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Alexandre Marino Fernandez and Fernando Iazzetta Universidade de São Paulo - Brasil
Abstract The present article aims to inscribe Circuit-Bending in Do it Yourself (DIY) Culture and analyze the anti-consumerist, rebellious, and creativity aspects which make up the culture. The main goal is to show the subversive status of DIY culture, using the specific case of circuit-bending, which, seen through this prism, can subvert the hegemonic “distribution of the sensible,” achieving what Jacques Attali, in the late 1970s, called the “age of composition,” in which creators are enticed to produce their own aesthetics.
Introduction Circuit-bending consists of opening up low voltage (battery powered) electronic devices (musical toys, radio apparatuses, electronic keyboards, synthesizers, cd and dvd players, etc.), change (bend) the way electricity flows through their circuits until achieving an ‘interesting’ sound. One typically practices circuit-bending by removing and/or adding electronic components, connecting different circuits, or even adding organic elements to the circuit (such as the circuit-bender’s hand, or even fruits and vegetables). Upon obtaining the desired result, the next step usually calls for soldering the component into the circuit or marking the specific places to be touched. At the end of the process, some choose to design a nice case for accommodating this newly created instrument - an infra-instrument, in the words of John Bowers and Phil Archer in the article Not Hyper, Not Meta, Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments (Bowers & Archer: 2005).
In 1992, Qubais Reed Ghazala named the technique in a series of articles he wrote for Experimental Music Instrument magazine. He describes how he discovered this method of creating instruments, when, in 1967, he accidentally let a screwdriver come into contact with the circuitry of a battery powered amplifier, producing a short circuit that sounded rather ‘interesting.’ As he puts it: If this can happen to an amp, not supposed to make a sound on its own, what might happen if one were to short out circuits that already make a sound, such as keyboards and radios and toys? (Ghazala: 2004, 97)
As part of the experimental music tradition, circuit-bending follows the paths of such innovators as Alvin Lucier, David Tudor, Gordon Mumma, John Cage, among others, who advanced the limits and frontiers of musical creation. As Ghazala puts it, over the last several years, “experimentalism has taken flight and can be heard within many popular genres.” Currently, for instance, several popular music groups, such as Radiohead, The Flaming Lips, Mike Patton, and Bjork, use bent instruments in their setups (sometimes instruments not bent by themselves). Ghazala argues that “circuit-benders are at the very forefront of this experience of new experimentalism, constantly pushing music forward with original discoveries.” (Ghazala: 2005, 23)
At first, one sees a rebellious characteristic in circuit-bending as part of an experimental attitude. Circuit-bending creates a rupture in the consumerist society, since experimentalism is based on the need for free time, time to “waste” on making mistakes (a trial-and-error attitude). The goal is the unexpected, neither perfection nor efficacy. Benders seek, within this
then. At the end of the 20th century. 189). . and listen. Experimentalism manifests as a discipline of the ego. connecting those who create. Circuit-bending. Following this logic. When practicing circuit-bending. Lo-fi aesthetics display another key aspect of circuit-bending. is an interdisciplinary practice. perform.” (Cage apud Campos: 1998. allowing for niches to open where the ordinary person can (re)approach the musical creation. working only with inputs and outputs in a simplistic way. 130) Transforming the useless and the expendable into raw material for creation and production is the tonic note of circuit-bending.unexpectedness. a mixture of electric engineering and music. sound art. freed from personal preferences and open for new experiences” (Campos: 1998. creation. but rather to create something unique. a learning experience. It approaches other artistic models. and the glitch are the stimulants that feed music: “musical sonic material are the noises that electronic devices generate” (Iazzetta: 2009. As John Cage says: “the utility of the useless is good news for the artists. the flaw. breaking the barriers between them. and therefore the artist must “accept outside contributions and even displeasing things. For art does not have a material objective. the error. Has to do with changing of minds and spirits. but also a small amount of design. and performance. circuit-bending proposes an art that is not intended for specialist musicians. Emphasis lies in its procedural character and its focus on the concept. the principal aim is not to play the latest hi-tech tool. discovery. 135).
