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In Partial Fulfillment for Master of Management Studies (MMS 2010-2012) University Curriculum

Submitted To

VIVEkANANdA EdUCATION SOCIETYS Institute of Management Studies & Research, Chembur, Mumbai SUBMITTED BY: dinesh r madhwani SPECIALISATION- FINANCE MMS (2010-2012)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mrs. Pallavi vartak



I hereby declare that the project report entitles:


is submitted in partial fulfillment at the requirements for the degree of Master of Management Studies (M.M.S.) to Vivekanand Education Society Institute of Management Studies & Research (VESIMSR) Chembur, is my original work and not submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or similar title or prize.

Date : Place :

(Dinesh R Madhwani) MMS-II (Finance) VESIMSR, Chembur, Mumbai.


I have immense pleasure in submitting the project report on ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT BY USING

I would like to take the opportunity to thanks number of people who

directly or indirectly contributed towards this project. It gives me a great pleasure and privilege to express my thanks and deep sense of gratitude towards Mrs. Pallavi Vartak for his assistance and valuable guidance in the project work. I am akin to thank all the respondents who gave their valuable time in filling up my survey form for my project. I am also thankful to the commercial staff and all the departments for their cooperation. At the end I would like to add a vote of thanks to all my friends for their valuable inputs and support throughout the project. Last but not the least I am thankful to my parents for their encouragement, blessings and constant support on all occasions.

(Dinesh R Madhwani) MMS-II (Finance) VESIMSR, Chembur, Mumbai.

CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. Executive Summary Objectives of study Research Methodology Research Framework Types of Data How Data was Collected 5 6 7

4. 5.

Company Profile Theoretical Background Financial Statements Analysis of Financial Statements Financial Ratio analysis Financial Overview of UltraTech Cement Ltd. Ratios of UltraTech Cement Ltd. Summary of Ratios Observation and Findings Importance Advantages Limitations conclusion bibliography

9 20

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

33 39 41 61 62 63 64 65 66 67


Project Title: Financial Statement Analysis

Company Name: UltraTech Cement Limited

This project helped me to get the deeper understanding of the process of Financial Statement Analysis and how decisions are taken to strengthen the financial position.

For this study five years comparative Income Statement & Balance Sheet have been taken for calculating ratio analysis. Main objective in undertaking this project is to supplement academic knowledge with absolute practical exposure to day to day functions of the sector.

Financial analysis which is the topic of this project refers to an assessment of the viability, stability and profitability of a business. This important analysis is performed usually by finance professionals in order to prepare financial or annual reports. These financial reports are made with using the information taken from financial statements of the company and it is based on the significant tool of Ratio Analysis. These reports are usually presented to top management as one of their basis in making crucial business decisions.


There have been various objectives for this study, the first of which is a detailed analysis of the financial statements that is the balance sheet and the income statement of UltraTech Cement Ltd.

The second objective, however the most important one or in other word the principle aim of this project is the understanding and assessment of financial ratios based on the statements of the company.

The next aim of the project is to recognize the position of the company through those ratios and data available. This recognition is a leading factor in changes of each and every company and the base and root of lots of management decisions.


Research framework: This study is based on the data about ULTRATECH CEMENT LTD for a detailed study of its financial statements, documents and system ratios and finally to recognize and determine the position of the company.

Types of data which helped to prepare this report: 1. First type is the primary data which was collected personally to be used and studied to prepare and reach the objectives already mentioned.

2. The secondary data which was already prepared so these data was only used to reach the aims and objectives of this project. These data has been collected from the financial reports of the company.

How the data was collected: The sources of collecting the primary data was through interviews, observation and questionnaire, however the secondary one was collected from the financial statements already available to the employees of the company and some of which was published.

A) Questionnaire: This method of data collection is quite popular. In this method a questionnaire which consists a set of questions in a definite form -is send to the person concerned with a request to answer the questions and return the questionnaire. The respondents have to answer the questions on their own. For the purpose of fulfilling different parts of my project, I prepared a limited number of questionnaires. These questionnaires were e-mailed to the related persons in the company.

B) Personal Interview: Personal Interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking questions generally in a face to face contact to the other person or persons. In some cases, I had the chance to ask my questions personally from the Head of Accounts department and Head of HR Department regarding the information I needed. Different questions and information I could collect during these two methods are: 1. The beginning and history of the UltraTech Cement Ltd. 2. Numbers of staff working for different departments. 3. The mission & vision of the company. 4. Areas of operations 5. Other company related information.

C) Printed and Digital Sources: The secondary data I collected was through the study of the financial statements already existed in the company in form of printed files or digital files reserved in the company for further references. I had chosen these files because of the reliability and suitability of these information which I was also sure about the accuracy of them.

These files consist of: 1. Annual report of the company 2. Financial balance sheets 3. Income statements 4. Financial reports 5. Different reports prepared by Finance Department



BUSINESS OVERVIEW & BENCHMARKS: A US $28 billion premium conglomerate, the Aditya Birla Group is in the league of Fortune 500. It is anchored by an extraordinary force of 100,000 employees, belonging to 25 different nationalities. In India, the Group has been adjudged .The Best Employer in India and among the top 20 in Asia. by the Hewitt Economic Times and Wall Street Journal Study 2007. Over 50 percent of its revenues flow from its overseas operations. The group operates in 25 countries India, UK, Germany, Hungary, Brazil, Italy, France, Luxemburg, Switzerland, Australia, USA, Canada, Egypt, China, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, Philippines, Dubai, Singapore, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Malasia and Korea.

Globally the Aditya Birla Group is: A metals powerhouse, among the worlds most cost-efficient aluminium and copper producers. Hindalco-Novelis is the largest aluminium rolling company. It is one of the 3 biggest producers of primary aluminium in Asia, with the largest single location copper smelter. No. 1 in Viscose staple fibre. The 4th largest producer of insulators. The 4th largest producer of carbon black. The 11th largest cement producer. Among the worlds top BPO companies and among Indias top 4. Among the best energy efficient fertilizer plants.

In India

A premier branded garment player. The 2nd largest player in viscose filament yarn. The 2nd largest in the Chlor-alkali sector. Among the top 5 mobile telephony companies. A leading player in Life Insurance and Asset Management. Among the top 3 super-market chains in the Retail Business.

Rock solid in fundamentals, The Aditya Birla Group nurtures a culture where success does not come in the way of the need to keep learning afresh to keep experimenting.

Beyond Business The Aditya Birla Group is:

Working in 3700 villages. Reaching out to 7 million people annually through the Aditya Birla Centre for Community Initiatives and Rural Development, spearheaded by Mrs. Rajshree Birla. Focusing on: health care, education, sustainable livelihood, infrastructure and espousing social causes. Running 41 Schools and 18 Hospitals.



Businesses of ABG


PROFILE UltraTech Cement

UltraTech Cement Limited, a Grasim subsidiary has an annual capacity of 18.2 million tonnes. It manufactures and markets Ordinary Portland Cement, Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement and Portland Pozzolana Cement. UltraTech has five integrated plants, five grinding units and three terminals two in India and one in Sri Lanka. These include an integrated plant and two grinding units of the erstwhile Narmada Cement Company Limited, a subsidiary, which has been amalgamated with the company in May 2006. UltraTech is the country's largest exporter of cement clinker. The company exports over 2.5 million tonnes per annum, which is about 30 per cent of the country's total exports. The export markets span countries around the Indian Ocean, Africa, Europe and the Middle East. The cement division of L&T was demerged in 2004 after Grasim made the 30 per cent open offer for equity shares, gaining control over the new company, christened UltraTech. Besides the long term strategic value in the wake of rising demand for cement, with the growth of housing and infrastructure sectors in the country, the acquisition brings significant synergy gains to the parent company. Ready Mix Concrete is likely to see substantial growth in the coming years. Recognizing the opportunities that this business will offer, UltraTech has commenced setting up of Ready Mix Concrete plants at various places in the country. Ultra Tech Cement Limited (Formerly known as L & T Cement Ltd.) is a very well known name in the field of cement. The registered office and head office of the company is at Mumbai. This companys reputation is based on a strong customer orientation, the technological sophistication that characterizes its products, and an impressive record of achievements. Ultra Tech has initiated a transformation process to ensure that it emerges as a knowledge-based premium conglomerate in the shortest possible time. Each of its plants incorporated state-ofart technology. Ultra Tech Cement has strong brand equity and commands a price premium in most markets. Ultra Tech is committed to a high growth trajectory that will deliver significant value to its customer and shareholders.


