Circuit-Bending and DIY Culture

Alexandre Marino Fernandez and Fernando Iazzetta Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil

Abstract The present article aims to inscribe Circuit-Bending in Do it Yourself (DIY) Culture and analyze the anti-consumerist, rebellious, and creativity aspects which make up the culture. The main goal is to show the subversive status of DIY culture, using the specific case of circuit-bending, which, seen through this prism, can subvert the hegemonic “distribution of the sensible,” achieving what Jacques Attali, in the late 1970s, called the “age of composition,” in which creators are enticed to produce their own aesthetics.

Introduction Circuit-bending consists of opening up low voltage (battery powered) electronic devices (musical toys, radio apparatuses, electronic keyboards, synthesizers, cd and dvd players, etc.), change (bend) the way electricity flows through their circuits until achieving an ‘interesting’ sound. One typically practices circuit-bending by removing and/or adding electronic components, connecting different circuits, or even adding organic elements to the circuit (such as the circuit-bender’s hand, or even fruits and vegetables). Upon obtaining the desired result, the next step usually calls for soldering the component into the circuit or marking the specific places to be touched. At the end of the process, some choose to design a nice case for accommodating this newly created instrument - an infra-instrument, in the words of John Bowers and Phil Archer in the article Not Hyper, Not Meta, Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments (Bowers & Archer: 2005).

In 1992, Qubais Reed Ghazala named the technique in a series of articles he wrote for Experimental Music Instrument magazine. He describes how he discovered this method of creating instruments, when, in 1967, he accidentally let a screwdriver come into contact with the circuitry of a battery powered amplifier, producing a short circuit that sounded rather ‘interesting.’ As he puts it: If this can happen to an amp, not supposed to make a sound on its own, what might happen if one were to short out circuits that already make a sound, such as keyboards and radios and toys? (Ghazala: 2004, 97)

As part of the experimental music tradition, circuit-bending follows the paths of such innovators as Alvin Lucier, David Tudor, Gordon Mumma, John Cage, among others, who advanced the limits and frontiers of musical creation. As Ghazala puts it, over the last several years, “experimentalism has taken flight and can be heard within many popular genres.” Currently, for instance, several popular music groups, such as Radiohead, The Flaming Lips, Mike Patton, and Bjork, use bent instruments in their setups (sometimes instruments not bent by themselves). Ghazala argues that “circuit-benders are at the very forefront of this experience of new experimentalism, constantly pushing music forward with original discoveries.” (Ghazala: 2005, 23)

At first, one sees a rebellious characteristic in circuit-bending as part of an experimental attitude. Circuit-bending creates a rupture in the consumerist society, since experimentalism is based on the need for free time, time to “waste” on making mistakes (a trial-and-error attitude). The goal is the unexpected, neither perfection nor efficacy. Benders seek, within this

a learning experience. When practicing circuit-bending. the principal aim is not to play the latest hi-tech tool. the error. 189). Circuit-bending. but rather to create something unique. and therefore the artist must “accept outside contributions and even displeasing things. Emphasis lies in its procedural character and its focus on the concept. breaking the barriers between them. It approaches other artistic models. but also a small amount of design. then.unexpectedness. Has to do with changing of minds and spirits. circuit-bending proposes an art that is not intended for specialist musicians. 130) Transforming the useless and the expendable into raw material for creation and production is the tonic note of circuit-bending. creation. For art does not have a material objective. As John Cage says: “the utility of the useless is good news for the artists. working only with inputs and outputs in a simplistic way. and the glitch are the stimulants that feed music: “musical sonic material are the noises that electronic devices generate” (Iazzetta: 2009. Lo-fi aesthetics display another key aspect of circuit-bending. At the end of the 20th century.” (Cage apud Campos: 1998. connecting those who create. perform. Following this logic. and performance. Experimentalism manifests as a discipline of the ego. sound art. allowing for niches to open where the ordinary person can (re)approach the musical creation. and listen. a mixture of electric engineering and music. freed from personal preferences and open for new experiences” (Campos: 1998. is an interdisciplinary practice. the flaw. 135). . discovery.

(Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. modification or repair of objects without the aid of paid professionals. XIII) Circuit-Bending and DIY culture In the above quotation. the DIY phenomenon is clearly nothing new. and Cultures. (Ghazala: 2005. but rather. then. more than a decade ago when I began to write about the DIY of circuit-bending. It dates back to the practices in which a craft and the unskilled amateur’s stage were opposed to professional practice and industrial . the immediacy and singularity of the instruments created represent two intentional aspects of circuit-bending.In short. was to launch new. Eric Paulos and Stacey Kuznetsov. to explore and conceptualize DIY culture and its relationship to circuitbending. pose a concise and pertinent definition for DIY: any creation. 01) Thus. Ghazala clearly inscribes circuit-bending in DIY culture. unique instruments by means of explaining only the general discovery process of circuit-bending instead of using the more standard “this wire goes here” dialogue — a dialogue that usually results in exact duplications of a target instrument. We use the term “amateur” not as a reflection on a hobbyists’ skills. to emphasize that most of DIY culture is not motivated by commercial purposes. which are often quite advanced. It is compelling. as seen in Ghazala’s book Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments: My aim. in Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects. Communities.

photography. However. They also entailed connecting hobbyists to a specific social network that helped define their identification with an increasingly homogenized. clubs. modern societies changed this principle by the gradual valorization and establishment of mass-production which led to the consumerist society in which we currently find ourselves. It is noteworthy to see how this movement manifests during the modern era. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. for any necessity. and suppliers. massive social condition. Mass production becomes established in the 18th century as part of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. books. Such activities were organized through magazines. create. Model building. According to this way of thinking. Historically speaking.mass production. create. all created a vast multitude of technical hobbyists who gathered around specific interests. DIY was the production method used to develop. can be bought at a nearby mega-store. decorate. this new mode of production spread throughout western society. as well as any product. The fragmentation of the production chain and the alienation of the individual brought about by mass production sparked a new interest in manual and craft activities. (as well as the flourishing appeal of science and technology) led to a boom in inventors and hobbyist activities. A remarkable case in which audio technology attracted the attention of hobbyists was the radio that was sold in kits for home assembly in the 1920s and ‘30s. and/or make repairs. Hobbyists’ activities played an important social role because they allowed laymen to tackle complex science and technology topics which were shaping the very idea of modernity. Together with the ideals of liberals such as Adam Smith. professionals and specialists can be hired to build. and/or build throughout most of history. high-fidelity audio. .

Etsy. and criticizing the musical marketplace from a DIY perspective. Craftster. with the Internet becoming a vast network of information exchange. for example. weakened the hobbyist and amateurist movement for a period of time. with its focus on unrestrained improvisation and the production of records outside of the industrial chain. bypassing the record industry. and create things. Dorkbot. For these artists. most important being to express oneself. In the above mentioned article. producing textiles.The Second World War and the globalized consumerist model. however. knitting. punk artists such as Crass. the Punk movement also emerged as a rebellion against this hegemonic order. increasing the amount of adherents in several fields: from growing herbs indoors. and crocheting. as Paul Hegarty argues. and Adafruit). An initial reaction to such standardizing appears in the Free Jazz movement of the 1960s. “the creativity that comes from a lack of preconceptions and willingness to try out anything. ineptitude was seen as virtue. . In the 1970s. In the 21st century. bringing DIY to the scene. Kuznetsov and Paulos present some rather significant data from surveys taken by DIY websites (such as Instructables. to working on all kinds of electronic projects. both focusing on independent production (of events and records). even if badly” (Hegarty: 2008. also joined forces to release their records. by such associations as AACM (Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians) and Candid Records. Similar to Free Jazz. the DIY movement became stronger due to rave culture and the beginning of the netlabel movement. one sees how a commercial interest is one of the least important incentives for the DIY community. Ravelry. the DIY movement expanded. 89). In the 1990s. In one of the most clarifying charts presented. learn new skills. imposing a mass consumption mentality throughout most of the western world.

