H. Lindow, Dipl.

Ing, Senior Adviser

Subjects S bjects On Die Fail es In Die Casting Failures

Subjects On Die Failure b l

Die material Die design Die making process Heat treatment Surface treatment Process parameters P t

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H. Lindow

Selection Of Die Material for HPDC

• • • • • •

Cast Metal Temperature Die Size eS e Chemical composition Steel production parameters Production Series Shape of the contour

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H. Lindow

Casting t C ti temperatures of various alloys t f i ll 4 .

Lindow .Die Cavity Wall Temperature Dependent On Cast Metal – and Preheating Temperature 5 H.

Die Cavity Wall Temperature Influence on: • Cavity wall strength • Thermal stress 6 H. Lindow .

2344 690 HRC 44 to 47 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 Number of Cycles 7 H.15mm Dependent On y . 1. p Surface Temperature No cracks at 300 °C as in Zn-Die Casting C Zn Die Crack Depth (mm) D ( 7.15 550 620 800 cycles 400 Cycles 670 H13.500 cycles 0. SKD61.000 cycles 2. Lindow .Cycles Until Visible Cracks Of 0.

000 H13.2344 HRC 44 to 47 Cycles x 1.000 20.000 200.000 8 H.Crack Propagation Until 10 7 m Dependent 10.000. Lindow . SKD61.7 On Surface Temperature Crack Depth (mm) k h 1.000 3. 1.

Die T Di Temperature t Influence on: • Die cavity wall temperature • thermal stress 9 H. Lindow .

Lindow .Influence Of Temperature / ΔT– Stress / Strength Stre N/m ess mm² / St trength N/ mm² ² 1500 N/mm² ~HRC 45 Temperature / Temperature difference °C C 10 H.

Lindow .DIE SIZE Influence on: • Toughness Heat treatment Hardenability of the die material 11 H.

230x280) Note The toughness shown at the brochure’s diagram demonstrates the toughness of the steel only without considering the influence coming from th h t t f the heat treatment. 200x250. But with the increase of the cross section of a die the slower the cooling speed becomes from hardening temperature at a specific cooling medium medium. 120x150 mm) > Ø 140 mm and their corresponding flat sizes (140x230. 100x250. 180x300. 12 H. Lindow .Grouping of standard materials according to Cross section Small dies Medium dies Big dies < Ø 70 mm and their corresponding flat sizes (42x250. D t t Due t th small size of th t t to the ll i f the test-specimen i (7 x 10 x 55 mm) the effect of the heat treatment is optimal. 50x100. 60x75 m) Ø 70 – 140 mm and their corresponding flat sizes (90x300. 45x140.

2344 Such materials are: DIEVAR VIDAR SUPERIOR 13 H. With the increase of f Bainite – especially coarse Bainite and with the increase of carbide precipitation the toughness is decreasing. SKD61. In such a case choose a die material with a better hardenability than that of the ordinary standard material as H13. Lindow .In order to have sufficient toughness the structure should at least consist of 20% Martensite and 80% Bainite and as less as possible carbide precipitation. If the die maker is not sure about the heat treatment and if the die is of a big size always it is advisable to choose a material which will more or less guarantee the above mentioned structure independent from the chosen heat treatment process.

Company.2344) λ ~ 6. Date . SKD61.4 (640s) for a Size Range of Ø 380 to 45 mm (80%B/20%M) dependent on the Heat Transfer α for 8407 (H13.4 14 Name. 1.Structure at λ ~ 6.

Lindow .4 (640s) ( (Ø 380-45) for H13 ) λ ~ 6.4 λ ~ 52 15 H.λ 52 (5200s) for DIEVAR (Ø > 1000-350 mm) 1000 350 Gives A Similar Structure as λ ~ 6.

Lindow Ø in mm .4 (640s)) at Core Area e.Reachable Diameter For H13 Dependent On Cooling Medium and a fixed Q-Velocity of 28ºC/minute (λ ~ 6.g 80% B + 20%M for 8407 at core area 16 H.

