Air India Flight 182 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Kanishka Bombing) Air India

Flight 182 Boeing 747-237B Emperor Kanishka landing atLondon Heathrow Airport on 10 June 1985, a few days before the explosion Date Type Site Passengers Crew Fatalities Survivors Aircraft type Aircraft name Operator Tail number Flight origin Stopover Destination 23 June 1985 Bombing Atlantic Ocean South of Ireland 307 22 329 (all) 0 Boeing 747-237B Emperor Kanishka Air India VT-EFO Montréal-Mirabel Airport, Montreal, Quebec, Canada London Heathrow Kingdom International

Airport, London,England, United

Palam International Airport, New Delhi, India

Air India Flight 182 was an Air India flight operating on the Montréal-LondonDelhi route. On 23 June 1985, the aeroplaneoperating on the route — a Boeing 747-237B (c/n 21473/330, reg VT-EFO) named after Emperor Kanishka — was blown up by a bomb while in Irish airspace, at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9,400 m), and crashed into the Atlantic Ocean. 329 people perished, including 280 Canadian citizens, mostly of Indian birth or descent, and 22 Indians. [1] The incident was the largestmass murder in modern Canadian history, and the deadliest act of air terrorism before 9/11. It was the first bombing of a 747 jumbo jet, preceding the better-known 1988 bombing of Americans aboard Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie Scotland which was also brought down by explosives placed in a radio inside a bag without its passenger boarding. The explosion and downing of the carrier occurred within an hour of the fatal Narita Airport Bombing which also originated from Canada without the passenger for the bag that exploded on the ground before being placed on another Air India flight. Evidence from the explosion pointed to a related attempt to blow up two airliners simultaneously by the alleged bomb maker who had purchased a stereo tuner and other parts for the device in Canada and to other possible associates in Canada who had their conversations wiretapped. Investigation and prosecution took almost 20 years and was the most expensive trial in Canadian history, costing nearlyCAD $130 million. The main suspects in the bombing were the members of the Sikh separatist Babbar Khalsa and other related groups. Though a handful of members would be arrested and tried, due to a lack of solid evidence and various legal and investigation errors, Inderjit Singh Reyat was the only person convicted of involvement in the bombing, after pleading guilty in 2003 to manslaughter. He was sentenced to 15 years in prison for building the bombs that exploded at Narita airport and aboard Flight 182. [2] The Governor General-in-Council in 2006 appointed former Supreme Court justice John Major to conduct a commission of inquiry and his report was completed and released on 17 June 2010. It was found that a "cascading series of errors" by theGovernment of Canada, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service had allowed the terrorist attack to take place.[3] [edit]Pre-incident timeline Most official accounts place responsibility for the attack on Sikh extremism, though many groups believe their movements have been unfairly blamed. Tensions go back before the Partition of India in 1947 which resulted in much violence and hardship. The partition created the largely Muslim state of Pakistan and India. The state of Punjab was also divided. Later arose the Khalistan movement to create another Sikh homeland in the Punjab region of India, harking back to the 18th century Sikh Empire. Canada's Security Services of the RCMP had followed the Khalistan movement since 1974, but did not consider them to be a threat until 1981. Sikh immigration to Canada began before the early 1900s

where they suffered discrimination in British Columbia. [4] During the 1970s, many of who would become the leaders and members of the Babbar Khalsa such as Talwinder Singh Parmar, Ajaib Singh Bagri, Ripudaman Singh Malik and Inderjit Singh Reyat had settled in Canada. By the 1980s, the area around Vancouver had become the largest center of Sikh population outside India. [5] The Babbar Khalsa in its modern day form was created as a result of the violent clash between rival Nirankari and Akhand Kirtani Jatha sects on Vaisakhi April 13, 1978, where thirteen Sikhs were killed. The founders of this panthic group vowed to avenge the death of Sikhs. On 24 April 1980, Gurbachan Singh, the "Baba" (head) of the Nirankaris, was killed; responsibility for this killing was claimed by Babbar Khalsa. Talwinder Singh Parmar led the militant wing of AKJ which became Babbar Khalsa to "punish" the Nirankaris who had been cleared on wrongdoing.[6] On November 19, 1981 Talwinder Singh Parmar was among militants who escaped from a shoot out in which 2 Indian police were gunned down outside the house of Amarjit Singh Nihang in Ludhiana district. This gained Babbar Khalsa and its chief notoriety.[7] In 1982, India issued a warrant for Parmar's arrest for six charges of murder, stemming from the killing of police officers.[8] India notified Canada that Parmar was a wanted terrorist in 1981, and asked for his extradition in 1982, which Canada denied in July 1982. [9] After an INTERPOL alert, Parmar was arrested while attempting to enter Germany. Germany chose to handle the case locally rather than hand him over to India. Parmar went on a hunger strike to win his right to turban and vegetarian meals in the Düsseldorf jail. After India received information that Parmar had made assassination threats against Indira Gandhi, they found that Germany had decided that the evidence was weak, and he had been expelled and released to Canada on June 1984 after nearly a year in jail.[10] On June 3–6 of 1984, the Khalistan movement was sparked into action as Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi ordered Operation Blue Star, the violent storming of the most sacred of all Sikh shrines, the Golden Temple [11] The separatists, led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (who was killed) had allegedly amassed weapons in the Sikh temple Some independent estimates ran as high as 1500 civilian deaths, which led to an uproar amongst Sikhs worldwide. On October 31, 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi wasassassinated by two of her Sikh bodyguards who were honoured[by whom?] in 2008 as "martyrs of the Sikh nation" for avenging the military attack on the Golden Temple. After rumours that "Sikhs were distributing sweets" to celebrate the killing, thousands of Sikhs would be killed in retaliatory violence of the 1984 anti-Sikh riots by an enraged majority Hindu population.