Out of six cement plants of Ultra Tech, GCW at Kovaya is the largest cement plant in Asia. There are two phases in the plant, which are almost identical in layout and production capacity. The reason for laying such a big plant near a small village like Kovaya can be justified by the fact that this region is very rich of limestone resources, which is the chief raw material for cement production. The estimated resources of limestone mines are enough to supply raw material for next 40 years to GCW. Ultra Tech is Indias largest manufacturer of premium quality cement. Ultra Tech has nationwide network of factories, offices and sales centers. Authorized stockiest dealing in the companys product line, including cement, is located directly or indirectly in every district of the country. UltraTech's subsidiaries are: Dakshin Cements Limited and UltraTech Ceylinco (Private) Limited.


Ceylinco insurance company limited and UltraTech have incorporated this subsidiary in Sri Lanka. Ceylinco is one of the most respected business groups in Sri Lanka with activities in the field of banking, insurance and finance. A bulk Cement terminal has been established near Colombo with annual output of 0.5 MT. Cement in bulk is sourced from Ultra Techs Gujarat Cement works and transported by carriers to Colombo.


The Narmada Cement Company Ltd. At Jafrabad (Gujarat) and two grinding units at Magdalla (Gujarat) & Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) all are port-based plants. Clinker is shipped by sea from Jafrabad to the grinding units.





AT THE HELM Board of Directors . Mr. Kumar Mangalam Birla, Chairman . Mrs. Rajashree Birla . Mr. R. C. Bhargava . Mr. G. M. Dave . Mr. Y. M. Deosthalee . Mr. N. J. Jhaveri . Mr. S. B. Mathur, Additional Director (Independent) . Mr. V. T. Moorthy, Independent Director . Mr. J. P. Nayak . Mr. S. Rajgopal . Mr. S. Misra, Managing Director . Executive President &Chief Financial Officer : Mr. K. C. Birla . Chief Manufacturing Officer : Mr. S. K. Maheshwari . Chief Marketing Officer : Mr. O. P. Puranmalka


As part of the eighth biggest cement manufacturer in the world, UltraTech Cement has five integrated plants, five grinding units as well as three terminals of its own (one overseas, in Colombo, Sri Lanka). These facilities gradually came up over the years, as indicated below:

2006: Narmada Cement Company Limited amalgamated with UltraTech pursuant to a Scheme of Amalgamation being approved by the Board for Industrial & Financial Reconstruction (BIFR) in terms of the provision of Sick Industrial Companies Act (Special Provisions)

2004: Completion of the implementation process to demerge the cement business of L&T and completion of open offer by Grasim, with the latter acquiring controlling stake in the newly formed company UltraTech

2003: The board of Larsen & Toubro Ltd (L&T) decides to demerge its cement business into a separate cement company (CemCo). Grasim decides to acquire an 8.5 per cent equity stake from L&T and then make an open offer for 30 per cent of the equity of CemCo, to acquire management control of the company.

2002: The Grasim Board approves an open offer for purchase of up to 20 per cent of the equity shares of Larsen & Toubro Ltd (L&T), in accordance with the provisions and guidelines issued by the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Regulations, 1997. Grasim increases its stake in L&T to 14.15 per cent Arakkonam grinding unit

2001: Grasim acquires 10 per cent stake in L&T. Subsequently increases stake to 15.3 per cent by October


2002: Durgapur grinding unit

1998-2000: Bulk cement terminals at Mangalore, Navi Mumbai and Colombo

1999: Narmada Cement Company Limited acquired Ratnagiri Cement Works

1998:Gujarat Cement Works Plant II Andhra Pradesh Cement Works

1996:Gujarat Cement Works Plant I

1994:Hirmi Cement Works

1993:Jharsuguda grinding unit

1987:Awarpur Cement Works Plant II

1983:Awarpur Cement Works Plant I



UltraTech is India's largest exporter of cement clinker. The company's production facilities are spread across five integrated plants, five grinding units, and three terminals two in India and one in Sri Lanka. All the plants have ISO 9001 certification, and all but one have ISO 14001 certification. While two of the plants have already received OSHAS 18001 certification, the process is underway for the remaining three. The company exports over 2.5 million tonnes per annum, which is about 30 per cent of the country's total exports. The export market comprises of countries around the Indian Ocean, Africa, Europe and the Middle East. Export is a thrust area in the company's strategy for growth. UltraTech's products include Ordinary Portland cement, Portland Pozzolana cement and Portland blast furnace slag cement. Ordinary Portland cement Portland blast furnace slag cement Portland Pozzolana cement Cement to European and Sri Lankan norms

Ordinary Portland cement Ordinary Portland cement is the most commonly used cement for a wide range of applications. These applications cover dry-lean mixes, general-purpose ready-mixes, and even high strength pre-cast and pre-stressed concrete.

Portland blast furnace slag cement Portland blast-furnace slag cement contains up to 70 per cent of finely ground, granulated blast-furnace slag, a non-metallic product consisting essentially of silicates and alumino-silicates of calcium. Slag brings with it the advantage of the energy invested in the slag making. Grinding slag for cement replacement takes only 25 per cent of the energy needed to manufacture

Portland cement. Using slag cement to replace a portion of Portland cement in a concrete mixture is a useful method to make concrete better and more consistent. Portland blast-furnace slag cement has a lighter colour, better concrete workability, easier finishability, higher compressive and flexural strength, lower permeability, improved resistance to aggressive chemicals and more consistent plastic and hardened consistency.

Portland Pozzolana cement Portland Pozzolana cement is ordinary Portland cement blended with pozzolanic materials (power-station fly ash, burnt clays, ash from burnt plant material or silicious earths), either together or separately. Portland clinker is ground with gypsum and pozzolanic materials which, though they do not have cementing properties in themselves, combine chemically with Portland cement in the presence of water to form extra strong cementing material which resists wet cracking, thermal cracking and has a high degree of cohesion and workability in concrete and mortar.



Awards won by Gujarat Cement Works UltraTech Cement

2004 Bhartiya Udyog Ratan Award presented to Sh.KYP Kulkarni By Indian Economic Development & Research Association (IEDRA), New Delhi

2002-2003 Greentech Gold Safety Award By Greentech Foundation, New Delhi

2002 Gujarat State Safety Award By Gujarat Safety Council (GSC), Vadodara

2001-2002 Greentech Environment Excellence Award By Greentech Foundation, New Delhi

2001 Awards for Excellence in "Industrial Relations" By Federation of Gujarat Industries (FGI), Vadodara




Financial statements are summaries of the operating, financing, and investment activities of a business. Financial statements should provide information useful to both investors and creditors in making credit, investment, and other business decisions. And this usefulness means that investors and creditors can use these statements to predict, compare, and evaluate the amount, timing, and uncertainty of potential cash flows. In other words, financial statements provide the information needed to assess a companys future earnings and therefore the cash flows expected to result from those earnings. In this chapter, we discuss the four basic financial statements: the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of cash flows, and the statement of shareholders equity. The analysis of financial statements is provided in Part Six of this book.

ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES AND ASSUMPTIONS The accounting data in financial statements are prepared by the firms management according to a set of standards, referred to as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The financial statements of a company whose stock is publicly traded must, by law, be audited at least annually by independent public accountants (i.e., accountants who are not employees of the firm). In such an audit, the accountants examine the financial statements and the data from which these statements are prepared and attestthrough the published auditors opinion that these statements have been prepared according to GAAP. The auditors opinion focuses on whether the statements conform to GAAP and that there is adequate disclosure of any material change in accounting principles. The financial statements are created using several assumptions that affect how we use and interpret the financial data:


Transactions are recorded at historical cost. Therefore, the values shown in the statements are not market or replacement values, but rather reflect the original cost (adjusted for depreciation, in the case of depreciable assets). The appropriate unit of measurement is the dollar. While this seems logical, the effects of inflation, combined with the practice of recording values at historical cost, may cause problems in using and interpreting these values. The statements are recorded for predefined periods of time. Generally, statements are produced to cover a chosen fiscal year or quarter, with the income statement and the statement of cash flows spanning a periods time and the balance sheet and statement of shareholders equity as of the end of the specified period. But because the end of the fiscal year is generally chosen to coincide with the low point of activity in the firms operating cycle, the annual balance sheet and statement of shareholders equity may not be representative of values for the year. Statements are prepared using accrual accounting and the matching principle. Most businesses use accrual accounting, where income and revenues are matched in timing such that income is recorded in the period in which it is earned and expenses are reported in the period in which they are incurred to generate revenues. The result of the use of accrual accounting is that reported income does not necessarily coincide with cash flows. Because the financial analyst is concerned ultimately with cash flows, he or she often must understand how reported income relates to a companys cash flows. It is assumed that the business will continue as a going concern. The assumption that the business enterprise will continue indefinitely justifies the appropriateness of using historical costs instead of current market values because these assets are expected to be used up over time instead of sold. Full disclosure requires providing information beyond the financial statements. The requirement that there be full disclosure means that, in addition to the accounting numbers for such accounting items as revenues, expenses, and assets, narrative and additional numerical disclosures are provided in notes accompanying the financial statements. An analysis of financial statements is therefore not complete without this additional information. Statements are prepared assuming conservatism. In cases in which more than one interpretation of an event is possible, statements are prepared using the most conservative interpretation.