as we see in experimental music. one of its characteristics was to rupture the lines that separated worker and creator. this way of thinking is based on a subversion of the age-old “look before you leap.” which he compares to movements like Situationism. an industrial one. rebelling against the hegemonic marketing order.” and is rather based on action: “first act.” (Perez: 2009. written for the Spanish magazine Icono. creating a community feeling. He argues that one of DIY’s main goals was to abolish specialization. 6) Juan Ignácio Gallego Perez. He follows by showing that the DIY movement “changes social relations.Figure 1: Motivations for contributing to DIY projects (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. he shows that DIY culture implies three states: an ideological/political one. distribute. encroaching upon the basic rules of capitalist society. and promote a product. and an aesthetic one. outside of mass culture.” For Gallego Perez. 279) By way of this prism. regardless of origin or background. “along with the possibility that anyone could be a creator. searching for new ways of production. which seeks to change ordinary mercantile . independent from industry. then think. in the article DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia. He argues that this form of production allows “any person to create. analyzes DIY culture in similar terms. pursuing singular forms of expression. and.

it is a means of power and a form of entertainment (Attali: 1999. of the dream – Music. Sacrifice represents societies focused on religion. it is sounds and their arrangements that fashion societies. for Freud. when it is fashioned by man with specific tools. for it is one of the sites where mutations first arise and where science is secreted. where mythological customs prevail. he analyzes society through the musical forms of different ages. Hence. a text to decipher.. 280). Repetition is the era we . With noise is born disorder and its opposite: the world. when it becomes sound. and Composition. the expression of truth. In noise can be read the codes of life. culminating with the Enlightenment. Melody. 6). Representation. for Nietzsche. Representation relates to the rational view of the world beginning in the Renaissance. Harmony.. he divides history into four different ages: Sacrifice. when it invades man’s time. It is all of that. Dissonance.relationships” (Perez: 2009.) More than colors and forms. (. and it is a refuge for residual irrationality. With music is born power and its opposite: subversion. noise is the source of purpose and power. It is at the heart of the progressive rationalization of aesthetics. Along this line of thought. For Marx. the relations among men. Clamor. In his book Noise: The political Economy of Music. He states: the cardinal importance of music in announcing a vision of the world is nothing new. Social Context French economist Jacques Attali presents an important view on the subject. Repetition. the social order we have just discussed merits further inquiry. music is the mirror of reality.

In this process. the embryonic form that subverts the Repetition era. an important contradiction emerges as people are no longer creators. 88). but only consumers: they must “devote their time to producing the means to buy recordings of other people’s time” (Attali: 1999. in which “usage was no longer the enjoyment of present labors. but the consumption of replications” (Attali: 1999. And if there are no longer any localizable power holders. . Composition. at the same time that Attali was writing his book.currently live in. the major goal (and maybe the only one possible) in our society. It is no longer an enactment through representation. Use-time is obliterated by exchange-time. our relation to power is also disrupted: In this type of organization of the production of society. what interests us about Attali is the way he describes the Repetition era. having become the genetic code of society. power can no longer be located simply in the control of capital or force. as shown above.or almost anything else. an era of a new kind of society. In this epoch. 101). 90) Thus. For now. (Attali: 1999. which begins to appear. The stockpiling of goods becomes. And finally. neither are there counterpowers that can be institutionalized in response. then. It is spread among the different elements of the system. commencing with the advent of recording devices. Power is incorporated into the very process of the selection of repeatable molds. It marks the birth of industry and is a time when our daily lives are invaded by show business and celebrity mentalities. in Free Jazz and Punk. they end up losing the time required to enjoy what is consumed . Impossible either to locate or seize. that of mass production.