[12] That summer shortly after Blue Star, Parmar had visited auto mechanic and electrician Inderjit Singh Reyat who lived on Duncan, a small logging community north of Victoria on Vancouver Island to ask Reyat to construct a bomb, though Reyat would later claim he had no idea what such as device could be used for. Reyat was known to have been asking various people in the small community about dynamite so that he could blast tree stumps on his property. [13] Reyat had also discussed explosives to a co-worker while expressing anger at Indian Government and Indira Gandhi in particular.[14] That summer and fall, Ajaib Singh Bagri accompanied Parmar as his right hand in the armed struggle against the Indian government. They travelled across Canada to rally Sikhs to the cause of avenging the bloody attack on the Golden Temple. The meeting would be used as fundraisers for the Babbar Khalsa. A former head priest in Hamilton testified that Bagri stated "the Indian Government is our enemy, the same way the Hindu society is our enemy‖ Bagri told the congregation ―Get your weapons ready so we can take revenge against the Indian Government‖. Bagri called for action as ―We are slaves in Punjab. Our brothers and sisters are being killed and so we have to stand up for ourselves. Nobody‘s going to help us. So to make our own state we need an army, we need ammunition, we need rifles to fight with the Indian Government to make our own state, Khalistan‖[15] Bagri worked as a forklift driver at a sawmill near the town of Kamloops, but was also known as a powerful preacher in the Indo-Canadian community.[16] [edit]Bagri Speech On July 28, 1984 the founding convention of the World Sikh Organization was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The WSO's Constitution was committed to diplomacy and non-violence, declaring it would ―strive for an independent Sikh homeland by peaceful means.‖ Though Parmar was blocked at the border because he had already been put on a 24 hr watch, Bagri made an inspiring hour-long speech declaring "until we kill 50,000 Hindus, we will not rest" before an enraged crowd of 4,000 people that would become infamous at his later trial.[17] Bagri defended hijackers who had forced the hated Indian government into negotiations with the Sikh leadership, and was critical of Gandhian non-violence. "We are to die in the battlefield, fighting, by sacrificing ourselves. To die such a death, which is the mission of the Khalsa, which is our religion".[18]Militant Islamic Kashmir and Afghan rebels also were also invited to the rally.[19] An Afghan Mujahadeen agreed "we well bring together all movements against India because India allies itself with the Third World and the Soviet Union." A professional translator would testify that Bagri's speech in Punjabi had been distorted by failing to understand "its context within Sikh history and literature", rejecting that Bagri had urged Sikhs to take revenge against all Hindus. However, he allowed that Bagri was trying to "inflame passions and arouse national pride"[20] [edit]Fall 1984 Bombing Plot In the fall of 1984, at least two informers reported to authorities of first abortive plot to bomb Air India 182 which flew out of Montreal at that time. In August 1984, known criminal Gerry Boudreault claimed Talwinder Parmar showed him with a suitcase stuffed with $200,000 to plant a bomb, but but decided "I had done

a man calling himself Mr. The repairman knew his friend did not own a camper. Reyat also bought smokeless gunpowder from the sporting goods store. high officials in India".[33][34] Johal was an avid follower of Talwinder Singh Parmar. since his seat from Toronto to Montréal and Montréal to Bombay was unconfirmed. [27] [edit]Bomb Tests By mid-May. In that case. "has claimed responsibility for more than forty assasinations of moderate Sikhs and other persons in the Punjab" and "penned its nameto threatening letters to . Reyat admitted to only buying and assembling some parts.some bad things in my time. a man calling himself "Manjit Singh" called to confirm his reservations on AI Flight 181/182.[22][23] [edit]Explosives and Clocks In April 1985. Wiretappers recorded nine telephone calls between Mr. He later said Parmar needed an explosive device to blow up a bridge or something large in India. I'll get my brother for you. Reyat was seen in the company of another East Indian man at the AME store in Burnaby.[28] Later.[37][38] At 16:16 GMT (9:18AM). 1985. A leader of the International Sikh Youth Federation compained that no Indian consuls or ambassadors had yet been killed. Canadian Pacific Air Lines Flight 60 arrived in Toronto twelve minutes late. and thus closely eyed in the investigation following the Air India bombing. At 0220 GMT on the same day. near Parmar's house between 10:00 AM and 11:30 AM. Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) agents CSIS agent Larry Lowe and Lynn Macadams followed Parmar and a man identified only as "Mr. The anxious man was never identified. A witness whose name was protected testified that Bagri asked to borrow her car the night before the bombing to take some suitcases to the airport. though he himself would not be flying with them.[30] On June 9. Reyat acquired between six and eight sticks of dynamite "to blow up unidentified stumps if need be in the future" from a Duncan well-driller after visiting his house to fix a truck. [35] Reyat went to work June 21. Another friend who listened in recalled recalled that Reyat was very agitated about "getting even for the sacrilege at (Golden Temple at) Amritsar. At 00:15 GMT (now 23 June). a police informer in Hamilton reported that Parmar and Bagri had visited the Malton Sikh Temple. 