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Circuit-Bending and DIY Culture

Alexandre Marino Fernandez and Fernando Iazzetta Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil

Abstract The present article aims to inscribe Circuit-Bending in Do it Yourself (DIY) Culture and analyze the anti-consumerist, rebellious, and creativity aspects which make up the culture. The main goal is to show the subversive status of DIY culture, using the specific case of circuit-bending, which, seen through this prism, can subvert the hegemonic “distribution of the sensible,” achieving what Jacques Attali, in the late 1970s, called the “age of composition,” in which creators are enticed to produce their own aesthetics.

Introduction Circuit-bending consists of opening up low voltage (battery powered) electronic devices (musical toys, radio apparatuses, electronic keyboards, synthesizers, cd and dvd players, etc.), change (bend) the way electricity flows through their circuits until achieving an ‘interesting’ sound. One typically practices circuit-bending by removing and/or adding electronic components, connecting different circuits, or even adding organic elements to the circuit (such as the circuit-bender’s hand, or even fruits and vegetables). Upon obtaining the desired result, the next step usually calls for soldering the component into the circuit or marking the specific places to be touched. At the end of the process, some choose to design a nice case for accommodating this newly created instrument - an infra-instrument, in the words of John Bowers and Phil Archer in the article Not Hyper, Not Meta, Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments (Bowers & Archer: 2005).

In 1992, Qubais Reed Ghazala named the technique in a series of articles he wrote for Experimental Music Instrument magazine. He describes how he discovered this method of creating instruments, when, in 1967, he accidentally let a screwdriver come into contact with the circuitry of a battery powered amplifier, producing a short circuit that sounded rather ‘interesting.’ As he puts it: If this can happen to an amp, not supposed to make a sound on its own, what might happen if one were to short out circuits that already make a sound, such as keyboards and radios and toys? (Ghazala: 2004, 97)

As part of the experimental music tradition, circuit-bending follows the paths of such innovators as Alvin Lucier, David Tudor, Gordon Mumma, John Cage, among others, who advanced the limits and frontiers of musical creation. As Ghazala puts it, over the last several years, “experimentalism has taken flight and can be heard within many popular genres.” Currently, for instance, several popular music groups, such as Radiohead, The Flaming Lips, Mike Patton, and Bjork, use bent instruments in their setups (sometimes instruments not bent by themselves). Ghazala argues that “circuit-benders are at the very forefront of this experience of new experimentalism, constantly pushing music forward with original discoveries.” (Ghazala: 2005, 23)

At first, one sees a rebellious characteristic in circuit-bending as part of an experimental attitude. Circuit-bending creates a rupture in the consumerist society, since experimentalism is based on the need for free time, time to “waste” on making mistakes (a trial-and-error attitude). The goal is the unexpected, neither perfection nor efficacy. Benders seek, within this

. freed from personal preferences and open for new experiences” (Campos: 1998. Following this logic. Circuit-bending. Emphasis lies in its procedural character and its focus on the concept. Experimentalism manifests as a discipline of the ego. the flaw. and performance. but also a small amount of design. At the end of the 20th century. the principal aim is not to play the latest hi-tech tool. breaking the barriers between them. but rather to create something unique. Has to do with changing of minds and spirits. then. creation. When practicing circuit-bending. 189). allowing for niches to open where the ordinary person can (re)approach the musical creation. As John Cage says: “the utility of the useless is good news for the artists. circuit-bending proposes an art that is not intended for specialist musicians. and the glitch are the stimulants that feed music: “musical sonic material are the noises that electronic devices generate” (Iazzetta: 2009. Lo-fi aesthetics display another key aspect of circuit-bending. the error. and listen. is an interdisciplinary practice. 130) Transforming the useless and the expendable into raw material for creation and production is the tonic note of circuit-bending. For art does not have a material objective. a mixture of electric engineering and music.unexpectedness. perform. 135). connecting those who create. a learning experience. sound art. discovery. It approaches other artistic models.” (Cage apud Campos: 1998. working only with inputs and outputs in a simplistic way. and therefore the artist must “accept outside contributions and even displeasing things.

