roughly quantify the volume • of leakage : VL [ Time ] 7. The consumer devices in the network are switched off.Compressed air requirement • The second method of quantifying the volume of leakage VL is by measuring the operating time of the compressor.65 m³/min has five actuations during a measuring time of T = 180 s.3.

4 Measures for minimising compressed air loss Staff should be instructed to report leaks and damage to the network to the persons in charge. Damage should be rectified immediately. 125 .g. However. – max. the joints.15 % on very large networks. there will normally be no need for expensive reconstruction of the network. 13 . This device detects the ultrasonic noises caused by a leakage. In these cases. 5 % on smaller networks. The objective must therefore be to minimise the loss of compressed air at acceptable expense. Bubbles form immediately where there are leaks.3 Limits for leakage Unfortunately. The additional costs caused by leakage reduce the cost-effectiveness of the system considerably.3. If a system is looked after on a permanent basis. foundries. Measures can be taken to reduce the loss. e. steel mills. Leaks It is usually quite easy to find leaks. compressed air loss through leakage is inevitable in normal pneumatic systems. 10 % on larger networks. Another easy method is the use of on ultrasonic leakage detector. 7 % on medium-sized networks. Large leaks can be heard. small and very small leaks are harder to find and can not usually be heard. these costs will outweigh the savings made by cutting the loss of compressed air.3. 7. At some point. There are therefore some levels of leakage that should be tolerated for reasons of economy: – max. – max.. are covered with seal checker or soapy water.Compressed air requirement 7. shipyards etc. – max. but this causes costs money as well. Compressed air loss will be kept at an acceptable level. valves etc. branches.

– Upgrade compressed air preprocessor. oil and dust from the compressed air. The inside diameter of old pipes is often reduced by deposits.Compressed air requirement 7. Remove harmful impurities such as water. When reconstructing a pneumatic system the following measures should be taken to reduce compressed air loss: – Tighten leaking joints or reseal them. If possible. This causes a drop in pressure. install normally closed valves. reconstruction of the system should be considered. – Flush or replace old pipelines.5 Reconstructing a pneumatic network If the leakage volume lies clearly above the levels specified in chapter 7. – Check solenoid valves. – Weld leaks on pipelines.3. – Reduce the size of the system for limited periods. – Check couplings and pipe connections. Cut off parts of large systems with stop valves when not needed.3. – Replace leaking joints and slides. – Replace leaking hoses and hose connectors. Reductions in the size of cross-sections causes a drop in pressure. 126 .3. Replace mechanical float drains and time-controlled solenoid valves with level-controlled condensate drains. – Upgrade condensate drains.

8. 8.2: BOGE piston compressor with horizontal compressed air receiver 127 . 8. Fig. 30 bar and 35 bar. The screw compressor is the most economical type where high FAD is needed. 10 bar and 13 bar.1 Screw compressors Screw compressors are particularly suitable for certain applications. They can be used as peak-load machines in a compressor group system. 8.1: BOGE screw compressor. Series S – Screw compressors operate economically with final compression pressures of between 5 and 14 bar. They are an ideal supplement to those of the screw compressors. Piston compressors are suitable for fluctuating consumption of compressed air with load peaks. Through uniform compression the screw compressor can also be used for very sensitive consumer devices. – High FAD. The normal maximum pressure pmax categories for screw compressors are 8 bar. Fig. – Long usage rate UR.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. 10 bar. – Piston compressors can compress to high final pressures.2 Piston compressors Piston compressors also have their special areas of application. 8. Screw or piston compressors are the right choice for nearly all applications. – Pulse-free volume flow.1. – Small FAD quantities. Screw compressors are particularly suitable in situations where consumption of compressed air is continuous and without large peak loads ( UR = 100 % ).1.1 Determining the size of the compressor station The type of compressor The primary decision when installing a compressor station is choosing the type of compressor. – Intermittent requirement. They are excellent as base load machines in composite compressor systems. The normal maximum pressure pmax categories for piston compressors are 8 bar. 15 bar. These compressors are the best choice for frequently changing loads. When FAD quantities are small. the piston compressor is more economical than the screw compressor.

20 % – Reserves. The latest time at which the filter must be changed is specified. in mines. the maximum operating pressure of the consumer devices and the total pressure loss within the network. The following values must be considered when defining the cutout pressure pmax: Behaviour of pressure Fig. An adequate contingency reserve should always be planned for in order to avert performance loss.. which fluctuates between pmin and pmax. a pressure loss ∆p up t 0.5 bar can be allowed.6 bar ≤ 0. 128 . This is why the pressure loss caused by the various components of a pneumatic system must be taken into consideration.1 Factors influencing cutout pressure pmax The receiver pressure.05 bar Filters generally ≤ 0.2.6 bar The pressure loss ∆p through filters rises from soiling.1 bar pmax .8 bar – Compressed air treatment by filters and separators. Screw compressors Piston compressors 0.5 . Dust separator ≤ 0.2 Maximum pressure pmax The next step in determining the size of a compressor with compressed air receiver and air treatment is to define the maximum pressure of the compressor pmax.2 bar ≤ 0.3: Behaviour of pressure in a compressed air receiver – Normal pneumatic networks ≤ 0. Unforeseen pressure loss occurs time and again in pneumatic systems. – Treatment of compressed air by dryer. The basis for the maximum pressure ( cutout pressure pmax ) is the cycle difference ( pmax .1 bar. Diaphragm compressed air dryer with Filter Refrigeration compressed air dryer Adsorption compressed air dryer with filter ≤ 0. – Large pneumatic networks ≤ 0.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. Pressure loss always occurs in pneumatic systems.5 bar On widely branched networks. – The cycle difference of the compressor.g. quarries or large building sites.1 bar The network should be designed so that the total pressure loss ∆ p of the entire network does not exceed 0. must always be much higher than the operating pressures of the consumer devices in the network. e.pmin ) of the compressor control. 8. 8.

for instance. The following table shows the sizes of compressed air receiver available for various operating pressures: Compressed air receiver vol. The maximum pressure for which the receiver is designed is. which comprises the compressor running and idling times. The safety valve is adjusted for 11 bar.1 Recommendations for the volume of compressed air receivers Determining receiver volume VR is accomplished primarily by values gained from experience. with piston compressors it is time to work out the cycle interval. After defining the volume of the receiver.4: Vertical compressed air receiver 129 .3. The number of compressor cycles results from this.3 Determining the volume of a compressed air receiver Compressed air receivers are tanks used for storing compressed air. for safety reasons. 8. VR =V Intermittent running is aimed for due to the properties of the compressor. a compressed air receiver designed for 11 bar. – Screw compressors VR = V/3 Constant running is aimed for due to the properties of the compressor. always at least 1 bar above the maximum pressure of the compressor. 8. [ l ] 18 30 50 80 150 250 350 500 750 1000 1500 2000 3000 5000 Operating pressure up to 11 [ bar ] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 16 [ bar ] 36 [ bar ] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fig. A standard size should always be chosen to save unnecessary costs for custom-made equipment.2 Norm series and operating pressures for sizes of compressed air receivers Compressed air receivers are available in sensibly graduated volume sizes. damping pulsation and separating condensate in the pneumatic system. The receiver must be of the correct size to be able in particular to fulfill its task of storing compressed air. 10 bar compressors have. • 8.3.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. BOGE recommends the fol• lowing ratios of compressor FAD V [ l/min ] to receiver volume VR [ l ] : • – Piston compressors.

The formula is ideal when long idle periods are planned with intermittent operation.4.pmin ) • V VR LB VR = Volume of compressed air receiver [ m3 ] • 3 V = FAD of compressor [ m /min ] LB Al = Required FAD = Allowed motor cycles / h ( see chapter 8. This is a strain on the motor.3 ) [ m3/min ] [ 1/h ] ∆p = Pressure differential ON/OFF 130 .3 Volumes of compressed air receivers for compressors The ideal capacity of compressed air receiver for a compressor can be defined more precisely with the aid of a formula. Simple formulae for determining the size of the compressed air receiver Piston compressor Q × 15 VR = —-—-—Al × ∆p Screw compressor Q × 5 VR = —-—-—Al × ∆p VR = Volume of compressed air receiver Q 15 or 5 Al [ m 3] = FAD of compressor = Constant factor = Allowed motor cycles / h ( see chapter 8. with a large receiver volume VR and a constant output the motor of a compressor switches on less often.( LB/V )² ] VR = —————————— Al × ( pmax .5: Compressor and compressed air receiver pmax = Cut-out pressure of compressor pmin = Cut-in pressure of compressor Despite taking all influencing factors into account. Obviously. 8. In contrast.4. • • • V × 60 × [ LB/V . compressors with small receiver volumes VRswitch on and off more often.3. it is advisable to check the determined receiver size against the allowed motor cycles of the compressor. The volume of the pneumatic system can be considered as a part of the receiver volume.3 ) [ m3/min ] [ 1/h ] [ barop ] [ barop ] Fig. This spares the motor.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.

2 Compressor running times During running time the compressor compensates the pressure loss in the receiver. The following formula is used to determine the compressor running time tR: VR × ( pmax .pmin ) ——————— LB [ min ] [l] [ l/min ] [ barop ] [ barop ] tI = tI LB = Idle time of compressor = Required FAD VR = Volume of compressed air receiver pmax =Cut-out pressure of compressor pmin = Cut-in pressure of compressor 8.1 Compressor idle times During the compressor idle time tI the compressed air requirement is covered from the volume of air stored in the receiver. The pressure in the receiver thus drops from the cutout pressure pmax to the cut-in pressure pmin. The output V is higher than the actual consumption LB.4. 8.4. During this time the compressor does not deliver compressed air.pmin ) ———–——— • ( V . At the same time the current com• pressed air requirement is covered. This is done by calculating the compressor running time tR and the compressor idle time tI. the sum of which provides the cycle interval. The pressure in the receiver rises back to pmax.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.4 Compressor cycle intervals The cycle interval is an important factor in a pneumatic system. To check the correct size of the receiver in relation to the FAD and compressed air consumption the cycle interval must first be calculated.LB ) [ min ] [l] [ l/min ] [ l/min ] [ barop ] [ barop ] tR = tR LB • V = Running time of compressor = Required FAD = FAD of compressor VR = Volume of compressed air receiver pmax = Cut-out pressure of compressor pmin = Cut-in pressure of compressor 131 . The following formula is used to determine the compressor idle time tI: VR × ( pmax .

A second possibility would be to increase the cycle diferential ( pmax . and the reference time ( normally 60 min ) divided by the result.7. The compressed air receiver must be larger if the result is above the maximum allowed number of cycles Al.3 Determining the motor cycle speed The maximum motor cycle speed depends on the size of the drive motor. To determine the number of expected motor cycles A for the compressor. Motor power rating [ kW ] 4 .90 110 -160 200 .4.55 65 .5 11 . The drive motor can be damaged if the maximum number of cycles is exceeded.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.22 30 . the compressor running time tR and idle time tI are added together. 60 ———— tI + tR [ 1/h ] [ min ] [ min ] A = A tR tI = Cycle speed = Running time of compressor = Idle time of compressor The following table gives the allowed number of cycles for an electric motor per hour depending on the power rating of the motor.pmin ).250 Allowed cycles/ h Al [ 1/h ] 30 25 20 15 10 5 132 .

Determining the size of the compressor station 8.6: Compressor station with piston compressor.compressed air dryer Minimum pressure in receiver The cut-in pressure pmin must always be above this pressure.1. compressed air receiver. refrigeration compressed air dryer and filter system – Cycle differential of piston compressors The cut-out pressure pmax is at least Selected maximum compressor pressure ( cut-out pressure of compressor ) approx.5. 2 bar ———— 8.1 Examples for compressor configuration Sample calculation for piston compressors In chapter 7. 8.5.9 barop 10 bar op 133 .2. The maximum required working pressure in this example is 6 barop. Starting from the working pressure of the consumer devices.9 barop Fig. 6 barop Pressure loss 0. 8. all components in the pneumatic system must be taken into consideration: – Maximum working pressure in the system – Pneumatic network – Filters – Refrig.6 bar Pressure loss 0.5 the required FAD of LB = 2035 l/min was determined for a number of consumer devices.1 Determining the maximum pressure pmax The maximum compressor pressure pmax of the pneumatic system must now be determined.2 bar ———— 6. A piston compressor is dimensioned for this case of application.5 8.1 bar Pressure loss 0.

1.3 Volume of the compressed air receiver The volume of the compressed air receiver should be determined using the BOGE recommendation. When calculating the ideal compressor size this means: the required FAD L B must be divided by 0.7: BOGE piston compressor. 40 %. Intermittent operation means less wear.6 3392 l/min Fig. type RM 3650-213 The choice is: Piston compressor Type RM 4150-213 Max. pressure pmax : • FAD V : Motor rating : 10 bar 3350 l/min 30 kW ⇒ Al = 20 8. Reserves are included from experience. The graduations among standardised sizes for receivers must be taken into consideration. BOGE piston compressors are designed for 100 % UR = continuous operation.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. • V = 3350 ⇒ l/min VR = 3000 l 134 .6 2035 / 0. compressor FAD • V volume of compressed air receiver VR. 8. • Vmin = • V min = • V min = LB / 0. in order to have a contingency for possible extensions to the system and to use the compressor intermittently.1.5.2 Determining compressor size Piston compressors are designed with reserves of approx.6 in • order to obtain the minimum FAD Vmin of the piston compressor. The ideal usage rate UR for a piston compressor is around 60 %.5.

1.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.pmin ) ———––——— LB 2035 l/min 3000 × ( 10 .8 ) = ———————— 2035 = 2. The following formula is used to find the compressor idle time tI : VR pmax pmin LB = = = = 3000 l 10 8 barop barop tI tI tI = VR × ( pmax .2035 ) 4.4 Compressor cycle interval After defining the size of the compressed air receiver it is necessary to determine the compressor running and idle times in order to check the motor cycle rate C.8 ) ————–——— ( 3350 .pmin ) ————–——— • ( V .95 min tI LB = Idle time of compressor = Required FAD [ min ] [l] [ l/min ] [ barop ] [ barop ] VR = Volume of compressed air receiver pmax = Cut-out pressure of compressor pmin = Cut-in pressure of compressor The following formula is used to determine the compressor running time tR: VR pmax pmin • V LB = = = = = 3000 l 10 8 barop barop tR tR tR tR LB • V = VR × ( pmax .5.LB ) 3000 × ( 10 .56 min = 3350 l/min 2035 l/min = = Running time of compressor = Required FAD = FAD of compressor [ min ] [l] [ l/min ] [ l/min ] [ barop ] [ barop ] VR = Volume of compressed air receiver pmax =Cut-out pressure of compressor pmin = Cut-in pressure of compressor 135 .