It dates back to the practices in which a craft and the unskilled amateur’s stage were opposed to professional practice and industrial . Ghazala clearly inscribes circuit-bending in DIY culture. was to launch new. the DIY phenomenon is clearly nothing new. XIII) Circuit-Bending and DIY culture In the above quotation. as seen in Ghazala’s book Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments: My aim. the immediacy and singularity of the instruments created represent two intentional aspects of circuit-bending. unique instruments by means of explaining only the general discovery process of circuit-bending instead of using the more standard “this wire goes here” dialogue — a dialogue that usually results in exact duplications of a target instrument. (Ghazala: 2005. It is compelling. in Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects. then. to emphasize that most of DIY culture is not motivated by commercial purposes.In short. Communities. modification or repair of objects without the aid of paid professionals. to explore and conceptualize DIY culture and its relationship to circuitbending. 01) Thus. (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. We use the term “amateur” not as a reflection on a hobbyists’ skills. which are often quite advanced. pose a concise and pertinent definition for DIY: any creation. and Cultures. but rather. Eric Paulos and Stacey Kuznetsov. more than a decade ago when I began to write about the DIY of circuit-bending.
Hobbyists’ activities played an important social role because they allowed laymen to tackle complex science and technology topics which were shaping the very idea of modernity. decorate. The fragmentation of the production chain and the alienation of the individual brought about by mass production sparked a new interest in manual and craft activities. high-fidelity audio. books. for any necessity. It is noteworthy to see how this movement manifests during the modern era. and/or build throughout most of history. as well as any product. Model building. (as well as the flourishing appeal of science and technology) led to a boom in inventors and hobbyist activities. modern societies changed this principle by the gradual valorization and establishment of mass-production which led to the consumerist society in which we currently find ourselves. all created a vast multitude of technical hobbyists who gathered around specific interests. Together with the ideals of liberals such as Adam Smith. Such activities were organized through magazines. DIY was the production method used to develop. Mass production becomes established in the 18th century as part of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain. professionals and specialists can be hired to build. They also entailed connecting hobbyists to a specific social network that helped define their identification with an increasingly homogenized. The end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. photography. According to this way of thinking. can be bought at a nearby mega-store. A remarkable case in which audio technology attracted the attention of hobbyists was the radio that was sold in kits for home assembly in the 1920s and ‘30s. clubs. massive social condition. . this new mode of production spread throughout western society. create. and suppliers. Historically speaking. However. create. and/or make repairs.mass production.
In the 1990s. bringing DIY to the scene. to working on all kinds of electronic projects. ineptitude was seen as virtue. by such associations as AACM (Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians) and Candid Records. with its focus on unrestrained improvisation and the production of records outside of the industrial chain. however. for example. and Adafruit). both focusing on independent production (of events and records). In one of the most clarifying charts presented.The Second World War and the globalized consumerist model. In the 21st century. the DIY movement became stronger due to rave culture and the beginning of the netlabel movement. knitting. and create things. and criticizing the musical marketplace from a DIY perspective. Dorkbot. For these artists. learn new skills. even if badly” (Hegarty: 2008. Etsy. with the Internet becoming a vast network of information exchange. the Punk movement also emerged as a rebellion against this hegemonic order. one sees how a commercial interest is one of the least important incentives for the DIY community. Ravelry. also joined forces to release their records. producing textiles. and crocheting. weakened the hobbyist and amateurist movement for a period of time. increasing the amount of adherents in several fields: from growing herbs indoors. In the 1970s. most important being to express oneself. Craftster. In the above mentioned article. Similar to Free Jazz. as Paul Hegarty argues. the DIY movement expanded. “the creativity that comes from a lack of preconceptions and willingness to try out anything. imposing a mass consumption mentality throughout most of the western world. . An initial reaction to such standardizing appears in the Free Jazz movement of the 1960s. Kuznetsov and Paulos present some rather significant data from surveys taken by DIY websites (such as Instructables. bypassing the record industry. punk artists such as Crass. 89).