We use the term “amateur” not as a reflection on a hobbyists’ skills. It dates back to the practices in which a craft and the unskilled amateur’s stage were opposed to professional practice and industrial . the DIY phenomenon is clearly nothing new. XIII) Circuit-Bending and DIY culture In the above quotation. then. Communities. modification or repair of objects without the aid of paid professionals. and Cultures. more than a decade ago when I began to write about the DIY of circuit-bending.In short. the immediacy and singularity of the instruments created represent two intentional aspects of circuit-bending. (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. unique instruments by means of explaining only the general discovery process of circuit-bending instead of using the more standard “this wire goes here” dialogue — a dialogue that usually results in exact duplications of a target instrument. (Ghazala: 2005. 01) Thus. but rather. was to launch new. It is compelling. Eric Paulos and Stacey Kuznetsov. to emphasize that most of DIY culture is not motivated by commercial purposes. pose a concise and pertinent definition for DIY: any creation. Ghazala clearly inscribes circuit-bending in DIY culture. as seen in Ghazala’s book Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments: My aim. to explore and conceptualize DIY culture and its relationship to circuitbending. which are often quite advanced. in Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects.

create. Such activities were organized through magazines. DIY was the production method used to develop. Model building.mass production. Mass production becomes established in the 18th century as part of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. clubs. as well as any product. However. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. The fragmentation of the production chain and the alienation of the individual brought about by mass production sparked a new interest in manual and craft activities. all created a vast multitude of technical hobbyists who gathered around specific interests. (as well as the flourishing appeal of science and technology) led to a boom in inventors and hobbyist activities. Hobbyists’ activities played an important social role because they allowed laymen to tackle complex science and technology topics which were shaping the very idea of modernity. can be bought at a nearby mega-store. this new mode of production spread throughout western society. photography. for any necessity. It is noteworthy to see how this movement manifests during the modern era. massive social condition. and/or make repairs. and suppliers. Together with the ideals of liberals such as Adam Smith. modern societies changed this principle by the gradual valorization and establishment of mass-production which led to the consumerist society in which we currently find ourselves. . According to this way of thinking. decorate. A remarkable case in which audio technology attracted the attention of hobbyists was the radio that was sold in kits for home assembly in the 1920s and ‘30s. Historically speaking. create. professionals and specialists can be hired to build. and/or build throughout most of history. books. high-fidelity audio. They also entailed connecting hobbyists to a specific social network that helped define their identification with an increasingly homogenized.

Craftster. In the 1970s. In one of the most clarifying charts presented. An initial reaction to such standardizing appears in the Free Jazz movement of the 1960s. Kuznetsov and Paulos present some rather significant data from surveys taken by DIY websites (such as Instructables. for example. and create things. In the above mentioned article. increasing the amount of adherents in several fields: from growing herbs indoors. even if badly” (Hegarty: 2008. by such associations as AACM (Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians) and Candid Records. however. knitting. with its focus on unrestrained improvisation and the production of records outside of the industrial chain. most important being to express oneself. with the Internet becoming a vast network of information exchange. producing textiles. the Punk movement also emerged as a rebellion against this hegemonic order. bypassing the record industry. In the 1990s.The Second World War and the globalized consumerist model. Similar to Free Jazz. punk artists such as Crass. Dorkbot. For these artists. both focusing on independent production (of events and records). as Paul Hegarty argues. and criticizing the musical marketplace from a DIY perspective. to working on all kinds of electronic projects. and Adafruit). learn new skills. In the 21st century. the DIY movement became stronger due to rave culture and the beginning of the netlabel movement. the DIY movement expanded. weakened the hobbyist and amateurist movement for a period of time. Etsy. and crocheting. ineptitude was seen as virtue. imposing a mass consumption mentality throughout most of the western world. “the creativity that comes from a lack of preconceptions and willingness to try out anything. bringing DIY to the scene. Ravelry. 89). . one sees how a commercial interest is one of the least important incentives for the DIY community. also joined forces to release their records.