after the Second World War (which is the time of Duchamp strictly speaking). but also the knowledge of how to live (savoir-vivre) of citizens. who thus become as such mere consumers: a good consumer is both utterly passive and irresponsible (Stiegler: 2010. for whom we live in an era of general proletarianisation: With general proletarianisation. to move the economy. The problem is that this consumerist model leads to another crisis. within the opposition of diachronicity and synchronicity. a process in which creativity is substituted by profit and stardom. As Stiegler puts it. human knowledge is short-circuited as a result of its technological reproduction and implementation. however. is that these marketing strategies end up prevailing. thereby destroying singularity together with the will to live (the libido). the diachronic (singular) is no longer achieved.in order to create a chain of production and consumption. Stiegler argues that the consumerist model emerged in the beginning of the 20th century as a way of solving an efficiency crisis in the capitalist order (World War I and the 1929 Stock Market Crash are two symptoms of that crisis). The side effect. To captivate libidinal energy (what Jean-François Lyotard called libidinal economy) people are enticed. leading. the crisis of libidinal energy1. In the consumerist model it is not only the know-how (savoir-faire) of workers that becomes obsolete. to eliminate . to consume . and all that remains is the “subcategory of the synchronic: that which marketing calls segment. by marketing strategies. to the globalization of the consumerist model.which leads to a normalization of culture. This manner of considering our social context is complementary to that of French philosopher Bernard Stiegler. 11).

given that the proletariat in fact refers to those who have lost their knowledge – their savoir-faire. (Stiegler: 2010. 40) This context obstructs the process of individuation2. resulting in a process he calls disindividuation: a process that destroys the collective and destroys culture. and semiotician Félix Guattari also talks about the importance of the individuation process in the construction of subjectivity. (.. users have to themselves become creators. as seen in Nicolas Bourriaud's book Relational Aesthetics: in the Guattari order of things. (Bourriaud: 2002. providing potential models for human existence in general. Artistic practice forms a special terrain for this individuation.) The end purpose of subjectivity is nothing other than an individuation still to be won. the revalorization of the amateur made possible by digital technology and strengthened by the Internet can create a new avant-garde and form new audiences.diachronicity and the possibility of the assertion of a singularity. subjectivity as production plays the role of a fulcrum around which forms of knowledge and action can freely pitch in. and soar off in pursuit of the laws of the socius.” (Stiegler: 2007. cease to be simply . philosopher. he argues that in order for this process of subverting the consumerist mindset to happen. and their theoretical knowledge. For him. 88) Bernard Stiegler sees the process of de-professionalization of the contemporary era as a possible means of escape from this situation. their savoir-vivre. Nevertheless. And this disindividuation is also a kind of proletarianisation.. 17) It is important to note (and also as a way to further delve into this subject) that the French psychotherapist.

Each person involved with it has to do it as a matter of belief and love. On the one hand. due to their uniqueness . But. to which he responded: “Living their lives. A paradox that emerges in a society where capital has infiltrated every single aspect of life. like products crafted in the DIY fashion.” . a way to learn new techniques and make new discoveries. can be sold for a lot of money. He compares new digital technology to the invention of writing in Plato's era. of course. since both allow amateurs to leave the status of passive consumer. DIY (and circuit-bending) can be a path to this process of de-proletarianisation. 2008. DIY culture (and circuit-bending as part of it) carries the same potential contradictions as digital technology. and shake the grounds of the capitalist structure. and try to find another way of earning money. the recovery of knowledge of all kinds” (Stiegler: 2010. a remedy and a scapegoat. heart of Linux). Like the ancient Greek philosopher. and also can be a means to achieve fame and recognition. he was asked how people would live their lives working with free software. then the movement is dead.passive consumers. produce knowledge.. calling for a “far-reaching process of de-proletarianisation. on the other hand.. on 5 April. enables an effective struggle against the poison which it also is. he sees the new digital technologies as pharmakon: at once a poison. 19). If you let profit-thinking invade free software production.another type of fetishism). and this is without doubt a key to the 21st century (Stiegler: 2010. Only the digital itself. it can also be another way to create commodities (the infra-instruments created by benders. at MACBA (Barcelona): while discussing free software. This question was raised by the audience during a talk by Richard Stallman (the creator of GNU. insofar as it can be a remedy. that is. This infiltration clearly makes it difficult to live life without falling into such a trap. 11).