The financial statements and the auditors findings are published in the firms annual and quarterly reports sent to shareholders and the 10K and 10Q filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).Also included in the reports, among other items, is a discussion by management, providing an overview of company events. The annual reports are much more detailed and disclose more financial information than the quarterly reports.

There are three basic financial statements: Balance sheet Income statement Cash Flow statement

THE BALANCE SHEET The balance sheet is a summary of the assets, liabilities, and equity of a business at a particular point in timeusually the end of the firms fiscal year. The balance sheet is also known as the statement of financial condition or the statement of financial position. The values shown for the different accounts on the balance sheet are not purported to reflect current market values; rather, they reflect historical costs. Assets are the resources of the business enterprise, such as plant and equipment that are used to generate future benefits. If a company owns plant and equipment that will be used to produce goods for sale in the future, the company can expect these assets (the plant and equipment) to generate cash inflows in the future. Liabilities are obligations of the business. They represent commitments to creditors in the form of future cash outflows. When a firm borrows, say, by issuing a long-term bond, it becomes obligated to pay interest and principal on this bond as promised. Equity, also called shareholders equity or stockholders equity, reflects ownership. The equity of a firm represents the part of its value that is not owed to creditors and therefore is left over for the owners. In the most basic accounting terms, equity is the difference between what the firm ownsits assetsand what it owes its creditorsits liabilities.

ASSETS There are two major categories of assets: current assets and noncurrent assets, where noncurrent assets include plant assets, intangibles, and investments. Assets that do not fit neatly into these categories may be recorded as either other assets, deferred charges, or other noncurrent assets.

CURRENT ASSETS Current assets (also referred to as circulating capital and working assets) are assets that could reasonably be converted into cash within one operating cycle or one year, whichever takes longer. An operating cycle begins when the firm invests cash in the raw materials used to produce its goods or services and ends with the collection of cash for the sale of those same goods or services. For example, if Fictitious manufactures and sells candy products, its operating cycle begins when it purchases the raw materials for the products (e.g., sugar) and ends when it receives cash for selling the candy to retailers. Because the operating cycle of most businesses is less than one year, we tend to think of current assets as those assets that can be converted into cash in one year. Current assets consist of cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable, and inventories. Cash comprises both currencybills and coinsand assets that are immediately transformable into cash, such as deposits in bank accounts. Marketable securities are securities that can be readily sold when cash is needed. Every company needs to have a certain amount of cash to fulfil immediate needs, and any cash in excess of immediate needs is usually invested temporarily in marketable securities. Investments in marketable securities are simply viewed as a short term place to store funds; marketable securities do not include those investments in other companies stock that are intended to be long term. Some financial reports combine cash and marketable securities into one account referred to as cash and cash equivalents or cash and marketable securities. Accounts receivable are amounts due from customers who have purchased the firms goods or services but havent yet paid for them. To encourage sales, many firms allow their customers to buy now and pay later,. perhaps at the end of the month or within 30 days of the sale. Accounts receivable therefore represents money that the firm expects to collect soon. Because not all accounts are ultimately collected, the gross amount of accounts receivable is adjusted by an estimate of the uncollectible accounts, the allowance for doubtful accounts, resulting in a net accounts receivable figure. Inventories represent the total value of the firms raw materials, work-inprocess, and finished (but as yet unsold) goods. A manufacturer of toy trucks would likely have plastic and steel on hand as raw materials, work-in-process consisting of truck parts and partly completed trucks, and finished goods consisting of trucks packaged and ready for shipping. There are three basic methods of accounting for inventory, including:

FIFO (first in, first out), which assumes that the first items purchased are the first items sold,

LIFO (last in, first out), which assumes that the last items purchased are the first items sold, and

Average cost, which assumes that the cost of items sold, is the average of the cost of all items purchased.

The choice of inventory accounting method is significant because it affects values recorded on the balance sheet and the income statement, as well as tax payments and cash flows. Another current asset account that a company may have is prepaid expenses. Prepaid expenses are amounts that have been paid but not as yet consumed. A common example is the case of a company paying insurance premiums for an extended period of time (say, a year), but for which only a portion (say, three months) is applicable to the insurance coverage for the current fiscal year; the remaining insurance that is prepaid as of the end of the year is considered an asset. Prepaid expenses may be reported as part of other current liabilities. Companies investment in current assets depends, in large part, on the industry in which they operate.

Noncurrent Assets Noncurrent assets are assets that are not current assets; that is, it is not expected that noncurrent assets can be converted into cash within an operating cycle. Noncurrent assets include physical assets, such as plant and equipment, and nonphysical assets, such as intangibles. Plant assets are the physical assets, such as the equipment, machinery, and buildings, which are used in the operation of the business. We describe a firms current investment in plant assets by using three values: gross plant assets, accumulated depreciation, and net plant assets. Gross plant and equipment, or gross plant assets, is the sum of the original costs of all equipment, buildings, and machinery the firm uses to produce its goods and services. Depreciation, as you

will see in the next chapter, is a charge that accounts for the using up of an asset over the length of an accounting period; it is a means for allocating the assets cost over its useful life. Accumulated depreciation is the sum of all the depreciation charges taken so far for all the companys assets. Net plant and equipment, or net plant assets, is the difference between gross plant assets and accumulated depreciation. The net plant and equipment amount is hence the value of the assetshistorical cost less any depreciation- according to the accounting books and is therefore often referred to as the book value of the assets. Intangible assets are the current value of nonphysical assets that represent long-term investments of the company. Such intangible assets include patents, copyrights, and goodwill. The cost of some intangible assets is amortized (.spread out.) over the life of the asset. Amortization is akin to depreciation: The assets cost is allocated over the life of the asset; the reported value is the original cost of the asset, less whatever has been amortized. The number of years over which an intangible asset is amortized depends on the particular asset and its perceived useful life. For example, a patent is the exclusive right to produce and sell a particular, uniquely defined good and has a legal life of 17 years, though the useful life of a patentthe period in which it adds value to the company-may be much less than 17 years. Therefore the company may choose to amortize a patents cost over a period less than 17 years. As another example, a copyright is the exclusive right to publish and sell a literary, artistic, or musical composition, and is granted for 50 years beyond the authors life, though its useful life in terms of generating income for the company may be much less than 50 years. More challenging is determining the appropriate amortization period for goodwill. Goodwill was created when one company buys another company at a price that exceeds the acquired companys fair market value of its assets. A company may have additional noncurrent assets, depending on their particular circumstances. A company may have a noncurrent asset referred to as investments, which are assets that are purchased with the intention of holding them for a long term, but which do not generate revenue or are not used to manufacture a product. Examples of investments include equity securities of another company and real estate that is held for speculative purposes. Other noncurrent assets include long term prepaid expenses, arising from prepayment for which a benefit is received over an extended period of time, and deferred tax assets, arising from timing differences between reported income and tax income, whereby reported income exceeds taxable income.


Long-term investment in securities of other companies may be recorded at cost or market value, depending on the type of investment; investments held to maturity are recorded at cost, whereas investments held as trading securities or available for sale are recorded at market value. Whether the unrealized gains or losses affect earnings on the income statement depend on whether the securities are deemed trading securities or available for sale.

LIABILITIES Liabilities, a firms obligations to its creditors, are made up of current liabilities, long-term liabilities, and deferred taxes.

Current Liabilities Current liabilities are obligations that must be paid within one operating cycle or one year, whichever is longer. Current liabilities include: Accounts payable, which are obligations to pay suppliers. They arise from goods and services that have been purchased but not yet paid. Accrued expenses, which are obligations such as wages and salaries payable to the employees of the business, rent, and insurance. Current portion of long-term debt or the current portion of capital leases. Any portion of long-term indebtednessobligations extending beyond one yeardue within the year. Short-term loans from a bank or notes payable within a year.