8 cycles per hour is well below the allowed number for the 30 kW motor ( Al = 20 ). Note If the exact compressed air consumption is not defined.95 + 4. tI tR = = 2.5.56 8 [ 1/h ] [ min ] [ min ] Motor output rating 22 kW ⇒ C = Al = 25 C = C tR tI = Cycles = Running time of compressor = Idle time of compressor Approx.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. This results in the maximum number of motor cycles.95 min 4. In this case the idle and running times of the compressor are the same. 50% of the of the compressor FAD can be assumed as consumption when determining the motor cycle rate. It could even be somewhat smaller because of the large reserve of motor cycles.1.5 Motor cycle rate of compressor The motor cycle rate is calculated from the compressor running and idle time and compared with the allowed figure Al.56 min C = 60 ———— tI + tR 60 ———–—— 2. The compressed air receiver is of a good size. 136 .

refrigeration compressed air dryer and filter system 8. 2 m³/min 8 bar 2.2 bar ———— 6. compressed air receiver. 8.9: BOGE screw compressor = • V min = ca. 8.5 the required FAD of LB = 2. This means.2 Determining compressor size The ideal usage rate UR of a screw compressors is 100 %.9 barop 8 barop Pressure loss Pressure loss Pressure loss 6 barop 0.8: Compressor station with screw compressor.2.2. min LB = 2.compressed air dryer Minimum pressure in tank The cut-in pressure pmin must always be above this pressure.42 m3/min 15 kW ⇒ Al : = 25 137 .1 Example for determining the maximum pressure pmax The maximum compressor pressure pmax of the pneumatic system must now be determined.6 bar 0. 8.2.9 barop Fig. the required FAD LB is equal to the minimum • output V of the compressor.5. – Cycle differential of screw compressors The cut-out pressure pmax is at least Selected maximum compressor pressure ( cut-out pressure of compressor ) 1 bar ––––––– 7. A screw compressor is sized for this application. Starting from the working pressure of the consumer devices.5. The maximum required working pressure in this example is 6 barop.04 m³/min The choice is: Screw compressor. all components in the pneumatic system must be taken into consideration: – Maximum working pressure in the system – Pneumatic network – Filters – Refrig.1 bar 0.04 m³/min was determined for a number of consumer devices. Type S 21 Maximum pressure pmax : • FAD V : Motor output rate Fig.5.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.2 Sample calculation for screw compressors In chapter 7.

8 ) VR = 0.843 .5.2.0.77 m3 • V LB LB = 2.42 = 2.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.4 Compressor cycle interval The cycle intervals and maximum allowed cycle rate of the motor do not have to be checked with BOGE screw compressors because the microcontroller in the BOGE ARS control unit does not allow the maximum rate to be exceeded.2.843² ] VR = —————————————— 25 × ( 9 .10: Compressor and compressed air receiver pmin = Cut-in pressure of compressor The volume of the compressed air receiver can also be defined according to the BOGE recommendation. The usual sizes of standard compressed air receivers should be taken into account.04 • m3/min m3/min /V = 0.75 m3 = 750 l • V VB Q VR = Volume of compressed air receiver [ m3 ] • V = FAD of all compressors [ m3/min ] LB Al = Required FAD = Allowed motor cycle rate [ m3/min ] [ 1/h ] [ barop ] [ barop ] pmax = Cut-out pressure of compressor Fig.42 × 60 × [ 0.3 Dimensioning the compressed air receiver The volume of the compressed air receiver for screw compressors is calculated with the aid of the following formula.81 m³ 8.843 = 25 1/h barop barop Al pmax = 9 pmin = 8 Selected receiver volume: VR = 0.46 m3/min ⇒ VR = 0. compressor • FAD to volume of compressed air receiver VR = V/3.( LB/V )² ] VR = —————————— Al × ( pmax . • • • V × 60 × [ LB/V . 8. • V = 2.pmin ) 2.5. 138 .

3 Summary on compressor selection If a company expects fluctuating consumption of compressed air and is planning later extensions. A piston compressor is the ideal choice. 139 . If the FAD of a compressor can cover the constant compressed air requirement then a screw compressor should be used. The do not have an idle mode. because of their small cycle differential and relatively small compressed air receiver. The ARS control unit aims for intermittent operation with minimum idling time. Piston compressor work in intermittent operation. Both are supplied ready for use. Screw compressors must. automatically run in idle mode in order to avoid having too many motor cycles. Both compressor systems are available with full silencing. because the system pays for itself quickly if overhead operating costs are saved. it needs a compressor designed for intermittent operation.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. Overhead operating costs are not only the energy costs to produce compressed air but also the costs of idling. The choice of the right system should not depend on the purchase price.5.

The following table shows the dependence of performance on working pressure using the average pneumatic tools and hammers as examples: Effective pressure [ bar ] at connection 7 6 5 4 tool 120 100 77 55 Relative performance [%] drill hammer 130 100 77 53 tool 115 100 83 64 Relative air consumption [%] drill hammer 120 100 77 56 Fig. If the pneumatic cylinder of a clamping device is not supplied with the required working pressure. 8. the clamping power of the cylinders falls and the workpiece is no longer held with the necessary force. Fig.11: Impact wrench with pneumatic drive Fig. 8.6. This can result in the destruction of the workpiece and may also injure to the machine operator. The workpiece falls loose from the clamp while being processed by a machine tool.1 Information on compressor configuration Performance and working pressure The working pressure of consumer devices should always be complied with. The performance of a pneumatic device always drops disproportionally if the network pressure pN falls below its working pressure.12: Valveless pneumatic hammer Example The consequences of network pressure that is too low can be shown using a pneumatic cylinder as an example.Determining the size of the compressor station 8.6 8.13: Pneumatic clamp 140 . 8.

8. large compressor is not the best solution. Some devices with a low compressed air requirement need a much higher working pressure than others. Greater operational reliability and greater economy are the arguments for this option. – Economy.6. the other compressors take over the work. If the requirement rises. until the output covers the requirement. This fact makes a system of this type more economical. or if servicing work needs to be done.6. 8. one after the other.Determining the size of the compressor station 8. additional compressors are switched on ( medium and peak load ). heavily fluctuating consumption. a single. In this case a second. If the requirement drops. The second system usually amortises itself quickly by reducing operating costs. In most cases.14: Diagram of a combined compressor system 141 . If one compressor fails. Operations heavily reliant on compressed air can guarantee their supply at all times with a combined compressor system. Fig.3 Combined compressor systems For users of compressed air with high. Advantages – Operational reliability. If the system is only running at half-load.2 Varying working pressure of consumer devices If the working pressure of the various consumer devices varies widely. The alternative is to have a combined compressor system consisting of several compressors. Several small compressors are easier to adjust to compressed air consumption than one large compressor. small compressor station with a separate pneumatic network and an appropriately higher cut-out pressure pmax should be installed. One or more compressors cover the continuous basic requirement for compressed air ( basic load ). the compressors are switched back off again. the situation requires closer examination. The unnecessary overcompression of the main volume flow of the pneumatic system causes considerable costs. The configuration depends on the pneumatic behaviour of all consumer devices connected to the system. The configuration of individual compressors ( free air delivered ) in a combined compressor system is individually so different that no general statement are possible. these additional costs justify the installation of a second system. there are no high running costs for a large compressor but low idling costs for small compressors in readiness in a combined system.

These pressure fluctuations impair the operation of various consumer devices. The compressor does not supply compressed air during this time.1 The pneumatic system The compressed air receiver The size of the compressed air receiver is determined by the FAD of the compressor. This is much less the case with screw compressors because they generate an almost even volume flow. the control system.1. Very large pneumatic systems usually have an adequate storage capacity. In some circumstances several receivers are needed to build up an adequate store of compressed air.1: Horizontal compressed air receiver 9. The compressed air requirement can be covered at intervals from this store. 9. 9. Additionally. In this case. fluctuating use of compressed air is compensated for and peak requirements covered. It is in readiness and does not use electricity. The motor is switched on less often and wear on it reduced. 9.1 Storing compressed air The compressor builds up a store of compressed air inside the receiver. smaller receivers can be used. Process control and measuring equipment in particular react to pulsing volume flow by making errors.2 Pulsation damping Due to the way they operate. piston compressors generate a pulsing volume flow.The pneumatic system 9. and compressed air consumption.1. Fig. Compressed air receivers have various important tasks in a pneumatic system. 142 . The compressed air receiver is used to balance out these fluctuations in pressure.

g. Galvanising is also a useful option if the condensate contains a high concentration of aggressive components. This is where compressed air is stored. 9. Compressed air receivers that are only emptied at irregular intervals can be corroded by the condensate. The compressed air receiver must then be specially designed for fluctuating stress. The compressed air receiver and its ancillary equipment must be protected against mechanical influence from the outside ( e.2: Vertical compressed air receiver 9. The necessary safety zones and distances must be observed. and with the factory specification plate well visible. from vehicles ). The area of pressure fluctuation ∆p must not exceed 20 % of the maximum operating pressure ( max. It should be taken into account that the stress on the foundation increases during pressure testing when the tank is filled with water.3 Condensate collection Compression causes the moisture in the air to form droplets of water ( condensate ).. Compressed air receivers must be installed so as not to be a hazard for the staff or other people. compressor pressure 10 bar. the welding seams may break as a result of fatigue over the course of time.5 Installation of compressed air receivers The compressed air receiver should be installed in a cool place whenever possible. Compressed air receivers should be installed so that they are or can be made accessible for periodic inspections. If pressure fluctuations are greater.4 Operation of compressed air receivers Compressed air receivers may only be continuously used for compressors with intermittent and idling modes. 9.1. This causes a large part of the condensate to precipitate on the walls of the receiver. The compressed air receiver should be installed on a suitable foundation with plenty of space for inspections. Heat is given off to the cooler surrounding by the large surface of the receiver and the compressed air cools down. One protection against corrosion is to galvanise the receiver in a dip-tank. so that they are not a hazard for people or equipment. Fig.1. This water is usually drawn into the compressed air receiver with the volume flow. This will cause more condensate to form inside.The pneumatic system 9. It is not absolutely essential to galvanise the receiver if the condensate is drained regularly. 143 . ∆p = 2 bar ).1. which means that less will enter the pneumatic system and the pre-processing unit. The condensate collects on the floor of the receiver and is removed by a suitable condensate collector.

and at max.6. Those authorities must be both specified and accredited with their tasks traditionally being carried out by expert personnel. Directive 97/23/EC serves to divide such compressed air receivers into different groups in respect of their pressure content product [bar*l] and transported media. Most important of them all is Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC concerning the manufacture of compressed air receivers with a pressure content product exceeding 10. After a transitional period through the end of 2007. 5 years intervals for interior inspection. corresponds to the previous definition of proficient persons.000 bar*l as well as the Simple Pressure Vessel Directive 87/404/EEC for compressed air receivers having a pressure content product of up to 10. In addition.6 Safety rules for compressed air receivers Depending on their size and pressure. 9. Periodic inspections are to be repeated at max. has full command of expert knowledge as may be required for inspecting said equipment (§ 2 clause 7). requirements for inspection and control may vary. This. In order to comply with any particular requirements such intervals may be shortened by the competent technical inspection authorities. In Germany. compressed air receivers are subject to a number of various rules and directives. in its broadest sense. which particularly applies to repetitive inspection intervals. the user of a compressed air system is required to observe a number of national requirements.1. Under certain circumstances inspections can be carried out by the operator’s own specially qualified and authorized personnel. A qualified person within the meaning of the general product safety directive is a person who.1 Registration and inspection obligations Compressed air receivers are subject to various registration and inspection obligations.The pneumatic system 9. 9. 144 .6. Not all inspections have to be carried out by the inspection authorities.2 Approved inspection authorities and authorized personnel The relevant approved inspection authorities are defined in § 14 of the general product safety directive. professional experience and up-to-date job training.1. terminology will change and tasks will be conveyed to the specified authorities. In conformity with their classification. Compressors as a whole are considered machines subject to EC machinery Directive 98/37/EC. the Industrial Safety Regulations (Betr SichV) apply for the most part.1. by virtue of his/her industrial training.000 bar*l. 10 years intervals for strength testing.

10 years intervals for strength testing.6. and at max. Said inspections include technical testing of the system itself in conformity with the respective inspection rules as well as a proper functioning check.3 Inspection prior to commissioning Any compressed air system subject to control (i.6. installation. Compressed air receivers having a pressure content product of less than 1. the user is obliged to determine all applicable inspection intervals for the entire compressed air receiver system and its components. 9.4 Registration Based on a safety assessment analysis. Maximum intervals for interior inspection may not exceed 5 years whereas intervals for strength testing may not exceed 10 years. 9.1. Inspection delays for system components and/or the entire system are to be reported to the competent authority within six months after commissioning of the compressed air receiver system along with all applicable system related data.5 Repetitive inspections Any compressed air receiver systems and components thereof which are subject to inspection control may be required to be inspected by an approved authority for proper functioning and operation. such inspections are to be repeated at max.The pneumatic system 9.1. 5 years intervals for interior inspection.000 bar*l.1. compressed air systems as defined in the 97/23/EC and 87/404/EEC directives) may only be put into initial and/or post-modification operation after inspection by an approved authority under consideration of its intended use and with view to proper assembly.000 bar*l my be inspected by any authorized personnel. 145 . setting-up and its safe functioning. Smaller compressed air receivers as defined in the 87/404/ EEC directive and having a pressure content product of less than 200 bar*l need not be inspected by an approved authority but may be inspected by any authorized personnel.6.e. This has to be effected during inspection prior to commissioning of the system. As regards compressed air receivers with a pressure content product exceeding 1.

Walls must be metallically clean. before receiver is checked for leakage by the inspector. After examination of the interior condition of the receiver a certificate of proper functioning is issued by the inspector. such strength tests apparently do not fit the purpose. As regards subject exterior and interior inspections. Use hand pump to generate 1. 146 . 5 years intervals) Disconnect compressed air receiver from network to make sure that it is not under pressure. equivalent non-destructive methods may be implemented in lieu of static pressure tests if. Unscrew all fittings and plug any openings prior to completely filling receiver with water and connecting hand pump for pressure test. Open inspection aperture and thoroughly clean inside of receiver. depending on receiver.The pneumatic system Repetitive inspections are to include the following steps: Interior inspection (max. Pressure test (max. 10 years intervals) Disconnect compressed air receiver from network to make sure that it is not under pressure.43 or 1.5 times the operating pressure. because of the design or the mode of operation of the receiver. similar and equivalent methods may be employed for examination whereas with view to strength testing.