artistic practices are means for intervening in the general manner of doing things and in relationships with form and visibility. it is mandatory to short-circuit this distribution of the sensible. (Rancière: 2009. Production. Following this line of thought. people have become mere consumers. in modern capitalist societies. 26). our share of the sensible lies in what marketing analysts decide is good for us to consume. affirms itself as a principle of a new distribution of the . or what we have enough money (or credit) to pay for.Distribution of the sensible According to French philosopher Jacques Rancière. 12) As seen before. 70). thus. then. slices of the visible and the invisible” (Rancière: 2005. functions of words. politics in the arts resides more in the distribution of the sensible than in the content of the works themselves: The distribution of the sensible reveals who can have a share in what is common to the community based on what they do and on the time and space in which this activity is performed. destabilizing the “natural” functional order of relations in the social body (Rancière: 2009. Rancière points out that the arts “never lend to domination or emancipation maneuvers more than what they are able to: positions and movements of bodies. as seen in the words of Slavoj Žižek in the afterword of Rancière's book The Politics of Aesthetics: Politics proper thus always involves a kind of short-circuit between the universal and the particular: the paradox of a singular which appears as a stand-in for the universal. Rancière argues that in order to change this hegemonic order.

3-4) And also: Just as bending led me into “real” electronics. it is a new relationship between making and seeing. It can already be seen in the avant-garde movements of the 1920s. XIV) . can fit into this way of thinking. Since its functioning can be odd or even random it may not lead to any kind of virtuosity.” (Rancière: 2005. “giving it back to work. As mentioned. As Qubais Reed Ghazala says: That’s the beauty of circuit-bending. All you need is the ability to solder and to think outside the box. Viva el electron! (Ghazala: 2005. 68) It is easy to see how DIY culture. and specifically circuit-bending. to life. of a singular instrument and in the way one experiments with it. Emphasis is placed on the creation of a particular aesthetic. bending stirs great interest in electronics. To produce is to create and make visible (to distribute). The “products” created by benders are less interesting than the process by which they are created. as it unites the formerly opposite concepts of making and visibility. many benders report to me the same. You don’t need to be an electronics guru or a shop genius. is always mentioned by benders as one of its key factors.sensible. anyone can do it. while they sought to suppress art as a specialized activity. (…) That’s pretty immediate! (Ghazala: 2005. as part of this musical practice. which elaborates its own meaning. that is. and new designers often follow their curiosity into schooling not otherwise planned. Learning.

is a pivotal key for Bernard Stiegler. that it exists nowhere else.(.” (Ghazala: 2004. and also fundamental for Rancière. It flattened this phantasmagoria of the true into the positivist sociological concept of mentality/expression and belief/ignorance (Rancière: 2009.This amateurism. 99) Two things should be noted in this last quotation: first the usage of the word Alien . . as we have already discussed. Scholarly history tried to separate out various features within the aesthetic-political configuration that gave it its object...) The Marxist theory of fetishism is the most striking testimony to this fact: commodities must be torn out of their trivial appearances.a word benders use frequently when talking about their instruments .) After all.reinforcing the mythological. where art and life are no longer separate.. for this is the key to the aesthetic regime of the arts. now in hand is an instrument that exists nowhere else in the universe and that presents sounds no one else has yet heard. where the ordinary becomes beautiful as a trace of the true if it is torn from its obviousness in order to become a hieroglyph. 34). a mythological or phantasmagoric figure.. phantasmagoric figure of the transformation. made into phantasmagoric objects in order to be interpreted as the expression of society’s contradictions. second. “a truly alien instrument. the fact that the instrument created by the bender is unique. (. That is exactly what circuit-benders do: transform an ordinary electronic device into an interesting musical instrument. This second aspect leads us to our conclusion. again recalling the French economist Jacques Attali. specialized subjects.