Date . Company.Toughness Dependent On Hardenability h d d bl HRc 45 21 J HRc 45 6J 17 Name.

Lindow .Toughness Comparison At Surface Of Large Size Blocks Bl k At Various Quenching Rates V i Q hi R t (Block Sizes 300 x 500 x 700 mm) HRC 45 18 H.

Reachable Ø for 80% Bainite and 20 % Martensite in the core area dependent on Cooling Medi m and co e a ea Medium Various Types of Steels DIEVAR 8407 2M 8407-2M Ø in mm QRO90S 19 H. Lindow .

Date 80 40 60 e Bainite % 40 20 0 . Company.Hardenability 80 0 100 60 Martensite % DIEVAR VIDAR SUPERIOR ORVAR SUPREME QRO90SUPREME 20 50 100 200 300 400 Diameter in mm Percentage of Martensite / Bainite in the centre at various diameters After Quenching in Oil to 200 ºC 20 Name.

Lindow .Chemical composition p Influence on • creeping strength i h • ductility • hot strength • toughness • thermal stress • hardenability • corrosion resistance 21 Crack initiation Crack propagation Crack initiation + Crack propagation Toughness related to heat treatment H.

Lindow D Ductility 84 407 2M 8407Su Ductility D tilit DIEVAR R HRC 45 / 46 VIDAR Super S QRO90Su u .22 H.

1000 h % °C. . 550 °C 500 MPa.Product Of Creeping Strength And Ductility (Resistance To Crack Initiation) Cree eping strength x Duc s ctility 200 10 00 X 1000 HRC 45 23 H. Lindow 0 HRC 50 5 Creeping test 1%.

Lindow 8407 Hot-Yield Strength At 600 ºC HRC 45 / 46 DIEVAR R VIDAR Super S QRO90Su u .24 H Hot-Yield Strengt in N / mm m² H.

Comparison Of Toughness At RT In ST p g Size of specimen 7 x 10 x 55 mm (Charpy V) Toug ghness. HRC 52 C ORV VAR Su 8407 2M 7 VIDA Super AR r. Company. DIEV VAR HRC 45 / 46 25 HRC 52 Name. J DIEV VAR. Date HRC 45 / 46 QRO O90Su .

Toughness Dependent On Carbide Precipitation Cooling time from AT in Seconds e T VIDAR Superio R or 7000 10 00 Carbide Precipitation 26 H. Lindow H.Lindow D DIEVAR Q QRO90Su u 8407 .

HRC52 H O ORVAR Su u V VIDAR Su uper Q QRO90Su D DIEVAR . Lindow D DIEVAR.Product Of Hot-Yield Strength (600) ºC And Toughness g ( ) g (Resistance to crack propagation) Hot-Yield Stre ength X Toughn ness/ 10 0 (NJ/mm m²) 8407 2M HRC 45/46 / 27 HRC 52 H.

10 Hours Hardn ness. HR RC Q QRO90Su HRC 45 / 46 28 H.Temper Back Resistance At 600°C . Lindow D DIEVAR V VIDAR Su uper 8 8407 .

Lindow D DIEVAR R QRO90 0S .Relation Heat Conductivity / Thermal Expansion 255 250 V VIDAR Superio S or 245 8407 240 235 230 225 220 Kategorie 1 29 H.

.1 Therm s 1/ mal C Conductivity. Toughness To Thermal Strength Conductivity. . ct Toughness ) x 0.30 (Produc Hot Strength.Expansion H. Lindow 8407Su upreme e DIEVAR R VIDAR Superio R or QRO90Su 100 8407 2M 2 200 300 400 500 600 0 .Expansio E on Relation Hot Yield Strength.