The reliance on short-term liabilities and the type of current liabilities depends, in part, on the industry in which the firm operates.

LONG TERM LIABILITIES Long-term liabilities are obligations that must be paid over a period beyond one year. They include notes, bonds, capital lease obligations, and pension obligations. Notes and bonds both represent loans on which the borrower promises to pay interest periodically and to repay the principal amount of the loan.


A lease obligates the lesseethe one leasing and using the leased assetto pay specified rental payments for a period of time. Whether the lease obligation is recorded as a liability or is expensed as lease payments made depends on whether the lease is a capital lease or an operating lease. A companys pension and post-retirement benefit obligations may give rise to long-term liabilities. The pension benefits are commitments by the company to pay specific retirement benefits, whereas post-retirement benefits include any other retirement benefit besides pensions, such as health care. Basically, if the fair value of the pension plans assets exceeds the projected benefit obligation (the estimated present value of projected pension costs), the difference is recorded as a longterm asset. If, on the other hand, the plans assets are less than the projected benefit obligation, the difference is recorded as a long-term liability. In a similar manner, the company may have an asset or a liability corresponding to post-retirement benefits.

DEFFERED TAXES Along with long-term liabilities, the analyst may encounter another account, deferred taxes. Deferred taxes are taxes that will have to be paid to the federal and state governments based on accounting income, but are ot due yet. Deferred taxes arise when different methods of accounting are used for financial statements and for tax purposes. These differences are temporary and are the result of different timing of revenue or expense recognition for financial statement reporting and tax purposes. The deferred tax liability arises when the actual tax liability is less than the tax liability shown for financial reporting purposes (meaning that the firm will be paying the difference in the future), whereas the deferred tax asset, mentioned earlier, arises when the actual tax liability is greater than the tax liability shown for reporting purposes.


EQUITY Equity is the owners interest in the company. For a corporation, ownership is represented by common stock and preferred stock. Shareholders equity is also referred to as the book value of equity, since this is the value of equity according to the records in the accounting books. The value of the ownership interest of preferred stock is represented in financial statements as its par value, which is also the dollar value on which dividends are figured. For example, if you own a share of preferred stock that has a $100 par value and a 9% dividend rate, you receive $9 in dividends each year. Further, your ownership share of the company is $100. Preferred shareholders equity is the product of the number of preferred shares outstanding and the par value of the stock; it is shown that way on the balance sheet. The remainder of the equity belongs to the common shareholders. It consists of three parts: common stock outstanding (listed at par or at stated value), additional paid-in capital, and retained earnings. The par value of common stock is an arbitrary figure; it has no relation to market value or to dividends paid on common stock. Some stock has no par value, but may have an arbitrary value, or stated value, per share. Nonetheless, the total par value or stated value of all outstanding common shares is usually entitled .capital stock. or .common stock.. Then, to inject reality into the equity part of the balance sheet, an entry called additional paid-in capital is added; this is the amount received by the corporation for its common stock in excess of the par or stated value. If a firm sold 10,000 shares of $1 par value common stock at $40 a share, its equity accounts would show: Common stock, $1 par value $10,000 Additional paid-in capital $390,000 There are actually four different labels that can be applied to the number of shares of a corporation on a balance sheet: The number of shares authorized by the shareholders. The number of shares issued and sold by the corporation, which can be less than the number of shares authorized. The number of shares currently outstanding, which can be less than the number of shares issued if The corporation has bought back (repurchased) some of its issued stock. The number of shares of treasury stock, which is stock that the company has repurchased.


The outstanding stock is reported in the stock accounts, and adjustments must be made for any treasury stock. The bulk of the equity interest in a company is in its retained earnings. A retained- earnings is the accumulated net income of the company, less any dividends that have not been paid, over the life of the corporation. Retained earnings are not strictly cash and any correspondence to cash is coincidental. Any cash generated by the firm that has not been paid out in dividends has been reinvested in the firms assetsto finance accounts receivable, inventories, equipment, and so forth.

THE INCOME STATEMENT An income statement is a summary of the revenues and expenses of a business over a period of time, usually one month, three months, or one year. This statement is also referred to as the profit and loss statement. It shows the results of the firms operating and financing decisions during that time. The operating decisions of the companythose that apply to production and marketing generate sales or revenues and incur the cost of goods sold (also referred to as the cost of sales or the cost of products sold). The difference between sales and cost of goods sold is gross profit. Operating decisions also result in administrative and general expenses, such as advertising fees and office salaries. Deducting these expenses from gross profit leaves operating profit, which is also referred to as earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT), operating income, or operating earnings. Operating decisions take the firm from sales to EBIT on the income statement. The results of financing decisions are reflected in the remainder of the income statement. When interest expenses and taxes, which are both influenced by financing decisions, are subtracted from EBIT, the result is net income. Net income is, in a sense, the amount available to owners of the firm. If the firm has preferred stock, the preferred stock dividends are deducted from net income to arrive at earnings available to common shareholders. If the firm does not have preferred stock (as is the case with Fictitious and most nonfictitious corporations), net income is equivalent to earnings available for common shareholders. The board of directors may then distribute all or part of this as common stock dividends, retaining the remainder to help finance the firm.


Companies must report comprehensive income prominently within their financial statements. Comprehensive income is a net income amount that includes all revenues, expenses, gains, and losses items and is based on the idea that all results of the firmwhether operating or nonoperating should be reflected in the earnings of the company. This is referred to as the allinclusive income concept. The all-inclusive income concept requires that these items be recognized in the financial statements as part of comprehensive income. It is important to note that net income does not represent the actual cash flow from operations and financing. Rather, it is a summary of operating performance measured over a given time period, using specific accounting procedures. Depending on these accounting procedures, net income may or may not correspond to cash flow.

CASH FLOW STATEMENT: It is a statement, which measures inflows and outflows of cash on account of any type of business activity. The cash flow statement also explains reasons for such inflows and outflows of cash so it is a report on a company's cash flow activities, particularly its operating, investing and financing activities.



Financial analysis is a tool of financial management. It consists of the evaluation of the financial condition and operating performance of a business firm, an industry, or even the economy, and the forecasting of its future condition and performance. It is, in other words, a means for examining risk and expected return. Data for financial analysis may come from other areas within the firm, such as marketing and production departments, from the firms own accounting data, or from financial information vendors such as Bloomberg Financial Markets, Moodys Investors Service, Standard & Poors Corporation, Fitch Ratings, and Value Line, as well as from government publications, such as the Federal Reserve Bulletin. Financial publications such as Business Week, Forbes, Fortune, and the Wall Street Journal also publish financial data (concerning individual firms) and economic data (concerning industries, markets, and economies), much of which is now also available on the Internet. Within the firm, financial analysis may be used not only to evaluate the performance of the firm, but also its divisions or departments and its product lines. Analyses may be performed both periodically and as needed, not only to ensure informed investing and financing decisions, but also as an aid in implementing personnel policies and rewards systems. Outside the firm, financial analysis may be used to determine the creditworthiness of a new customer, to evaluate the ability of a supplier to hold to the conditions of a long-term contract, and to evaluate the market performance of competitors. Firms and investors that do not have the expertise, the time, or the resources to perform financial analysis on their own may purchase analyses from companies that specialize in providing this service. Such companies can provide reports ranging from detailed written analyses to simple creditworthiness ratings for businesses. As an example, Dun & Bradstreet, a financial services firm, evaluates the creditworthiness of many firms, from small local businesses to major corporations. As another example, three companies Moodys Investors Service, Standard & Poors, and Fitchevaluate the credit quality of debt obligations issued by corporations and express these views in the form of a rating that is published in the reports available from these three organizations.


Who uses these analyses? Financial statements are used and analyzed by a different group of parties, these groups consists of people both inside and outside a business. Generally, these users are:

A. Internal Users: are owners, managers, employees and other parties who are directly connected with a company: 1. Owners and managers require financial statements to make important business decisions that affect its continued operations. Financial analysis is then performed on these statements to provide management with more detailed information. These statements are also used as part of management's report to its stockholders, and it form part of the Annual Report of the company. 2. Employees also need these reports in making collective bargaining agreements with the management, in the case of labour unions or for individuals in discussing their compensation, promotion and rankings.

B. External Users: are potential investors, banks, government agencies and other parties who are outside the business but need financial information about the business for numbers of reasons.

