Understanding Carbon Credits Business — Presentation Transcript

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1. Understanding the Carbon Credits Business Amit Gopal Chauhan 28 th March 2008 SIBER, KOLHAPUR 2. I will Talk About Governance Global Warming IPCC, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol Carbon Trading Requirements for a CDM project Examples Discussion on price factors Market strategy one should adopt CDM market failure Conclusion 3. Governance Three pillars Governments Institutions Markets When one fails other compensates When one fails it either self corrects and evolves with new attributes. Or depends on the other pillars for a change. The cycle should repeat it self. 4. Global Warming Its responsible for life on Earth Water Vapor, CO2, Methane, N2O caused natural GW Historically Industrialization has magnified the emissions of GHGs exponentially Increase in temperature, increase in sea water level, extreme movements of draught/ hurricanes/ floods expected 5. IPCC, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change North & South agree to mitigate climate change before “ it is too late” Agree that they have “ Common but Differentiated responsibilities ”. Kyoto Protocol which in details describe how the GHGs can be reduced entered into force on 16th February 2005. 6. The Kyoto protocol Annex I Non-Annex I Not ratified 7. Kyoto Protocol It relies on market based flexible mechanisms to reduce GHGs emissions to mitigate GW. Emission trading (trading of allowances between Annex I governments) Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (projects in Non-Annex I countries with participation of Annex I countries) Joint Implementation (JI) (projects between Annex I countries) 8. GHGs With GWPs under Kyoto Carbon dioxide GWP: 1 Hydrofluorocarbons GWP: 11,700 Methane GWP: 21 Sulphur hexafluoride GWP: 23,900 Nitrous oxide GWP: 310 Perfluorocarbons GWP: 9,200 9. GWP & Carbon Credits If one tonne of GHG emission is reduced then number of carbon credits issued will be equivalent to the GWP. 23900 Sulphur hexafluoride SF 6 11700 Hydrofluorocarbons HFCs 9200 Perfluorocarbons PFCs 310 Nitrous oxide N 2 O 21 Methane CH 4 1 Carbon dioxide CO 2 Global warming Potential Name Formula 10. Carbon Credits are also Known as… Emission reduction unit (ERUs), Certified emission reduction (CERs), Assigned amount unit (AAUs) Removal unit (RMUs) Voluntary emission reduction (VERs) 11. Generating Carbon Credits GHG emissions Time Project commissioned “ With project” emission level “ Without project” emission level Carbon credits Project based emission reductions need to be calculated and verified 1 reduced Ton of Carbon Dioxide equivalent = 1 Carbon Credit hereafter they can be sold on the open market. 12. Supposed benefits of the market mechanisms Help identify lowest-cost opportunities for reducing emissions and attract private sector participation in emission reduction efforts. Cost of limiting emissions varies considerably from region to region, the benefit for the atmosphere is the same, wherever the action is taken. Developing nations benefit

long-term GHG reduction. North America. India. common practice barriers. The project meets the sustainable development criteria framed by the country. China. measurable. The ITL verifies registry transactions. technical. in real time. Registry systems under Kyoto (1) National Registries : containing accounts within which units are held in the name of the government or in the name of legal entities authorized by the government to hold and trade units CDM registry : for issuing CDM credits and distributing them to national registries. the end status of the unit holdings for each Annex B Party will be compared with the Party‟s emissions over the commitment period in order to assess whether it has complied with its emission target under the Kyoto Protocol 19. as the registry does not accept emissions trading between accounts. The projects results in real. if required by law Contractual agreement between each individual sub-project and the bundling agency 22. After the Kyoto commitment period is finished. Accounts in the CDM registry are held only by CDM project participants. Registry systems under Kyoto (4) In verifying registry transactions. must face some financial. thus forming the backbone infrastructure for the carbon market 17. Registry systems under Kyoto 20. 16. Requirements for South for participating in CDM The host country where the project is executed is a Kyoto signatory.) The Linking Directive allows credits from Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) projects to help companies comply with their obligations 15. etc. to ensure they are consistent with rules agreed under the Kyoto Protocol. Basic data needed for CDM! Evidence of CDM consideration Start & commissioning dates Financial analysis (IRR calculation) Electricity saving data Barrier analysis information EIA report.          in terms of technology transfer and investment brought about through collaboration with industrialized nations under the CDM. CDM Sectors Agriculture Afforestration and reforestation Waste Handling and disposal Solvent use Fugitive emissions from production and consumption of halocarbons and Sulphur hexafluoride Fugitive emissions from fuels Mining & Mineral Production . The ITL requires registries to terminate transactions they propose that are found to infringe upon the Kyoto rules 18.2% during 2008 – 2012 14. South Africa. these registries “settle” emissions trades by delivering units from the accounts of sellers to those of buyers. Registry systems under Kyoto (2) In addition to recording the holdings of Kyoto units. Registry systems under Kyoto (3) Each registry will operate through a link established with the International transaction log put in place and administered by the UNFCCC secretariat. It should be proved that the project must not have been commissioned without the CDM) 21. The Carbon market (2) Voluntary participation of Non-Annex 1 countries (Brazil. Japan. New Zealand.e. Australia) to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 5. 13. The Carbon market (1) International agreements to reduce greenhouse gases: EU Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS) requires EU countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 6% during 2005-2007 Kyoto Protocol requires Annex I countries (West and Eastern Europe. the ITL provides an independent check that unit holdings are being recorded accurately in registries. The projects must be Additional (i.