4 / i M lt rotation 4 4 m/min Specimen size Ø 20 x 95 (100) mm 31 H.Corrosion R i t C i Resistance I A Al-Melt In An Al M lt Reciprocal value x 1000 Al (A356) Si 7% Mg 0 3%) 7%-Mg 0. Lindow .3%) 720 °C – 5 h Melt t ti 4.

Production parameters Influence on: • D tilit Ductility • Toughness • Residual stresses 32 H. Lindow .

Process Development Regarding Reduction Of p g g Total Oxygen Content Oxyge conten in ppm en nt m Year 33 H. Lindow .

Improvement Due To Cleaner Materials Old ESR-process New ESR-process •Advantages •Re-melting under a protective atmosphere t ti t h •Process with a static mould •Result •More cleaner material •Improved solidification •Better isotropic material •Smaller and less primary carbides 34 H. Lindow .

Lindow .Comparison of a standard and a supreme steel p p 35 H.

Lindow .Homogenizing Degre of micro-segregation ee n Micro-segregation also after ESR-and VAR-process Cast condition Longer time and – or 9 h at high or longer time at lower temperature temperature higher temperature 9 hours at a high Residual stress in between micro-segregation may go up to 150 N / mm² 36 H.

Homogenizing heat treatment Standard Homogenizing is a diffusion annealing process carried out at a very high temperature and a long soaking time. The purpose is to reduce p p microsegregations and size of primary carbides which will result in improvement of: . Lindow Homogenized . touhness in all directions 37 H. ductility and .

38 ESR H. TL Surface Centre DIEVAR 400 300 200 100 Standard Material H13. HRC 43/45. Lindow ESR under protective gas VAR H ESR+H .IMPACT STRENGTH VERSUS VARIOUS PROCESSES.

Dievar Elmax Zn Erosion / Corrosion Thermal Fatigue (Heat Checking) 39 H.toughness QRO90S Impax Orvar 2M Vidar Superior Unimax Cu DIEVAR VIDAR S Superior i ORVAR S Al Mg M Unimax Vidar Superior.Die St l S l ti Di Steel Selection Product of cre eep-/ho streng and ot gth Ductility. Lindow .

Lindow .DESIGN Influence on: • • • • • • • • • Erosion Soldering Corrosion Thermal fatigue cracks Heat cracks Chipping Gross cracks Releasing marks R l i k Temper back at cavity wall 40 H.

plunger diameter and its velocity • Location of the gate area • Observe relation gate opening to gate width • Put right relation of gate section to runner section 41 H. Lindow .Un-suitable Parameters Due To Wrong Design Gate area • Make the most suitable gate design • Avoid an un-suitable relation of melt volume to gate area • Avoid an un-suitable relation gate area to runner • Avoid an gate opening too small or too big • Look into relation of gate area filling time area. melt velocity. time.

Multiple gates may cause more trouble Avoid too thin a gate if possible Do not place the gate near very thin sections with fine details Avoid impingement on convex sections 42 H. not across them Gate should be placed opposite the longest unhindered metal flow path Use only one gate for one casting.Basic Rules For Gate Location • • • • • • • • • • Try to avoid premature cavity erosion Avoid creation of hot spots Choose most direct path what means fill away from gate first p y g Avoid impingement on cores Direct metal flow in line with long ribs. Lindow .

43 H. Lindow First choose filling time c e e .

9 % DIN 226 230 231 239 44 658 °C C GB 0 °C C USA-ASTM A380.0 A413 ASIA-JIS Furnace temp.Filling Ti Filli Time D Dependent O Solidifying Temperature d t On S lidif i T t Of The Al-Alloy Al 99. Lindow . EURO NORM G-AlSi9Cu3 LM 24 G-AlSi12 LM 6 G-AlSi12(Cu) LM 20 G-AlSi10Mg LM 9 ADC10 (12) EN Al 46000 AC3A EN AL44300 ADC1 EN Al 47100 AC4A EN Al 43000 H.

Wall Thickness 45 H. Lindow .Filling Time Dependent On Part .