Representation. Attali foresaw. it relates to the emergence of the free act. as he puts it). 134) Resonating with this way of thinking is the conception of Craftivism. without trying artificially to recreate the old codes in order to reinsert communication into them. and played/distributed: Sacrifice. in the 1970s (in embryonic form. Doing solely for the sake of doing. which alone can create the conditions for new communication. and Composition. A concept such as this seems natural in the context of music. Attali divides history into four different periods based on the way music is thought. Noteworthy. We have also said that we currently live in the age of Repetition and discussed its implications. self-transcendence. including even the code of exchange in repetition. however. Playing for one’s own pleasure. (Attali: 1999. now that the codes have been destroyed. But it reaches far beyond that. produced. is how DIY and circuit-bending fit into this fourth period. inventing the message at the same time as the language. Repetition. he called it Composition: There is no communication possible between men any longer. As Kevin Henry puts it in the article Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making: . that a new method of thinking about music would appear and replace Repetition. pleasure in being instead of having.Composition and Craftivism As already mentioned. Inventing new codes. That is what composing is. We are all condemned to silence – unless we create our own relation with the world we try to tie other people into the meaning we thus create.

leads to a craftivistic approach . 217-218).quite similar to Attali’s definition of the era of Composition .” (Henry: 2010.that of the open source software. as Eudorah Moore puts it: “fashioning his lifestyle to realize the creative impulse so vital to the whole person. providing those objects of the hand and the mind so necessary to us all” (apud Adamson: 2010. diminishing energy and material resources. This new craftsman is no longer craftsman by necessity (since there is a massproduced solution for every necessity). – issues for the most part that won’t go away but instead comprise the world our students will manage. but rather craftsman as a lifestyle choice. and global capital that moves at the speed of fiber optics. This definition . The question of whether we are adequately preparing them for that challenge can be partially addressed with a new definition of craft. 95) Henry argues that this new approach is dependant on trial-and-error dynamics. overpopulation. and selfsustainability.Capitalist production has been hyper-accelerated by the exploitation of cheap foreign labor. The result is a world challenged by climate change. etc. . 95). peer-to-peer production. (Henry: 2010.according to Henry. One-size-fits-all strategies of education change. global terrorism. containerization made economically feasible by cheap foreign oil. 94-95) The new definition of craft which Henry refers to is given by Richard Sennet in The Craftsmen: “the desire to do a job well for its own sake” (apud Henry: 2010. in order “to focus on knowledge communities united by the goals of ‘problem-finding’ and problem solving.

As we have seen before. creating one’s own instruments instead of buying some new hi-tech tool. subverting the consumption chain. Our basic idea is. THIS IS YOUR FUTURE. We do that for two reasons: 1. and. by choosing a new lifestyle that has the potential to change the way we live. into the world of experimental electronics. so any device that can be used to produce or modify the current can be used as an electronic instrument. this way. . The lifespan of all devices is getting shorter and shorter. Composition and Craftivism. 2. that all electronic sounds are just amplification of alternating current. lo-fi. As the Finnish circuit-bending group Kokeellisen elektroniikan seura (Association of Experimental Electronics) clearly states in their description3: Lo-tech. how long can this continue? Step out of the line. We work mostly with electronic waste. not seeking commercial profit or stardom. bend it and experiment with it as long as we get it to work in a way we consider interesting. The stuff we dig from the trash bins sounds so much better than any pluginshit. circuit bending and more. the low end of all sound production. a means to short-circuit the hegemonic consumerist distribution of the sensible. by reusing what is meant to be thrown away. Think about it. test it. creative electronics. therefore. THIS IS NOT RETRO. can act as de-proletarianisation tactics. can fit exceptionally well into this logic of “doing for the sake of doing”. and circuit-bending in particular. and the amount of consumers wanting all new digital gizmos is rising exponentially. DIY culture. We just take any device. open it. creating something interesting and new. Today’s digital technology-based lifestyle is not ecologically viable. “outside the box”.