Outline of the CDM project process (1) An industrialized country that wishes to get credits from a CDM project must obtain the consent of the developing country hosting the project that it will contribute to sustainable development. using methodologies approved by the CDM Executive Board (EB). called a Designated Operational Entity (DOE). the EB issues credits. 28. and long-term emission reductions. 24. CDM Project Activity Cycle (5) Registration of the CDM project activity: Registration is the formal acceptance by the Executive Board of a validated project as a CDM project activity. certification and issuance of CERs related to that project activity . Project participants shall submit information on their proposed CDM project activity using the Project design document (CDM-PDD). prior to a validation and submission for registration of this project activity. with the draft project design document (CDMPDD). as outlined in Appendix B. Outline of the CDM project process (3) The EB then decides whether or not to register (approve) the project. CDM Project Activity Cycle (1) Project Activity Design: The Project design document (CDM-PDD) and the Guidelines for completing CDM-PDD including a glossary of terms (Approval. including a description of the project and identification of the project participants. Steps is CDM PIN / PCN & PDD Development Host Country Approval Validation Verification Monitoring Implementation Registration Certification Project Developers / Consultant GOI / MOEF i. 29. on the basis of the project design document. Registration is the prerequisite for the verification. DNA DOE CDM EB Project Developers Project Developer + DOE DOE CDM EB Issuance of CERs CDM EB 27. project participants etc. verified by the DOE. Then. the present annex and relevant decisions of the COP/MOP.         Transport Construction Energy Distribution loss prevention Energy Efficiency in Industry (demand & supply) All types of Renewable energy 23. 30. 31. Outline of the CDM project process (2) Must establish a baseline estimating the future emissions in absence of the registered project. CDM Project Activity Cycle (4) Validation of the CDM project activity: Validation is the process of independent evaluation of a project activity by a designated operational entity against the requirements of the CDM as set out in decision 17/CP. The case is then validated by a third party agency. 25. CDM Project Activity Cycle (2) Proposal of a New Baseline and/ or Monitoring Methodology: The new baseline methodology shall be submitted by the designated operational entity to the Executive Board for review. to ensure the project results in real. If a project is registered and implemented. In case of approved methodologies the designated operational entities may proceed with the validation of the CDM project activity and submit project design document (CDM-PDD) for registration.e. called Certified Emission Reductions to project participants based on the monitored difference between the baseline and the actual emissions. CDM Project Activity Cycle (3) Use of an Approved Methodology: The approved methodology is a methodology previously approved by the Executive Board and made publicly available along with any relevant guidance. the applicant (the industrialized country) must make the case that the carbon project would not have happened anyway (establishing additionality).7.) have been developed by the Executive Board on the basis of Appendix B of the CDM modalities and procedures. authorization. 26. measurable.