The ball shut-off valve isolates the receiver from the pneumatic system or the compressor.1. Condensate precipitates inside the receiver and therefore it requires an appropriate connection for the condensate collector. If the internal pressure of the receiver pN ( network pressure ) rises 10 % ove the nominal pressure. With screw compressors the valve is integrated in the system. – Control flange. – Safety valve. 147 . the safety valve opens and blows out the excess pressure. It is used to check and clean the inside of the receiver. The inspection aperture can take the form of a socket end or hand-hole flange. 5 8 3 9 7 2 10 1 = Pressure switch 2 = Non-return valve or ball shut-off valve 3 = Safety valve 4 = Control flange 5 = Pressure gauge 6 = Ball shut-off valve 7 = Condensate drain 8 = Mounting for fittings 9 = Inspection aperture 10 = High pressure hose Fig.3: Compressed air receiver with fittings – Condensate drain. It is used instead of a pipe so as not to transmit vibration from the compressor to the pneumatic system and to correct size deviations on connection to the system. – Ball shut-off valve. The pressure switch. The manometer shows the internal pressure of the receiver. It needs a number of fittings to allow it to operate properly and assure the required safety. The minimum size of the aperture is prescribed by law. – Inspection aperture. – Pressure gauge. – Non-return valve. The high pressure hose connects the receiver with the compressor. high pressure hose and non-return valve are not typical fittings for compressed air receivers. A non-return valve must always be installed in the supply line from the compressor to the receiver. – High pressure hose. But it it is sensible to have them installed.The pneumatic system 9. With piston compressors it prevents compressed air flowing back into the compressor during breaks in operation.7 Fittings on the compressed air receiver 4 6 1 The compressed air receiver is not simply a naked steel container. – Pressure switch. The control flange with aperture is used by the inspection authorities to connect a calibrated manometer for the pressure test. The switch is for controlling the compressor. The installation of a safety valve on compressed air receivers is required by law. 9.

the safety valve is below par and must be replaced.g. When an existing pneumatic system is extended at a later date the number of compressors increases..5: Diagram symbol for a safety valve 148 . An appropriate upgrading of the safety valve can easily be overlooked when this happens. 9. Care must be taken that the cross-section of the outlet aperture of the safety valve is of a size that allows the entire output of all connected compressors to be blown off without the pressure in the receiver rising. the maximum compressor pressure 10 bar..1. The mains connection to the receiver must be shut off. safety valve 12. If the internal pressure of the receiver pN ( network pressure ) rises to the maximum operating pressure of the tank ( e.g. 9.7. Fig.1 times the nominal pressure ( e. tank pressure 11 bar. If this does happen.The pneumatic system 9. The press switches must then be bridged.1 times the limit ( e. If the safety valve is no longer able to blow off the entire output of the compressors the operating pressure in the receiver will rise.1 bar ). tank operating pressure 11 bar ). Fig. The receiver pressure must not exceed 1.1 bar ). receiver pressure 11 bar. the safety valve must slowly open. the safety valve must open fully and blow off the excess pressure. The pressure in the receiver rises until the safety valve switches.4: Safety valve on combined compressed air-oil receiver of an oil-injection cooled screw compressor Safety inspection The safety valve must be checked every time a compressor station is extended so as not to have a valve with too low a capacity. safety valve 12..g. This can cause the receiver to explode in extreme cases.1 Safety valve The installation of a safety valve on compressed air receivers is prescribed by law. If the system pressure rises to 1. so that the compressors can no longer switch off automatically.

and with the minimum loss of pressure. Condensate drain Dryer Compressor Main line Fig. 9. repair and maintenance work must not put the entire circuit out of use.1. The main line must be of a size that allows the entire output of the compressor station to be delivered now and in the near future. The pressure loss ∆p in the main line should be no higher than 0. The pressure loss in the circuit must be as low as possible for economic reasons.1 The structure of a compressed air circuit A pipeline circuit is made up of individual sections. – Quality of compressed air. The relevant safety rules must be followed at all times in order to prevent accidents and the resulting rights of recourse. 9. – Low pressure loss. If lines are damaged. The supply of compressed air should be guaranteed as far as possible. – The necessary working pressure. – Secure operation. Each device in the circuit must be supplied with the required volume flow at all times.04 bar. Each device in the circuit must have the necessary air pressure at all times.2. This allows an ideal connection to be made between the compressor and dependent devices.2 The compressed air circuit A central compressed air supply needs a pipeline circuit to deliver compressed air to the individual devices. The circuit must meet various conditions in order to guarantee reliable and economical operation of the devices: – Adequate volume flow.The pneumatic system 9. – Safety rules.6: Main line of a compressed air circuit 149 . 9.1 The main line Compressed air receiver The main line connects the compressor station with the compressed air treatment and the compressed air receiver. Each device in the circuit must have compressed air of the required quality at all times. Distribution lines are connected to the main line.2.

This means that lower pressure loss ∆p is needed. 150 . This provides assurance that compressed air will be available for most devices. They should always take the form of a ring line wherever possible.2 The distribution line.2.The pneumatic system 9. Pressure loss ∆p in the distribution lines should be no higher than 0. repairs and extension work is being carried out.03.7: Compressed air supply with ring line A ring line forms a closed distribution ring. It is possible to isolate individual sections of the network without interrupting the supply of compressed air to other areas. 9. If the compressed air is supplied through a distribution ring. even when servicing. This increases the economy and security of operation of the line as a whole. the compressed air has a shorter route to travel than with stub lines.1.ring line The distribution lines are laid through the entire operation and bring compressed air to the devices. When dimensioning the ring line one can calculate with half the flow pipe length and half the volume flow allowing smaller pipe dimensions. 3 5 7 Connection line 2 4 6 Main line 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = = = = Compressor Non-return valve Compressed air receiver Condensate drain Safety valve Compressed air dryer Compressed air connections Ring line Fig.

regulators and oilers are not needed if the compressed air is pre-treated.3 The distribution line.4 The connection line The connection lines come from the distribution lines. The pressure loss ∆p in the distribution lines should be no more than 0. Since the devices operate with different pressures it is normally necessary to install a service unit with a pressure regulator in front of the device. The pressure loss ∆p in the connection lines should be no higher than 0. 9. Note For industrial applications the recommended pipe size is DN 25 ( 1" ). Consumer devices requiring up to 1800 l/min can be supplied through line lengths of up to 10 m with hardly any pressure loss. separators.1. But they also have the disadvantage that they must be of larger size than ring lines and frequently cause high pressure losses.8: Compressed air supply with stub line Stub lines branch off from larger distribution lines or the main line and end at the consumer device.stub line The distribution lines are laid through the entire operation and bring compressed air close to the devices. Service units comprising filters. 7 Connection line 3 5 2 4 6 Main line Stub line 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 = = = = = = = Screw compressor Non-return valve Compressed air receiver Condensate drain Safety valve Compressed air dryer Compressed air connections Fig.The pneumatic system 9. 151 . They have the advantage of needing less material than ring lines. This makes servicing and repair work easier.1. 9.03 bar. Outlying consumers can be supplied through stub lines. Stub lines should always have a non-return valve which can isolate them from the system.03 bar.2. It is also possible to supply a complete compressed air system with stub lines.2. This size has next to no cost disadvantages compared with smaller sizes and nearly always guarantees a reliable supply of compressed air. The network pressure is reduced to the working pressure of the device by the regulator. They can also take the form of a stub line. They supply consumer devices with compressed air.

1. Water separator on longer rising lines.5 . The connection line must be connected to the collective line from above. The line must be laid with a gradient of approx. Connection line from above.2. Compressed air collective lines 3. 9. 152 . Vent collective lines Points 1 and 2 also apply when vent lines are brought together in collective lines. 1. Collection line with gradient. Vent collective lines must also have an expansion vessel and vent silencer installed. 2. Compressed air 5 4 4 3 Condensate 5 6 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 = Screw compressor 2 = Piston compressor 3 = Connection line 4 = Collection line 2 7 5 = Expansion vessel 6 = Vent silencer 7 = Oil-water-separator 1 = Screw compressor 2 = Water separator 3 = Condensate drain 4 = Connection line 5 = Collection line Fig.9: Collective lines Compressed air and condensate collection lines 1.5 Connecting to a collective line with multiple systems Attention must be paid to the following points when connecting several compressors to a common (collective) line.2 % in the direction of flow. On longer lines that rise to a collective line a water separator with automatic drainage must be installed after the compressor in order to catch the water flowing back.The pneumatic system 9.

The pneumatic system 9. Abrupt changes in the diameter of the line should also be avoided due to the high loss of pressure this causes.10: Unfavourable flow conditions: T and knee-piece Large pipe systems should be subdivided into several sections. In some situations it may be of benefit to have a second compressor to supply the system from a different point.11: Favourable flow conditions: Y-tube and curved pipe Main lines and large distribution lines should be welded with V-seams. the pressure loss ∆p is lower. 9.3 9. This shortens the distance the compressed air has to travel. Fig.1 Tips for planning pipe systems General planning tips Compressed air lines should be straight wherever possible. Fig. do not use knee and T -pieces. 153 . There is therefore less resistance in the pipes and the burden on filters and tools caused by detached particles of welded metal is reduced. repairs and conversions. each of which should be equipped with a non-return valve. It is important to be able to isolate parts of the system.3. particularly for inspections. Long curves and Y-pieces provide better flow conditions and therefore less pressure loss Dp. On corners that can not be avoided. As a result. This means there are no sharp edges and points inside the pipes. 9.

in order to prevent damage to consumer devices. – Fittings. The condensate that occurs when cooling takes place can then flow back into the receiver. The pipelines must be laid with a gradient of approx. Condensate drains must be installed at the lowest points of the system in order to drain off the condensate. the compressed air lines should be laid so that the air does not cool down when flowing through.2 o/oo gradient – Temperature gradients.The pneumatic system 9. the relative humidity will then fall. A service unit with filter. The connection lines must branch off upwards in the direction of flow. The main line directly behind the compressed air receiver should rise vertically. The air should be heated gradually.3. A compressed air lubricator may also be needed. depending on the application.5 .2 Pipeline without compressed air dryer Compression causes the water in the air to form droplets ( condensate ). water must be expected in the entire pipeline network. 9. – Connection lines. If the compressed air is not pre-processed by a compressed air dryer. If the absolute humidity is constant. – Pipelines with gradients.12: Examples of correctly laid piping 154 . Pipeline with 1. The condensed water in the pipeline will then collect at the lowest point of the line. The pipeline here must be as straight as possible to avoid unnecessary pressure loss.5 . wrong right – Condensate drain. – Vertical main line. Fig.2 % in the direction of flow. Where possible. 1. Condensate will then be unable to form. water separator and pressure reduction valve should always be installed. In this situation there are various guidelines to be followed when installing the pipeline.

A lubricator may be required. depending on the application. Sometimes. even the money saved here justifies installing a compressed air dryer.The pneumatic system 9. This considerably reduces the price of the installation. many of the measures taken against condensate can be dispensed with. – Fittings.3 Pipeline system with compressed air dryer If there is a compressed air dryer with an appropriate filter installed in the system. The lines can be laid horizontally because there is almost no water left in the system. – Condensate drain. Only pressure reduction valves have to be fitted to the consumer devices. Condensate drains are only fitted at the filters. the compressed air receiver and the dryer. – Connection lines. The connection lines can be joined vertically downwards with T-pieces.3. The other measures concerning the way the lines are laid are also unnecessary. – Pipelines. 155 .

The Reynolds number Re is influenced by various factors: – The kinematic viscosity of the compressed air. The paths of flow all have an effect on each other and form small whirls. – low heat transition.4 Pressure loss ∆p Every pneumatic pipeline is resistance for compressed air in flow. This type of flow has two main properties: – low pressure loss. adjacently flowing layers. 9. The individual molecules of the compressed air move in parallel. The flow in the pipeline remains laminar until what is known as the critical Reynolds number Recrit is exceeded. Laminar flow Laminar flow is even-layered flow. 156 . Turbulent flow 9.13: Flow and speed development with laminar flow vmax Turbulent flow is whirly and uneven. Air can move in two completely different ways. It then takes on the condition of unevenness and turbulence. This resistance is internal friction which occurs with the flow of all liquid and gaseous media. 9. since noise and turbulent flow will otherwise occur.4. The speed of flow in compressed air lines must not exceed 20 m/s. This is the cause of pressure loss in pipelines. It results from the effect of force among the molecules( viscosity ) of the flowing medium ad the walls of the pipeline. Note The high flow speeds that lead to Recrit being exceeded do not normally occur in pneumatic networks. – high heat transition. the type of flow inside the line also affects pressure loss.2 The Reynolds number Re The type of flow can be defined using the Reynolds number Re.4. The prevailing flow in pneumatic networks is laminar. This type of flow has two main properties: – high pressure loss.1 Type of flow vmax Fig. Fig.14: Image of flow and speed with turbulent flow 9. Turbulent flow only occurs at points where there are massive flow disturbances. – The mean speed of the compressed air. – The inside diameter of the pipe. The axially directed flow is surrounded by constantly changing additional movement at all points. Quite apart from internal friction.The pneumatic system 9. This gives the criterion for laminar and turbulent flow.

3 Pressure loss in the pipe system Each change in the line hinders the flow of compressed air within it. 9. – valves. – clear inside diameter of the pipe. – surface quality of the pipelines.4. – fittings and connections – filters and dryer. – narrowing and widening. otherwise increased pressure loss will occur. – leakage points. – branches and bends in the pipe. The laminar flow is disturbed and higher pressure loss results.15: Pressure loss in a pipeline Path [ m ] The amount of pressure lost is influenced by several components and circumstances of the network: – length of pipe. Flanged connection 2D-Curve 3D-Curve Branching off Reduction T-Piece Widening Leakages Valve 157 . Pressure [ bar ] Pressure loss Fig. – pressure in the pipe network.The pneumatic system 9. These factors must be taken into account when planning the system.

The pneumatic system

9.5

Dimensioning pipelines

Correct dimensioning of the pipes in a system is of great importance for economical operation. Pipes with too small a diameter cause high losses of pressure. These losses must be compensated for by high compression in order to guarantee the performance of consumer devices. The main factors influencing the ideal inside diameter di of the pipe are: • – Volume flow V. The maximum throughput of air should be assumed when determining di. Increased pressure loss has a greater impact when the requirement for compressed air is at a maximum. – Effective flow length of pipeline. The length of the pipeline should be determined as accurately as possible. Fittings and bends are unavoidable in pipeline systems. When determining the effective flow length of the pipeline these must be taken into account as an equivalent section of pipe. – Operating pressure. When determining di the compressor cut-out pressure pmax is to be assumed. At maximum pressure the pressure drop ∆ p is also highest.