created in 20005 : Dorkbot is a monthly meeting of artists (sound/image/movement/whatever). . as shown in their pamphlet (Figure 2). such as Dorkbot4. Experimental Luthierism. Open Source.We can also see this way of thinking explicitly in other circuit-bending-like events and/or groups. where we see a contrast of some high-tech images and some hand-drawn lines. and other interested parties from the New York area who are involved in the creative use of electricity. scientists. Sensed Sounds. Bricolage and the like”. every Friday. experimentalist. In Rio de Janeiro. In Dorkbot's philosophy we can see the interdisciplinary.” As seen on the website of their New York based group.” topics like “Ludic Electronics. open-source attitude of DIY that we have discussed up to this point. a global network of “people doing strange things with electricity. even in the design of their folder. Sound Systems. people gather to “research together. Improvised Rhythms. The same attitude as Dorkbot is present within HackLAB Rio. designers. students. Dorkbot meetings are free and open to the public. engineers. carrying much of the ineptitude attitude of Punk fanzines.

circuit-bending are solutions or simple ways out of the complex context presented in this article. more specifically.art. PaneTone (http://panetone. We do believe.instructables. Garoa Hacker Clube (Drizzle Hacker Club .org/2011/).http://garoa.org/). such as Ônibus Hacker (Hacker Bus http://onibushacker.net.br/). like the Hack It! Challenge (http://www.Figure 2: Hack Lab . Cursor Records (http://www.Rio de Janeiro Shown above are three examples of what we have discussed in this article.com/contest/hackit/).archive. Instructables and its challenges. among others. Many other examples of groups and/or events can be found. n-1 (http://n-1. the Bent Festival (http://bentfestival. . We do not naively believe that DIY culture and.br/wiki/).org/details/cr05RottedOrange).net/).

. Marketing people are very aware of those socioprofessionals of high profits who do not want more cars. etc.org/ 5. 16) 3. from which it will be mandatory to get away.shtml .) then. But this captivation is destructive.’ This. http://dorkbot. and that won’t happen in a painless way.beam. http://dorkbot. meaning that the society we live in has gotten into a dilemma. “To individuate oneself is to learn. to become what one is by making the passage to the act of a potential that lies within every noetic soul.” (Stiegler: 2007. however. meaning that what is submitted to control ends up being destroyed by what it controls. that we live in the era of the capitalist order that exploits libidinal energy (as it previously exploited fossil fuels. That’s the core of movements called anti-publicity. that the appearance of these movements and their growth in recent years shows the importance of discussing such subjects in an interdisciplinary manner.” (Stiegler: 2010. etc. Bernard Stiegler talks about an important paradox of the hyper-industrial capitalist society: “industrial life tends to channel individuals’ libidinal potential. http://www. heading towards the consumer who does not want to consume anymore. their desires.” (Stiegler: 2007. it is mandatory that they first want them. like I do. 35) 2.to/koelse 4. people who begin dreaming about a world without consumption. without consuming oneself. because in order for people to consume objects. 26) And also: “What I describe here is a tendency: we are heading towards a scattering of consumption. or ‘ad-busters. hyper-industrial capitalism is on the verge of a serious crisis. organized trips. it is a destructive control. And if we believe.org/dorkbotnyc/about.however. without suffering from consumption. natural resources. Notes 1. as also said in mechanical geniality. to experiment. that is. is absolutely not a good sign. that is.

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