1. Prospective investors make use of financial statements to assess the viability of investing in a business. Financial analyses are often used by investors and is prepared by professionals (financial analysts), thus providing them with the basis in making investment decisions. 2. Financial institutions (banks and other lending companies) use them to decide whether to give a company with fresh loans or extend debt securities (such as a long- term bank loan ). 3. Government entities (tax authorities) need financial statements to ascertain the propriety and accuracy of taxes and duties paid by a company. 4. Media and the general public are also interested in financial statements of some companies for a variety of reasons.



Ratio analysis is such a significant technique for financial analysis. It indicates relation of two mathematical expressions and the relationship between two or more things. Financial ratio is a ratio of selected values on an enterprise's financial statement. There are many standard ratios used to evaluate the overall financial condition of a corporation or other organization. Financial ratios are used by managers within a firm, by current and potential stockholders of a firm, and by a firms creditor. Financial analysts use financial ratios to compare the strengths and weaknesses in various companies. Values used in calculating financial ratios are taken from balance sheet, income statement and the cash flow of company, besides Ratios are always expressed as a decimal values, such as 0.10, or the equivalent percent value, such as 10%.

Essence of ratio analysis: Financial ratio analysis helps us to understand how profitable a business is, if it has enough money to pay debts and we can even tell whether its shareholders could be happy or not. Financial ratios allow for comparisons: 1. between companies 2. between industries 3. between different time periods for one company 4. between a single company and its industry average

To evaluate the performance of one firm, its current ratios will be compared with its past ratios. When financial ratios over a period of time are compared, it is called time series or trend analysis. It gives an indication of changes and reflects whether the firms financial performance has improved or deteriorated or remained the same over that period of time. It is not the simply changes that has to be determined, but more importantly it must be recognized that why those ratios have changed. Because those changes might be result of changes in the accounting polices without material change in the firms performances.

Another method is to compare ratios of one firm with another firm in the same industry at the same point in time. This comparison is known as the cross sectional analysis. It might be more useful to selectsome competitors which have similar operations and compare their ratios with the firms. This comparison shows the relative financial position and performance of the firm. Since it is so easy to find the financial statements of similar firms through publications or Medias this type of analysis can be performed so easily. To determine the financial condition and performance of a firm, its ratios may be compared with average ratios of the industry to which the firm belongs. This method is known as the industry analysis that helps to ascertain the financial standing and capability of the firm in the industry to which it belongs. Industry ratios are important standards in view of the fact that each industry has its own characteristics, which influence the financial and operating relationships. But there are certain practical difficulties for this method. First finding average ratios for the industries is such a headache and difficult. Second, industries include companies of weak and strong so the averages include them also. Sometimes spread may be so wide that the average may be little utility. Third, the average may be meaningless and the comparison not possible if the firms with in the same industry widely differ in their accounting policies and practices. However if it can be standardized and extremely strong and extremely weak firms be eliminated then the industry ratios will be very useful.


What does ratio analysis tell us? After such a discussion and mentioning that these ratios are one of the most important tools that is used in finance and that almost every business does and calculate these ratios, it is logical to express that how come these calculations are of so importance. What are the points that those ratios put light on them? And how can these numbers help us in performing the task of management? The answer to these questions is: We can use ratio analysis to tell us whether the business 1. is profitable 2. has enough money to pay its bills and debts 3. could be paying its employees higher wages, remuneration or so on 4. is able to pay its taxes 5. is using its assets efficiently or not 6. has a gearing problem or everything is fine 7. is a candidate for being bought by another company or investor

But as it is obvious there are many different aspects that these ratios can demonstrate. So for using them first we have to decide what we want to know, then we can decide which ratios we need and then we must begin to calculate them.


Which Ratio for whom: As before mentioned there are varieties of people interested to know and read these information and analyses, however different people for different needs. And it is because each of these groups have different type of questions that could be answered by a specific number and ratio. Therefore we can say there are different ratios for different groups, these groups with the ratio that suits them is listed below:

1. Investors: These are people who already have shares in the business or they are willing to be part of it. So they need to determine whether they should buy shares in the business, hold on to the shares they already have or sell the shares they already own. They also want to assess the ability of the business to pay dividends. As a result the Return on Capital Employed Ratio is the one for this group.

2. Lenders: This group consists of people who have given loans to the company so they want to be sure that their loans and also the interests will be paid and on the due time. Gearing Ratios will suit this group.

3. Managers: Managers might need segmental and total information to see how they fit into the overall picture of the company which they are ruling. And Profitability Ratios can show them what they need to know.

4. Employees: The employees are always concerned about the ability of the business to provide remuneration, retirement benefits and employment opportunities for them, therefore these information must be find out from the stability and profitability of their employers who are responsible to provide the employees their need. Return on Capital Employed Ratio is the measurement that can help them.

5. Suppliers and other trade creditors: Businesses supplying goods and materials to other businesses will definitely read their accounts to see that they don't have problems, after all, any


supplier wants to know if his customers are going to pay them back and they will study the Liquidity Ratio of the companies.

6. Customers: are interested to know the Profitability Ratio of the business with which they are going to have a long term involvement and are dependent on the continuance of presence of that.

7. Governments and their agencies: are concerned with the allocation of resources and, the activities of businesses. To regulate the activities of them, determine taxation policies and as the basis for national income and similar statistics, they calculate the Profitability Ratio of businesses.

8. Local community: Financial statements may assist the public by providing information about the trends and recent developments in the prosperity of the business and the range of its activities as they affect their area so they are interested in lots of ratios.

9. Financial analysts: they need to know various matters, for example, the accounting concepts employed for inventories, depreciation, bad debts and so on. therefore they are interested in possibly all the ratios.

10. Researchers: researchers' demands cover a very wide range of lines of enquiry ranging from detailed statistical analysis of the income statement and balance sheet data extending over many years to the qualitative analysis of the wording of the statements depending on their nature of research.


In isolation, a financial ratio is a useless piece of information. In context, however, a financial ratio can give a financial analyst an excellent picture of a company's situation and the trends that are developing. A ratio gains utility by comparison to other data and standards. Financial ratios quantify many aspects of a business and are an integral part of financial statement analysis. Financial ratios are categorized according to the financial aspect of the business which the ratio measures. Although these categories are not fixed in all over the world however there are almost the same, just with different names:

1. Profitability ratios which use margin analysis and show the return on sales and capital employed.

2. Rate of Return Ratio (ROR) or Overall Profitability Ratio: The rate of return ratios are thought to be the most important ratios by some accountants and analysts. One reason why the rate of return ratios is so important is that they are the ratios that we use to tell if the managingdirector is doing their job properly.

3. Liquidity ratios measure the availability of cash to pay debt, which give a picture of a company's short term financial situation.

4. Solvency or Gearing ratios measures the percentage of capital employed that is financed by debt and long term finance. The higher the gearing, the higher the dependence on borrowing and long term financing. The lower the gearing ratio, the higher the dependence on equity financing. Traditionally, the higher the level of gearing, the higher the level of financial risk due to the increase volatility of profits. It should be noted that the term .Leverage. is used in some texts.

5. Turn over Ratios or activity group ratios indicate efficiency of organization to various kinds of assets by converting them to the form of sales. 6. Investors ratios usually interested by investors.