9.5.1

Maximum pressure drop ∆p

The pressure drop ∆p in a pipeline with a maximum pressure pmax of 8 barop and above should not exceed a certain total loss by the time it reaches the consumer device: – Pipe system ∆p ≤ 0.1 bar

The following values are recommended for the individual sections of the system: – Main line – Distribution line – Connection line ∆p ≤ 0.04 bar ∆p ≤ 0.04 bar ∆p ≤ 0.03 bar

In pipe systems with lower maximum pressures ( e.g., 3 barop ) a pressure loss of 0,1 bar is higher in relative terms than in an 8 barop system. In this case, a different value is recommended for the system as a whole: – Pipe system ∆p ≤ 1,5 % pmax

158

The pneumatic system

9.5.2

Nominal width of pipelines Comparison [ DN – Inch ]

Medium-weight threaded pipes made of standard structural steel ( DIN 17100 ), which are often used for pipe systems, are made according to the DIN 2440 standard. This standard prescribes certain graduations of nominal width ( inside diameter di ) and certain designations. For this reason, fittings and pipes are only available in the corresponding sizes. The graduations of nominal diameter also apply for other pipe materials and standardisations. The standard nominal widths must always adhered to when dimensioning pipelines. Other nominal widths are only available if specially made and are disproportionately expensive. The following table contains standard graduations in DN ( Diameter Nominal ) mm and inches, and the most important basic data for pipes according to DIN 2440:

Nominal pipe width acc. to DIN 2440 [Inches ] 1/8" 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" 3/4" 1" 1 1/4" 1 1/2" 2" 2 1/2" 3" 4" 5" 6" [ DN ] 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150

Outside diameter [ mm ] 10.2 13.5 17.2 21.3 26.9 33.7 42.4 48.3 60.3 76.1 88.9 114.3 139.7 165.1

Inside diameter [ mm ] 6.2 8.8 12.5 16.0 21.6 27.2 35.9 41.8 53.0 68.8 80.8 105.3 130.0 155.4

Inside cross-section [ cm2 ] 0.30 0.61 1.22 2.00 3.67 5.82 10.15 13.80 22.10 37.20 50.70 87.00 133.50 190.00

Wall thickness [ mm ] 2.00 2.35 2.35 2.65 2.65 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.65 3.65 4.05 4.50 4.85 4.85

159

The pneumatic system

9.5.3

Equivalent pipe length

A major factor in dimensioning the inside diameter of a pipe di is the pipe length. Pipelines are not only made up of straight sections of pipe, the flow resistance of which can quickly be deduced. Installed bends, valves and other fittings considerably increase flow resistance inside the pipeline. This is the reason that the effective pipe length L must be determined, taking into account the fittings and bends. For simplification, the flow resistance values of various fittings and bends have been converted into equivalent pipe lengths. The following table gives the equivalent pipe length in dependency on pipe nominal width and the fitting:

Fittings

Equivalent Pipe Length [ m ] Pipe and Fitting Nominal Width [ DN ] DN 40 DN 50 DN 80 DN 100 DN 125 10 2.0 0.5 2.5 0.5 0.25 3 0.7 15 3.0 0.7 3.5 0.6 0.3 4 1.0 25 4.5 1.0 5 1.0 0.5 7 2.0 30 6 1.5 7 1.5 0.8 10 2.5 50 8 2.0 10 2.0 1.0 15 3.5

DN 25 Check valve Diaphragm valve Gate valve Knee bend 90° Bend 90° R = d Bend 90° R = 2d T-Piece Reduction piece D = 2d 8 1.2 0.3 1.5 0.3 0.15 2 0.5

DN 150 60 10 2.5 15 2.5 1.5 20 4.0

These values must be added to the actual pipe length to obtain the effective pipe length L.

Note Complete information about fittings and bends are not generally available at the start of planning a pipeline system. The effective pipe length L is therefore calculated by multiplying the straight pipe length by 1.6.

160

The pneumatic system

9.5.4

Determining the inside diameter di of the pipe by calculation

The following approach formula can be used to dimension the inside diameter of the pipe. It assumes the maximum operating pressure p max ( compressor cutout pressure ), • the maximum volume flow V ( required output LB ) and the effective pipe length L. ∆ p is the target pressure loss.

di =

5

• 1,6 × 103 × V1,85 × L —————————— 1010 × ∆ × pmax ∆p [m] [ m3/s ] [m] [ bar ] [ barabs ]

di • V L ∆p

= Inside diameter of pipeline = Total volume flow = Effective pipe length = Target pressure loss

pmax = Compressor cut-out pressure

Example The inside pipe diameter di of a pneumatic connection line with a target pressure loss ∆ p of 0,1 bar is to be determined using the approach formula. The maximum operating pressure pmax ( compressor cutout pressure ) is 8 barabs. A vol• ume flow V of 2 m³/min will flow through pipeline with an approximate length of 200 m. • V L ∆p = = = 2 200 0,1 8 m3/min m bar barabs di = = 0,033 m3/s di =
5

1,6 × 103 × 0,0331,85 × 200 ———————————— 1010 × 0,1 × 8

pmax =

0,037 m = 37 mm DN 40

Nominal width selected:

The inside diameters of pipes are standardised in certain sizes. But it is rare to find a standard nominal width that matches the calculated inside diameter. In such cases the next largest standard nominal width is taken.

161

Proceed by following the thick line in the example in the direction of the arrow.1 8 ∆p = pmax = di = app. • Start by reading the intersection of the volume flow V and the operating pressure pmax.5 Determining the inside diameter of the pipe di by graphics The pipe inside diameter di can be determined easier and faster with a nomogramme than by calculation. The major influencing factors are the same with calculation method as with the graphical method. 38 mm The nominal width selected for the pipeline is DN 40 162 • Volume flow V [ m3/min ] m³/min m bar barabs . Pipe length L [ m ] Pipe inside diameter di [ mm ] Pressure loss ∆p in the pipeline[ bar ] Example Volume flow Effective pipe length Pressure loss Operating pressure Pipe inside diameter Operating pressure pmax [ barabs ] • V L = = 2 200 0.5.The pneumatic system 9.

5.The pneumatic system 9.1 bar. – A target pressure loss ∆p of 0. However.1 8 200 2000 bar barop m l/min The nominal width of the pipe obtained is DN 40 163 . The bar chart is very easy to use: • Take the determined maximum volume flow V and the effective pipe length and find the respective line or column in the graph. this method is very limited in application. The resulting intersection indicates the correct pipe nominal width to meet the requirements. Two conditions must be met for the bar graph method to be used: – A maximum pressure pmax in the network of 8 barop.6 Determining the inside diameter of the pipe di with the aid of a bar graph The third and simplest method of determining the pipe inside diameter di is the bar graph. Example Pressure loss Operating pressure Effective pipe length Volume flow ∆p pmax L • V = = = = 0.

Disadvantages Threaded pipes have a high flow resistance and the joints tend to leak over time.1 Threaded pipes Steel threaded pipes compliant with DIN 2440. – Low pressure loss. They must meet various criteria. Some materials lose tensile strength at high temperatures and become brittle at low temperatures.6 Choosing the material for pipelines System pipelines are normally made of steel. non-ferrous metal or plastic. – Maximum operating temperature. Threaded pipes are used everywhere where the demands on the quality of compressed air are not high. 9. 10 . Low pressure loss is obtained by high surface quality on the inside of the pipe. Ungalvanised threaded pipes should not be used in networks without a dryer.DN 150 max. – Size – Maximum operating pressure – Maximum operating temperature Advantages Threaded pipes are inexpensive and quickly installed. The question of resistance to corrosion is always a prime consideration unless the compressed air is dried in a pretreatment unit.80 barop 120°C 164 . They are used particularly in small and medium-sized distribution and connection lines. The pipes must not rust through over the course of time. fast and easy installation and cheap material. because they corrode.6. – Low-cost installation. DN 6 . DIN 2441 and DIN 2442 ( medium-weight and heavyweight versions ) are in widespread use in pneumatic systems. Installation prices can be reduced by a multitude of preshaped parts. There are many different and useful shaped parts and fittings to use with them. The joints can be disconnected and the individual parts reused. An experienced fitter is needed to install them.The pneumatic system 9. – Maximum operating pressure. which limits the choice of material for some applications: – Protection against corrosion. They are available in black and galvanised metal. The maximum operating pressure drops with increasing thermal stress.

– Sizes 6 . and there are relatively many shaped parts to choose from. The pipes are cheap.6.3 Stainless steel pipes Stainless steel pipes compliant with DIN 2462 and DIN 2463 are only used in pneumatic networks requiring the highest quality. They are also often used in the „wet“ sections of a conventional system between the compressor and the dryer. part. They are available in black and galvanised finishes. because they corrode.25 barop 120°C 9. 12. Leakage is therefore practically zero. They are absolutely airtight if properly laid.273 mm – Maximum operating pressure max. Ungalvanised mild steel pipes should not be used in networks without a dryer.2 . mild steel pipes because they must be welded and flanged. 10.8 mm. 120°C 165 .8 mm max.558.2 Seamless steel pipes Seamless mild steel pipes compliant with DIN 2448 are chiefly mainly used in main and distribution lines with medium and large pipe diameters. Leakage is therefore practically zero.6. Disadvantages An experienced fitter is needed to lay seamless.The pneumatic system 9. They are completely airtight if properly laid. 80 barop.5 . The pipes are very expensive and the availability of shaped parts is limited. – Sizes – Maximum operating pressure – Maximum operating temperature Advantages Seamless mild steel pipes are available in sizes up to 558. stainless steel pipes because they must be welded and flanged. higher – Maximum operating temperature Advantages Stainless steel pipes are completely corrosion-proof and have only low flow resistance ( low pressure loss ). Disadvantages An experienced fitter is needed to lay seamless.

semi-hard and soft qualities. Copper pipes are corrosion-proof and pressure loss is low due to the smooth surface of the inside walls. 166 .54 mm hard 54 .140 barop 100°C – Maximum operating pressure – Maximum operating temperature Advantages Copper pipes are available in long sections. The joints can not be disconnected. The material is expensive. and they are easy to work with. If the lines are longer. It is therefore possible to use one piece for longer sections of the network. they can be bent if the diameter is small.131 mm max. The seamless pipes are available in hard. particles of copper may form local galvanic elements in subsequent steel piping.The pneumatic system 9. Disadvantages An experienced fitter is needed to install copper pipes since fittings are normally soldered to them. the expansion of copper due to heat must be taken into account. – Sizes soft 6 . This reduces the number of joints. 16 . If the compressed air contains moisture. The coefficient of length expansion for copper is greater than that for steel. leading to pitting.6. but there are many shaped parts to choose from because copper pipes are also used in the sanitary area.4 Copper pipes Copper pipes conforming to DIN 1786 and DIN 1754 are used for small and medium pipes as process control lines. The occurrence of leaks is also lower.22 mm semi-hard 6 . Copper vitriol can also arise.

This means that there are plastic pipes with the appropriate properties for almost every area of application. Resistance to certain condensates and types of oil is not always guaranteed with some plastics. Pressure loss and leakage is generally very low in plastic piping. Flow resistance is low ( low pressure loss ) and deposits such as calcium and rust etc. operating pressures and temperatures. An experienced plastic welder is needed to install these pipes. Plastic pipes are usually harmless from a toxicological and hygienic standpoint. Disadvantages The low-cost PVC pipe systems have a maximum operating pressure of only 12. Fig. Plastic pipes are not made in large quantities for high pressures or large diameters. there is no need for any protective surface material.6. The pipe sections are fitted together and given an airtight seal with special adhesive. 167 . The composition of condensates in the network must therefore be checked beforehand. The inside surface is very smooth. Advantages Because plastic pipes do not corrode. They are up to 80 % lighter than steel. There are also polyamide pipes for high pressures and polyethylene pipes for large diameters. 9. This makes them expensive and the number of shaped parts available is limited. For this reason it is difficult to generally apply information about sizes. No special knowledge is necessary for installation. have practically no chance to build up.5 bar at 25°C. It must also be carefully noted that the maximum operating pressure of these plastic pipes drops heavily if the temperature is increased. Installation is very easy. For this reason plastic pipes may not be used in the hot areas of a compressor station and must be protected from direct sunlight.16: An assortment of plastic shaped parts and fittings PVC pipe systems and the like have a large number of shaped parts and fittings available for them. Plastic pipes have large coefficients of linear expansion and their mechanical stability is not particularly high.5 Plastic pipes There are plastic pipes as pipe systems from various makers and in various materials. This simplifies installation and there are fewer demands placed on the pipefittings.The pneumatic system 9.

Fig. 9. Fig. The marking should indicate possible dangers in order to avert accidents and physical injury. both of which are defined in DIN 2403. – In writing at the end of the line.7 Marking pipelines Pipelines must be marked clearly according to the type of medium they contain according to German law and DIN 2403. Marking plates Direction of flow.The pneumatic system 9. the planning of extensions and firefighting. Medium Air Water Combustible liquids Gas Water steam Acids Alkalis Oxygen Group ID number 3 1 8 4/5 2 6 7 0 Colour grey green brown yellow red orange violet blue Colour number RAL 7001 RAL 6018 RAL 8001 RAL 1013 RAL 3003 RAL 2000 RAL 4001 RAL 5015 Colour markings and markings in writing must be applied at certain points: – In writing at the start of the line. – In writing at branches. – In colour by way of rings or continuous paint for the entire length of the line. Sub-group number ( different line networks ). Appropriate marking also makes it easier to follow pipelines in a complicated network. For this reason. Group number of medium. Unambiguous marking also eases correct installation. – In writing at fittings and distribution points. Colour matches colour code for medium. 9. Pipes are marked with ID numbers ( groups ) and colours.18: Marking plates with ID numbers 168 . the direction of flow of the medium must always be indicated.17: Marking plates with cleartext – In writing where the line passes through a wall.

The Installation Room

10.

The Installation Room

The installation room of a compressor must satisfy a number of conditions for correct operation to be assured. When considering the significance of a well-planned and well-kept installation room it is important to know that around 2/3 of all compressor malfunctions are caused by faulty installation, inadequate ventilation and a lack of servicing. The general rules for accident prevention and environmental protection must also be adhered to.

10.1

Cooling the compressor
100 % Electricity intake from the mains

When designing a compressor station it must be remembered that the compression process inside the compressor generates a large amount of waste heat. The main principle of thermo-dynamics applies, which states that the entire electrical power intake of the compressor is converted into heat. The waste heat must be extracted reliably since there may otherwise be an accumulation of heat in the compressor. If the temperature inside the compressor is too high for too long it can lead to mechanical damage in the compressor stage and the drive motor. The required cooling medium (air or water) can be supplied in two ways: – Air-cooling. Air-cooling is the most common cooling method for all types of compressor. When it is used, ventilation of the installation room is of particular importance. It must be well planned and implemented. If not, thermal problems with the compressor are bound to occur. – Water-cooling. Water cooling may be necessary in larger compressors if the heat can not be properly extracted by air-cooling. Water-cooling places fewer demands on ventilation inside the installation room.

9% Heating the motor

4% Residual heat in the compressed air 72 % Oil cooler 13 % Compressed air aftercooler 2% Heat radiated off

94 % of energy intake is extracted by the cooling medium ( water/air ) and available for heat recovery

Fig. 10.1: Heat distribution in a screw-type compressor with oil injection cooling.

This chapter deals primarily with the requirements and rules applying to installation rooms for air-cooled compressors. With the exception of information concerning ventilation, the material in this chapter can be used equally for water-cooled compressors.

169

The Installation Room

10.2

Compressor installation

When installing compressors and the other components of a compressor station there are certain conditions to observe which, if not complied with, may lead to malfunctions. There are also certain accident prevention and environmental protection rules to be followed.

10.2.1

General information regarding the installation room

The installation room should be clean, free of dust, dry and cool. Strong sunlight must not be allowed to enter. The room should be located on the north side of a building wherever possible, or in a well-ventilated basement. There should be no heat-emitting pipes or assemblies in the installation room of a compressor. If this can not be avoided, the pipes and assemblies must be adequately insulated. Easy accessibility and good lighting should be provided for servicing work and periodic inspections of the compressed air receivers. A compressor installation room must always be properly ventilated to prevent the ambient temperature from exceeding the maximum admissible levels.

K o m p re s s o re n K o m p re s s o re n

Fig. 10.2: Compressor station with 2 screw-type compressors, refrigerant air dryer, compressed air receiver and oil/water separator.

10.2.2

Admissible ambient temperature

Compressors operate ideally at ambient temperatures between +20° and +25°C. The following ambient temperatures apply for piston and screw-type compressors: – Minimum + 5°C. If the temperature falls below + 5°C, pipelines and valves can ice up. This can cause the compressor to malfunction. Screw-type compressors switch off automatically if the temperature is below the minimum admissible compression temperature. An additional anti-freeze facility allows ambient temperatures down to -10°C. – Maximum + 40°C. Maximum + 35°C with sound-insulated piston-type compressors. If the ambient temperature rises above the maximum level, the compressed air outlet temperature may exceed the maximum statutory level. The quality of the compressed air deteriorates, the components of the compressor are subjected to more strain, and the servicing intervals are shorter. Screw-type compressors switch off automatically if the temperature is above the maximum admissible compression temperature.