Geothermal. 90 million up to 2012 40.Coal to Gas. prevent pipeline leakage. solar. Associated gas recovery. CDM Project Activity Cycle (6) Certification/ Verification of the CDM project activity: Verification is the periodic independent review and ex post determination by the designated operational entity of the monitored reductions in anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases that have occurred as a result of a registered CDM project activity during the verification period. and Wind Waste gas: heat. motor controller. Possible CDM projects in Oil & Gas Sector for example Gas flaring reduction. appliances) Distribution . Project Example Waste heat Power Generation 50 MW combined cycle gas-steam turbine (CCGT) 12 MW condensing steam generator (CSG ) 85% load factor Displaces 500 GWh / a of fossil grid electricity CERs: 400.000/p. electricity Process modification Forestry . 37. for various ovens and kilns Green Belt Development & Afforestration to act as a sink for CO2 36.) Energy Efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) Super Critical Technology for Power Generation Renovations & modernization of Power plants Reduction in T&D loss Fossil fuel switch . 33. biomass. Possible CDM projects in Iron & Steel Sector for example Cleaner and more efficient coke production Furnace efficiencies and upgrades Heat Recovery from Direct Reduction Kiln Energy Capture from Waste Gas Fuel switch to natural gas / biomass.000 p a = Rs. pressure. geothermal etc. Types of project Measures/technologies Diffuse/small scale energy efficiency: Energy efficient devices (bulbs. Reinjection. (2%-100%.Coal to Gas. a = Rs. 660 million up to 2012 Biomass Power Plant 10 MW Rice Husk plant supply and grid export 70% load factor Displaces 70 GWh / a of fossil grid electricity CER: 55. diversification. during a specified time period. a project activity achieved the reductions in anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases as verified. Geological storage of GHGs 35. Oil to Gas Gas pipeline leakage HFCs abatement Renewable Energy: Biomass. Hydro. Oil to Gas Waste gas: heat. electricity SF6 abatement Biomethanation Coal Mine Methane (CMM) 34.          32. Possible CDM projects in Energy Sector for example Renewable Energy (wind. Possible CDM projects in Chemical Industry Energy Efficiency Wastewater/ Methane Avoidance Biodiesel and Biofuels Biomass Energy Fossil fuel switch .Afforestation and Reforestation etc. offshore revenue stream) 12 % 15 % 16 % 39. Energy Efficiency Projects for Example Doing the same with less Potential & Opportunities Cogeneration waste Heat/ gas Recovery Energy Management System Combustion Control Fuel Switching High efficient Refractory Industrial Process Modifications/Fuel Savings 41. Emission cap Actual emissions Buyer Carbon Credits Carbon value ( € ) Annex I party Emission reduction project The CDM project reduces the carbon emissions in the CDM country 38. pressure. Solar. How is CDM relevant for Businesses? By selling the emission reductions from a project to a Annex I party additional cash flows can be realised. Impact on the IRR of The Project IRR Benchmark Project return excluding CDM revenue Project return including CDM revenue CDM cash flow The gap between the project return and the required return on investment threshold The CDM cash flow increases the IRR of the project making it more interesting for investors. hydro. Certification is the written assurance by the designated operational entity that.

Time frame and uncertainty None Yet Up to 66% formal review Up to 75% request for review Not Known 26% rejected Rejection Level Up to 4 Months Up to 2 Months Up to 5 Weeks 2-4 Months Up to 4 Months Time Frame N/A Up to 1. if reviewed 1-3 weeks 1 month – 3 years 2-6 months Up to 2 years Time frame Up to 2. Project Risks Apparent costs . The CER Price Structure EURO 5 15 CER Price Counterparty & Default Risk Commissioning Risk Late Delivery Risk Underperformance Risk Asset Transfer Risk Baseline & CER Calculation risk Registration Risks Volatility risk International Transaction Log & Cap risk Hot Air & Supply Risk UNFCCC Policy Risk. 2000 Regulatory and political risks Operational risk Technical risk Social acceptability Market risk Financial risk Completion risk Not enough financing to complete project Project does not pass completion tests Project does not operate reliably Project does not meet regulatory commitments Community protests lead to permit denial or revocation Project boycotts Bankers reluctant to lend 44. Time frame and uncertainty ~33% formal review Up to 70% request for review Not known Variable Not known ~50% Rejection Level Up to 3 months Up to 6 mo.5 Month 15 days N/A N/A Consult Formal review Request for review Issuance Verification Formal review Step 47.O&M . Methodologies Pure EE: AM0018 – Steam optimization AM0020 – Water pumping efficiency improvement AM0038 – Improved electrical efficiency in SiMnmetal production ACM0007 – Single cycle to combined cycle power generation Fuel switch: AM0017 – Natural gas cogeneration (BSL=gas-heat + grid-elec) AM0029 – Construction of new natural gas power plants AM0036 – Fuel switch Fossil fuel to biomass for heat generation ACM0003 – Fuel switch in cement plants ACM0009 – Fuel switch coal or petroleum to Natural gas Waste heat/gas recovery: AM0024 – Waste heat recovery in cement plants AM0032 – Cogen from waste gas/heat AM0037 – Flare reduction and gas utilisation at oil & gas facilities ACM0004 – Waste gas/heat for power generation Applicability conditions! 43. medium & large sized companies Medium and large scale companies AAA rated companies Ownership Created by CDM projects Created by JI projects Allocated by Annex I countries: Real Commodity Existence CER Certified Emission Reduction ERU Emission Reduction Unit EUA European Union Allowance . The Myth of the Carbon Credit High risk Medium risk No risk Delivery risk Low Medium high Price High risk Medium risk No risk Country. Political Risks EU ETS market price 49.and project risk Small. etc) Large scale (industrial) energy efficiency (demand/supply side) „ Pure‟ energy efficiency Waste heat/gas recovery Fuel switch 42.5 months Up to 8 weeks LS Not requested Variable 30 days 3 weeks Consult.Overrun budgets Operational risks: Reduced CER generation Equipment failure . consultants) Total real costs 48. Additional CDM project risks Institutional and regulatory risk Methodology risk Host country risk Validation risk Registration risk Monitoring and verification risks 45. SSC renewable. Request for review Registration Annex 1 approval LOA Validation Propose methodology Step 46. Traditional project risks Threats to project Source: Miller and Lessard.        Labelling/government programme Buildings‟ energy efficiency (insulation.Equipment .Administrative expenses and other transaction costs (lawyers.Management Hidden costs Opportunity costs (late start) .