Fixed Assets Gross Block Net Block Capital WIP Investment Current Assets Inventories 283.71 379.57 Debtors 171.95 172.55 Other Current 381.99 220.4 Assets Balance Sheet 3619.52 3623.11 Total Liabilities Rs. Cr. Rs. Cr. Shareholders Funds Equity Share 124.40 124.40 Capital Share Capital 0.09 Suspense Employees Stock Option 0.77 Outstanding Reserves and 942.73 913.78 Surplus 1531.38 1451.83 Loan Funds 576.96 Deferred Tax 581.71 Liabilities Current Liabilities Creditors 224.67 318.13 Other Current 214.63 237.92 Liab./Prov. Balance Sheet 3619.52 3623.11 Total

31-03-2005 Rs. Cr. 4304.29 2548.9 48.18 184.79

31-03-2006 Rs. Cr. 4605.38 2537.21 141.03 172.39

As On Rs. Cr. 4784.7 2517.28 696.95 483.45 433.58 183.50 343.09 4657.85 Rs. Cr. 124.49 -

31-03-2008 Rs. Cr. 4972.60 2500.46 2283.15 170.90 609.76 216.61 477.52 6258.40 Rs. Cr. 124.49 1.68

31-03-2009 Rs. Cr. 7,401.02 4,635.69 677.28 1,034.80 691.97 186.18 483.46 7709.38 Rs. Cr. 124.49 -

1639.29 1578.63 560.26

2571.73 1740.50 542.35

3475.93 2141.63 722.93

463.99 291.19 4657.85

776.79 501.77 6258.40

723.09 519.63 7709.38



As On Net Sales Operating profit (PBIDT) PBIT Gross profit (PBDT) PBT PAT( net profit)

31-Mar-05 2,681.05 272.81 51.03 188.18 43.24 2.85

31-Mar-06 3,299.45 554.26 338.23 501.62 285.59 229.76

31-Mar-07 4,910.83 1,417.81 1191.56 1392.44 1166.19 782.28

31-Mar-08 5,509.22 1,720.06 1482.83 1744.24 1507.01 1,007.61

31-Mar-09 6,383.08 1,760.29 1437.29 1684.46 1361.46 977.02


As On Equity dividend Preference dividend

31-Mar-05 9.33 -

31-Mar-06 21.79 -

31-Mar-07 49.79 -

31-Mar-08 62.24 -

31-Mar-09 62.24 -



LIQUIDITY RATIOS: The two liquidity ratios, the current ratio and the acid test ratio, are the most important ratios in almost the whole of ratio analysis and they are also the simplest to use. Liquidity ratios provide information about a firms ability to meet its short- term financial obligations. They are of particular interest to those extending short term credit to the firm. Two frequently-used liquidity ratios are current and quick ratio. While liquidity ratios are most helpful for short-term creditors/suppliers and bankers, they are also important to financial managers who must meet obligations to suppliers of credit and various government agencies. A company's ability to turn short-term assets into cash to cover debts is of the utmost importance when creditors are seeking payment. Bankruptcy analysts and mortgage originators frequently use the liquidity ratios to determine whether a company will be able to continue as a going concern. A complete liquidity ratio analysis can help uncover weaknesses in the financial position of the business. Generally, the higher the value of the ratio, the larger the margin of safety that the company possesses to cover short-term debts.


Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current liabilities

Current Asset Current Liabilities Current Ratio

2005 837.65 439.30 1.91

2006 772.52 556.05 1.39

2007 960.17 755.18 1.27

2008 1303.89 1278.56 1.02

2009 1361.61 1242.72 1.10


Comments: The ratio is mainly used to give an idea of the companys ability to pay back its short- term liabilities (debt and payables) with its short-term assets (cash, inventory, receivables). The higher the current ratio, the more capable the company is of paying its obligations. A ratio in each year suggests that the company would be able to pay off its obligations if they came due at that point, but the company has shown constant decreasing trend in its financial health in subsequent years, Since low current ratio does not necessarily mean that the firm will go bankrupt, but it is definitely is not a good sign. Short term creditors prefer a high current ratio since it reduce their risk.


The essence of this ratio is a test that indicates whether a firm has enough short-term assets to cover its immediate liabilities without selling inventory. So it is the backing available to liabilities that must be paid almost immediately. There are two terms of liquid asset and liquid liabilities in this formula, Liquid asset is all current assets except the inventories and prepaid expenses, because prepaid expenses cannot be converted to cash. The liquid liabilities include all current liabilities except bank overdraft and cash credit since they are not required to be paid off immediately.


Quick Ratio = Liquid Assets/Liquid Liabilities

Liquid Asset Liquid Liabilities Quick Ratio

2005 553.94 439.30 1.26

2006 392.95 556.05 0.70

2007 526.59 755.18 0.70

2008 694.13 1278.56 0.54

2009 669.64 1242.72 0.54

Comments: The acid-test ratio is far more forceful than the current ratio, primarily because the current ratio includes inventory assets which might not be able to turn to cash immediately. Companies with ratios of less than 1 cannot pay their current liabilities and should be looked at with extreme caution. Furthermore, if the acid-test ratio is much lower than the current ratio, it means current assets are highly dependent on inventory



Accounting ratios that measure a firm's ability to convert different accounts within their balance sheets into cash or sales. Companies will typically try to turn their production into cash or sales as fast as possible because this will generally lead to higher revenues. Such ratios are frequently used when performing fundamental analysis on different companies. 1. FIXED ASSETS TURN OVER RATIO: It shows how the company uses its fixed assets to achieve sales. The formula is as follows:

Fixed Asset Turn Over Ratio= Net Sales/Fixed Assets


2005 2681.06 2597.08

2006 3299.45 2678.24 1.23

2007 4910.83 3214.23 1.53

2008 5508.78 4783.61 1.15

2009 6,383.08 5312.97 1.20


Comments: A High fixed asset turnover ratio indicates the capability of the firm to earn maximum sales with the minimum investing in fixed assets. So it shows that the company is using its assets more efficiently. As it is shown in above the Company is using its assets specially fixed assets more efficiently each year although it had a light decrease in efficiency in 2008 and 2009 compared to 2007.

2. CURRENT ASSETS TURN OVER RATIO: It is almost like the fixed asset turnover ratio, it calculates the capability of organization to earn sales with usage of current assets. So it indicates with what ratio current assets are turned over in the form of sales. This ratio is calculated as:

Current Asset Turn Over Ratio= Net Sales/Current Assets


2005 2681.06

2006 3299.45
772.52 4.27

2007 4910.83
960.17 5.11

2008 5508.78
1303.89 4.22

2009 6,383.08 1361.61 4.69


Comments: In this formula current assets are balance sheet accounts that represent the value of all assets that are reasonably expected to be converted into cash within one year in the normal course of business. A higher current assets turnover ratio is more desirable since it shows the better financial position of company and better usage of these current assets. It can be seen from above figure that the company has shown high ratio in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2009, never mind the slight decrease in 2008. It means the company is using its current assets more efficiently. The comparison between two ratios over the same period of time, also shows that company has used its current assets better than its fixed assets

3. WORKING CAPITAL TURN OVER RATIO: As its name suggests it is the relationship between turnover and working capital. It is a measurement comparing the depletion of working capital to the generation of sales over a given period. This provides some useful information as to how effectively a company is using its working capital to generate sales.
A company uses working capital to fund operations and purchase inventory. These operations and inventory are then converted into sales revenue for the company. The working capital turnover ratio is used to analyze the relationship between the money used to fund operations and the sales generated from these operations. The formula related is:

Working Capital Turn Over Ratio = Net Sales/Working Capital


2005 2681.06

2006 3299.45
216.47 15.24

2007 4910.83
204.99 23.96

2008 5508.78
25.33 217.48

2009 6,383.08 118.89 53.69


Comments: The term working capital is a measure of both a company's efficiency and its short-term financial health. The working capital ratio is calculated as: Working Capital = Current Asset Current Liabilities Positive working capital means that the company is able to pay off its short-term liabilities. Negative working capital means that a company currently is unable to meet its short-term liabilities with its current assets. In a general sense, the higher the working capital turnover, the better because it means that the company is generating a lot of sales compared to the money it uses to fund the sales..

4. CAPITAL EMPLOYED TURNOVER RATIO The capital employed turnover ratio tells us the state of the relationship between the shareholders' investment in the business and the sales that the management of the business has been able to generate from it.

Capital Employed Turn Over Ratio= Net Sales/Capital Employed

. Net Sales Capital Employed Capital Employed Turnover Ratio 2005 2681.06 2598.84 1.032 2006 3299.45 2490.01 1.33 2007 4910.83 3342.41 1.47 2008 5508.78 4436.72 1.24 2009 6,383.08 5742.05 1.11


Comments: Capital employed can be expressed in different terms, all generally refer to the investment required for a business to function. By "employing capital" you are making an investment. So, capital employed indicated the long term funds supplied by creditors and owners of the firms. So it can be computed as:
Capital Employed = share capital + Long term liabilities + reserve and surpluses This ratio shows the efficiency of the firm with which the capital employed is being utilized. A high ratio is a sign of capability of firm to earn maximum sales with minimum amount of capital employed and this firm is constantly improving its ratio from 2005 to 2007 except for 2008 and 2009 it is due to current economic slowdown prevailing in the country as well as in the world



Gearing is concerned with the relationship between the long terms liabilities that a business has and its capital employed. The idea is that this relationship ought to be in balance. It is a general term describing a financial ratio that compares some form of owner's equity (or capital) to borrowed funds. The shareholders and lenders of long term loans may be interested in this ratio. 1. DEBT EQUITY RATIO This ratio reflects the relative claims of creditors and share holders against the assets of the firm, debt equity ratios establishment relationship between borrowed funds and owner capital to measure the long term financial solvency of the firm. The ratio indicates the relative proportions of debt and equity in financing the assets of the firm.

debt equity ratio= debt/ShareHolders Fund

The debts side consist of all long term liabilities of the firm. The shareholders fund is the share capital plus reserve and surpluses. The lower the debt equity ratio the higher the degree of protection enjoyed by the creditors. The debt equity ratio defined by the controller of capital issue, debt is defined as long term debt plus preference capital which is redeemable before 12 years and shareholders fund is defined as paid up equity capital plus preference capital which is redeemable after 12 years plus reserves & surpluses. The general norm for this ratio is 2:1. on case of capital intensive industries as norms of 4:1 is used for fertilizer and cement industry and a norms of 6:1 is used for shipping units.