170

The Installation Room

10.2.3

Fire safety rules for installation rooms

The following rules apply for rooms where compressors with oil injection cooling are to be installed: – The room must have special fire protection if the compressor motor rating is over 40 kW. – Compressors with a motor rating of over 100 kW must be installed in a separate fire-protected room. Requirements for fire-protected installation rooms: – The walls, ceilings, floors and doors must be Fire safety category F30 or better. – No inflammable liquids may be stored in the installation room. – The floor area around the compressor must not be made of combustible material. – Leaking oil must not be allowed to spread on the floor. – There must be no inflammable substances within a radius of at least three metres from the compressor. – No combustible system parts, such as cable lines, may be laid over the compressor.

10.2.4

Disposal of condensate

The inducted air contains water in the form of vapour which turns into condensate during compression. This condensate contains oil. It may not be allowed into the public sewage network without being processed. Always follow the appropriate drainage rules set by the local authority. BOGE recommends the ÖWAMAT for processing the condensate. The purified water can be drained into the public sewage lines. The oil is caught in a catch pan and must then be disposed of in a responsible manner.

171

The Installation Room

10.2.5

Compressor installation instructions

When installing compressors, the following general points must be observed, regardless of ventilation: – When installing a compressor or compressed air receiver a flat industrial floor without foundation will suffice. Special mountings are not generally needed.. – Compressors should always be located on elastic mountings. This stops vibration being transmitted to the floor, and the compressor noise being carried to other parts of the building. – The compressor should be connected to fixed lines with a BOGE high pressure hose of approx. 0.5 m in length. This prevents vibration from the compressor being transmitted to the compressed air line and compensates inaccurate lines. – The compressor must be fitted with paper intake filters if there is a heavy dust occurrence at the installation point. This keeps wear on the compressor to a minimum. – Compressor units must never be covered by hoods or cladding. Measures of this type always lead to thermal problems. An exception to this is the original BOGE sound insulation hood, which is specially designed for each individual compressor.

10.2.6

The space requirement of a compressor

A compressor requires a certain amount of space, and this depends on the construction and type of compressor concerned. From this arise compressor-specific minimum distances in all directions. – The compressor must be installed to allow easy access for operation and servicing. – For the cooling of a compressor to be assured, there must be a certain minimum distance between the ventilator or cooler and the neighbouring wall or other systems. If this is not provided for, the effect of the ventilator or cooler is much reduced and efficient cooling is no longer guaranteed. – When several compressors are installed adjacently the heated cooling air of one compressor must not be used as the cooling air of another. The minimum distances to walls and neighbouring equipment and machinery can sometimes vary greatly, depending on the types and versions of the compressors. These are to be taken from the respective operating instructions.

Air supply possible Wall mounting possible Corner inst. possible Compressed air connection Air supply

Operating side

Fig. 10.3: Space requirement plan for a sound-insulated screw-type compressor, model S 21 - S 30

172

– The receiver must be safe where it stands..7 Conditions for installing compressed air receivers Certain accident prevention rules must be followed when installing compressed air receivers. – Compressed air receivers must be protected from external damage ( e. – Safety areas and distances must be observed. – Vertical receivers are brought horizontally into the compressor rooms and then set up on their feet. The diagonal height of the receiver must therefore be taken into account in the dimensions of the room. It must not move or tilt by the application of external force. otherwise it will be impossible to set up the receiver. falling objects ). This includes the additional weight during pressure testing! A reinforced foundation may be necessary for large compressed air receivers. – The receiver and its equipment must be able to be operated from a safe location. 173 .2.g.The Installation Room 10. – The factory specification plate must be well visible. – Compressed air receivers must have reasonable protection against corrosion.

The waste heat generated by the compressor must be reliably extracted at all times. and the requirement for cooling air drops accordingly. – Air inlet and outlet ducts.3 Ventilation of a compressor station The most important requirement for operating air-cooled com• pressors is an adequate flow of cooling air Vc. The greater the difference ∆t between the outside and inside temperature. The greater the height and size of the room. without assistance from a ventilator. the greater the requirement for cooling air.1 Factors influencing • the flow of cooling air of a Vc of a compressor A compressor generates a certain amount of waste heat depending on its drive rating.e.. depending on the rooms available. c • The volume of cooling air V is influenced by several factors as c well as the drive rating of the compressor: – Transmission heat A part of the heat generated is emitted as transmission heat by the walls enclosing the installation room ( including the windows and doors ). The constitution of the walls. the better the distribution of the generated heat. usually with the assistance of an exhaust ventilator. doors and windows have a consider• able influence on the flow of cooling air V. There are three different possibilities for ventilation. 10.The Installation Room 10. 174 . On air-cooled compressors this • heat must be extracted by a flow of cooling air V. the floor. The higher the temperature of the installation room. Ventilation through the air inlet and outlet apertures in the side walls or the ceiling with the assistance of an outlet ventilator. The residual heat ( radiated from the motor ) must be extracted by cooling air. the lower the requirement for cooling air. – Room height and site. – Artificial ventilation. – Temperature gradient. – With water-cooled compressors the main heat is extracted by the cooling water. c – Room temperature.3. the ceiling. and the type and model of the compressor: – Natural ventilation. Ventilation by means of appropriate ducts. Ventilation through the air inlet and outlet apertures in the side walls or the ceiling by natural means i.

175 . – Room temperature – Temperature gradient ∆t 35°C = 308 K 10 K – Wall thickness 25 cm The surrounding walls are assumed to be homogenous brick walls without windows and doors. – Room height and size.3.2 Definition of the factors influencing the flow of cooling air • Vc to and from a compressor To obtain generally applicable values for the flow of cooling • airVc the following outline conditions have been set that influ• ence the volume of cooling air Vc. The • values calculated for the flow of cooling air Vc are generally applicable because conditions in real installation rooms are normally better. The room height is defined as being lower than 3 m and the area of the room less than 50 m². The defined outline conditions above assume the least favourable admissible environment for operating the compressor.The Installation Room 10. Thermal problems will not occur if the recommended flow of • cooling air Vc for a compressor is assured.

4: Arrangement of air inlet and outlet apertures – The inlet apertures or ducts of the compressor must be arranged so that dangerous admixtures ( e. the (inlet) apertures for the supply of cold air must be located close to the ground and the (outlet) exhaust apertures must be in the ceiling or in a side wall at the top. if required Fig. – The compressor must be installed next to the air inlet aperture Ain so that it draws fresh air for compression and cooling air for ventilation directly from the inlet aperture Ain. the system will overheat. Air inlet apertures with roller shutters Air outlet aperture with ventilator. If this is not sufficient. care must be taken that there is no thermal interaction between them. The assemblies in the installation room should be arranged accordingly.5: Installation room with three sound-insulated compressors 176 .3 General information for ventilation of compressor rooms This chapter specifies the most important conditions concerning air supply and extraction that must be satisfied by the installation room of one or more air-cooled compressors. – Hot air always rises. – Adjustable roller shutters must be installed in the air inlet apertures Ain. The ventilation must cater for the total cooling-air requirement for all compressors. To allow an effective exchange of heat... They are based on the requirements set forth in VDMA specification sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for air-cooled compressors“. – When installing several compressors in one room. Fig. – The compressor must be positioned so that it can not reinduct its own heated exhaust air. each compressor should have its own air inlet aperture of a size according to its need. If one compressor draws in the exhaust air from another compressor. explosive or chemically unstable substances ) can not be inducted. Ideally. the compressor must be equipped with its own heater. 10. – The exhaust air should flow from the compressor via the compressed air receiver ( if fitted ) to the outlet aperture Aout.g. 10. The accessories required can be obtained from BOGE. This allows the flow of cold air from the outside to be reduced and the temperature should then not fall below the minimum admissible level in Winter.The Installation Room 10.3.

90 Fig.0 In principle.The Installation Room 10.3.40 0. The figures in the following table are based on VDMA specification sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for aircooled compressors“. the maximum admissible ambient temperature may be exceeded. But taking into account the installation of roller shutters. depending on the conditions in the installation room.5 7.4 Natural ventilation With natural ventilation. 177 . Drive rating P [ kW ] Required flow of cooling-air • Vc [ m³/hr ] 1350 1800 2270 3025 3700 4900 6000 7000 Required ventilation apertures Ain and Aout [ m² ] 0. Experience shows that this method of ventilation is only suitable for compressors with ratings of up to 22 kW. the air inlet aperture must be located as far as possible below the air outlet aperture.6 : Natural ventilation of a compressor installation room with a sound-insulated BOGE screw-type compressor 3. the air inlet aperture should be approx.5 22.30 0.1 Outlet air aperture required for natural ventilation • VK Ain Aout • An adequate flow of cooling-air Vc can only be obtained with natural ventilation if the air inlet and outlet apertures are of an appropriate size.0 4. The cooling air has to pass through both apertures.25 0.0 5.3.0 18. since hot air rises.50 0. Even smaller compressors can have ventilation problems.65 0.4.5 11. If this is not the case. 20 % larger than the air outlet aperture Aout. 10. the air inlet Ain and outlet apertures Aout should be of equal size.20 0. For adequate ventilation to be provided. the cooling-air requirement of a refrigerant compressed air dryer or heat-generating absorption dryer must be included in the calculations. Heat is exchanged by the natural circulation of air only.0 15. the circulation of air is controlled by an air inlet aperture Ain and an air outlet aperture Aout in the side walls of the installation room.75 0. 10. grids and the like. Note • When defining the flow of cooling-air Vc for a compressor station.

Drive rating P [ kW ] 4. The control depends on the temperature in the installation room.0 250. The ventilator(s) should.0 90. Due to structural aspects or the high output of the installed compressor the flow of cooling air is inadequate for the task. • The ventilator output VV is approx.0 55. The waste heat generated by the compressor must be reliably extracted. Fig.0 65.1 Required ventilator output with artificial ventilation • As with natural ventilation. The inlet air aperture must be modified to cater for the ventilator output. for reasons of economy.5 22. In these cases. The higher the temperature rises.0 Required ventilator output • VV [ m³/hr ] 1800 2270 3025 3700 4900 6000 7000 9500 11000 14000 17000 20000 23000 28000 34000 40000 50000 62000 70000 178 .3. The figures in the following table are based on VDMA specification sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for aircooled compressors“.5 Artificial ventilation • VV Ain Ventilator In many cases natural ventilation of the installation room is insufficient. Artificial ventilation increases the flow speed of cooling air inside the installation room and guarantees the required flow of air by forced ventilation.0 30. the hot air must be extracted with the aid of a ventilator. 15 % greater than the re• quired flow of cooling-air Vc.0 110.5 7.3. the greater the output rate of the ventilator. even in high Summer.0 5. 10. There are greater reserves when outside temperatures are high.5.0 200.0 75.0 45.0 15.The Installation Room 10.0 37. This guarantees perfect cooling.5 11.0 160.0 132.0 18.7: Artificial ventilation of a compressor room with a sound-insulated BOGE screw-type compressor 10. the required flow of cooling air Vc is derived from the output of the installed compressor. be controlled in several stages by a thermostat.

2 Required inlet air aperture with artificial ventilation With artificial ventilation.3. it is also possible to use a flow speed of vS = 5 m/s. A ∆p = 100 Pa ( 10 mm WH ) can be assumed for simple apertures without unfavourable diversion (ducting). If the dynamic pressure is higher than the surface pressure of the ventilator.The Installation Room 10. that the flow of cooling-air is subject to the same laws of physics as the compressed air. The size of the air inlet aperture A in depends on the ventilator • output VV and the maximum flow speed vS in the inlet aperture. 179 . The flow speed must also be taken into account. the exhaust ventilator determines the size of the air outlet aperture. if structural considerations do not permit the size of aperture resulting from this calculation. A ventilator can only overcome dynamic pressure that lies below its defined surface pressure. However.5. Even when cooling-air flows through ducts and apertures. The aperture needed for an exhaust ventilator is normally much smaller than that required for natural ventilation. It is preferable to calculate with a flow speed of vS = 3 m/s. when flow speed increases the dynamic pressure ∆ p ( pressure loss ) rises. The minimum size of the air inlet aperture is calculated with the aid of the following formula: • VV ————— 3600 × vS m³/hr ——————— 3600 s/h × m/s [ m2 ] [ m3/h ] [ m/s ] Ain = m² = Ain • VV vS = minimum area of air inlet aperture = Ventilator output = maximum flow speed Note It is to be remembered when choosing exhaust ventilators. The maximum dynamic pressure is determined from the shape and size of the air inlet and outlet apertures together with the respective ducts ( if fitted ). no volume flow can occur.

10. The air inlet aperture Ain should be at least 0.3 Example of artificial ventilation of a compressor station A screw-type compressor. R 1 R 1 BOGE screw-type compressor. is to be operated together with a refrigerant compressed air dryer D 27 in a small installation room.66 m³/min • : 770 m³/min ( see data sheet ) Cooling air req. model S 21.3. compressed air receiver : 5670 m³/hr The required size of air inlet aperture is calculated using ven• tilator output VVttl and the maximum flow speed vS = 3 m/s: • VVttl ————— 3600 × vS 5670 ————— 3600 × 3 0.525 m² Ain Ain Ain = = = Ain = minimum area of air inlet aperture [ m2 ] • [ m3/hr ] VVttl = Ventilator output vS = maximum flow speed [ m/s ] A ventilator with an output of 5670 m³/hr must be installed in the installation room ( The dynamic pressure of the apertures must be taken into account when choosing the ventilator ).The Installation Room 10. The result is the required ventilator output that must be provided in the installation room.5. 180 .8: Compressor station with screw-type compressor. model S 21 • Output V : 2.525 m² in size. model D 27 • Through-flow rate V : 2. cooling compressed air dryer. Structural considerations do not allow natural ventilation. • Ventilator output VVttl Fig. VV2 The two flows of cooling air must be added together. Artificial ventilation with a ventilator is therefore required. VV1 : : 15 kW 4900 m³/hr Refrigerant compressed air dryer.42 m³/min Motor rating • Cooling-air req.

For this reason. The induction air at the location of the compressor contains a high proportion of dirt. 10. Fig. Duct ventilation is possible with sound-insulated compressors. The cool-air ducts direct the air out into the open. cooling air should only be supplied through ducts in the following situations: – Unclean environment. If the compressor rooms are unheated. Under these conditions the air supply should be drawn from a cleaner part of the building. dust. chemical impurities or it contains too much moisture. However. 181 .1 Air inlet ducts It is also possible in principle to supply cooling air to compressors by way of ducts. it may be desirable in Winter to use an air circulation system with part of the heated cooling air being released into the compressor room.6. But they can also be fitted with flap controls to use the heated air for room heating in Winter.3. 60 Pa ( approx. 5 m in length and with the recommended cross-section.S 150 10.9: Circulation of cooling-air in a BOGE screw-type compressor from series S 21 . an air inlet duct reduces the induction volume flow ( dynamic pressure ) and thus has a negative effect on the output of the compressor. The cool air is directed over the compressor and kept together for extraction. The temperature at the compressor’s location is distinctly higher than that in neighbouring rooms or outside the building. 6 mm WH ). BOGE screw-type compressors are fitted with a cooling ventilator that generates a surface pressure of approx. This is possible if a lot of heat is given off by systems and machinery in the compressor room. There is normally no need for an additional exhaust ventilator inside the duct.6 Circulation of cooling-air with inlet and outlet ducts The circulation of cooling air through inlet and outlet ducts is an elegant solution to thermal problems in a compressor installation room. The ducts can be connected to the apertures in the sound insulation hood without difficulty. – High ambient temperature.3. This means that it can force exhaust air through a straight outlet duct of approx.The Installation Room 10.

