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DEFINATION OF LOGIC:
The terms logic is derived from the Greek word "logos", which means reason or expression of reason in words that is discourse. Etymologically. Therefore, Logic is the science of reasoning or argument According to Dewey and Stebbing, reasoning or reflective thinking is a process of finding way out of some difficulty or problem by weighing the evidence on the basis of a tentive hypothesis and thereby reaching some conclusion. The reasoning can be either deductive or inductive. In the deductive reasoning we argue from a general principle to a particular conclusion. For example if we say that since all men are mortal, and X who is a man is mortal. But if we argue that since X, Y, Z, who are men are subject to death, every man must be subject to death, we are arguing inductive In logic we study the general principles governing both type of reasoning. Accordingly, we may define Logic as the science of taws of thought and reason.

LOGIC AND PSYCHOLOGY:
Though there exists a close and strong relation between Logic and Psychology, the two are quite distinct and it is not possible to reduce one to the other or treat logic as a branch of psychology, which primarily deals with thinking and judgment. Again, it will be equally false to assert that since all arguments are decidable by logic principles, psychology is nothing but the logic "of mental process. A general confusion about the relation of logic and psychology stems from the fact that traditionally logic is defined to be a science of laws of thought but now it is generally accepted that any investigation into the laws or ways in which we
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actually think belongs to psychology. Logic has little concern as to how one thinks and arrives at conclusions; -It is only concerned with whether two propositions imply each other and what can be the valid inference, to illustrate: it may not be possible for someone to conceive the existence of mermaids. But irrespective of the fact whether we are able to imagine mermaids or not, logically it is valid to assert, that if there are mermaids then they are females with human head and the body of a fish. It has been aptly observed by Cohen and Nagel that it is very important to distinguish between logic and psychology if we are to avoid the confusion of logic with certain allied subject which though occurring along with logic are nevertheless very different. The realization that logic cannot be restricted to psychological phenomena, therefore, will help us to discriminate between logic and rhetoric. The rhetoric is an art of persuasion. While it is true that if a ailed argument is put effectively by employing words like 'indubitably', beyond a shadow of doubt', 'clear as day which do not militate against them no amount of rhetoric can transform an invalid argument into valid. This does not mean that rhetoric is useless. It helps harmonious social relation. But it must be realized that the validity of an argument is quite independent of what goes in our head or how we put it forward. The validity in short is extra human. Therefore, psychology has to bearing upon the essential subject matter of logic; however, psychology does have an important role. It helps us appreciate how the social and personal prejudices block effective argument and also that personal or subjective assurance is no guarantee about the validity of an argument. As Nagel says, "The history of human error shows that the assertion 'I am absolutely certain' or 'I cannot help believing’

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in regard to any proposition evidence of its truth.”

is

no

adequate

LOGIC AND GRAMMER:
Logic is the science of thoughts and Grammar is the science of language. Because thought and language are related to each other in so far as science of thought (logic) and the science of language (grammar) must also be related to each other. Language is the means by which we express and communicate our thought to others. Logic in addition to being concerned with thought is also concerned with language. Logic and Grammar is differ form each other. Logic is primarily or directly concerned with thought and secondarily or indirectly concerned with language. In other words, with logic is primary and more important, while grammar is secondary and less important. Another difference is Grammar is concerned with all kinds of sentences, but logic is concerned with only with indicative sentences. Grammar analysis a sentence into many parts of speech, but Logic analysis a sentence only into three parts, namely, subject, predicate, copula.

LOGIC AND METAPHYSICS:
Metaphysics studies ultimate reality, and logic studies the laws of correct thought. Logic as we have already read is concerned with the form and the matter of thought. The matter of thought refers to the things about which we think, such as tables, chairs, men, triangles or circles. Now logic doesn’t enquire into the real character either form or matter of thought. Metaphysics enquires into their real character. Logic and metaphysics are different from each other, but in spite of this difference, they are connected. Metaphysics must based on logical principles. Logic too depends upon

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Metaphysics for the truth of its principles and materials (i.e. things). Many philosophers believe that thought (logic) and reality (metaphysics) are identical, and then logic and metaphysics should be identical. But many philosophers reject this view.

LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY:
Philosophy is the philosophical process, which deals with certain specific problems from the philosophical viewpoint with the help of philosophical methods and arrives at certain philosophical conclusion. This definition of philosophy, abstract though it is, shows the distinction between philosophy and science. Science is a systematic study of a limited field of experience. Thus philosophy and a science differ in connection with methods, problems, viewpoints and conclusions. The most important branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology and axiology of those logic comes within the fields of axioloav. Axiology is the study of values. These values are generally of three kinds - truth, good and beauty. While ethics studies good, aesthetics studies beauty, Logic studies truth, It is the science which discriminates between true and untrue among the oppositions It is the method of arriving at the implication or meaning of propositions- It is the science of the value of truth. Thus logic is a branch of philosophy. Its knowledge is absolutely necessary for a philosopher, though it cannot be said that the logician equally necessarily requires the knowledge of philosophy. Philosophy depends upon logic, though in its turn logic does not depend upon philosophy.

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SCOPE AND SUBJECT MATTER OF LOGIC:
The definition of logic given by Mill clearly indicates the scope of logic. According to Mill, "logic is the science of the operations of the understanding which are subsequent to the estimation of evidence, both the process itself of advancing from known truth to unknown and all other intellectual operations in so far as ancillary to this". This definition brings our following facts: (1) That logic studies various intellectual processes such as thinking, reasoning and judgment. (2) That logic studies processes necessary for evaluating evidence. (3) That logic studies how to move from known to the unknown. This can be done in two ways: by moving from general to particular, as in the example "All men are rational, Ram is a man, therefore, Ram is rational", or by moving from particular instances to a general conclusion as in "Apples, bananas, mangoes etc. fall to ground because they are heavy and, therefore, all heavy things must fall to the ground". The first example illustrates the deductive reasoning while the second illustrates inductive reasoning, and both are within the scope of logic. (4) That logic studies all intellectual processes involved in deduction and induction. (a) In deduction we study laws of thought, viz., law of identity, law of non- contradiction and law of excludes middle. We also study the different types of terms. We also study genus differential and accidental properties of terms. We also study formal rules of deduction, the immediate and mediate inferences. And, finally we study various fallacies in argumentation.
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(b) In induction we study the difference between form and matter, the nature of definition, hypothesis, evidence, experimental techniques, probability etc. We also study rules of classification, taxonomy (giving new names) etc. Finally, we study the fallacies incidental to inductive reasoning.

IMPORTANCE OF LOGIC:
Though it is true that the knowledge of rules of logic is no guarantee against false reasoning, this is no serious objection against logic. The worth of any science is to be judged not by its actual practice but by the nature of facts it is about. For instance, the science of medicine is not to be condemned as some doctors fail to diagnose diseases properly. The study of logic cannot ensure that logicians will never make in argument; but the chance of making mistake is certainly much less in their case.

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ANLOGIES
1.MASON: WALL:: (A) fisherman: trout (C) congressman: senator (E) sculptor: mallet 2.FIRE: ASHES:: (A) wood: splinters (C) water: waves (E) event: memories 3.GOOSE: GANDER:: (A) duck: drake (C) dog : kennel (E) horse: brindle 4.CARPENTER: SAW:: (A) stenographer: typewriter (B) painter: brush (C) lawyer: brief (D) seamstress: scissors (E) runner: sneakers 5.CAPTAIN: SHOAL:: (A) lawyer: litigation (C) soldier: ambush (E) corporal: sergeant 6.HORNS: BULL:: (A) mane: loin (C) antlers: stag (E) wings: eagle 7.JUDGE: COURTHOUSE:: (B) wattles: turkey (D) hoofs: horse (B) pilot: radar (C) doctor: hospital (B) hen: chicken (D) sheep: flock (B) accident: delay (D) regret: melancholy (B) artist: easel (D) author: book