1986 would later ask why they did not ask the police to stop and question the suspects. Reyat had gone into the woods to test a device with 12v battery. He asked agent Jeannie Adams to check his dark brown. Reyat would later testify that he travelled from Duncan on Vancouver Island on the ferry to Vancouver to work on his brother's truck. It noted that in Calgary. incorporate the batteries in the assembly of an explosive device and then have the device transported in a suitcase to the Vancouver airport" Sometime before 2022(1:22 PM) L. The caller further requested to be wait-listed on AI 181 from Toronto to Montreal and AI 182 from Montreal to Bombay. Although the Babbar Khalsa was not yet officially banned. a Canadian familiar with blasting was asked by Reyat much dynamite would blow up a tree stump. Reyat purchased a large Sanyo component tuner. X" travel from Parmars house to the Horseshoe Bay Ferry Terminal. Reyat sought cases of dynamite and did not care if he had to pay three times the normal price." Then the man said "Wait. Singh" and "Mohinderbel Singh" became "L. and was offered alternative arrangements. who did not bring a camera only heard an explosion which sounded like a gunshot. The other number became one of the first leads tracked by investigators. but "trouble in the old country". he was almost talking like Hitler. Reyat brought his timer attached to a "ghetto blaster" portable into his shop so that his fellow employee at Duncan Auto Marine Electric could help him fix it for a friend. director-general of counter-terrorism at CSIS on July 16. but told him he would have to check in again with Air India in Toronto. J. At 15:50 GMT (about 8:00 AM) M.[35] It is believed that "writing the story" referred to purchasing the tickets for the flight.005 in cash at a CP ticket office in Vancouver. hard-sided Samsonite suitcase. at 1330 GMT. at 0100 GMT. telling him "Your ticket doesn't read that you're confirmed" and "we're not supposed to check your baggage through. but putting a bomb on a plane … not me. signing "I. just 3 months before the bombing. Johal phoned Parmar back and asked if he could "come over and read the story he asked for". Parmar: Do that work first." In September. the agents. gun powder. which is to be transferred to Air India 301 to Bangkok. despite some claims that the two explosion were only a coincidence. Phone records show someone called from his residence in Duncan to Johal's number at 10:50 AM and 4:00 PM later that day. knowing what the bomb was to be used for. Reyat went to the Radio Shack in Duncan and bought a Micronta digital automobile clock. and later searched turned up remants of aluminum blasting caps. but he returned the radio after it did not work properly. On May 31. and eventually confided it was not about stumps. it could also be powered by a 12V lantern battery. Parmar: Did he write the letter? Johal: No he didn't.[36] [edit]Day of the Bombings On 22 June 1985. and have it transferred to Air India Flight 181 and then to Flight 182 to India. Both reports were dismissed as unreliable. or that he ever asked or knew the name of the man who he said stayed in his house for week completing construction of the explosive device after his device failed. Raymond Paris at Reyat's 1991 trial as an odd use for a timer. Singh made reservations for two flights on 22 June: one for "Jaswant Singh" to fly from Vancouver to Toronto on Canadian Pacific (CP) Air Lines Flight 086 and one for "Mohinderbel Singh" to fly from Vancouver to Tokyo on CP Air Lines Flight 003 and connect onward on Air India (AI) Flight 301 to Bangkok. the relay could be used to trigger the detonator circuit for a blasting cap which provides the initial shock needed to detonate larger explosives like dynamite. but he returned a week later for an electrical relay after asking how to get the buzzer signal to power another device. I went to the police. as well as a few blasting caps days later. but the device failed to work. and that he needed timers for an explosive device. which he declined. He insisted. Adams would realize this deception got the bag on its way to Air India 182. and was traced to Hardial Singh Johal who was janitor at a high school in Vancouver. used a Micronta clock as a timer which powered a relay with an Eveready 12-volt battery to trigger blasting caps which would set off a highexplosives consistent with sticks of dynamite. After the crash." One friend declined to get him the dynamite. [26] As late as 2010. and left his name and telephone number on the charge slip which was later found in a search of his home. But later tests showed it could also be an explosion. 1984. Alberta on July 15. as translated. delivered to Air India on 26 June 1978.S. and visit Reyat at his home and shop at Auto Marine Electric. Parmar urged the Coach Temple congregation to "unite. model FMT 611K at Woolworths. the affidavit stated it "is a Sikh terrorist group now established in Canada". were transferred to Air India Flight 182. ride the Nanaimo-bound ferry. something will be done in two weeks"[32] TWA Flight 847 was hijacked June 14 by Shiite Muslim extremists. 1985. including the bag Mr Singh had checked in. Some of the passengers and baggage. He was told he was still wait-listed. Staying out of sight. starting a 17 day ordeal ending in Beirut when a crewmember was killed and dumped on the tarmac. warning the faithful that "it would be unsafe" to fly Air India. or asking about explosives. to which Parmar agreed. Singh. That morning. Study of bomb debris from Tokyo would eventually show the bomb was contained in a Sanyo tuner with a serial number matching a model sold only in British Columbia. Canada's CSIS domestic intelligence agency got a court order to place Parmar under surveillance for one year.. The next day at 1910 GMT. Warren. Singh (also never identified) checked in for the 1:37 CP Air Flight 003 to Tokyo with one piece of luggage." As he started to walk away. but the response was: "You will see. a man wearing a turban paid for the two tickets with $3. but did lend him a 400 page manual on mining with explosives. included the following exchange. some dynamite. Singh".[29] The next day on June 5.[39] Constable Clark-Marlowe later believed there was "ample time for Inderjit Sing Reyat to obtain the batteries at the Auto Marine Electric limited store in Burnaby." Reyat was not shy about telling everyone he knew around Duncan about the need for revenge. Parmar‘s residence in Vancouver and Mr.[31]Vancouver police also monitored militants 11 days before the bombing. 