independent from industry.” For Gallego Perez. and promote a product. which seeks to change ordinary mercantile .” and is rather based on action: “first act. He argues that this form of production allows “any person to create.” which he compares to movements like Situationism. 279) By way of this prism. 6) Juan Ignácio Gallego Perez. an industrial one.” (Perez: 2009. He argues that one of DIY’s main goals was to abolish specialization. one of its characteristics was to rupture the lines that separated worker and creator. distribute. pursuing singular forms of expression. and an aesthetic one. and. this way of thinking is based on a subversion of the age-old “look before you leap. creating a community feeling. written for the Spanish magazine Icono. regardless of origin or background. “along with the possibility that anyone could be a creator. He follows by showing that the DIY movement “changes social relations. analyzes DIY culture in similar terms. as we see in experimental music. he shows that DIY culture implies three states: an ideological/political one. encroaching upon the basic rules of capitalist society. searching for new ways of production.Figure 1: Motivations for contributing to DIY projects (Kuznetsov & Paulos: 2010. in the article DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia. outside of mass culture. then think. rebelling against the hegemonic marketing order.
It is all of that. when it becomes sound. where mythological customs prevail. He states: the cardinal importance of music in announcing a vision of the world is nothing new. Representation. and Composition. he analyzes society through the musical forms of different ages. Hence. Representation relates to the rational view of the world beginning in the Renaissance.) More than colors and forms. music is the mirror of reality. for it is one of the sites where mutations first arise and where science is secreted. it is sounds and their arrangements that fashion societies. when it is fashioned by man with specific tools. the relations among men. Sacrifice represents societies focused on religion. the social order we have just discussed merits further inquiry. Dissonance. For Marx. 280). noise is the source of purpose and power. In his book Noise: The political Economy of Music. for Nietzsche. Clamor. Repetition is the era we . It is at the heart of the progressive rationalization of aesthetics. and it is a refuge for residual irrationality. With noise is born disorder and its opposite: the world. it is a means of power and a form of entertainment (Attali: 1999. culminating with the Enlightenment. of the dream – Music. With music is born power and its opposite: subversion. a text to decipher. when it invades man’s time. 6).. (. for Freud.. Along this line of thought. Repetition. he divides history into four different ages: Sacrifice. In noise can be read the codes of life.relationships” (Perez: 2009. Melody. Harmony. Social Context French economist Jacques Attali presents an important view on the subject. the expression of truth.
power can no longer be located simply in the control of capital or force. the embryonic form that subverts the Repetition era. the major goal (and maybe the only one possible) in our society. what interests us about Attali is the way he describes the Repetition era. Composition. . And finally. 88). 90) Thus.currently live in. that of mass production. neither are there counterpowers that can be institutionalized in response. an era of a new kind of society. For now. It marks the birth of industry and is a time when our daily lives are invaded by show business and celebrity mentalities.or almost anything else. (Attali: 1999. which begins to appear. they end up losing the time required to enjoy what is consumed . In this process. but only consumers: they must “devote their time to producing the means to buy recordings of other people’s time” (Attali: 1999. but the consumption of replications” (Attali: 1999. our relation to power is also disrupted: In this type of organization of the production of society. It is spread among the different elements of the system. an important contradiction emerges as people are no longer creators. at the same time that Attali was writing his book. 101). It is no longer an enactment through representation. as shown above. In this epoch. Use-time is obliterated by exchange-time. Impossible either to locate or seize. commencing with the advent of recording devices. And if there are no longer any localizable power holders. then. The stockpiling of goods becomes. in which “usage was no longer the enjoyment of present labors. Power is incorporated into the very process of the selection of repeatable molds. having become the genetic code of society. in Free Jazz and Punk.
thereby destroying singularity together with the will to live (the libido).in order to create a chain of production and consumption. to eliminate . to the globalization of the consumerist model. The problem is that this consumerist model leads to another crisis. by marketing strategies. however. To captivate libidinal energy (what Jean-François Lyotard called libidinal economy) people are enticed.which leads to a normalization of culture. but also the knowledge of how to live (savoir-vivre) of citizens. the crisis of libidinal energy1. human knowledge is short-circuited as a result of its technological reproduction and implementation. to consume . within the opposition of diachronicity and synchronicity. for whom we live in an era of general proletarianisation: With general proletarianisation. 11). As Stiegler puts it. In the consumerist model it is not only the know-how (savoir-faire) of workers that becomes obsolete. is that these marketing strategies end up prevailing. who thus become as such mere consumers: a good consumer is both utterly passive and irresponsible (Stiegler: 2010. The side effect. leading. Stiegler argues that the consumerist model emerged in the beginning of the 20th century as a way of solving an efficiency crisis in the capitalist order (World War I and the 1929 Stock Market Crash are two symptoms of that crisis). to move the economy. and all that remains is the “subcategory of the synchronic: that which marketing calls segment. the diachronic (singular) is no longer achieved. This manner of considering our social context is complementary to that of French philosopher Bernard Stiegler. a process in which creativity is substituted by profit and stardom. after the Second World War (which is the time of Duchamp strictly speaking).