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(A) lawyer: brief (B) carpenter: bench (C) architect: blueprint (D) physician: infirmary (E) landlord: studio 8.HELMET: HEAD:: (A) pedal: foot (C) breastplate: chest (E) knapsack: back 9.GULLIBLE: DUPED:: (A) credible: cheated (B) careful: cautioned (C) malleable: molded (D) myopic: misled (E) articulate: silenced 10.DUNDGION: CONFINEMENT:: (A) church: chapel (C) asylum: refuge (E) courthouse: remorse (B) school: truancy (D) hospital: mercy (B) gun: hand (D) pendant: neck

11.HERMIT: GREGARIOUS:: (A) miser: penurious (B) ascetic: hedonistic (C) coward: pusillanimous (D) scholar: literate (E) crab: crustacean 12.MANDACITY: HONESTY:: (A) (C) (D) (E) courage: cravenness (B) truth: beauty courage: fortitude unsophistication: ingenuousness turpitude: depravity

13.MARATHON: STAMINA:: (A) relay: independence (B) sprint: clarity (C) hurdle: perseverance (D) jog: weariness (E) ramble: directness 14.NAIVE: INGENUE::
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(A) Venerable: celerity (B) ordinary: genius (C) urbane: sophisticate (C) crafty: artisan (E) modest: braggart
15. RETOUCH: PHOTOGRAPH::

(A) Hang: painting (C) retract: statement (E) refine: style 16.INDIGNET: WEALTH::

(B) finger: fabric (D) compose: melody

(A) contented: happiness (B) aristocratic: stature (C) smug: complacency (D) emaciated: nourishment (E) variegated: variety 17.SHALE: GEOLOGIST:: (A) catacombs: entomologist (B) aster: botanist (C) obelisk: fireman (D) love: philologist (E) reef: astrologer 18.DIDACTIC: TEACH:: (A) sophomoric: learn (C) reticent: complain (E) apologetic: deny (B) satiric: mock (D) chaotic: rule

19.HACKNEYED: ORGINAL:: (A) mature: juvenile (B) trite: morbid (C) withdrawn: reserved (D) evasive: elusive (E) derivative: traditional 20.AUGER: CARPENTER:: (A) studio: sculptor (C) seam: seamstress (E) apron: chef 21.MUSTER: CREW:: (B) awl: cobbler (D) cement: mason

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(A) convene: committee (B) demobilize: troops (C) dominate: opposition (D) cheer: team (E) dismiss: jury 22.DWELL: DENIZEN:: (A) shun: outcast (C) squander: miser (E) patronize: protégé (B) inherit: heir (D) obey: autocrat

23.MENDERING: DIERECTNESS:: (A) menacing: ambition (B) affable: permissiveness (C) digressive: conciseness (D)circuitous: rotation (E) aboveboard: openness 24.CEMENT: TROWEL:: (A) lawn: rake (C) paint: brush (E) wallpaper: ladder (B) conflagration: match (D) floor: polish

25.PIGHEADED: YIELD:: (A) lionhearted: retreat (B) lily-livered: flee (C) dogged: pursue (D) featherbrained: giggle (E) eagle-eyed: discern 26.ALARAM: TRIGGER:: (A) prison: escape (C) criminal: corner (E) trap: spring (B) tunnel: dig (D) fright: allay

27.QUOTATION: QUOTATION MARKS:: (A) remark: colon (B) sentence: period (C) aside: parentheses (D) clause: semicolon (E) interjection: exclamation point
28. SIGNATURE: ILLUSTRATION::

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(A) byline: column (B) alias: charge (C) credit: purchase (D) note: scale (E) reference: recommendation 29.SCALES: JUSTICE:: (A) weights: measures (C) torch: liberty (E) balance: equity (B) laws: courts (D) laurel: peace