1985.. Moments after a wiretapped phonecall with Parmar on June 20. and they were to fit into a special metal bracket he had brought with him. that he needed "explosives to help my countrymen. He was alleged to have stored the suitcase explosives in the basement of a Vancouver school. Reyat from either his residence or workplace on Vancouver Island that month. cardboard cylinder. Singh checked in to a busy line of 30 people for the CP flight from Vancouver to Toronto which was scheduled to leave at 9:18AM. [edit]Tickets The Boeing 747-237B Emperor Kanishka. or search the vehicle which might have deterred the bombing plot. which also added Reyat to the persons being monitored for terrorist activities. changing the reservation in the name of "Jaswant Singh" from CP 086 to CP 060.[41] [edit]Bombing At 20:22 GMT. via London and Delhi. asAI182.[26] The Canadian government would later accuse Reyat of lying in 2003 when at first he said he did not know what three clocks he'd bought could be used for. and to have purchased the tickets for the flights on which the bombs were placed. The initial phone conversation. [40] Mandip Singh Grewal recounted how as a boy. He needed help so that the buzzer stayed on rather than intermittent beeps so that it would turn on a light in his camper to wake him up. also flying from Vancouver to Toronto. she relented and agreed to accept the bag. Harmail Singh Grewal of Vancouver told CSIS and the RCMP of the same plot to bomb the flight out of Montreal to bargain down his sentence on theft and fraud. He bought two 12 volt batteries similar to the one used in the explosive device tested in the woods.Canadian Pacific Air Lines Flight 60 to Toronto Pearson International Airport departed without Mr.[25] Designed for a 12 volt automobile electrical system. But the agent initially refused his request to inter-line the baggage. and it would even strike Justice J. fight and kill" to avenage the attack on the Golden Temple. 1985. who was behind any plot. Air India Flight 181 departed Toronto Pearson International Airport for Montréal-Mirabel International Airport 1 hour and 40 . all matching items purchased by Reyat. which would lead to his eventual conviction. The names on the reservations were changed: "Jaswant Singh" became "M.[21] On March 5. One telephone number left as a contact was Vancouver's Ross Street Sikh temple. Reyat" on the explosives log. another call was made. On June 4. and after the tickets were purchased. 1985. he recognized Johal as the janitor at his school at the airport when he said goobye to his father at the airport. but denied he ever made a bomb. The reservation and purchase of these tickets together would be used as evidence to link the two flights to one plot.[13][14] Reyat later visited the TV repair shop with a partially disassembled car clock wired to a lantern battery. and phone records show he called Johal at 7:17PM. The three drove to a deserted bush area where Reyat was observed taking out an object into the woods.[24] On May 8. but was again rebuffed. The 24 hour alarm activated a buzzer. done my time in jail. flew from Toronto to Montréal as AI181 and from Montréal to Bombay. and was seen at the airport the day of the bombing.

[65] In September 2007. the Commission investigated reports. after Hindu Mobs had murdered thousands of Sikhs in Delhi [57] that "Until we kill 50. are reported to have died of asphyxia. It was reported that he had asked for help in constructing devices with clocks and explosives. Hanse Singh Narendraserved as the Commander. The suitcase was on its way to another airliner at Narita. many threads of the plot were uncovered:  The bombing was the joint project of at least two Sikh terrorist groups with extensive membership in Canada. The wreckage settled in 6. Talwinder Singh Parmar. were dispatched to locate the flight data recorder (FDR) and cockpit voice recorder (CVR) boxes. The bomb killed all 22 crew and 307 passengers.000 Hindus. On 15 November 2002.6′N 12°49′W.[71] [edit]Charges and convictions . This.[42] and Capt.[45] At 07:14:01 GMT. he would be the only suspect convicted in the case. and his phone was being tapped by theCanadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) for three months before the bombing. Air India Flight 182 departed from Montréal for London.[56]  Ajaib Singh Bagri was a mill worker living in Kamloops. He was convicted of manslaughter in constructing the bomb. Eight bodies exhibited "flail pattern" injuries. A Commemorative plaque. "squawked 2005"[46] (a routine activation of its aviation transponder). with sophisticated sonar equipment aboard. we will not rest. The broken up aircraft lay on the sea bed at a depth of 6700 feet. the Air India flight became Flight 182. Ireland by the Government of Canada for the residents' kindness and compassion to the families of the victims of Air India Flight 182. England. Some RCMP testimony claimed he was a mole who left the plot just days before execution because he was told to pull out. in which Sandhu congratulated the families of Indira Gandhi's assassins and stated that "she deserved that and she invited that and that's why she got it".minutes late.[54] He was killed by the Punjab police in 1992 while in custody. in turn.[60]  Hardial Singh Johal and Manmohan Singh were both followers of Parmar and active in the Gurdwaras where he preached.[63] but the details do not appear to tally with other available evidence. was installed below the left wing to be flown to India for repairs. and the French cable-laying vessel the Léon Thévenin. identified by their tickets as M. [69]  The identities of these two men remain unknown.[48] The bomb caused rapid decompression and consequent in-flight breakup. but as he declined to implicate others. The aircraft was late because a "fifth pod".[49] One official quoted in the report stated. 198 were lost at sea. Its target was Air India Flight 301 due to leave soon with 177 passengers and crew bound for Bangkok-Don Mueang. had masterminded the explosions. Singh" or "Lal Singh". The boxes would be difficult to find and it was imperative the search be commenced quickly.700 feet (2. and had allegedly stored the suitcases with bombs in the basement of a Vancouver school but was never charged in the case. Fifty-five minutes after the loss of the aircraft.