and their theoretical knowledge. the revalorization of the amateur made possible by digital technology and strengthened by the Internet can create a new avant-garde and form new audiences. philosopher. (.. and soar off in pursuit of the laws of the socius.diachronicity and the possibility of the assertion of a singularity.” (Stiegler: 2007. 88) Bernard Stiegler sees the process of de-professionalization of the contemporary era as a possible means of escape from this situation. Artistic practice forms a special terrain for this individuation. he argues that in order for this process of subverting the consumerist mindset to happen. given that the proletariat in fact refers to those who have lost their knowledge – their savoir-faire.) The end purpose of subjectivity is nothing other than an individuation still to be won. as seen in Nicolas Bourriaud's book Relational Aesthetics: in the Guattari order of things. 17) It is important to note (and also as a way to further delve into this subject) that the French psychotherapist. providing potential models for human existence in general. 40) This context obstructs the process of individuation2. and semiotician Félix Guattari also talks about the importance of the individuation process in the construction of subjectivity. And this disindividuation is also a kind of proletarianisation.. users have to themselves become creators. Nevertheless. their savoir-vivre. resulting in a process he calls disindividuation: a process that destroys the collective and destroys culture. cease to be simply . subjectivity as production plays the role of a fulcrum around which forms of knowledge and action can freely pitch in. For him. (Stiegler: 2010. (Bourriaud: 2002.
the recovery of knowledge of all kinds” (Stiegler: 2010. 19). This infiltration clearly makes it difficult to live life without falling into such a trap. Only the digital itself. on 5 April.” . A paradox that emerges in a society where capital has infiltrated every single aspect of life. This question was raised by the audience during a talk by Richard Stallman (the creator of GNU. to which he responded: “Living their lives. due to their uniqueness . of course. But. and this is without doubt a key to the 21st century (Stiegler: 2010. heart of Linux)... then the movement is dead. Each person involved with it has to do it as a matter of belief and love. at MACBA (Barcelona): while discussing free software. it can also be another way to create commodities (the infra-instruments created by benders. he was asked how people would live their lives working with free software. and also can be a means to achieve fame and recognition. 2008. that is. on the other hand. On the one hand. and shake the grounds of the capitalist structure. DIY culture (and circuit-bending as part of it) carries the same potential contradictions as digital technology. He compares new digital technology to the invention of writing in Plato's era. If you let profit-thinking invade free software production. can be sold for a lot of money.passive consumers. and try to find another way of earning money. a remedy and a scapegoat. 11). produce knowledge. like products crafted in the DIY fashion. insofar as it can be a remedy. a way to learn new techniques and make new discoveries. calling for a “far-reaching process of de-proletarianisation.another type of fetishism). enables an effective struggle against the poison which it also is. he sees the new digital technologies as pharmakon: at once a poison. Like the ancient Greek philosopher. DIY (and circuit-bending) can be a path to this process of de-proletarianisation. since both allow amateurs to leave the status of passive consumer.
Following this line of thought. slices of the visible and the invisible” (Rancière: 2005. Production. destabilizing the “natural” functional order of relations in the social body (Rancière: 2009. people have become mere consumers. our share of the sensible lies in what marketing analysts decide is good for us to consume. politics in the arts resides more in the distribution of the sensible than in the content of the works themselves: The distribution of the sensible reveals who can have a share in what is common to the community based on what they do and on the time and space in which this activity is performed. 70). functions of words. thus. (Rancière: 2009. affirms itself as a principle of a new distribution of the . as seen in the words of Slavoj Žižek in the afterword of Rancière's book The Politics of Aesthetics: Politics proper thus always involves a kind of short-circuit between the universal and the particular: the paradox of a singular which appears as a stand-in for the universal. it is mandatory to short-circuit this distribution of the sensible. or what we have enough money (or credit) to pay for. 26). Rancière argues that in order to change this hegemonic order. artistic practices are means for intervening in the general manner of doing things and in relationships with form and visibility. then. 12) As seen before. in modern capitalist societies.Distribution of the sensible According to French philosopher Jacques Rancière. Rancière points out that the arts “never lend to domination or emancipation maneuvers more than what they are able to: positions and movements of bodies.