41 0. The calculation used to determine the required free crosssection of the duct Ad are based on a maximum dynamic pressure in the duct of 50 Pa ( 5 mm WH).0 55.85 1.10 0.0 200. tapering or objects inside.08 0.0 15.3.61 2.10: Extraction of air from a compressor room with a BOGE screw-type compressor.0 75. Drive rating P [ kW ] 4.0 Required flow of cooling-air with exhaust duct • Vd [ m³/hr ] 800 1000 1300 1700 2900 4500 4500 4500 6500 6500 8000 8600 9200 16000 16000 24400 24400 27800 33600 Required free crosssection for duct Ad [ m² ] 0. 5 m of straight outlet duct.26 0.2 Extraction of air through a cool-air duct Ain Ad • Vd Compressor rooms containing individual units can usually be cooled by a appropriately arranged exhaust ventilator or by natural ventilation.5 11. The cross section (radius) required for the duct is therefore much smaller than the wall aperture when using natural or artificial ventilation.0 132. emitting the air into the open • 10.6. 10. When ducts are fitted.48 0.64 0.0 37.49 182 .5 7. The flow speed in the outlet ducts should not exceed 6 m/s. the installation room is not heated as much by waste heat from the compressor.06 2. Fig.0 160.0 30. a flow speed of 4 – 6 m/s.11 1.0 65.0 18. This corresponds to approx.59 0.3.0 45. the use of cool-air ducts is always recommended.23 0. The difference in temperature ∆ t between the inlet and outlet air is approx.24 1.The Installation Room 10. When there are several compressors set up in one installation room.15 0.0 5.0 250.68 0. An increase in the temperature of the cooling-air of ∆ t = 20 K is assumed. 20 K.0 110.13 0.0 90.5 22.33 0.6.3 Required flow of cooling-air Vd and cross-section of duct Ad when using a cool-air duct • The figures for the required flow of cooling air Vd with ducts given in the following table are based on VDMA specification sheet 4363 „Ventilation of installation rooms for air-cooled compressors“. with no bends.13 0.

the dynamic pressure can be over 50 Pa ( 5 mm WH ). filters.6. If the duct has many such features and is very long. part 6 requires the installation of automatic fire safety flaps whenever ventilation ducts pass through a wall. for economical reasons. each compressor must have its own air inlet and outlet duct. When using a collective duct for multiple units. With multiple units.3. A cooling-air duct with sound-insulation cladding radiates less heat to the surroundings and also suppresses noise that comes out of the compressor with the exhaust air. the size of the recommended free cross-section (radius) of the duct must be checked by an expert.4 Information concerning ventilation by ducting All objects or features inside ducts. The cooling-air ducts must never be mounted directly on the compressor housing. automatic check flaps must be used to prevent heated cooling-air flowing over a compressor that is switched off in the installation room and heating the inlet air. BOGE generally recommends that the task of installing the ducts and any associated construction work be given to a specialist company. such as diversions. This means that cooling air stops flowing and the entire cooling effort for the compressor collapses. In this case there is a risk that the cooling ventilator of a screw-type compressor can not overcome the dynamic pressure in the duct. There are appropriate fire safety measures prescribed to prevent fire from spreading through ventilation ducts. roller-shutter flaps. If the duct is long or unfavourably laid. DIN 4102. curvatures. T-pieces and silencers cause an increase in flow resistance and thus an obstacle to the flow of air. Compensators that remove tension and stop the transmission of vibration must always be used. In this case an auxiliary ventilator will have to be installed. be controlled by a thermostat in the installation room. 183 .The Installation Room 10. The air inlet and outlet flaps as well as the ventilators should.

5 Dimensioning the air inlet aperture when using an outlet duct The size of the air inlet aperture A in is dependent on the flow of cooling-air Vd and the maximum flow speed vS in the aperture itself. The minimum size of the air inlet aperture is calculated with the aid of the following formula: • Vd ————— 3600 × vS m³/h ——————— 3600 s/h × m/s [ m2 ] [ m3/h ] [ m/s ] Ain = m² = A in • Vd vS = minimum area of outlet aperture = Ventilator output = maximum flow speed 184 . It is preferable to calculate with a flow speed of vS = 3 m/s. However. if structural considerations do not permit the size of aperture resulting from this calculation.The Installation Room 10.6.3. it is also possible to use a flow speed of vS = 5 m/s.

6 Variations of duct-type ventilation Cooling-air The duct directs the hot exhaust air directly into the open. the inlet air is mostly drawn from heated rooms. hot exhaust air is added to the cold room air through a circulation flap. This guarantees that the cooling-air is warm enough when ambient temperatures are low.The Installation Room 10.3. When outdoor temperatures are hotter ( in Summer ) the duct emits the air directly into the open. This method is recommended if there are high temperatures in the compressor room. Air filters and silencers should be installed in the outlet duct in order to reduce dust and noise in the rooms heated.6. With this configuration.11: Extraction of air into the open using an outlet duct Cooling-air Summer operation Cooling-air Winter operation The outlet duct directs the hot cooling-air directly into the open. Fig. When this method is used. When temperatures in the installation room are cold. The compressor then always operates above the minimum admissible temperature. 10. Fig. The circulatory ventilation prevents the unit from freezing when outside temperatures are below zero. 10.12: Outlet duct with circulation flap Cooling-air Winter operation Cooling-air Summer operation Inlet air Fig. 185 .10. It is also recommended to have auxiliary heating to prevent a cold compressor from freezing during the start-up phase. it is necessary to have an air outlet aperture dimensioned according to the flow of cooling-air in addition to the outlet duct itself.13: Using hot cooling-air for heating When the outdoor temperature is cold (in Winter) duct directs all or some of the heated cooling-air from the compressor into other rooms in the building in order to heat them.

The Installation Room 10.4.1 Example installation plans Installation of a screw-type compressor: an example Druckluftbehälter Compressed air receiver Filter Filter Compressed air Druckluft-Austritt emission Abluft Outlet air Öl-Wasser-Trenner Oil/water separator Bypass Bypass Kondensatableiter Condensate diverter Wasser Water Öl Oil Kondensatleitung Condensate line Inlet Zuluft air Operating side Bedienungsseite HD-Schlauch HP hose Screw-type compressor Schraubenkompressor Refrigerant air dryer Kälte-Drucklufttrockner 1200 Safety distance Sicherheitsabstand acc.4 10. to VDE 0100 nach VDE 0100 186 .

air inlet aperture 0. Zuluftöffnung 0.4m² erf.4.4m 2 HD-Schlauch HP hose Kondensatableiter Bekomat 2 Condensate diverter Bekomat 2 100 50 250 500 445 490 560 Kondensatleitung Condensate line 1160 1200 800 360 300 600 800 Operating side Bedienungsseite 780 Servicing space Wartungsabstand 800 800 Servicing space Wartungsabstand Sicherheitsabstand Safety distance 1200 800 187 .The Installation Room 10.2 Installation of piston-type compressor: an example Wartungsabstand Servicing space 600 Piston-type compressor Kolbenkompressor SCL 1160-25 SCL 1160-25 Druckluftbehälter Compressed air receiver 1000 1000l l Compressed air Submikrofilter Sub-micro filter Druckluft-Austritt F 30 Aktivkohlefilter emission Active carbon G 3/4 F 30 G 3/4 A 30 filter A 30 2310 Öl-Wasser-Trenner Oil/water separator Öwamat 2 Bypass 1410 Kompressoren 755 Kompressoren Wasser Water Öl Kälte-Drucklufttrockner Refrigerant air dryer D 12 D 12 mit Bekomat 2 2 with Bekomat req.

In order to make this heat useful one must know where it occurs and what proportion of it can be economically reclaimed for further use. the heat given off by compressors has been utilised. 9% Heating the motor 4% Residual heat in the compressed air 72 % Oil cooler 13 % Compressed air after-cooler 2% Radiated heat 94 % of energy intake is extracted by the cooling medium ( water/air ) and available for heat recovery Fig. and to heat utility and heating water.Heat recovery 11.1 The heat balance of a compressor station 100 % Electrical intake from the mains To be able to appreciate the possibilities of heat recovery from compressors it must be taken into account that on the basis of the first principle of thermodynamics the entire electricity intake of a compressor is converted into heat. 11. The heat is always discharged with the aid of a coolant.1: Distribution of heat in a screw compressor with oil injection cooling 188 . assumptions should not be based only on the output from the motor that the compressor needs to compress the air. It serves to heat rooms. This coolant contains approx. 11. They approached the compressor makers who developed high performance heat recovery systems. which according to the drive rating lies between 80 % and 96 %. Heat recovery Rising energy costs and increasing environmental awareness led many compressor-users to the view that the enormous potential of compressor heat must not longer be allowed to escape unused. This again increases the amount of heat emitted. When drawing up the balance sheet. One must also consider the efficiency rate of the motor. 4 % remains in the compressed air as residual heat and approx. 94 % of the electrical energy entering the compressor in the form of heat. Approx. Since then. The electric motor itself converts energy into heat. 2 % is lost to the atmosphere by radiation.

The cooling air absorbs the emitted heat and is drawn into an outlet duct with the aid of a ventilator. In this case.1 Room heating through ducting 6 7 5 6 5 8 To utilise the heat emitted by a central compressor station the heated flow of cooling air must be brought through ducts into the rooms to be heated.2 Room heating The most obvious use for compressor heat is to heat rooms. usually close to workplaces. One use of compressor heat for room heating requires a silenced compressor with ducted cooling air. The heating air does not require to be transported over long distances. The flow of cold air passes over the compressor and drive motor. This is only recommended for larger compressors since smaller ones do not provide enough usable heat. Sound insulation is normally required by safety rules.2. diagram of ducting 189 . In this process the cooling air normally heats up to + 50° / + 60°C. there must be adequate cooling for the compressor. 9 2 1 4 3 1 2 3 4 5 = = = = = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = Silenced compressor Inlet duct Outlet duct Additional exhaust ventilator Control flaps ( thermostatically controlled ) Air outlet duct ( Room heating ) Heat exchanger Air outlet duct ( into the open for Summer operation ) Air inlet flap Fig. BOGE screw compressors are all silenced and fitted with an internal ventilator. Of course. most piston compressors ) can not be upgraded later for utilisation of emitted heat. Non-silenced compressors ( e.. 11. 11.g.Heat recovery 11. For this reason they can be connected to a ducting system without difficulty. With the simplest method of room heating the compressor is installed in the room to be heated. This means that the compressor is installed directly in the workshop or storeroom. even if an adjusted sound-insulation hood is fitted. the only ducts required are those to discharge hot air into the open during Summer.2: Op.

a duct directs the cooling air directly into the open. If the outside temperatures are high. This heats the respective rooms. The investment must be in the correct proportion to the heating costs saved. Part 6 requires that self-closing fire safety flaps be installed if the ventilation flaps pass through a wall. 190 . With the aid of these heat exchangers. Before installing an expensive system. The cost savings increase the more the compressor is used.2.3 Economy of room heating The installation costs of room heating can be very high in proportion to to energy costs saved. DIN 4102. + 40°C. Fire safety measures are prescribed to prevent fire spreading through the ventilation ducts. The more the compressor runs. it should be checked that enough heat is generated to justify the expense of a ducting system. These flaps and the ventilators should be controlled by an adjustable room thermostat which monitors the temperature in the heated rooms. water can be heated to a temperature of approx. This hot water can assist a central heating system or be used as utility water.2. 11.2 Operation of room heating Insulated ducts conduct the warm cooling air of a compressor or compressors at low outside temperatures into the building.Heat recovery 11. It is possible to heat exchangers in the ducts. The flow of cooling air is directed by inlet and control flaps. It should be taken into account that the flow of hot air inevitably cools down if it has to travel long distances through a ducting system. the more effective the room heating is.

are not required. Utility or heating water is heated by this hot compressor oil. pressure non-return valve Compressed air aftercooler Heat exchanger Fig. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 = = = = = = = = = = = Intake filter Suction controller Compressor stage Combined compressed air/oil vessel Oil separator Thermostatic oil control valve Oil cooler Oil filter Min. When the water heats in this space it expands and the pressure rises.3: The heat reclamation system BOGE-Duotherm BPT Compressed air outlet 1 2 3 4 5 9 10 The oil heated to approx. Depending on the oil temperature the flow of oil is either sent through the oil cooler and also the heat exchanger or through a bypass. The heated quantity of water is independent of the temperature difference in this process. Seals. – This heat exchanger is normally integrated in the compressor cabinet. stainless steel plates. 11.6 mm should be installed in the line. 8 6 11 Advance 7 6 Return Features – When the stop valves in the water inlet and outlet are closed an enclosed space is formed at the same time.4: Flow diagram of BOGE-Duotherm BPT 191 . An expansion vessel and safety valve must be installed in order to prevent damage to the plate heat exchanger. The heart of this system is a plate heat exchanger consisting of a number of profiled.1 Duotherm BPT The Duotherm BPT-System is used for heating water or hot production water.3 The Duotherm heat exchanger For screw compressors with oil injection cooling there are special heat recovery systems for heating utility water or heating water. A Special process of hard-soldering connects these layered plates together. The water coming in reverse flow through the exchanger is heated up to +70°C. It can be set up separately or fitted on site later. The resulting heat exchanger works very effectively and reliably. – Flush connections for cleaning the heat exchanger must be fitted. which have the inherent risk of leaks.Heat recovery 11. a dirt pan with a maximum pore width of 0. – If the water is very dirty. A heat exchanger is installed in the main flow path of hot oil in the compressor. Operating principle Fig. The piled plates form a mutually isolated two channel system. The Duotherm heat exchangers operate independently of the type of compressor cooling because the heat exchanger is installed as a pre-cooler before the actual air and water cooler. There is a thermostatic oil control valve before and after the heat exchanger. + 90°C by the compressor circuit flows through the plate heat exchanger. 11.3. 11.