2005 1531.38 1067.13 1.43

2006 1451.83 1038.27 1.40

2007 1578.63 1763.78 0.90

2008 1740.50 2696.99 0.65

2009 2141.63 3602.1 0.59


Comments: In this ratio shareholders fund is the share capital plus reserve and surpluses. In case of high debt equity it would be obvious that the investment of creditors is more than owners. And if it is so high then it brings the firm in a risky position. Or if it is too low it might indicate that the organization has not utilized its capacity of borrowing which must be utilized and that is because the borrowing from outsiders is a good source of fund for business with lower returns in compare to equity. The UltraTech Cement Ltd. is trying to lower its debt equity ratio by lowering its liabilities and increasing its equity. So it wants to improve its position since, a relatively lower ratio is favorable.

2. PROPRIETORY RATIO It is primarily the ratio between the proprietors funds and total assets. It indicates the relationship between owners fund and total assets. And shows the extent to which the owner s fund are sunk in assets or different kinds of it.

proprietary Ratio= Proprietors Fund/Total Assets

NOTE: Owners funds is equal to Shareholders Funds


Owners fund Total Asset Proprietary Ratio

2005 1067.13 3619.52 3.39

2006 1038.27 3623.11 3.49

2007 1763.78 4657.85 2.64

20008 2696.99 6258.40 2.32

2009 3602.1 7709.38 2.14

Comments: This ratio indicates the proportion of proprietors funds used for financing the total assets. As a very rough measure, it is suggested that 2/3rd to 3/4th of the total assets should be financed through borrowings. A high ratio will indicate high financial strength but a very high ratio will indicate that the firm is not using external funds adequately.


As the name itself suggests, this ratio is calculated to determine profitability of the firm. The basic objective of almost every business is to earn profit which is essential for survival of the business. A business needs profits not only for its existence but also for its expansion and diversification. The investors want an adequate return on their investments, workers want higher wages, creditors want higher security for interest and loan and the list could continue. It is a class of financial metrics that are used to assess a business's ability to generate earnings as compared to its expenses and other relevant costs incurred during a specific period of time. For most of these ratios, having a higher value relative to a competitor's ratio or the same ratio from a previous period is indicative that the company is doing well.

1. GROSS PROFIT RATIO: The gross profit margin ratio tells us the profit a business makes on its cost of sales. It is a very simple idea and it tells us how much gross profit our business is earning. Gross profit is the profit we earn before we take off any administration costs, selling costs and so on. So we should have a much higher gross profit margin than net profit margin. High ratios are favorable in this, since it indicates the business is earning a good return on the sale of its merchandise.

Gross Profit Ratio = Gross Profit/Net Sales * 100


2005 2681.06 265.02 9.88

2006 3299.45 501.62 15.20

2007 4910.83 1392.44 28.35

2008 5508.78 1507.01 27.36

2009 6,383.08 1684.46 26.40


Comments: This ratio indicates the relation between production cost and sales and the efficiency with which goods are produced or purchased. If it has a very high gross profit ratio it may indicate that the organization is able to produce or purchase at a relatively lower cost. Gross profit is the profit we earn before we take off any administration costs, selling costs and so on. Here company has achieved very good efficiency in 2007 compared to other financial years. 57


This shows the portion of sales available to owners after all expenses. A high profit ratio is higher profitability of the firm. This ratio shows the earning left for shareholder as percentage of Net sales. Net Margin Ratio measures the overall efficiency of production, Administration selling, financing, pricing and Taste Management.

Net Profit Ratio = Net Profit After Tax/Net Sales * 100

2005 NET SALES 2681.06 NET PROFIT 2.85 NET PROFIT 0.11 RATIO 2006 3299.45 229.76 6.96 2007 4910.83 782.28 15.93 2008 5508.78 1007.61 18.29 2009 6,383.08 977.02 15.30


Comments: It is depicted from the above diagram that company has been trying to improve its profitability year by year except for 2009 because of environmental instability which includes the economic meltdown in the country and whole world.

3. OPERATING NET PROFIT RATIO: This ratio establishes the relation between the net sales and the operating net profit. The concept of operating net profit is different from the concept of net profit operating net profit is the profit arising out of business operations only. This is calculated as follows: Operating net profit = Net Profit + Non operating expenses non operating income. Alternatively, this profit can also be calculated by deducting only operating expenses from the gross profit.

Operating net profit ratio = Operating Net Profit/Net Sales * 100

2005 NET SALES 2681.06 OPERATING NET PROFIT 272.81 OPERATING NET PROFIT 10.18 RATIO 2006 3299.45 554.26 16.80 2007 4910.83 1,417.81 28.87 2008 5508.78 1,720.06 31.22 2009 6,383.08 1,760.29 27.57



The ROI is perhaps the most important ratio of all. It is the percentage of return on funds invested in the business by its owners. In short, this ratio tells the owner whether or not all the effort put into the business has been worthwhile. If the ROI is less than the rate of return on an alternative, the owner may be wiser to sell the company, put the money in risk-free investment such as a bank savings account, , and avoid the daily struggles of small business management. These Liquidity, Leverage, Profitability, and Management Ratios allow the business owner to identify trends in a business and to compare its progress with the performance of others through data published by various sources. The owner may thus determine the business's relative strengths and weaknesses.

1. RETURN ON ASSETS: This ratio actually measures the profitability of the investments in the firm. And the related formula is:

Return on Asset Ratio = Net Profit After Tax/Assets * 100



2005 2.85 3619.52

2006 229.76 3623.11 6.34

2007 782.28 4657.85 16.79

2008 1007.61 6258.40 16.10

2009 977.02 7709.38 12.67

Comments: Because this ratio shows the profitability of investment in the firm so higher the ratio, the better is the return to the owners of the company.

2. RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED: This Ratio is considered to be very important. It indicates the percentage of net profits before interest and tax to total capital employed. It reflects the overall efficiency with which capital is used. The ratio of a particular business should be compared with other business firms in the same industry to find out the exact position of the business. It is calculated aS


ROCE Ratio = Net Profit Before Interest and Tax/Capital Employed * 100
Note: Capital Employed = Equity Capital + Preference Capital + Reserves and Surplus + Long Term Debt- Fictitious Assets


2005 51.03 2598.51 1.96

2006 338.23 2490.10 13.58

2007 1191.56 3342.41 35.65

2008 1482.83 4437.49 33.42

2009 1437.29 5743.73 25.02

Comments: A measure of the return that a company is realizing from its capital employed. The ratio can also be seen as representing the efficiency with which capital is being utilized to generate revenue. It is commonly used as a measure for comparing the performance between businesses and for assessing whether a business generates enough returns to pay for its cost of capital. Of course the higher the ratio, the better will be the profitability of the company.


This ratio also known as return on shareholders funds or return on proprietors funds or return on net worth, indicates the percentage of net profit available for equity shareholders to equity shareholders funds and not on total capital employed. It is calculated as:

ROE Ratio = N.P.A.T. - Preference Dividend /Equity Share Holders Fund * 100
Note: Here Equity Share Holders Fund = Equity Capital + Reserves and Surplus 2005 N.P.A.T 2.85 PREF.DIVIDE ND Equity Share 1067.13 Holders Fund ROE RATIO 0.26 2006 229.76 2007 782.28 2008 1007.61 2009 977.02









Comments: This ratio indicates the productivity of the owned funds employed in the firm. However, in judging the profitability of a firm, it should not be overlooked that during inflationary periods, the ratio may show an upward trend because the numerator of the ratio represents current values whereas denominator represents historical values.