[67]  Two men. This report appears to be inconsistent with other evidence known to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). The third man has also been linked to travels done under tickets bought under the name "L. Two of the dead. Twenty-one passengers were found with little or no clothing. [51] [edit]Victims Nationality Canada United Kingdom India Soviet Union Brazil United States Spain Finland Argentina Total Passengers Crew Total 270 27 1 3 2 2 2 1 0 307 0 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 1 22 270 27 22 3 2 2 2 1 1 329 Casualty list provided by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. one infant and one child. At Montréal. a spare engine. 329 people were on board. Investigation of the bomb in Tokyo led to discovery of his buying a Sanyo radio. Sandhu was cleared byJudge Ian Josephson in his 16 March judgment.[52] [edit]Suspects The main suspects in the bombing were the members of a Sikh separatist group called the Babbar Khalsa (banned in Europe and the United States as a proscribed terrorist group) and other related groups who were at the time agitating for a separate Sikh state called Khalistan in Punjab. along with Ripudaman Singh Malik was found not guilty in 2007.6′N 12°49′WCoordinates: 51°3. His phone number was left after ordering the airline tickets. Of the 329 persons on board. Singh. presented to the citizens of Bantry.  The second bag. the cargo ship Laurentian Forest had discovered the wreckage of the aircraft and many bodies floating in the water.[53]  Talwinder Singh Parmar. He later fled Canada and is believed to be in hiding in London. checked in by L. India. The plane arrived in Montréal-Mirabel International Airport at 01:00 GMT.[70] [edit]Air India Trial The trial of those accused of the bombing.[64] [edit]Investigations In the subsequent worldwide investigations over six years. Their anger had been sparked by anattack on the Golden Temple. Post-accident medical reports graphically illustrated the outcomes of the passengers and crew. [67] he went with Parmar on a ferry ride from Vancouver to Duncan on Vancouver Island where he and Parmar participated in a test explosion of a device manufactured by Inderjit Singh Reyat. ATC asked aircraft in the area to try to contact Air India. mostly victims who were seated near windows. Twenty-three bodies had signs of "injuries from a vertical force". Surjan Singh Gill. the leader of the Sikh separatist organization International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF). A bomb in a Sanyo tuner[47] in a suitcase in the forward cargo hold had exploded while the plane was in mid-flight at 31. became known as the "Air India Trial". Satwinder Singh Bhinder served as the First Officer. Sikh separatists Ripudaman Singh Malik and Ajaib Singh Bagri.[55]  Ripudaman Singh Malik was a Vancouver businessman who helped fund a credit union and several Khalsa Schools. Inderjit Singh Reyat. disappeared.  Inderjit Singh Reyat was living in Duncan on Vancouver Island and working as an auto mechanic and electrician. Two Japanese baggage handlers were killed and four other people were injured. Described as a "youthful man". "All victims have been stated in the PM reports to have died of multiple injuries.[62]  Lakhbir Singh Brar Rode. and Manmohan Singh. As part of a deal. was a sign that the airplane had broken up in midair. clocks and other parts found in the blast. the Guardline Locator equipment had detected signals on the sea bed and on 9 July the CVR was pin-pointed and raised to the surface by the Scarab. In the case of the other child (Body No 93) there was some doubt because the findings could also be caused due to the child undergoing tumbling or spinning with the anchor point at the ankles. USA. England and India. Twenty-five bodies.[44] Many of the passengers were traveling to visit families and friends. indicating that they exited the aircraft before it had hit the water. No 'mayday' call was received by Shannon International Airport Air Traffic Control (ATC).000 feet at 51°3. Capt.000 m) deep water off the south-west Irish coast 120 miles (190 km) offshore of County Cork. initially disclosed in the Indian investigative news magazine Tehelka[66] that a hitherto unnamed person. killing two baggage handlers and injuring four other individuals nearby. By 07:30:00 GMT hrs ATC declared an emergency and requested nearby cargo ships and the Irish Naval Service vessel LÉ Aisling to look out for the aircraft. Lakhbir Singh Brar Rode. An alleged confession by Parmar names him as the mastermind. went on Canadian Pacific Air Lines Flight 003 from Vancouver to Tokyo. During the trial the Crown played a video from January 1989. Johal died of natural causes at 55. Singh exploded aboard Air India Flight 182. and the aircraft started to disintegrate in mid-air.[64] On 6 November 1985 the RCMP raided the homes of the suspected Sikh separatists. the Boeing 747. Three other victims undoubtedly died of drowning.[citation needed]  A key player known to police variously as the "Third Man" or the "Unknown Male" was seen by CSIS agents who were following Talwinder Singh Parmar on 4 June 1985. en route to Delhi and Bombay. Twenty-six bodies showed signs of hypoxia (lack of oxygen). Singh and L. a Canadian citizen born in Punjab. a suitcase checked in by one of the accused perpetrators exploded at Japan‘s Narita Airport.[43] Dara Dumasia served as Flight Engineer. he was to testify against others. He said in a 1984 speech.[68]  The bag checked in by M.[59]  Surjan Singh Gill was living in Vancouver as the selfproclaimed consul-general of Khalistan. Singh. he was seen at the airport the day the flights loaded."[50] The vessel Guardline Locator from the UK. living in British Columbia was a high ranking official in the Babbar Khalsa. but to no avail. the holiest Sikh shrine in Amritsar in June 1984. with its robot submarine Scarab. showed signs of explosive decompression."[58] He. The next day the FDR was located and recovered. but it exploded at the terminal in Narita Airport itself. 131 bodies were recovered. There is no doubt about the asphyxial death of the infant.[61]  Daljit Sandhu is later named by a Crown witness as the man who picked up the tickets for the bombing. Hardial Singh Johal. Both men failed to board their flights. Recently he was found not guilty of any involvement in the bombings. [edit]Recovery By 09:13:00hrs GMT. By 4 July. but the Canadian government denies that report. checked in their bag bombs at Vancouver International Airport a few hours apart on 22 June 1985. 307 passengers and 22 crew.