“giving it back to work. All you need is the ability to solder and to think outside the box. It can already be seen in the avant-garde movements of the 1920s. while they sought to suppress art as a specialized activity. To produce is to create and make visible (to distribute). as part of this musical practice. Viva el electron! (Ghazala: 2005. bending stirs great interest in electronics. it is a new relationship between making and seeing. anyone can do it. and new designers often follow their curiosity into schooling not otherwise planned. and specifically circuit-bending. Emphasis is placed on the creation of a particular aesthetic. As mentioned. that is. is always mentioned by benders as one of its key factors. can fit into this way of thinking. as it unites the formerly opposite concepts of making and visibility. 68) It is easy to see how DIY culture. many benders report to me the same. to life. 3-4) And also: Just as bending led me into “real” electronics.” (Rancière: 2005.sensible. XIV) . (…) That’s pretty immediate! (Ghazala: 2005. As Qubais Reed Ghazala says: That’s the beauty of circuit-bending. Learning. You don’t need to be an electronics guru or a shop genius. Since its functioning can be odd or even random it may not lead to any kind of virtuosity. of a singular instrument and in the way one experiments with it. which elaborates its own meaning. The “products” created by benders are less interesting than the process by which they are created.
(.reinforcing the mythological. the fact that the instrument created by the bender is unique.. specialized subjects. It flattened this phantasmagoria of the true into the positivist sociological concept of mentality/expression and belief/ignorance (Rancière: 2009. where the ordinary becomes beautiful as a trace of the true if it is torn from its obviousness in order to become a hieroglyph.(.) The Marxist theory of fetishism is the most striking testimony to this fact: commodities must be torn out of their trivial appearances. That is exactly what circuit-benders do: transform an ordinary electronic device into an interesting musical instrument. that it exists nowhere else. a mythological or phantasmagoric figure. as we have already discussed.This amateurism.a word benders use frequently when talking about their instruments . 99) Two things should be noted in this last quotation: first the usage of the word Alien . Scholarly history tried to separate out various features within the aesthetic-political configuration that gave it its object.. phantasmagoric figure of the transformation. is a pivotal key for Bernard Stiegler. “a truly alien instrument. again recalling the French economist Jacques Attali. and also fundamental for Rancière. now in hand is an instrument that exists nowhere else in the universe and that presents sounds no one else has yet heard.. where art and life are no longer separate. made into phantasmagoric objects in order to be interpreted as the expression of society’s contradictions. for this is the key to the aesthetic regime of the arts. This second aspect leads us to our conclusion. .” (Ghazala: 2004.) After all.. second. 34).
We have also said that we currently live in the age of Repetition and discussed its implications. pleasure in being instead of having. Repetition. But it reaches far beyond that. which alone can create the conditions for new communication. Representation. That is what composing is. produced. Playing for one’s own pleasure. as he puts it). and Composition. Inventing new codes.Composition and Craftivism As already mentioned. Attali foresaw. and played/distributed: Sacrifice. it relates to the emergence of the free act. now that the codes have been destroyed. Attali divides history into four different periods based on the way music is thought. including even the code of exchange in repetition. is how DIY and circuit-bending fit into this fourth period. (Attali: 1999. A concept such as this seems natural in the context of music. Doing solely for the sake of doing. 134) Resonating with this way of thinking is the conception of Craftivism. in the 1970s (in embryonic form. however. that a new method of thinking about music would appear and replace Repetition. We are all condemned to silence – unless we create our own relation with the world we try to tie other people into the meaning we thus create. self-transcendence. without trying artificially to recreate the old codes in order to reinsert communication into them. As Kevin Henry puts it in the article Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making: . Noteworthy. inventing the message at the same time as the language. he called it Composition: There is no communication possible between men any longer.
