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History P re-calculus integration Integration can be traced as far back as ancient Egypt c a.

1800 BC, with the MoscowMathematical Papyrus demonstrating knowledge of a formul a for the volume of a pyramidalfrustum. The first documented systematic techniqu e capable of determining integrals is themethod of exhaustion of Eudoxus ( c a. 370 BC), which sought to find areas and volumes bybreaking them up into an infin ite number of shapes for which the area or volume was known.This method was furt her developed and employed by Archimedes and used to calculate areasfor parabola s and an approximation to the area of a circle. Similar methods were independent lydeveloped in China around the 3rd century AD by Liu Hui, who used it to find t he area of thecircle. This method was later used in the 5th century by Chinese f ather and son mathematiciansZu Chongzhi and Zu Geng to find the volume of a sphere. [1] That same century, the Indianmathematician Aryabhata used a similar method in or der to find the volume of a cube. [2] The next major step in integral calculus came in Iraq when the 11th century mat hematician Ibnal Haytham (known as Alhazen in Europe) devised what is now known as "Alhazen's problem",which leads to an eq uation of the fourth degree, in his Book of Opti c s . While solving thisproblem, he performed an integration in order to find the vo lume of a paraboloid. Usingmathematical induction, he was able to generalize his result for the integrals of polynomials upto the fourth degree. He thus came cl ose to finding a general formula for the integrals of polynomials, but he was no t concerned with any polynomials higher than the fourth degree. [3] Some ideas of integral calculus are also found in the Siddhanta Shiromani , a 12th centuryastronomy text by Indian mathematician Bh?skara II.The next sign ificant advances in integral calculus did not begin to appear until the 16th cen tury. At this time the work of Cavalieri with his method of indivisibles , and work by Fermat, began tolay the foundations of modern calculus. Further st eps were made in the early 17th century byBarrow and Torricelli, who provided th e first hints of a connection between integration anddifferentiation. At around the same time, there was also a great deal of work being done by Japanesemathema ticians, particularly by Seki K?wa. [4] He made a number of contributions, namely inmethods of determining areas of figu res using integrals, extending the method of exhaustion. N ewton an d Leibniz

The major advance in integration came in the 17th century with the independent d iscovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus by Newton and Leibniz. The theor em demonstrates aconnection between integration and differentiation. This connec tion, combined with thecomparative ease of differentiation, can be exploited to calculate integrals. In particular, thefundamental theorem of calculus allows on e to solve a much broader class of problems. Equalin importance is the comprehen sive mathematical framework that both Newton and Leibnizdeveloped. Given the nam e infinitesimal calculus, it allowed for precise analysis of functionswithin con tinuous domains. This framework eventually became modern calculus, whosenotation for integrals is drawn directly from the work of Leibniz