[90] [edit]Destroyed evidence In his verdict Justice Josephson cited "unacceptable negligence"[91] by CSIS when hundreds of wiretaps of the suspects were destroyed.On 10 May 1991. on 27 October 2000. They were charged with 329 counts of first-degree murder in the deaths of the people on board Air India Flight 182. Parmar: Do that work first. reported that fresh evidence had emerged from a confession by militant Talwinder Singh Parmar to the Punjab police days before his killing by Punjab Police on 15 October 1992. . Malik has demanded compensation from the Canadian government for wrongful prosecution in his arrest and trial. RCMP arrested Malik and Bagri.[83] Reyat's perjury trial began in March 2010 in Vancouver. Insp. Inderjit Singh Reyat was said to have lied 19 times times under oath. Malik owes the government $6. He was sentenced to five years in prison. Hayer was shot dead while getting out of his car in the garage of his home in Surrey."[98] On 24 January of the same year. the Indian investigative weekly. Reyat pleaded guilty to one count of manslaughter and a charge of aiding in the construction of a bomb. Hayer claims he overheard a meeting between Purewal and Bagri. He told me that he would first like to see a trial of the blast. 1992. did not testify.7 million in legal fees. the high-security courtroom was specially built for the trial in the Vancouver Law Courts. Translator's notes of the wiretaps records this exchange between Talwinder Parmar and a follower named Hardial Singh Johal on the same day the tickets were purchased on 20 June 1985. that Parmar had been captured alive. this evidence had been collected by the Punjab Human Rights Organisation (PHRO). made a plan to plant bombs in an Air India plane leaving from Toronto via London for Delhi and another flight that was to leave Tokyo for Bangkok. The confession which had been billed as "seismic evidence". he was convicted of two counts of manslaughter and four explosives charges relating to the Narita Airport bombing. And over two weeks before the crash CSIS reported to the RCMP that the potential threat to Air India as well as Indian missions in Canada.[97] While at the London offices of fellow Sikh newspaper publisher Tarsem Singh Purewal. interrogated and only then killed." – from the confession by Talwinder Singh Parmar[66] Lakhbir Singh Brar Rode. and two counts of murder of the baggage handlers at New Tokyo International Airport. We went into the jungle(of British Columbia). despite official denials. He pointed to Lakhbir as the mastermind behind the Air India bombing.After about four days. but had not testified since he could not obtain a guarantee of anonymity. Parmar said he would be there shortly.[96] [edit]Murdered witnesses Tara Singh Hayer.[citation needed] The trial proceeded between April 2003 and December 2004 in Courtroom 20. The agents reported to the RCMPthat they had heard a noise like a "loud gunshot" in the woods. X. Schwartz claimed."[93] On 4 June 1985. since the evidence was inadequate: I began by describing the horrific nature of these cruel acts of terrorism.[76] more commonly known as "the Air India courtroom". Justice is not achieved. [citation needed] This conversation appears to be an order from Parmar to book the tickets used to bomb the planes. The decision meant Reyat had to serve his full five-year sentence. Also.[75] He was expected to provide testimony in the trial of Malik and Bagri. but was abruptly dismissed on March 8. Rode was an undercover Indian Agent and that Parmar was murdered in order to protect his identity and India's role in the bombing. Lorne Schwartz said that the RCMP had interviewed Lakhbir in Pakistan in 2001. On 7 January 2011. while Manjit Singh booked a seat from Vancouver to Toronto and then from Toronto to Delhi. because they used pay phones and talked in code.[81] The indictment was filed in the Supreme Court of British Columbia and lists 27 instances where he allegedly misled the court during his testimony.4 million and Bagri owes $9.[89] The PHRO has stated that at the time of Flight 182. Reyat was denied parole by the National Parole Board who concluded he was a continued risk to the public.[78] In a letter to the Attorney General of British Columbia. X" as Lakhbir Singh Brar Rode. Inderjit Singh and their accomplice. 2010. has an Interpol Red corner warrant A-23/11997 against him.[99] On 18 November 1998.[72] Fifteen years after the bombing. a functionary of the International Sikh Youth Federation came to me (Parmar) and introduced himself as Lakhbir Singh and asked me for help in conducting some violent activities to express the resentment of the Sikhs. which had carried out a seven year investigation. Reyat had pleaded guilty to constructing the bomb but denied under oath that he knew anything about the conspiracy. acts which cry out for justice.[92] CSIS claims the wiretaps contained no relevant information but a memo from the RCMP states that "There is a strong likelihood that had CSIS retained the tapes between March and August 1985. and conspiracy in the Air India bombing. but prosecutors were vague. Inderjit Singh Reyat. with perjury proceedings still pending. CSIS agents Larry Lowe and Lynn McAdams trailed Talwinder Singh Parmar and Inderjit Singh Reyat to Vancouver Island. The jury was dismissed after ‗biased‘ remarks about Reyat by a woman juror. had elements that had already been investigated by RCMP. They believed.