distribute.” and is rather based on action: “first act. and. which seeks to change ordinary mercantile . independent from industry.” (Perez: 2009. this way of thinking is based on a subversion of the age-old “look before you leap. “along with the possibility that anyone could be a creator. rebelling against the hegemonic marketing order. encroaching upon the basic rules of capitalist society. then think. creating a community feeling. He argues that one of DIY’s main goals was to abolish specialization. He argues that this form of production allows “any person to create. and an aesthetic one.” which he compares to movements like Situationism. searching for new ways of production. an industrial one. outside of mass culture. analyzes DIY culture in similar terms. 6) Juan Ignácio Gallego Perez. He follows by showing that the DIY movement “changes social relations. and promote a product. written for the Spanish magazine Icono.” For Gallego Perez. as we see in experimental music. 279) By way of this prism. pursuing singular forms of expression.Figure 1: Motivations for contributing to DIY projects (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. regardless of origin or background. one of its characteristics was to rupture the lines that separated worker and creator. he shows that DIY culture implies three states: an ideological/political one. in the article DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia.

Repetition is the era we . when it invades man’s time. Representation. he divides history into four different ages: Sacrifice. it is sounds and their arrangements that fashion societies. Repetition. Dissonance. for it is one of the sites where mutations first arise and where science is secreted. noise is the source of purpose and power.. Along this line of thought. where mythological customs prevail. Representation relates to the rational view of the world beginning in the Renaissance. the social order we have just discussed merits further inquiry. Clamor.relationships” (Perez: 2009. In noise can be read the codes of life. It is at the heart of the progressive rationalization of aesthetics. With music is born power and its opposite: subversion. for Nietzsche. the expression of truth. and it is a refuge for residual irrationality. it is a means of power and a form of entertainment (Attali: 1999. Harmony. of the dream – Music. the relations among men. Hence. 6). For Marx. He states: the cardinal importance of music in announcing a vision of the world is nothing new.) More than colors and forms. culminating with the Enlightenment.. Melody. music is the mirror of reality. when it is fashioned by man with specific tools. Social Context French economist Jacques Attali presents an important view on the subject. 280). (. With noise is born disorder and its opposite: the world. he analyzes society through the musical forms of different ages. and Composition. for Freud. Sacrifice represents societies focused on religion. when it becomes sound. It is all of that. In his book Noise: The political Economy of Music. a text to decipher.

in Free Jazz and Punk. in which “usage was no longer the enjoyment of present labors. 101). neither are there counterpowers that can be institutionalized in response.currently live in. For now. having become the genetic code of society. Impossible either to locate or seize. an important contradiction emerges as people are no longer creators. then. they end up losing the time required to enjoy what is consumed . And finally. power can no longer be located simply in the control of capital or force. In this process. our relation to power is also disrupted: In this type of organization of the production of society. that of mass production. 90) Thus. It marks the birth of industry and is a time when our daily lives are invaded by show business and celebrity mentalities. Power is incorporated into the very process of the selection of repeatable molds. It is no longer an enactment through representation. at the same time that Attali was writing his book. the embryonic form that subverts the Repetition era. Composition. In this epoch. the major goal (and maybe the only one possible) in our society. And if there are no longer any localizable power holders. commencing with the advent of recording devices. (Attali: 1999. but only consumers: they must “devote their time to producing the means to buy recordings of other people’s time” (Attali: 1999.or almost anything else. It is spread among the different elements of the system. but the consumption of replications” (Attali: 1999. Use-time is obliterated by exchange-time. which begins to appear. . as shown above. The stockpiling of goods becomes. an era of a new kind of society. what interests us about Attali is the way he describes the Repetition era. 88).

to eliminate . 11). leading. The problem is that this consumerist model leads to another crisis.which leads to a normalization of culture. by marketing strategies. The side effect. to the globalization of the consumerist order to create a chain of production and consumption. the crisis of libidinal energy1. In the consumerist model it is not only the know-how (savoir-faire) of workers that becomes obsolete. human knowledge is short-circuited as a result of its technological reproduction and implementation. As Stiegler puts it. to consume . thereby destroying singularity together with the will to live (the libido). This manner of considering our social context is complementary to that of French philosopher Bernard Stiegler. for whom we live in an era of general proletarianisation: With general proletarianisation. within the opposition of diachronicity and synchronicity. is that these marketing strategies end up prevailing. the diachronic (singular) is no longer achieved. Stiegler argues that the consumerist model emerged in the beginning of the 20th century as a way of solving an efficiency crisis in the capitalist order (World War I and the 1929 Stock Market Crash are two symptoms of that crisis). however. To captivate libidinal energy (what Jean-François Lyotard called libidinal economy) people are enticed. but also the knowledge of how to live (savoir-vivre) of citizens. a process in which creativity is substituted by profit and stardom. to move the economy. after the Second World War (which is the time of Duchamp strictly speaking). and all that remains is the “subcategory of the synchronic: that which marketing calls segment. who thus become as such mere consumers: a good consumer is both utterly passive and irresponsible (Stiegler: 2010.