The quantity of water heated depends on the temperature difference.5: The heat reclamation system BOGE-Duotherm BSW Compressed air outlet 3 1 2 5 4 9 10 8 6 12 13 Return 11 Advance 7 6 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 = 6 = 7 = 8 = 9 = 10 = 11 = 12 = 13 = Intake filter Suction controller Compressor stage Combined compressed air/oil vessel Oil separator Thermostatic oil control valve Oil cooler Oil filter Min. – Conditions for use Minimum water pressure 0.2 Duotherm BSW The Duotherm BSW-System is used to heat drinking and utility water. Depending on the oil temperature the flow of oil is either sent through the oil cooler and also the heat exchanger or through a bypass.. The water coming in reverse flow through the second pipe bundle can be heated to approx. It can also be set up separately or fitted later on site. The separating liquid transmits the heat to the utility water in the second bundle. The safety area in this double pipe is filled with a non-toxic separation liquid. The emitted impulse can be processed elsewhere ( e. The liquid transmits the heat and in the event of damage it prevents the water from mixing with the oil. Features – The pressure monitor must be set to a value that is at least 20 % below the minimum pressure of the media used. pressure non-return valve Compressed air aftercooler Safety heat exchanger Pressure monitor for aperture Expansion vessel Fig. The heated water is subsequently directed to a appropriate container ( boiler ) from where it can be transported to the hot water circuit. 55°C. + 90°C flows through a pipe bundle.g. A pressure monitor switches immediately in the event of pipe breakage. for an alarm or to shut down the system ).5 bar Maximum water pressure 16 bar Maximum oil pressure 16 bar Maximum pressure of separating liquid 10 bar Maximum temperature ( oil and water ) +100°C If the maximum temperature is exceeded. 11.Heat recovery 11. There is a thermostatic oil control valve before and after the heat exchanger.6: Flow diagram of BOGE-Duotherm BSW 192 . this is a safety heat exchanger. Operating principle The oil from the compressor circuit heated to approx. Since other rules apply in the sanitary area. malfunctions will follow and an alarm will be actuated. The BSW-System is a pipe bundle heat exchanger in which one pipe is inserted into another without making contact. Fig. 11. the BSW safety heat exchanger is integrated in the compressor cabinet. Two independent circuits are kept apart by a separation liquid. – Because of its size. The drinking water can therefore not be contaminated.3.

925 1.– 1149.0 Discharged power [ kW/h ] 8.180 0.217 0.7 163. The values given in the table for the quantity of heat and water have been calculated on the basis of energy retention and the general laws of heat transfer.0 65.1 74.647 0.0 135.5 168.8 17.835 1.0 160.210 0.800 4.– 1387.278 4.7 45.4 30.128 0.818 2.8 197.295 1.6 227. The calculation of savings for heating costs is based on conventional oil heating : – – – – Specific heating value H for heating oil Price of heating oil Heating efficiency Operating hours 38.– 2274.0 132.0 37.4 324.547 1.0 18.3 37.– 447.417 0.0 200.2 53.– 310.520 0.3 14.0 90.420 0.– 1594.609 0.0 480.900 2.0 90.596 0.305 0.714 3.0 44.942 1.7 87.435 0.5 133.8 752.040 1.0 MJ/l 0.295 2.0 75.0 110.152 0. When using a Duotherm BWT system it is not economical to heat utility water to above + 55°C because the amount of water heated is too small.509 0.3 How much energy is it possible to save ? The Duotherm-System makes available 75 % of the electrical power taken into the compressor.5 22.5 54.– 952.565 1.300 0.550 1.– 3373.– 2786.0 15.790 7.0 Quantity of water at ∆t 25 K ∆t 35 K ∆t 50 K 313 → 338 K 293 → 328 K 293 → 343 K [ m3/h ] [ m3/h ] [ m3/h ] 0.0 110.9 Usable quantity of heat [ MJ/h ] 32.170 2.2 63.272 1.590 Cost savings at 1000 hrs [€] 225.545 3.Heat recovery 11.– 1869.7 24.0 397.3 208.– 765.363 0. and heat loss is not taken into account because local conditions vary.895 3.– 5277.– 193 .8 109.1 266.– 4251.0 250.590 5.095 3.305 0.346 1.– 373.0 45.782 0. The values given assume continuous compressor operation.20 €/l 75 % 1000 hrs Driverating [ kW ] 11.0 55.885 2.0 30.9 63. They are in principle applicable for both Duotherm systems.118 1.6 605.9 12.255 0.743 0.085 1.210 2.136 5.3.– 616. This takes in the form of heat discharged by the compressor oil.

This analysis can then be compared with the average running time of the compressor. A principle decision must be made whether to use the emitted heat for room heating or for utility and heating water. it is not wise to attempt to force heat from a small compressor. This comparison then allows the true value of the heat recovery system to be seen.Heat recovery 11. 194 . Compressor usage is also a major factor. The longer it operates. They must be taken into account because they are a big influence on the amortisation time of the system. Remember that room heating is seldom used in Summer. It is normally only worth the expense with large screw and piston compressors and combined systems. It will also show whether reclamation can cover the demand for heating or whether a second heating system is needed.4 Closing remarks concerning heat recovery Compressors offer enormous possibilities for saving energy and costs through exploitation of heat emission. a needs analysis should always be made for the heat requirement. and it is available continuously and in ample supply. The usable energy rises with the capacity of the compressor. Before such a system is installed. The investment costs for a heat recovery system depend much on local conditions. the more heat there is. However.

A crack is a single. – Sinusoidal sound. If the vibrations are emitted from the ambient air they are known as airborne sound. This is the superimposition of several tones. Transient noise is an irregular vibration. columns of air. Several sinusoidal vibrations superimpose and form a non-sinusoidal vibration. 12.Sound 12. Frequency of vibration Sinusoidal sound The frequency is the number of pressure fluctuations during a unit of time. In this case they are known as structure-borne sound. machines etc. It is normally measured in Hz ( vibrations per second ). Transient noise Vibration form A distinction is made between different forms of vibration which cause the different impressions of sound: Time Crack Fig. The tone with the lowest frequency defines the overall perception of the sound. The other tones ( top tones ) give the impression of sound colour. – Crack. It is a mixture of very many frequencies or different magnitudes. The study of sound is called acoustics.These can be strings. membranes. 12. – Transient noise.1: Impressions of sound – Tone. gases and liquids can transmit the vibrations to solid objects. A tone ( pure tone ) is a sinus vibration. Starting from a sound source.These are known as sound sources. Vibrating bodies of all aggregate conditions can transmit sound waves. 195 . rods. plates.1. 12. a vibrating body. The vibrating bodies. Amplitude (sound pressure ) Tone It corresponds to the impression of loudness perceived by human beings. liquids and gases in the form of pressure fluctuations( pressure waves ).1 Sound The nature of sound Sound waves are mechanical vibrations of an elastic medium.1 Sound perception There are the following connections between the vibrations of airborne sound coming from the vibrations of a sound source and the human perception of sound: Amplitude of vibration The amplitude is the periodic deviation of pressure that occurs in a sound wave. This corresponds to the impression of tone perceived by human beings. short and sharp report. they spread in solid bodies.

the structural conditions and other sound sources near to the sound intensity.g. 12. 12. There is often no need to carry out extensive measuring. Using the sound intensity of a machine.3 Sound intensity The sound intensity indicates the sound energy radiated by a sound source per second.2 12.2 Sound level To be able to handle acoustic sizes better.. 2 × 10-4 Pa with the ticking of a clock and approx. It is measured in Pa ( 10-5 bar ). The sound pressure level is set in proportion to the reference pressure p0 = 2 × 10-5 Pa and pu in a logarithm. The levels as logarithm of a proportional size are dimensionless. 65 Pa with the start of an aircraft in the direct vicinity. Acoustics uses almost only levels to indicate sizes.2. the value is set in proportion with a reference size put in a logarithm. Sound pressure is heavily dependent on various factors e. the spatial circumstances etc. the sound output of the source.2.1 Important terminology in acoustics Sound pressure ~ Sound pressure p is the periodic pressure deviation ( over and under pressure and alternating pressure ) that occurs in a sound wave. It is a machine-specific size ( emission size ) and can be influenced by sound insulation measures among other methods. In gaseous media sound pressure is superimposed over the existing gas pressure p. The following applies for the sound pressure level: ~ p = 20 lg —— dB p0 Lp LP ~ p p0 = Sound pressure level = Sound pressure = Reference sound pressure [ dB ] [ Pa ] [ 2 × 10-5 Pa ] The other sizes in acoustics are treated in similar fashion. it is possible to calculate the sound pressure level of a certain location.Sound 12. The designation dB ( Decibel ) is added. taking into account the distance. Sound pressure moves between approx.2. 196 .

D – Evaluation curve for aircraft noise. dB ( A ) suffixed. whereby a sound pressure of 100 Pa nearly always leads to the immediate loss of hearing in humans. The level of loudness is given in Phon. The audibility range offers a summary of the sound pressure and frequency ranges perceptible to humans. The human sense of hearing does not perceive the various sound pressures and frequencies with the same intensity. Depending on the frequency. Some areas of application for different evaluation curves are given below. The perceptible sound pressure is between 10-5 Pa and 100 Pa. The intensity at which a person perceives sound pressure is a physiological size that depends on the sense of hearing. 12.2 Assessed sound level dB ( A ) Acoustic sizes must be adapted to the perception range of the human ear in a way that they make also technical sense. At 1000 Hz the sound intensity level matches the unassessed sound pressure level. C – Evaluation curve for linear audibility range. lower ones as infrasonic. Higher frequencies are described as supersonic.g. The level of loudness is an empirically determined size. An evaluated sound level is indicated by having the letter of the evaluation curve e.Sound 12.2: The human hearing range 12. The perception of loudness has been tested in series of experiments with different people and an average value formed. B – Evaluation curve for LN = 60 . the real sound pressure level is adjusted with certain values to the sensitivity of the ear.1 The sound intensity level Sound pressure is a physical size and can therefore be measured.3. This is why comparative measurements are very difficult.60 Phon. Audibility range Audibility threshold Frequency [ Hz ] Fig. There are valid international evaluation curves for these adjustment values. A – Evaluation curve for LN = 30 ..3 Human perception of sound Pain threshold Sound intensity[ dB ] The human ear can normally only hear frequencies from 16 to 20000 Hz .3. The sound intensity level can not be measured with technical instruments. if not impossible.90 Phon. 12. The A-evaluation curve is the one primarily used in measuring the noise of compressors and other machinery. Sound measurement as standardised in DIN 45635 uses A-evaluated sound pressure levels. The bottom limit of the curve shows the audibility threshold and top curve the pain threshold. The largest range of sound pressure perceptible to the human ear is at around 1000 Hz. 197 .

70 dB ( A ). which lies between the audibility threshold and the pain threshold. ld Frequency [ Hz ] 198 . Pain threshold Sound pressure level [ dB ] no rm al au di bi lit yt hr es ho The ticking of a clock corresponds to a sound pressure level of approx.Sound 12. Normal conversation at a distance of around 1 m corresponds to a sound pressure level of approx.3. together with various examples of differing loudness. 20 dB ( A ).3 Loudness in comparison The following diagram shows the hearing range of an average person.

conduct sound very well. At a distance of 10 m the sound pressure generated by the compressor is only around 53 dB ( A ). with reference to the 1 m distance value. reflection causes a diffuse field of undirected sound waves. 12.4. Materials with a high elasticity module. Rooms of this type are used to measure sound pressure and the like with scientific accuracy.4 Behaviour of sound The dissemination and general behaviour of sound depends on various factors.4. as shown in the following table: Distance from the sound source [m] 1 0 2 5 5 12 10 16 25 23 50 28 100 32 Sound pressure level reduction[ dB ( A ) ] These starting values refer to an unrestricted dissemination of sound over an open area. Machinery and compressors nearly always radiate sound energy in the form of a semisphere because they are normally on a firm base. It must also be taken into account that the sound output of a machine ( the sound source ) remains constant. such as brick walls.1 Distance from the sound source The sound pressure generated from the source always diminishes with increasing distance. If a room is padded with specially arranged insulative pyramids the result is an acoustically dead room without reflection. Example An ultra-silenced BOGE screw compressor S 21 is installed in a large hall. The damping effect is usually low. reflect a large amount of occurrent sound. The general level of sound pressure in the room is increased by reflected sound. In rooms. Reflections direct sound Fig. This reflected sound is known as reverberation. The sound not reflected is absorbed by walls or objects. A certain amount of reflection from normal. It generates according to DIN 45635 a sound pressure level of 69 dB ( A ). 12. 12. The shape of the surface heavily influences the reflections.Sound 12. The constant sound output of a source disseminates over a greater area (dispersion) with increasing distance. Reverberant materials with smooth surfaces. The material conducts the absorbed sound further and damps it.2 Reflection and Absorption A part of the sound is reflected by the walls and other objects. The sound pressure level then goes down. reverberant ground is taken into account. such as steel. It is usually transmitted back to the air at another point. The form of the sound wave plays an important part in this.2: The dissemination of sound in an enclosed space 199 .

There are various measures that can be taken to reduce the continuation of sound in ducts or pipes: – Linear insulation.. similar to walls. rock wool ).Sound 12. Measures must be taken against the unrestricted dissemination of sound in ducts.3: Sound insulation (damping) by walls 12. This absorbs a large part of the sound energy. 12. Sound damping by the air depends much on the temperature and humidity of the air. When humidity is high e..4. the damping effect is greater. A flowing medium and the reflections in a narrow duct assist the dissemination of sound. Coming from a silenced compressor. Damping of airborne sound is achieved by porous or fibrous absorption materials with a low elasticity module and a large area mass ( kg/m² ).g.4. Fig. It proceeds unimpeded through the ventilation apertures and into the heated rooms. The sound. The great drawback of this form of insulation lies in its high resistance to flow.4: Absorption silencer with straight elements 200 . This reduces the sound energy and the sound pressure level in the duct. Reflected Sound Absorbed sound Fig. Under normal conditions it is only perceptible from a distance of 200 m. Some frequencies are affected more and others less. particularly when the hot outlet air of a compressor is being used for room heating. continues through the duct system. 12. Insulation of this type is not recommended in duct systems without a big exhaust ventilator. which here is not affected by the silencer. The ducts are lined with strongly absorbent materials.g. a sound wave is directed into the air outlet duct. – Absorption insulation. in fog.3 Damping sound Incident sound Sound Damping is the conversion of sound energy into heat generated by the friction of particles against each other. The sound is absorbed in this process.5 Dissemination of sound in pipes and ducts Special laws apply for the dissemination of sound in pipes and ducts. A part of the duct is loosely filled with sound absorbent material ( e. The extent to which sound is damped by appropriate materials also depends on the frequency spectrum of the sound.

75. When there are several sound sources with different levels the correlations are very complicated. They depend much on the structure of the room. The more sound energy emitted. Each generates according to DIN 45635 sound pressure of 69 dB ( A ). The correlations are not linear.L2 ).6.5: Sound strengthened by two sources with different levels 201 . The total sound pressure in this case is approx. The overall sound pressure level is therefore at 74 dB ( A ) [ 69 + 5 ].6 Sound pressure level from many sound sources If there are several sources of sound in one room. the sound pressure level will rise. the higher the sound pressure. Therefore. They may deviate sharply in individual cases because many influencing factors are not taken into consideration. The numbers given here should be seen as reference values only. the sound pressure levels of the individual sources and their frequency spectrum.1 Several sound sources with the same level When there are two or more sound sources with the same sound pressure level in a large room.3 ] Fig.4.4.L2 [ dB ( A ) ] Example A compressor with a sound pressure according to DIN 45635 of 69 dB ( A ) and a compressor with a sound pressure of 74 dB ( A ) are installed in the same room. 12.3 = 75.2 Two sound sources with different levels The total sound pressure of two different sound pressures ( L1 + L2 ) can be determined with the aid of a diagram. The perceived intensity of the sound increases. [ 74 – 69 = 5 → 74 + 1.4. 12. only the two simplest cases are given here. L 1 + L 2 → L1 + ∆ L ∆ L [ dB ( A ) ] The diagram shows by how many Decibels ( ∆L ) the higher of the two sound levels L1 rises in dependency on the difference between the two levels( L1 .3 dB ( A ). 12. the correlation is relatively simple.6. Example There are three ultra-silenced BOGE screw compressors S 21 in a large hall. The following table shows the increase of the overall sound pressure level without taking possible reflection or transient noise into account: 2 3 3 5 4 6 5 7 10 10 15 12 20 13 Number of sound sources Increase of sound pressure level [ dB ( A ) ] To obtain the overall sound pressure level the increase in sound pressure must be added to the sound pressure levels of the individual sources.Sound 12. when looking at the correlations. L1 .