buyer guarantees to buy . The developer has to pay for The consultant fees Registration with the Designated National Authority (MOEF) Public hearing Validation fees (to Designated Operational entity) Registration fees at the UNFCCC Monitoring & Verification fees (to third party DOE) CERs Issuance fees Contribute to the UNFCCC adaptation fund Then bargain for the price of the CERs with the Buyers A picture of Market Failure!! 53. Key Price determinants for CDM projects Risk allocation Creditworthiness & experience of project sponsor Viability of underlying project Contract structure (e. implementation cost. buyer guarantees to buy The contract is only valid on a set of preconditions 4) Seller guarantees to deliver a firm volume . Cost of developing a CDM Project Apart from the project development. Critiques & Concerns (1) Some emission reductions under the CDM are false or exaggerated In 2007 the CDM was accused of paying €4. 54. upfront payments incur discount. and will account for more carbon emissions in the next five years than all emissions from all aircraft since the Wright Brothers until at least 2025. Contract Types 1) Seller does its utmost to deliver a flexible/non-firm volume .g. Why CDM is a market failure? (2) Profits go in the pocket of middlemen CDM popular only in developing countries not in Lower developed countries Technology transfer which CDM promises already exist with South in some cases Little initiative by government entities to take up CDM projects Proving additionality is very difficult in most of the cases Carbon exchanges have played limited role till yet 56.project conceptual stage Educate oneself and staff thorough…before going to consultant Invite a buyer as a project participant at an early stage Appoint a consultant for CDM PDD writing and .carbon emissions from deforestation represent 18-25% of all emissions.The contract is only valid on a set of preconditions 3) Seller guarantees to deliver a firm volume . buyer guarantees to buy . Critiques & Concerns (2) The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol excluded forest conservation/avoided deforestation .Non-delivery: seller pays mark-to-market/liquidated damages CERs or cash 52. ability to pay penalties) ER vintage & seniority Cost of validation & potential certification Host country support & willingness to cooperate Additional environment and social benefits 51. Why CDM is a market failure? (1) Too sophisticated/complex a market Too expensive to enter The future beyond 2012 is yet uncertain Does not survive the Cost Benefit analysis Huge Markets like agriculture untouched Forestry projects are too complex The project developer doesn‟t get a fair price The ultimate buyer doesn‟t get a fair price 55.6 billion for projects that would have cost only €100 million if funded by development agencies Where as the project developers feel they did not get a fair price 57.Few preconditions 2) Seller does its utmost to deliver a flexible/nonfirm volume . buyer guarantees to buy . 58.         50. CDM Market in India is Consultant driven Buyers are there but few and offer low price Brokers promise good price but reliability record is poor Size of the projects is very small though the quantity is large… hampers bargaining capacity of the project developer Most project developers hoard( do not sell) CERs in expectation of higher price Most projects face problems in implementation. Market strategy one should adopt (1) Enter as early as possible…. penalties for non-delivery.

Conclusion The market need a major makeup Simplify Active role from institutions to take up programme of activities CDM Efficient.  handling UNFCCC matters…note your job is to execute the project Option of in-house PDD development can also work for you…delegate the job 59.say in next 7-12 years 60. transparent.the market will correct itself or be get corrected Expect local carbon markets in the future…. Market strategy one should adopt (2) Sell some CERs in advance and hold some portion for expectation of higher price…don‟t hold all the CERs Carbon market will stay in some way or the other…. carbon exchanges More information and education Considering other than market approach to mitigate climate change .

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