[87] [edit]Plot details The investigative weekly Tehelka reported on July 2007 that Talwinder Singh Parmar. X appeared considerably younger. There we joined a dynamite stick with a battery and triggered off a blast. the RCMP had known about the purported confession for several years. In September 2010. These tapes continued to be erased even after the terrorists had become the primary suspects in the bombing.[64] [edit]Previous government knowledge The Canadian government had been warned by the Indian government about the possibility of terrorist bombs aboard Air India flights in Canada. leaving Hayer as the only other witness. England. aChandigarh-based group that had been conducting interviews of Parmar's associates for over seven years. a translation of the confession was presented to the Inquiry Commission on 24 September. RCMP arrested Reyat on charges of murder. it blew up over the ocean. that his evidence was patently and pathetically fabricated in an attempt to minimize his involvement in his crime to an extreme degree. who had personally been involved in the confession. Johal called Parmar and asked him if he "can come over and read the story he asked for". At a cost of $7. Reyat was sentenced to nine years in prison. conspiracy to commit murder. Shortly afterwards. a pro-Khalistan organization at the heart of radical extremism.[100] Hayer had previously survived an earlier attempt made on his life in 1988 but was paralyzed and thereafter used a . But because the plane was a half hour to three quarters of an hour late.. which ended 9 February 2008.. Then Lakhbir Singh..[66] According to this article. had provided an affidavit to the RCMP in 1995 claiming that he was present during a conversation in which Bagri admitted his involvement in the bombings. Inderjit Singh Reyat was charged with perjury with regard to his testimony in the trial.[79] In July 2007. attempted murder. Subsequently. [63] The story was leaked in Tehelka after his return to India. Purewal was killed near the offices of the Des Pardes newspaper in Southall. International Sikh Youth Federation. Lakhbir Singh booked a seat from Vancouver to Tokyo and then onwards to Bangkok. was high.. the evidence has fallen markedly short of that standard. At the time. and some details were found to be false. He was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment. 156 were erased.[95] Because the original wiretaps were erased by CSIS. Justice Ian Josephson found Malik and Bagri not guilty on all counts. because Mr. Manjit Singh. the publisher of the Indo-Canadian Times and a member of the Order of British Columbia. Lakhbir Singh and another youth. noted Sikh militant and nephew of Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. it was unlikely that Lakhbir was Mr.[63] Also.[77] On 16 March 2005. Of the 210 wiretaps that were recorded during the months before and after the bombing. In the verdict. that a successful prosecution of at least some of principals in both bombings could have been undertaken. jurors were told according to the Lethbridge Herald Newspaper [85][86] On 19 September 2010 Reyat was convicted of perjury.[84] A new jury will be chosen from March 15. and it is now believed that he was the leader of the conspiracy to bomb Air India flights"[80] [edit]Reyat's perjury trial In February 2006. Despite what appear to have been the best and most earnest of efforts by the police and the Crown. however. Justice Ian Josephson said: "I find him to be an unmitigated liar under oath. both came to me.[94] After this call a man called the CP Air and booked the tickets and left Johal's number.[64] The confession had identified the mysterious Third Man or "Mr. The Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182' expressed the view in their dossier that "Talwinder Singh Parmar was the leader of the Babbar Khalsa. he was arrested for carrying 20 kg of RDX explosive near Kathmandu. Later that month Flight 182 was bombed.2 million."[82] On 3 July 2007.[73][74] On 6 June 2001. The new evidence was presented by officials of the PHRO. I told him to come after a few days so that I could arrange for dynamite and battery etc. Chandi had travelled to Canada in June to present the evidence to the Inquiry Commission. [88] The purported confession presented the following story: "Around May 1985. [66] Many details of this story do not seem to be consistent with other evidence available with the investigating team. the attempted murder of passengers and crew on the Canadian Pacific flight at Japan's New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport). as do I. Inderjit prepared the bags for the flights. After the bombing the RCMP went to the site and found remains of an electrical blasting cap. after lengthy proceedings to extradite Reyat from England. Even the most sympathetic of listeners could only conclude. who was not prosecuted for lack of evidence had made a confession to the Punjab police shortly before his death on October 15.[66] In 1998. Parmar: Did he write the story? Johal: No he didn't. if persons are convicted on anything less than the requisite standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt.[90] The suspects in the bombing were apparently aware that they were under surveillance. Nepal. he had pointed to several others as having a hand in the bombing. In that meeting Hayer claims that Bagri stated that "if everything had gone as planned the plane would have blown up at Heathrow airport with no passengers on it. who is the head of the banned terrorist organization. they were inadmissible as evidence in court. Tehelka. On 10 February 2003. while refusing to reveal relevant information he clearly possesses. The retired Punjab Police DSP Harmail Singh Chandi. which were loaded with dynamite fitted with a battery and transistor.