Artistic practice forms a special terrain for this individuation.” (Stiegler: 2007. resulting in a process he calls disindividuation: a process that destroys the collective and destroys culture. and semiotician Félix Guattari also talks about the importance of the individuation process in the construction of subjectivity.. (. 17) It is important to note (and also as a way to further delve into this subject) that the French psychotherapist. For him.. and their theoretical knowledge. 88) Bernard Stiegler sees the process of de-professionalization of the contemporary era as a possible means of escape from this situation. cease to be simply . users have to themselves become creators.diachronicity and the possibility of the assertion of a singularity. And this disindividuation is also a kind of proletarianisation. as seen in Nicolas Bourriaud's book Relational Aesthetics: in the Guattari order of things. providing potential models for human existence in general. their savoir-vivre. Nevertheless.) The end purpose of subjectivity is nothing other than an individuation still to be won. (Bourriaud: 2002. given that the proletariat in fact refers to those who have lost their knowledge – their savoir-faire. (Stiegler: 2010. subjectivity as production plays the role of a fulcrum around which forms of knowledge and action can freely pitch in. 40) This context obstructs the process of individuation2. and soar off in pursuit of the laws of the socius. he argues that in order for this process of subverting the consumerist mindset to happen. philosopher. the revalorization of the amateur made possible by digital technology and strengthened by the Internet can create a new avant-garde and form new audiences.

another type of fetishism). a remedy and a scapegoat. since both allow amateurs to leave the status of passive consumer. If you let profit-thinking invade free software production. like products crafted in the DIY fashion. heart of Linux). to which he responded: “Living their lives. Each person involved with it has to do it as a matter of belief and love. But. insofar as it can be a remedy. then the movement is dead. 19). DIY (and circuit-bending) can be a path to this process of de-proletarianisation. due to their uniqueness .. calling for a “far-reaching process of de-proletarianisation. DIY culture (and circuit-bending as part of it) carries the same potential contradictions as digital technology. a way to learn new techniques and make new discoveries. 11). Like the ancient Greek philosopher. of course. This question was raised by the audience during a talk by Richard Stallman (the creator of GNU. it can also be another way to create commodities (the infra-instruments created by benders. he sees the new digital technologies as pharmakon: at once a poison. on the other hand. He compares new digital technology to the invention of writing in Plato's era. Only the digital itself. and try to find another way of earning money. at MACBA (Barcelona): while discussing free software. 2008. On the one hand. and this is without doubt a key to the 21st century (Stiegler: 2010. This infiltration clearly makes it difficult to live life without falling into such a trap. and also can be a means to achieve fame and recognition. the recovery of knowledge of all kinds” (Stiegler: 2010. can be sold for a lot of money. on 5 April. he was asked how people would live their lives working with free software. that is.passive consumers. and shake the grounds of the capitalist structure..” . enables an effective struggle against the poison which it also is. produce knowledge. A paradox that emerges in a society where capital has infiltrated every single aspect of life.