30.SURPRISE: EXCLAMATION:: (A) insolence: bow (C) happiness: grimace (E) contentment: matter 31.APOSTATE: RELIGION:: (A) potentate: kingdom (B) traitor: country (C) bureaucrat: government (D) jailer: law (E) teacher: education 32.FOX: CUNNING:: (A) dog: playful (C) beaver: industrious (E) colt: sturdy 33.PERJURY: OATH:: (A) plagiarism: authority (B) embezzlement: trust (C) disrespect: age (D) testimony: court (E) jury: vow 34.EULOGY: BLAME:: (A) elegy: loss (C) tirade: abuse (E) benediction: curse 35.PRIDE: LIONS:: (B) satire: mockery (D) simile: likeness (B) hyena: amusing (D) vixen: cute (B) dismay: groan (D) deference: nod

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(A) gaggle: geese (C) snarl: wolves (E) lair: bears 36.RANGE: MOUNTAINS:: (A) atlas: maps (C) sting: heads (E) sea: rivers

(B) honor: thieves (D) arrogance: kings

(B) plain: prairie (D) novel: short stories

37.EXCESSIVE: MOERATION:: (A) extensive: duration (B) arbitrary: courage (C) impulsive: reflection (D) distinguished: reverence (E) expensive: cost 38.DEADBEAT: PAY:: (A) killjoy: lament (C) daredevil: risk (E) turncoat: betray (B) spoilsport: refrain (D) diehard: quit

39.MENDICANT: IMPECUNIOUS:: (A) critic: quizzical (B) complainer: petulant (C) physician: noble (D) liar: compulsive (E) philanthropist: prodigal 40.SNICKER: DISRESPECT:: (A) whimper: impatience (C) down: indifference (E) glower: cheerfulness 41.MYTH: LEGNEDRY:: (A) sermon: lengthy (C) fable: didactic (E) allegory: obscure 42.TIRADE: ABUSIVE:: (B) anecdote: witty (D) epic: comic (B) chortle: glee (D) sneer: detachment

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(A) monologue: lengthy (C) prologue: conclusive (E) critique: insolent 43.EXPEDITIOUS: SPEED:: (A) astute: wisdom (C) thoughtful: inanity (E) portable: frailty 44.ANNOTATE: TEXT:: (A) enact: law (C) caption: photograph (E) portable: frailty 45.DRUDGERY: IRKSOME::

(B) aphorism: boring (D) encomium: laudatory

(B) decorous: impropriety (D) haggard: sturdiness

(B) prescribe: medication (D) abridge: novel

(A) encumbrance: burdensome (B) journey: wearisome (C) ambivalence: suspicious (D) compliance: forced (E) dissonance: harmonious 46.IMPROMPTU: REHEARSAL:: (A) practiced: technique (B) makeshift: whim (C) offhand: premeditation (D) glib: fluency (E) numerical: calculation 47.ELISION: SYLLABLES:: (A) contraction: letters (C) diagnosis: symptoms (E) abacus: numbers 48.STICKLER: INSIST:: (A) mumbler: enunciate (C) haggler: concede (E) braggart: boast 49.DETRITUS: GLACIER:: (B) trickster: risk (D) laggard: outlast (B) thesis: ideas (D) almanac: facts

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(A) thaw: snowfall (C) silt: river (E) foliage: tree 50.DESCRY: DISTANT:: (A) mourn: lost (C) discern: subtle (E) entrap: hostile 51.HORSE: CORRAL::

(B) snow: ice cap (D) range: mountain

(B) whisper: muted (D) destroy: flagrant

(A) oyster: reef (B) dog: muzzle (C) sheep: flock (D) pig: sty (E) deer: stag 52.RUBBER: ELASTIC:: (A) paper: brittle (C) satin: sheer (E) dust: allergic 53.REAM: PAPER:: (A) carton: milk (B) statue: marble (C) tablet: clay (D) ink: pen (E) cord: wood 54.HOBBLE: WALK:: (A) gallop: run (C) stumble: fall (E) amble: stroll 55.DETECTIVE: INFORMER:: (A) spy: counterspy (C) author: editor (E) sailor: mutineer 56.SCULPTOR: STONE:: (B) reporter: source (D) architect: draftsman (B) stammer: speak (D) sniff: smell (B) diamond: hard (D) metal: heavy