while twenty-two per cent thought of the terrorist attack as a mostly Indian affair.[116] Many journalists have commented on the bombing throughout the decades since it occurred. families gathered in Ahakista. During the anniversary observances. CBC Television announced the start of filming forFlight 182. British Columbia. Ireland.[citation needed] [edit]CSIS connection During an interview with Bagri on 28 October 2000. Stephen Harper announced in the media. and the prosecutorial lapses that followed" and deliver an apology on behalf of the sitting Cabinet. it may have taken place off the coast of Ireland. dedicated July 2007 Twenty years after the downing of Air India Flight 182.[121] Inspired by mainstream Canada's cultural denial of the Air India tragedy. policing and air security that led to the bombing.[114] It was changed to Air India 182 before premiering at the Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival in Toronto in April 2008. but this is a Canadian tragedy. Forty-eight per cent of respondents considered the bombing as a Canadian event.Clark Blaise. "The Management of Grief" by Bharati Mukherjee in the collection The Middleman and Other Stories. Martin said that the bombing was a Canadian problem.[100] As a consequence of his murder. In 1992. The authors also allege that Indian High Commission in Canada misled RCMP and CSIS for years and worked on spying and destabilizing Sikh community in Canada.[105] how well witness protection is provided in terrorist cases.[112] Another memorial was unveiled on 22 June 2007 in Toronto. Neil Bissoondath wrote The Soul of All Great Designs.[111] Subsequently. it was never close to that. The journalists present details of various activities before the actual bombing and allege that CSIS and the Indian High Commission in Canada knew about the incident in advance.[106] The inquiry's investigations were completed and released on 17 June 2010. Eighteen per cent mentioned Transport Canada.[102] [edit]Public inquiry On 1 May 2006.[103] [edit]Recognition in media Documentaries about the bombing were made for Canadian television audiences.[103] announced the launch of a full public inquiry into the bombing.[109] Ken MacQueen and John Geddes of Macleans said that the Air India bombing was referred to as "Canada's 9/11.[3][107] it resulted in attentention towards bombing in canada [edit]Legacy [edit]'A Canadian tragedy' premiere on CBC Television in June. [101] After the subsequent failure of CSIS to stop the bombing of Flight 182. as well as the countries of the other victims. in Vancouver. June 23. The Canadian government continues to insist that there was no mole involved. even officially acknowledged as an act of terrorism. RCMP agents describe Surjan Singh Gill as an agent for CSIS saying the reason that he resigned from the Babbar Khalsa was because his CSIS handlers told him to pull out.[122] Air India Flight 182 memorial in Toronto Monument and playground in Stanley Park. the Crown-in-Council. not a foreign problem. a documentary about the tragedy. It was subsequently made a TV . Governor General Adrienne Clarkson. theCommission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182 would examine how Canadian law restricted funding terrorist groups. oriented toward Ireland and bearing the names of the dead. that he would "acknowledge the catastrophic failures of intelligence."[110] Memorials were erected in Canada and elsewhere to commemorate the victims.[118] Loss of Faith: How the Air-India Bombers Got Away With Murder is published by Vancouver Sun reporter Kim Bolan in May 2005. The date. saying: "Make no mistake: The flight may have been Air India's. the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Province newspaper reporter Salim Jiwa published "Death Of Air India Flight 182". Thirty-four per cent of those asked felt both CSIS and airport security personnel deserved a great deal of the blame. and if issues of cooperation between the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. in order to find "answers to several key questions about the worst mass murder in Canadian history.[119] Jiwa and fellow reporter Don Hauka publish Margin of Terror: A reporter's twentyyear odyssey covering the tragedies of the Air India bombing in May 2007. that report remains secret to this day. Vancouver. Major found that a "cascading series of errors" by Crown ministries. theCanadian Security Intelligence Service. nor transformed its policies. The events of that day snuffed out hundreds of innocent lives and altered the destinies of thousands more. also documented the bombing on its episode "Explosive Evidence". It was not. on the advice of Prime Minister Stephen Harper. the base of which consists of stones from all provinces and territories of Canada. West Cork. an Indian-Canadian woman who lost all her family in the bombing narrates her experiences. In an interview for CBC Television's news program. directed by Sturla Gunnarsson. on the 1st anniversary of the bombing. In 1986. [113] After the release in 2010 of the public inquiry's findings. and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service allowed the terrorist attack to take place. Morden claims that CSIS "dropped the ball" in its handling of the case. commemorating victims of Flight 182. Mukherjee also coauthored. the city where most of the people killed had lived. a groundbreaking occurred on 11 August 2006 at a playground that would form part of a memorial in Stanley Park." They said "In truth. The memorial features a sundial.[120] Books were also published. Ireland."[104] Initiated later in June. is not seared into the nation's soul. Canadian journalists Brian McAndrew and Zuhair Kashmeri from the Globe and Mail wrote Soft Target. on the 25th anniversary of the disaster. to grieve. the Royal Canadian Mounted Police indicated that it possessed no evidence to support the allegations made in the book that the Government of India was involved in the Air India bombing.[117] Eight months after the bombing. in the main.wheelchair. 1985. However. and other law enforcement agencies had been resolved.[115] Mayday. if Canada needed to upgrade its aviation security. headed by retiredSupreme Court justice John Major. The Sorrow and the Terror: The Haunting Legacy of the Air India Tragedy (1987) with her husband. Angus Reid Strategies released the results of public opinion polling of whether Canadians viewed the Air India bombing as a Canadian or Indian tragedy and who they blamed for it. in addition to twenty-seven per cent who believed the RCMP were largely to blame. A Security Intelligence Review Committee cleared CSIS of any wrongdoing. the affidavit was inadmissible as evidence. and a wall. It would also provide a forum wherein families of the victims could testify on the impact of the bombing and would not repeat any criminal trials. the head of CSIS was replaced by Reid Morden. but it neither shook the foundations of government. a TV show that investigates many aviation accidents and incidents."[108] In May 2007. on the advice of Prime Minister Paul Martin declared the anniversary a national day of mourning. monument was unveiled in Ahakista. The National.

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