12) As seen before. or what we have enough money (or credit) to pay for. Following this line of thought. then. 70). it is mandatory to short-circuit this distribution of the sensible. destabilizing the “natural” functional order of relations in the social body (Rancière: 2009. 26). Rancière points out that the arts “never lend to domination or emancipation maneuvers more than what they are able to: positions and movements of bodies. artistic practices are means for intervening in the general manner of doing things and in relationships with form and visibility. (Rancière: 2009. politics in the arts resides more in the distribution of the sensible than in the content of the works themselves: The distribution of the sensible reveals who can have a share in what is common to the community based on what they do and on the time and space in which this activity is performed. slices of the visible and the invisible” (Rancière: 2005. in modern capitalist societies. functions of words. affirms itself as a principle of a new distribution of the . our share of the sensible lies in what marketing analysts decide is good for us to consume. Rancière argues that in order to change this hegemonic order. Production. people have become mere consumers.Distribution of the sensible According to French philosopher Jacques Rancière. as seen in the words of Slavoj Žižek in the afterword of Rancière's book The Politics of Aesthetics: Politics proper thus always involves a kind of short-circuit between the universal and the particular: the paradox of a singular which appears as a stand-in for the universal. thus.

that is. as part of this musical practice. It can already be seen in the avant-garde movements of the 1920s. is always mentioned by benders as one of its key factors. (…) That’s pretty immediate! (Ghazala: 2005. As mentioned. Since its functioning can be odd or even random it may not lead to any kind of virtuosity. All you need is the ability to solder and to think outside the box.sensible. it is a new relationship between making and seeing. The “products” created by benders are less interesting than the process by which they are created. XIV) . anyone can do it. “giving it back to work. as it unites the formerly opposite concepts of making and visibility. and specifically circuit-bending. Learning. To produce is to create and make visible (to distribute). while they sought to suppress art as a specialized activity. 3-4) And also: Just as bending led me into “real” electronics. can fit into this way of thinking. and new designers often follow their curiosity into schooling not otherwise planned. of a singular instrument and in the way one experiments with it. many benders report to me the same. 68) It is easy to see how DIY culture. Viva el electron! (Ghazala: 2005. bending stirs great interest in electronics. You don’t need to be an electronics guru or a shop genius. As Qubais Reed Ghazala says: That’s the beauty of circuit-bending. Emphasis is placed on the creation of a particular aesthetic. to life.” (Rancière: 2005. which elaborates its own meaning.

a word benders use frequently when talking about their instruments . again recalling the French economist Jacques Attali. that it exists nowhere else.reinforcing the mythological.. “a truly alien instrument. specialized subjects. (.. This second aspect leads us to our conclusion.” (Ghazala: 2004. 99) Two things should be noted in this last quotation: first the usage of the word Alien . made into phantasmagoric objects in order to be interpreted as the expression of society’s contradictions. where art and life are no longer separate. a mythological or phantasmagoric figure.. and also fundamental for Rancière. is a pivotal key for Bernard Stiegler. Scholarly history tried to separate out various features within the aesthetic-political configuration that gave it its object. as we have already discussed. second.(. 34). It flattened this phantasmagoria of the true into the positivist sociological concept of mentality/expression and belief/ignorance (Rancière: 2009. That is exactly what circuit-benders do: transform an ordinary electronic device into an interesting musical instrument.. .) The Marxist theory of fetishism is the most striking testimony to this fact: commodities must be torn out of their trivial appearances. now in hand is an instrument that exists nowhere else in the universe and that presents sounds no one else has yet heard. the fact that the instrument created by the bender is unique. for this is the key to the aesthetic regime of the arts. where the ordinary becomes beautiful as a trace of the true if it is torn from its obviousness in order to become a hieroglyph.) After all.This amateurism. phantasmagoric figure of the transformation.

he called it Composition: There is no communication possible between men any longer. in the 1970s (in embryonic form. Attali divides history into four different periods based on the way music is thought. As Kevin Henry puts it in the article Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making: . Attali foresaw. (Attali: 1999. self-transcendence. Noteworthy. 134) Resonating with this way of thinking is the conception of Craftivism. pleasure in being instead of having. Playing for one’s own pleasure. which alone can create the conditions for new communication. Doing solely for the sake of doing. We have also said that we currently live in the age of Repetition and discussed its implications. A concept such as this seems natural in the context of music. as he puts it). We are all condemned to silence – unless we create our own relation with the world we try to tie other people into the meaning we thus create. now that the codes have been destroyed. however. and played/distributed: Sacrifice. without trying artificially to recreate the old codes in order to reinsert communication into them. and Composition. Representation. But it reaches far beyond that.Composition and Craftivism As already mentioned. Repetition. it relates to the emergence of the free act. that a new method of thinking about music would appear and replace Repetition. including even the code of exchange in repetition. is how DIY and circuit-bending fit into this fourth period. inventing the message at the same time as the language. Inventing new codes. produced. That is what composing is.