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(A) essayist: words (C) composer: symphony (E) etcher: acid 57.MASTHEAD: NEWSPAPER::

(B) painter: turpentine (D) logger: timber

(A) footnote: essay (B) credits: film (C) spine: book (D) ream: paper (E) advertisement: magazine 58.FRAYED: FABRIC:: (A) thawed: ice (C) frazzled: nerves (E) cultivated: manner 59.INDOLENT: WORK:: (A) decisive: act (C) perceptive: observe (E) taciturn: speak 60.INALLIBLE: ERROR:: (A) irreversible: cure (C) impeccable: flaw (E) immovable: choice 61.INFRACTION: LAW:: (A) interruption: continuity (B) renovation: structure (C) establishment: order (D) enactment: amendment (E) punishment: crime 62.LAYCHRYMOSE: TEARS:: (A) effusive: requests (C) morose: speeches (E) verbose: words 63.MIOSTEN: DRENCH:: (B) ironic: jests (D) profound: sighs (B) invulnerable: emotion (D) intolerable: defect (B) gullible: cheat (D) theatrical: perform (B) renovated: building (D) watered: lawn

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(A) enclose: confine (C) disregard: ignore (E) heat: chill 64.WITCH: COVEN:: (A) ogre: castle (C) actor: troupe (E) doctor: medicine 65.CONTINENT: ISLAND:: (A) ocean: land (C) cape: cove (E) plateau: plain 66.STORY: BUILDING::

(B) prick: stab (D) scrub: polish

(B) seer: prophecy (D) fairy: spell

(B) isthmus: peninsula (D) river: canal

(A) plot: outline (B) rung: ladder (C) blackguard: protective (D) spendthrift: weak (E) diehard: stubborn 67.CANONIZE: SAINT:: (A) train: athlete (C) deify: sinner (E) humanize: scholar 68.STARE: GLANCE:: (A) participate: observe (B) scorn: admire (C) hunt: stalk (D) gulp: sip (E) confide: tell 69.PERFORATE: HOLES:: (A) speckle: spots (C) decorate: rooms (E) repent: sins. 70.PUGNICIOUS: BATLE:: (B) evaporate: perfume (D) filter: water (B) guard: dignitary (D) lionize: celebrity

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(A) timorous: beg (C) tenacious: persist (E) wicked: survive

(B) loquacious: drink (D) veracious: lie

71.CLEARSIGHTED: PERSPICACITY:: (A) daring: temerity (B) reserved: impulsiveness (C) transparent: opacity (D) severe: clemency (E) lethargic: energy 72.PLEAD: SUPLIANT:: (A) disperse: rioter (B) shun: outcast (C) revere: elder (D) beg: philanthropist (E) translate: interpreter 73.EPIGRAM: PITHY:: (A) allegory: lengthy (C) anecdote: humorous (E) proverb: modern 74.BOLT: FABRIC:: (A) lock: key (B) book: paper (C) roll: film (D) needle: thread (E) light: lamp 75.PROOF: ALCHOHAL:: (A) cream: milk (C) tanker: oil (E) pulp: juice 76.INCUBATOR: INFANT: (A) henhouse: chicken (C) archives: document (E) hive: bee 77.CITADEL: DEFENSE:: (B) greenhouse: plant (D) cooler: wine (B) canteen: water (D) octane: gasoline (B) saga: heroic (D) elegy: satiric

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(A) chapel: refreshment (B) gazebo: refuge (C) marine: contemplation (D) warehouse: storage (E) rampart: supervision
78. RANCID: TASTE::

(A) tepid: temperature (C) rank: smell (E) savory: odor
79. TRYST: CLANDESTINE::