The question of whether we are adequately preparing them for that challenge can be partially addressed with a new definition of craft. 95). The result is a world challenged by climate change. in order “to focus on knowledge communities united by the goals of ‘problem-finding’ and problem solving. containerization made economically feasible by cheap foreign oil. peer-to-peer production. 217-218).that of the open source software. leads to a craftivistic approach . and selfsustainability.according to Henry. This definition . . – issues for the most part that won’t go away but instead comprise the world our students will manage.Capitalist production has been hyper-accelerated by the exploitation of cheap foreign labor. overpopulation. 95) Henry argues that this new approach is dependant on trial-and-error dynamics.” (Henry: 2010. and global capital that moves at the speed of fiber optics. (Henry: 2010. global terrorism. diminishing energy and material resources. One-size-fits-all strategies of education change. 94-95) The new definition of craft which Henry refers to is given by Richard Sennet in The Craftsmen: “the desire to do a job well for its own sake” (apud Henry: 2010.quite similar to Attali’s definition of the era of Composition . as Eudorah Moore puts it: “fashioning his lifestyle to realize the creative impulse so vital to the whole person. etc. This new craftsman is no longer craftsman by necessity (since there is a massproduced solution for every necessity). but rather craftsman as a lifestyle choice. providing those objects of the hand and the mind so necessary to us all” (apud Adamson: 2010.
how long can this continue? Step out of the line. creating one’s own instruments instead of buying some new hi-tech tool. THIS IS NOT RETRO. . We work mostly with electronic waste. Composition and Craftivism. We do that for two reasons: 1. into the world of experimental electronics. The stuff we dig from the trash bins sounds so much better than any pluginshit. We just take any device. circuit bending and more. that all electronic sounds are just amplification of alternating current. As the Finnish circuit-bending group Kokeellisen elektroniikan seura (Association of Experimental Electronics) clearly states in their description3: Lo-tech. this way. 2. and. The lifespan of all devices is getting shorter and shorter. so any device that can be used to produce or modify the current can be used as an electronic instrument. can fit exceptionally well into this logic of “doing for the sake of doing”. can act as de-proletarianisation tactics. a means to short-circuit the hegemonic consumerist distribution of the sensible. test it. not seeking commercial profit or stardom. Think about it. Today’s digital technology-based lifestyle is not ecologically viable. therefore. creating something interesting and new. DIY culture. and the amount of consumers wanting all new digital gizmos is rising exponentially. and circuit-bending in particular. THIS IS YOUR FUTURE. creative electronics. “outside the box”. open it. by reusing what is meant to be thrown away. by choosing a new lifestyle that has the potential to change the way we live. the low end of all sound production. lo-fi. subverting the consumption chain. bend it and experiment with it as long as we get it to work in a way we consider interesting.As we have seen before. Our basic idea is.
as shown in their pamphlet (Figure 2). Dorkbot meetings are free and open to the public. . Bricolage and the like”.” topics like “Ludic Electronics.We can also see this way of thinking explicitly in other circuit-bending-like events and/or groups. people gather to “research together. created in 20005 : Dorkbot is a monthly meeting of artists (sound/image/movement/whatever). Sound Systems. designers.” As seen on the website of their New York based group. The same attitude as Dorkbot is present within HackLAB Rio. and other interested parties from the New York area who are involved in the creative use of electricity. such as Dorkbot4. In Dorkbot's philosophy we can see the interdisciplinary. where we see a contrast of some high-tech images and some hand-drawn lines. Open Source. a global network of “people doing strange things with electricity. engineers. Sensed Sounds. carrying much of the ineptitude attitude of Punk fanzines. scientists. Improvised Rhythms. open-source attitude of DIY that we have discussed up to this point. In Rio de Janeiro. every Friday. Experimental Luthierism. students. experimentalist. even in the design of their folder.
Cursor Records (http://www. Instructables and its challenges. circuit-bending are solutions or simple ways out of the complex context presented in this article.br/wiki/).com/contest/hackit/). like the Hack It! Challenge (http://www.http://garoa.org/2011/).br/).Rio de Janeiro Shown above are three examples of what we have discussed in this article. more specifically. PaneTone (http://panetone. We do not naively believe that DIY culture and. among others.org/details/cr05RottedOrange).archive. Many other examples of groups and/or events can be found. . the Bent Festival (http://bentfestival. n-1 (http://n-1. Garoa Hacker Clube (Drizzle Hacker Club .instructables.Figure 2: Hack Lab .art. We do believe. such as Ônibus Hacker (Hacker Bus http://onibushacker.net.org/).net/).