diminishing energy and material resources. The result is a world challenged by climate change. in order “to focus on knowledge communities united by the goals of ‘problem-finding’ and problem solving. and selfsustainability. One-size-fits-all strategies of education change. but rather craftsman as a lifestyle choice. providing those objects of the hand and the mind so necessary to us all” (apud Adamson: 2010. . leads to a craftivistic approach . 94-95) The new definition of craft which Henry refers to is given by Richard Sennet in The Craftsmen: “the desire to do a job well for its own sake” (apud Henry: 2010.quite similar to Attali’s definition of the era of Composition .” (Henry: 2010. as Eudorah Moore puts it: “fashioning his lifestyle to realize the creative impulse so vital to the whole person. 95) Henry argues that this new approach is dependant on trial-and-error dynamics. and global capital that moves at the speed of fiber optics. (Henry: 2010.according to Henry. This definition . peer-to-peer production. containerization made economically feasible by cheap foreign oil. 217-218).Capitalist production has been hyper-accelerated by the exploitation of cheap foreign labor. 95). etc. The question of whether we are adequately preparing them for that challenge can be partially addressed with a new definition of craft.that of the open source software. overpopulation. – issues for the most part that won’t go away but instead comprise the world our students will manage. global terrorism. This new craftsman is no longer craftsman by necessity (since there is a massproduced solution for every necessity).

. by choosing a new lifestyle that has the potential to change the way we live. Composition and Craftivism. The stuff we dig from the trash bins sounds so much better than any pluginshit. so any device that can be used to produce or modify the current can be used as an electronic instrument. can act as de-proletarianisation tactics. creative electronics. into the world of experimental electronics. creating something interesting and new. As the Finnish circuit-bending group Kokeellisen elektroniikan seura (Association of Experimental Electronics) clearly states in their description3: Lo-tech. We just take any device. test it. that all electronic sounds are just amplification of alternating current. We work mostly with electronic waste. “outside the box”. THIS IS YOUR FUTURE. and the amount of consumers wanting all new digital gizmos is rising exponentially. We do that for two reasons: 1. circuit bending and more. therefore. The lifespan of all devices is getting shorter and shorter. Think about it. can fit exceptionally well into this logic of “doing for the sake of doing”. and. lo-fi. Our basic idea is. subverting the consumption chain. DIY culture. this way. bend it and experiment with it as long as we get it to work in a way we consider interesting. by reusing what is meant to be thrown away. creating one’s own instruments instead of buying some new hi-tech tool. how long can this continue? Step out of the line. THIS IS NOT RETRO. Today’s digital technology-based lifestyle is not ecologically viable. 2. not seeking commercial profit or stardom. and circuit-bending in particular. a means to short-circuit the hegemonic consumerist distribution of the sensible. the low end of all sound production. open it.As we have seen before.

open-source attitude of DIY that we have discussed up to this point. Dorkbot meetings are free and open to the public. a global network of “people doing strange things with electricity. people gather to “research together. In Dorkbot's philosophy we can see the interdisciplinary. engineers. Improvised Rhythms. carrying much of the ineptitude attitude of Punk fanzines. as shown in their pamphlet (Figure 2). every Friday. Sound Systems. Experimental Luthierism. designers. experimentalist. The same attitude as Dorkbot is present within HackLAB Rio. . Sensed Sounds.” As seen on the website of their New York based group. students. where we see a contrast of some high-tech images and some hand-drawn lines. Open Source. In Rio de Janeiro.” topics like “Ludic Electronics. created in 20005 : Dorkbot is a monthly meeting of artists (sound/image/movement/whatever). and other interested parties from the New York area who are involved in the creative use of electricity. scientists. Bricolage and the like”. such as Dorkbot4.We can also see this way of thinking explicitly in other circuit-bending-like events and/or groups. even in the design of their folder.