43 Die Temp °C 204 – 260 280 280 350 350 350 Die preheating temperatures Pb. Lindow .16 3.17 60 .Filling Times For Various Alloys And Die Preheating Temperatures Alloy AlSi12 Mg-Alloy Brass Filling Time ms 4 .161 12 .60 50 60 Sm mm 1–6 1 6 1.350 °C 46 H. Sn Al 120 °C 180 – 260 °C Zn Mg 150 – 200 °C 250 – 330 °C Cu-Alloys 300 .5 15-4 2.90 8 .

Lindow .Filling Times For Al Alloys Al-Alloys 47 H.

Filling Times For MG Average wall thickness mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 Recommended filling times ms 12 25 40 48 55 60 to to to to to to 17 48 60 70 80 90 48 H. Lindow .

51. Al – 20 to 60 m / s. Lindow . Cu – 20 t0 50 m / s 49 H.General Formula For Melt Velocity At The Gate 4 Wa = Cw √ Sm Cw – Zn 46. Mg 40 to 90 m / s. Al 51 Mg 57. 57 Wa – Zn 30 to 50 m / s.

Temperature Increase At Cavity Wall p y Dependent On Melt Velocity At The Gate Melt velocity at gate t 50 H. Lindow Temperature increase .

corrosion and also fatigue 51 H. 33 m / s for Sm = 6 mm Vacuum 15 to 30 m / s c) Mg 40 to 90 m / s min. Lindow . soldering. 18 m / s e. e g 36 m / s for Sm = 6 mm d) Zn 30 to 50 m / s min. 27 m / s e. 12 m / s e.g.g. e g 29 m / s for Sm = 6 mm e) Cu 20 to 50 m / s Too high a velocity may damage the die by erosion.g.Melt Velocity At Gate Gate Velocity a) Hi h velocity for parts with thin ) High l i f i h hi wall b) Al 20 to 60 m / s min.

Lindow .Formula For Gate Area Sa = V tf x wa 52 H.

Lindow .Gate Area For Parts More Than 150 g b x d = Agk x Wp / Wa ( (mm²) ²) b = width of gate d = gate opening Agk = area plunger Wp = velocity plunger Wa = velocity melt at gate l it lt t t 53 H.

Velocity Piston Al – die casting • below 3 m s Mg – die casting •b l below 4 5 m / s 4. Lindow . V = Volume melt after gate. Agk = area plunger. tf = filling time g 54 H.5 Wgk = V / Agk x tf k k Wgk = velocity piston.

Date .Guiding Table g e 3 1 2 6 4 5 55 Name. Company.

3 1.5 1. H.7 1.37 0. 1.30 0.0 1.41 0.Relation Gate Area to Volume Dependent On p Average Wall Thickness.25 1.41 1 41 1.5 . 0.15 0.14 1 14 0.94 0.71 0.0 2.29 0.25 .69 0.57 2.27 0.43 0.65 .9 0.66 1.23 1 23 1.04 0.1 1.2 1. 5. 3.0 3. Alloy Average wall thickness (mm) 1.44 0.86 2 86 2.95 0 95 1.0 5.16 0. 0.58 0.5 6.0 56 Gate opening (mm) 0.77 1.75 1.54 0.98 0.5 .49 0.5 3.5 4.33 .86 0.4 1.39 1 39 1.33 0. 1.40 0. Gate Opening.0 4.35 0.48 1.79 0.41 1.70 0 70 0.36 .49 0.32 .0 Relation Sa / V (mm² / cm³) Type of Alloy Al Mg Cu C Zn Z 1. Lindow .60 0.75 1 75 2.78 0.8 2.86 0.