Notes 1.” (Stiegler: 2010. http://dorkbot. and that won’t happen in a painless way.” (Stiegler: 2007. without consuming oneself. or ‘ad-busters. it is a destructive control. like I do..org/dorkbotnyc/about. meaning that the society we live in has gotten into a dilemma. that is.to/koelse 4.org/ 5. from which it will be mandatory to get away. 35) 2. heading towards the consumer who does not want to consume anymore. Marketing people are very aware of those socioprofessionals of high profits who do not want more cars. it is mandatory that they first want them. because in order for people to consume objects. etc. http://dorkbot. however. natural resources. to become what one is by making the passage to the act of a potential that lies within every noetic soul. to experiment.however.’ This. 16) 3. And if we believe.beam. But this captivation is destructive. etc.) then. organized trips. 26) And also: “What I describe here is a tendency: we are heading towards a scattering of consumption. that we live in the era of the capitalist order that exploits libidinal energy (as it previously exploited fossil fuels. http://www. hyper-industrial capitalism is on the verge of a serious crisis. meaning that what is submitted to control ends up being destroyed by what it controls. people who begin dreaming about a world without consumption. Bernard Stiegler talks about an important paradox of the hyper-industrial capitalist society: “industrial life tends to channel individuals’ libidinal potential.shtml . their desires. “To individuate oneself is to learn. That’s the core of movements called anti-publicity. is absolutely not a good sign.” (Stiegler: 2007. without suffering from consumption. as also said in mechanical geniality. that the appearance of these movements and their growth in recent years shows the importance of discussing such subjects in an interdisciplinary manner. that is.
J. (ed. Not Meta. & Delfos. N. Not Cyber but Infra-Instruments. In: Leonardo Music Journal. Communities. E. G. Dijon: Les presses du réel. pp. Bourriaud. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Oxford/Nova Iorque: Berg. pp: 92-97. In: Adamson. C. (2009) Música e Mediação Tecnológica. P. G. R. nº13. (1998) Música de Invenção. J. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc. K.) The Craft Reader. [Online] Available at: http://www. (2002) Relational Aesthetics. R. London: Continuum. Kuznetsov. v.Bibliography Attali. Iazzetta. Amsterdam: ELIA. Perspectiva. (2009).org/hci/KuznetsovDIY. Q. S. (2010) ‘Craftivism: Reconnecting art and design education through the social act of making’. . Q. & Paulos. Bowers. (2010) ‘Craftsman lifestyle: The Gentle Revolution’. Madrid. P. (2004) 'The Folk Music of Chance Electronics: Circuit-Bending the modern coconut’. Spain. New York. São Paulo: ed. K. pp: 214-218. In: Corcoran. Hegarty.14. (2008) Noise/Music: A History. I. 278-291. (2005) Circuit-Bending: Build Your Own Alien Instruments. (2005) Not Hyper. (1999) Noise: The political Economy of Music.html (Accessed: 04/24/2011) Campos. (ed. San Francisco. In: Revista Icono 14. ‘DO IT YOURSELF: Cultura y Tecnologia’. (2010) Rise of the Expert Amateur: DIY Projects. Perpectiva. and Cultures. Perez. [Online] Available at: http://www. Henry.nime.staceyk. Ghazala. Ghazala. J.) ArtFutures Current issues in higher arts education.pdf (Accessed: 04/16/2011) Moore. A. & Archer.org/2005/proceedings. F. São Paulo: ed. E.
J. C. (2009) The Politics of Aesthetics.Rancière. K. (2005) A partilha do sensível. Stiegler. & Delfos.) ArtFutures Current issues in higher arts education. B. Argos. (2010) ‘The Age of De-proletarianisation: Art and teaching art in post-consumerist culture’. Chapecó: ed. Amsterdam: ELIA. . Stiegler. Continuum. (2007) Reflexões (não) contemporâneas. Rancière. B. In: Corcoran. pp: 10-19. (ed. 34: Exo Experimental. New York: Ed. J. São Paulo: Ed.
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