org/). We do not naively believe that DIY culture and. among others.instructables. like the Hack It! Challenge (http://www. the Bent Festival (http://bentfestival. Cursor Records ( Garoa Hacker Clube (Drizzle Hacker Club . circuit-bending are solutions or simple ways out of the complex context presented in this article. such as Ônibus Hacker (Hacker Bus http://onibushacker. Many other examples of groups and/or events can be found.Rio de Janeiro Shown above are three examples of what we have discussed in this article.archive. more PaneTone (http://panetone. n-1 ( We do believe. . Instructables and its 2: Hack Lab .art.

meaning that what is submitted to control ends up being destroyed by what it controls. that is. heading towards the consumer who does not want to consume anymore. as also said in mechanical geniality. That’s the core of movements called anti-publicity. that we live in the era of the capitalist order that exploits libidinal energy (as it previously exploited fossil 5. http://dorkbot.’ This. And if we believe.. their desires. it is mandatory that they first want them.” (Stiegler: 2007. to become what one is by making the passage to the act of a potential that lies within every noetic soul. But this captivation is destructive. is absolutely not a good sign. Marketing people are very aware of those socioprofessionals of high profits who do not want more cars. to experiment. http://dorkbot.shtml . “To individuate oneself is to learn. or ‘ organized trips. without consuming oneself. from which it will be mandatory to get away. like I do.” (Stiegler: 2010. that is. Notes 1. 35) 2. etc. 16) 3. without suffering from consumption. and that won’t happen in a painless way. http://www.) then. etc. it is a destructive 4.however.beam. meaning that the society we live in has gotten into a dilemma. because in order for people to consume objects. that the appearance of these movements and their growth in recent years shows the importance of discussing such subjects in an interdisciplinary manner. natural resources. people who begin dreaming about a world without consumption.” (Stiegler: 2007. 26) And also: “What I describe here is a tendency: we are heading towards a scattering of consumption. hyper-industrial capitalism is on the verge of a serious crisis. Bernard Stiegler talks about an important paradox of the hyper-industrial capitalist society: “industrial life tends to channel individuals’ libidinal potential. however.

J. In: Leonardo Music Journal. Ghazala. São Paulo: ed. P. v. & Paulos. J. R. and Cultures. G. Iazzetta. Henry. (1998) Música de Invenção.14. São Paulo: ed. (ed.pdf (Accessed: 04/16/2011) Moore. J. New York. (2010) ‘Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making’. [Online] Available at: http://www. Not Meta. pp: 214-218.) ArtFutures Current issues in higher arts education. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc. (2009) Música e Mediação Tecnológica. K. (1999) Noise: The political Economy of Music. Hegarty. Kuznetsov. Dijon: Les presses du réel. Madrid. P. A. Oxford/Nova Iorque: Berg. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Perez. (2004) 'The Folk Music of Chance Electronics: Circuit-Bending the modern coconut’. R. Q. London: Continuum. S. Bourriaud. K. G. (2009). Amsterdam: ELIA. Ghazala. [Online] Available at: http://www.) The Craft Reader. pp. (2002) Relational Aesthetics. (2010) ‘Craftsman lifestyle: The Gentle Revolution’. (2005) Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments. nº13. N. ‘DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia’. Perpectiva. Q. 278-291. In: Adamson. & Delfos.html (Accessed: 04/24/2011) Campos. Bowers. F. In: Revista Icono 14.staceyk. C. (2010) Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects. (ed. pp: 92-97. & Archer. (2008) Noise/Music: A History. . In: Corcoran.nime. San Francisco.Bibliography Attali. E. Spain. E. I. Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments. (2005) Not Hyper.

Rancière. Stiegler. (2009) The Politics of Aesthetics. 34: Exo Experimental. . In: Corcoran. pp: 10-19. Rancière. (ed. New York: Ed. J. Stiegler. C. (2007) Reflexões (não) contemporâneas.) ArtFutures Current issues in higher arts education. B. B. (2010) ‘The Age of De-proletarianisation: Art and teaching art in post-consumerist culture’. Amsterdam: ELIA. Chapecó: ed. K. Argos. (2005) A partilha do sensível. São Paulo: Ed. & Delfos. J. Continuum.