5 to 1.5 mm min.6 to 2 mm 0.2 mm 0. Lindow .35 to 1. 1 mm > 1 mm min.General Advise F G t Opening G l Ad i For Gate O i Finding of gate opening (general rules) • Al – die casting • AlSi • >>Si • AlSiCu • Mg – die casting • Zn – die casting • ZnAl4 (Zamak 3) • ZnAl4Cu1 (Zamak 5) • Cu – die casting 1.2 mm 0.5 to 3. 1.2 mm 1.0 to 2.0 mm 57 H.8 mm 0.35 to 0.

Formula For Gate Opening In Al – Die Casting l l d = 0.52 + 0. d = 0 6 + 0 2 x Sm 0. S = part wall thickness 58 H.2 (for 1 < Sm < 4.28 x S . .6 0.5 < Sm < 6 mm) d = gate opening.5 mm) d = Sm / 3 (for 4. Lindow .

Lindow .59 H.

Lindow .20-35º 60 H.

61 H. Lindow .

B R ≥ 3÷5 B R ≥ 0. Lindow R not bi t big Else fills at first .SA part L=1.5B AK0=2 SA Same distance R AK1=2AKo 1/3L L 2/3L AK0 Same distance AK2=4AK0 AK=4 AK0 = AK2 AK0=2 SA 2 62 H.5xB .

Lindow .63 H.

Lindow .1/2 D 2 2/3 D D 64 H.

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H. Lindow

Cavity wall temperature control by internal cooling l l

Influence on: • • • • • • • Thermal fatigue cracks Thermal stress cracks Thermal expansion Releasing marks Soldering Erosion Corrosion

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H. Lindow

Surface Temperature
Surface temperature dependents on a) Metal temperature and it’s heat capacity it s Zn 450 °C Mg 670 °C (low heat capacity) AlSi9Cu3 680 – 720 °C C AlSi12(Cu) 680 – 720 °C (high heat Capacity) Ms 970 °C ) y g , b) Cavity contour and die design-wall thickness, cores c) Die preheating Temperature d) Frequency of cycles e) Position of joint contour of both die parts f) Condition of die filling as filling time, melt velocity, plunger velocity; metal flow in the cavity g) Die internal cooling – heating system; lubrication; h) Cast system (gate, runner, bush) – it’s design and location; number of overflows

Good heat transfer Bad heat transfer

Bad heat transfer

Note: A surface temperature higher or lower of 20 °C may decrease Date increase the die life by 30 to 50 % Name, Company, or
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Lindow .A simulation program will b helpful for finding i l ti ill be h l f l f fi di where the cooling channels should be placed 68 H.

Lindow .Temperature Profile Cavity Wall 630°C Temperature profile Taken with an Infrared Camera T k ith I f dC 69 Simulation curves for Heating and cooling H.

Hot Spots Hot spots Hot spots causing: Product p p g porosity. Soldering. Early heat checking. Lindow . y g. g. y. Corrosion / Erosion 70 H.

Lindow .Temperature Flow In Vertical Direction p 71 H.

Ø 12 to 15 mm Distance cooling channel to cavity in general 25 mm. gate area 28 mm Ø Cooling channel depending on wall thickness of the part Distance of cooling channels. when using oil. max 3 x Ø g . H. Lindow . Ø 9 to 12 mm.a) b) c) d) ) e) 72 Better to have more small cooling channels than a few big ones When using water.

Lindow .05 – 0.Internal C li I t l Cooling Of N Narrow Walls W ll In I narrow areas use C b Cu-bar connected to a cooling channel Diameter of a Cu-bar in a cylindrical area Use Cu-paste for heat transfer from Cu-bar to cylindrical wall (clearance 0. Ra<1 µm) 73 H.1 mm.

Lindow .Cooling With Heat Conducting Tubes 74 H.

Lindow .75 H.

Design Of Ejectors They should not be put at the gate area! 76 H. Lindow .

Design Of Venting g g Put venting as much as possible but as less as necessary 77 H. Lindow .

78 H. Lindow .

TRUST IS SOMETHING YOU EARN EVERY DAY. EARN. DAY .

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