(B) glossy: look (D) dulcet: sound

(A) reverie: dreamy (B) acquaintanceship: brief (C) expectation: hopeless (D) glance: resentful (E) journey: leisurely 80.WHISPER: SPEAK:: (A) brush: touch (B) skip: walk (C) listen: hear (D) request: ask (E) whimper: whine 81.EXCLUSIVE: CAPTURE:: (A) persuasive: convince (C) headstrong: control (E) gullible: trick 82.LINEAGE: PERSON:: (A) foliage: tree (C) adolescence: child (E) landscape: portrait 83.IMPANEL: JUROR:: (A) accuse: defendant (C) testify: witness (E) involve: bystander (B) convict: culprit (D) enroll: student (B) derivation: word (D) title: book (B) elastic: stretch (D) sensible: decide

84.PECCADILLO: TRIFLING::

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(A) pariah: popular (C) notion: farfetched (E) pursuit: trivial 85.PHYSIQUE: STURDY:: (A) intellect: noble (C) investment: sound (E) technique: inept

(B) diagnosis: accurate (D) squabble: petty

(B) punctuality: tardy (D) fabric: worn

86.TRAILOR: MOTION PICTURES:: (A) truck: cargo (C) edition: novel (E) libretto: opera 87.SIGN: ZODIAC:: (A) poster: billboard (C) prediction: prophecy (E) rhyme: almanac (B) letter: alphabet (D) signal: beacon (B) theater: play (D) commercial: product

88.LUMINARY: ILLUSTRIOUS:: (A) zealot: intense (C) atheist: devout (E) celebrity: wealthy 89.BUFFOON: DIGNITY:: (A) braggart: modesty (B) blackguard: strength (C) laughingstock: ridicule (D) imposter: identification (E) gambler: risk 90.ROUT: DEFEAT:: (A) ovation: applause (C) grief: loss (E) memory: oblivion (B) triumph: failure (D) pathway: ruin (B) miser: prodigal (D) dignitary: conceited

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91.METAPHORE: FIGURATIVE:: (A) fable: contemporary (C) precept: instructive (E) epic: literal 92.CALUMNY: ASPERSIONS:: (A) approbation: praise (C) approval: criticism (E) satire: lamentations 93.LAST: SHOE:: (A) cuff: trousers (B) finable: curtain (C) pattern: glove (D) buckle: belt (E) strap: slip 94.INDOLENT: SLOTH:: (A) wrathful: ire (C) covetous: enigma (E) impatient: apathy 95.GROVEL: SERVILITY:: (A) titter: arrogance (C) yawn: civility (E) snivel: hypocrisy 96.DELICATE: FASTIDIOUS:: (A) (B) (C) (D) hard-working: diligent altruistic: mercenary demonstrative: effusive deceptive: fallacious (E) blithe: melancholy (B) fume: anger (D) preen: modesty (B) arrogant: acuity (D) gluttonous: loyalty (B) slander: mockery (D) expectation: threats (B) adage: paradoxical (D) irony: dramatic

97.RICOCHET: BULLET:: (A) soar: falcon (B) aim: crossbow (C) pierce: dart (D) carom: ball (E) catapult: missile

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98.JUGGERNAUT: INEXORABLE:: (A) cosmonaut: worldly (C) demagogue: liberal (E) despot: immaculate (B) colossus: gigantic (D) philistine: cultivated

99.APOCRYPHAL: AUTHENTICITY:: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Nefarious: wickedness dogmatic: assertiveness hypocritical: integrity Perspicacious: discernment deceptive: artifice

100.DOLLAR: DIME:: (A) rupees: franc (C) retreat: victory (E) ring: necklace (B) saleswoman: pitch (D) century: decade

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ANSWERS KEY
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 C E A D C C D C C C B A C C E D 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B B A B A B C C A E C A C B B C 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 41 42 B E A C C D B B C D A C A C A E 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 C C D B E B B A B C E C A E B C 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 A E B D D A C A E B C D B D C A 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 A C B D D C D B A A A C A C B C 98 D 99 B 100 D

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