1. EARNINGS PER SHARE: EPS measures the profit earned per share. The higher EPS will attract more investors to acquire shares in the company as it indicates that the business is more profitable enough to pay the dividends in time. So it is of utmost importance to investors in order to decide the prospects. It is calculated as:

EPS = N.P.A.T. - Preference Dividend / Number of equity shares Outstanding

2005 0.22 2006 18.47 2007 62.84 2008 80.94 2009 78.5


Comments: As mentioned above, EPS is one of the important criteria for measuring the performance of a company. If EPS increases, the possibility of a higher dividend per share also increases. However, the dividend payment depends on the policy of the company. Market price of shares of a company may also show an upward trend if the EPS is showing a rising trend. However, it should be remembered that EPS of different companiesmay vary from company to company due to the following different practices by different companies regarding stock in trade, depreciation, source of raising finance, tax-planning measures etc.

DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO EPS described above indicates the amount of profit available for equity share shareholders. Dividend Payout Ratio indicates the percentage of profit distributed as dividends to the shareholders. It measures the relationship between the earning belonging to the equity shareholders and the amount finally paid to them:

DPR Ratio = Dividend per share/EPS * 100

2005 0.75 0.22 341 2006 1.75 18.47 9.47 2007 4.00 62.84 6.36 2008 5.00 80.9 6.18 2009 5.00 78.5 6.37


Comments: This ratio indicates the policy of management to pay cash dividend. A higher ratio indicates that the organization is following the liberal dividend policy regarding the dividend while a lower ratio indicates a conservative approach of the management towards the dividend


SUMMARY OF RATIOS Table of Financial Ratios of ULTRATECH CEMENT LTD. for last Five Years
2005 1.91 1.26 1.032 2006 1.39 0.70 1.23 2007 1.27 0.70 1.53 2008 1.02 0.54 1.15 2009 1.10 0.54 1.20

Current Ratio Quick Ratio Fixed Asset Turn Over Ratio Current Asset Turn Over Ratio Working Capital Turnover Ratio Capital Employed Turnover Ratio Debt Equity ratio Proprietary Ratio G.P. Ratio N.P. Ratio Operating N.P. Ratio Return on Asset Ratio ROCE Ratio ROE Ratio EPS Dividend Payout Ratio
















1.43 3.39 9.88 0.11 10.18 0.07 1.96 0.26 0.22 341

1.40 3.49 15.20 6.96 16.80 6.34 13.58 22.13 18.47 9.47

0.90 2.64 28.35 15.93 28.87 16.79 35.65 44.35 62.84 6.36

0.65 2.32 27.36 18.29 31.22 16.10 33.42 37.36 80.94 6.18

0.59 2.14 26.40 15.30 27.57 12.67 25.02 27.12 78.5 6.37



Based on the ratios and calculations made on my project I can analyze as follows: The year 2007 could be called the peak on the business during last five year which almost divides the ratios into two parts, before 2004 and after that. Liquidity ratios shows that the firm has been facing some problems regarding paying short term liabilities for 3 years, but it is trying to improve the situation. The usage ratio of the company had followed a comparable pattern. The overall efficiency of the company to use its assets, capital or the working capital had increased from 2005 to 2007. However in the later years, it is declining and falling to a lower level of efficiency, for which we can blame the environmental conditions of the country, and that involves the economical and political challenges of India and the world. The Company fails to increase its profitability in the last year, though it should be mentioned that we see a noticeable net profit point in the 2008. It also fails to give satisfactory rate of return in the two years compared to 2007


Ratio analysis is an important technique of financial analysis. It is a means for judging the financial health of a business enterprise. It determines and interprets the liquidity,solvency,profitability,etc. of a business enterprise.

It becomes simple to understand various figures in the financial statements through the use of different ratios. Financial ratios simplify, sumarise, and systemise the accounting figures presented in financial statements. With the help of raito analysis, comparision of profitability and financial soundness can be made between one industry and another. Similarly comparision of current year figures can also be made with those of previous years with the help of ratio analysis and if some weak points are located, remidial masures are taken to correct them. If accounting ratios are calculated for a number of years, they will reveal the trend of costs, sales, profits and other important facts. Such trends are useful for planning. Financial ratios, based on a desired level of activities, can be set as standards for judging actual performance of a business. For example, if owners of a business aim at earning profit @ 25% on the capital which is the prevailing rate of return in the industry then this rate of 25% becomes the standard. The rate of profit of each year is compared with this standard and the actual performance of the business can be judged easily. Ratio analysis discloses the position of business with different viewpoint. It discloses the position of business with liquidity viewpoint, solvency view point, profitability viewpoint, etc. with the help of such a study, we can draw conclusion regardings the financial health of business enterprise.



Ratio analysis is an important and age-old technique of financial analysis. The following are some of the advantages of ratio analysis:

1. Simplifies financial statements: It simplifies the comprehension of financial statements. Ratios tell the whole story of changes in the financial condition of the business. 2. Facilitates inter-firm comparison: It provides data for inter-firm comparison. Ratios highlight the factors associated with successful and unsuccessful firm. They also reveal strong firms and weak firms, overvalued and undervalued firms. 3. Helps in planning: It helps in planning and forecasting. Ratios can assist management, in its basic functions of forecasting. Planning, co-ordination, control and communications. 4. Makes inter-firm comparison possible: Ratios analysis also makes possible comparison of the performance of different divisions of the firm. The ratios are helpful in deciding about their efficiency or otherwise in the past and likely performance in the future. 5. Help in investment decisions: It helps in investment decisions in the case of investors and lending decisions in the case of bankers etc.


The ratios analysis is one of the most powerful tools of financial management. Though ratios are simple to calculate and easy to understand, they suffer from serious limitations. 1. Limitations of financial statements: Ratios are based only on the information which has been recorded in the financial statements. Financial statements themselves are subject to several limitations. Thus ratios derived, there from, are also subject to those limitations. For example, non-financial changes though important for the business are not relevant by the financial statements. Financial statements are affected to a very great extent by accounting conventions and concepts. Personal judgment plays a great part in determining the figures for financial statements. 2. Comparative study required: Ratios are useful in judging the efficiency of the business only when they are compared with past results of the business. However, such a comparison only provide glimpse of the past performance and forecasts for future may not prove correct since several other factors like market conditions, management policies, etc. may affect the future operations. 3. Problems of price level changes: A change in price level can affect the validity of ratios calculated for different time periods. In such a case the ratio analysis may not clearly indicate the trend in solvency and profitability of the company. The financial statements, therefore, be adjusted keeping in view the price level changes if a meaningful comparison is to be made through accounting ratios. 4. Lack of adequate standard: No fixed standard can be laid down for ideal ratios. There are no well accepted standards or rule of thumb for all ratios which can be accepted as norm. It renders interpretation of the ratios difficult. 5. Limited use of single ratios: A single ratio, usually, does not convey much of a sense. To make a better interpretation, a number of ratios have to be calculated which is likely to confuse the analyst than help him in making any good decision. 6. Personal bias: Ratios are only means of financial analysis and not an end in itself. Ratios have to interpret and different people may interpret the same ratio in different way. 7. Incomparable: Not only industries differ in their nature, but also the firms of the similar business widely differ in their size and accounting procedures etc. It makes comparison of ratios difficult and misleading.


Ratios make the related information comparable. A single figure by itself has no meaning, but when expressed in terms of a related figure, it yields significant interferences. Thus, ratios are relative figures reflecting the relationship between related variables. Their use as tools of financial analysis involves their comparison as single ratios, like absolute figures, are not of much use. Ratio analysis has a major significance in analysing the financial performance of a company over a period of time. Decisions affecting product prices, per unit costs, volume or efficiency have an impact on the profit margin or turnover ratios of a company. Financial ratios are essentially concerned with the identification of significant accounting data relationships, which give the decision-maker insights into the financial performance of a company. The analysis of financial statements is a process of evaluating the relationship between component parts of financial statements to obtain a better understanding of the firms position and performance. The first task of financial analyst is to select the information relevant to the decision under consideration from the total information contained in the financial statements. The second step is to arrange the information in a way to highlight significant relationships. The final step is interpretation and drawing of inferences and conclusions. In brief, financial analysis is the process of selection, relation and evaluation. Ratio analysis in view of its several limitations should be considered only as a tool for analysis rather than as an end in itself. The reliability and significance attached to ratios will largely hinge upon the quality of data on which they are based. They are as good or as bad as the data itself. Nevertheless, they are an important tool of financial analysis.



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Books Referred: Basic Financial Management.- M Y Khan P K Jain Financial Management.- Prasanna Chandra

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