6: Noise as a health hazard One form of sound is noise.Sound 12. 202 . annoying or painful sound. This is undesired. 12. incurable psychic reactions Anger Irritation Fig. If this acoustic stress continues for several years it can cause permanent damage to hearing. 70 dB ( A ) disturbs speech communication. stress falling work-rate falling concentration noise deafness damage to inner ear.5 The effects of noise 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 Sound pressure level [ dB ( A ) ] mechanical damage deafness 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Hearing impairment vegetative reactions nervous effects. Noise has various adverse effects depending on its sound pressure: – Disturbed concentration – Sound pressure of approx. – Sound pressure of 110 dB ( A ) leads to a reduction of hearing in a very short time. – Sound pressure of 135 dB ( A ) and above causes immediate deafness in most cases. If this stress continue for several hours it is very likely to result in permanent damage to hearing. – Sound pressure of 85 dB ( A ) usually leads to a temporary reduction of hearing after an 8-hour shift.

it is often beneficial to install silenced compressors. self-extinguishing foam material. The silencing material used for compressors is therefore usually mineral cotton ( rock wool or fibreglass ) and fluorocarbonfree.7: Silenced BOGE screw compressors 203 . – Estimating sound levels at a distance. – Planning noise protection measures. 12. – Checking noise emissions with respect to safety laws. – Insensitivity to dust. This can be much higher if there are several unsilenced compressors in one room. Fig. – Insensitivity to oil. 12. – Comparing different machinery.7 Silencing on compressors Compressors sometimes emit sound levels of over 85 dB ( A ) when in operation. that is installed in the steel sheet case. and reduces pressure loss in pneumatic lines. This avoids the cost of long lines and separate compressor rooms.6 Noise measurement When measuring noise at compressors and similar machinery the main method used is the enveloping surface method of DIN 45635 or other norms like Cagi-Pneurop or PN 8 NTC 2. thus making the results comparable.3. The results determined are useful for: – Comparing similar machinery.Sound 12. Since the Work Safety Act recommends the wearing of protective equipment from 85 dB ( A ) upwards and prescribes it from 90 dB ( A ). Noise is mainly measured at compressors and machinery to find out whether certain requirements are being met. hardly flammable. These norms define the conditions for measuring the noise emitted by compressors and machinery to the outside air ( noise output ) according to standard methods. Certain demands are placed on sound-insulation materials: – Not combustibility. Silenced compressors can be installed close to workplaces.

The main criterion in acquiring a compressor system must therefore be energy consumption. depending on the hours of operation per year.1: Composition of compressed air costs with differing operating hours per year It is easy to see that energy is the greatest cost factor. In determining the cost ratios.10 €/kWh and a depreciation period of 5 years with an interest rate of 8 %. The servicing and maintenance costs are more or less negligible.7 87 10.3 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2000 Bh/J Oh/Y 4000 Bh/J Oh/Y 7500 Bh/J Oh/Y Servicing and maintenance Energy costs Capital service Servicing and maintenance costs Energy costs Capital service Fig. – Capital service. With single shift operation this is normally 2000 hrs/yr. There is a breakdown of energy costs on the following page. 13.1 Costs of compressed air Composition of compressed air costs The operating costs for compressed air comprise three factors: – Servicing and maintenance costs. oil filters and the like.5 84 13. The energy costs include the costs for electricity and fuel. pre-processing and pipeline ).5 2. 4000 hrs/yr with 2-shift operation. calculations are based on electricity costs of 0. Capital service includes the interest and repayment on the items invested in ( compressor. spare parts and consumed materials such as lubrication and cooling oil. The servicing costs are for the wages of the fitter.1 Cost factor ratios The individual factors can vary in size. – Energy costs. 13.Costs of compressed air 13. air filters. These are needed to heat the compressor. These are the depreciation and interest costs. and the costs for service of capital equipment are hardly a major item in the long term. Cost factors Hours of operation per year 2000 Oh/y 4000 Oh/y 7500 Oh/y [%] [%] [%] 2 73 25 2.1. and 7500 hrs/yr with 3-shift operation. 204 . 13.

10 3.45 (7) Costs per m3 compressed air • CV = C ( 6 ) / V ( 1 ) Costs per year Compressed air requirement ( AR ) Hours of operation per year Compressed air requirement per year AR/Y = Oh × AR €/ m3 0.89 92.000 (9) Total costs per year CY = AR/Y ( 8 ) × CV ( 7 ) €/ Year 6840. to PN2 CPTC2 Ambient temperature t = 20° C Operating pressure bar 8 BOGE Screw compressor S 40 (1) m3/h 303 (2) Electrical power requirement of compressor of drive belt of transmission of fan of overall system ( Pe ) kW kW kW kW kW 31.Costs of compressed air 13.5 (3) Motor efficiency rating ( η ) with IP 54 protection (4) Total intake ( Pi ) from electricity supply Pi = Pe ( 2 ) × 100 / η ( 3 ) kW 34.47 (5) (6) Electricity price ( c ) Electricity costs per hour C = Pi ( 4 ) × c ( 5 ) €/ kWh €/ h 0. 205 .0114 (8) m3/h Bh m3 300 2000 600.2 Cost-effectiveness calculation for energy costs Maker Type Model • FAD of complete system ( V ) acc.– ( 10 ) Additional costs per year The energy cost calculation takes no account of possible idling times.

general Filter apparatus.1 A. general Diaphragm compressor Rotary piston compressor Liquid ring compressor Reciprocating compressor Roots Compressor Screw compressor Turbo-Compressor Rotary vane compressor Rotary Compressor Filters Fluid filter. part 3. general Active carbon filter Gas-sorption filter 206 . Only the parts of the norm relevant for compressed air generation are reproduced here. and to show the procedure used.1. Compressors and pumps Compressor. general Gas filter. These picture symbols are used for standard representation in flow diagrams for process systems. general Liquid filter. general Air filter. installation and operation of process systems.1 Symbols Picture symbols defined by DIN 28004 The following picture symbols are standardised by DIN 28 004.Appendix A. planning. Flow diagrams are used for communication among all persons involved with the development.

general Non-return through-valve Non-return flap Fitting with constant setting action Fitting with safety function Miscellaneous Dryer. general Condensate drain Vessel/receiver.Appendix Separators Separator. general Shut-off through valve Shut-off 3-way valve Shut-off through cock 3-way cock Main slide valve Butterfly valve Non-return fitting. Rotation separator Dust separator Fittings Gravity separator Deposit chamber Shut-off fitting. general 207 . general Centrifugal separator.

return stroke by spring power Double-action cylinder Double-action cylinder with singleside. adjustable One-way restrictor 208 . Energy transformation Compressor Vacuum pump Pneumatic motor with one direction of flow Pneumatic motor with two directions of flow Single-action cylinder.Appendix A.78 ). Only excerpts from the norm are reproduced here. non-adjustable damping Double-action cylinder with twoside. return stroke by external power Single-action cylinder.2 Symbols for contact units and switching devices as per ISO 1219 The following symbols are standardised by ISO 1219 ( 8.1. adjustable damping Non-return valves Non-return valve without spring Non-return valve with spring Controlled non-return valve Flow control valves Throttle valve with constant restriction Throttle valve. The symbols are used to make pneumatic and hydraulic circuit diagrams for describing the operation of respective controls and systems.

Appendix Direction valves 2/2-Way valve with shut-off neutral position 3/2-Way valve with open neutral position 4/3-Way valve with shut-off middle position 2/2-Way valve with open neutral position 3/3-Way valve with shut-off middle position 5/2-Way valve 3/2-Way valve with shut-off neutral position 4/2-Way valve 4/3-Way valve Middle position Work direction vented Pressure valves Diaphragm non-return valve Pressure relief valve. T X. vent Control lines 209 . manually operated Emergency valve adjustable. adjustable Pressure control valve without drain aperture. Y. B. C P Work line Pneumatic connection R. with air vent Pressure control valve with drain aperture. adjustable Short description of connections A. S. adjustable Throttle valve adjustable. Z Drain.

hand-operated Water separator.Appendix Energy transmission Compressed air source Work line Control line Line connection ( fixed ) Line intersection Flexible line Drain with pipe connection Pressure connection ( closed ) Pressure connection ( with connecting line) Compressed air receiver Dryer Lubricator Filter Water separator. automatic emptying Filter with automatic water separator Cooler Service unit ( simple representation ) 210 .

Appendix Miscellaneous devices Pressure measuring device Differential pressure measuring device Temperature measuring device Compressed air measuring device Ammeter Flow measuring device Volumemeter Pressure switch Flow probe Pressure probe Temperature probe 211 .

2642 1.2248 1.K.ft.03937 3.55 x 10-3 0.inch sq.16 6. x 645.06102 0.736 to N kW Temperature from °C x (°C x 1.5+Atm.388 28.3 0. to bar(abs) bar(abs) Force from N kW x 0. to • from psia psig x 0.155 10.inch cu.0929 to mm² cm² m² Volume from cm³ dm³(litre) dm³(litre) dm³(litre) m³ x 0.Conversion Table Length from mm m m x 0.inch sq.3048 0.yard x 16.914 to mm m m Surface from mm² cm² m² x 1.0353 35.308 to • from cu.32 4.454 0.ft.094 to • from inch foot yard x 25.07+Atm.8) + 32 to • from °F x (°F -32) / 1.31 0.07 0.03531 0.281 1.764 to cm³ dm³(litre) dm³(litre) dm³(litre) m³ Volume flow from l/min m³/min m³/h x 0.8 to °C 212 .0283 1.588 to • from cfm cfm cfm x 28.) gallon(US) cu.5 14.4 0.452 0. gallon(U.545 3.36 to • from pound force(lbf) HP x 4.22 0.7 to l/min m³/min m³/h Pressure from bar(abs) bar(abs) x 14.785 0.76 to • from sq.

146 Installation room 169 Intake filter 49 Intermittent control 54 Intermittent control. 156 5 57 Condensate Disposal 102 171 Compressed air consumption Condesate drain Condensate quantity Condensate separator Compressed air receiver Dust separator 103 74 143 95 H Harmful area Heat exchanger Heat reclamation 38 191 188 Compressed air quality Planning tips Condensate treatment Connection line Control Control unit • Cooling air flowVK Costs Compressed air Compressed air loss ARS concept 108 151 51 59 I Idling control 54 Idling mode ( L1 ) 52 Inspection 144.Index A Absorption Adsorption Active carbon Adsorber ARS Atmospheric humidity Autotronic 85 86 100 59 72 60 Compressed air requirement Allowances Mean operation time Simultaneity factor 110. 117 121 117 118 Drive motor Dryer Arrangement Operating conditions 48 91 81 193 191. 151 213 . 71 122 18 7 79 114 111 110 113 112 115 120 69 Compressor installation Compressor layout Piston compressor Screw compressor 170 133 137 35 24 24 36 34 Compressors Axial Displacement Dynamic Radial Roots Filter mechanisms Filter separation rate Fire safety rules Flow Fluidics Frequency control 98 93 171 13. 21 7 204 205 93 1 68. delayed 55 Isobar 8 Isochor 8 Isotherm 8 Compressed air receiver Compressed air storage Condensate separation Determining volume Fittings Installation Norm series Pulsation damping Set-up 142 142 143 129 147 143 129 140 173 174 204 122 D Dew point Distribution line 73 150. 192 Compressor Ambient temperature • Cooling air flow VK Cycle interval Diaphragm Free piston Heat balance Liquid ring Lubricant Reciprocating piston Rotary vane Running time Screw Space requirement Stop time Summary Notes for installation Types of construction 24 170 174 131 29 30 188 32 50 27 31 131 33 172 131 26 172 25 Duotherm heat exchanger Cost savings Duotherm BSW Dust separator Dying Absorption Adsorption Membrane drying Over-compression Refrigerated drying 95 80 85 86 84 82 83 B Basic units Blaise Pascal law Boyle-Mariotte law 6 3 7 F Filter Active carbon MicroOperating pressure PrePressure loss ∆p Sterile 99 97 94 96 94 101 C Choice of compressor Collective line Combined compressor systems Compressed air Advantages Applications Composition Costs Energy costs Filters History Impurities Loss Possible applications Properties Quality Cylinders Cylindrical nozzles Nozzles Spray nozzles Spray paint guns Tools Total 139 152 141 14 2.

Part 3 ISO 1219 ( 8.Index L Laws Pressure Equipment Directive 144 Pipe length. 148 42 127 47 42 186 43 Pipe inside diameter di Bar diagramme Determining by calculation Determining by graph 214 .78 ) Q Quality classes 79 V Vacuum pumps Ventilators Ventiliation Air inlet ducts Artificial Compressor rooms Cool air duct Ducting Natural O ÖWAMAT Oil-water separator Operating modes Operation mode ( L2 ) Output 109 109 52 53 38 24 24 174 181 178 176 182 181 177 R Ratiotronic Refrigeration drying Regeneration Cold External hot Internal hot Vacuum- 60 81 86 87 89 88 90 Volume • Volume flow V 9 11 P Part-load Part-load control Physical fundamentals Picture symbols Piston compressor Area of application Assemblies Control Cooling Example installation 53 56 8 206 37 125 41 40 39 187 163 161 162 Reynolds number Re Ring main Room heating Economy 156 150 189 190 S Safety rules Compressed air receiver 142 Safety valve Screw compressor Area of application Assemblies Compression process Example installation Method of operation 49. equivalent Pipeline 123 123 123. 124 Dimensioning Marking Material Nominal width 160 158 168 164 159 Leakage Leakage quantity Determining SI-System Sound Sound dissemination Sound intensity level Sound level Assessed. dB ( A ) 6 199 200 196 196 197 Pipeline material Copper pipes Plastic pipes Seamless steel pipes Stainless steel pipes Threaded pipes 164 166 167 165 165 164 Loudness level 198 197 M Main line MCS Motor cycles Determining Allowed Pipe system 149 62 132 132 Pressure loss ∆p with compressed air dryer without dryer 149 157 155 154 Sound perception Sound pressure Stopped/stationary ( L0 ) Stub line Suction rate Supertronic Switching symbols 195 196 52 151 38 61 208 Multiple systems 152 Pneumonics Pressure Pressure definitions Pressure dew point Determining on pressure relief 5 10 51 73 77 78 T Temperature Tongue valve Treatment Types of control 9 49 68 54. 60 N Noise Safety directives Effects 203 202 206 208 Pressure loss ∆p Pressure ranges 156 17 Norms DIN 28004.

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