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STABILITY AND TRIM
DDEFINITION OF TERMS
Added Weight Method. A method of
solving for damage stability where the water which enters the vessel is considered an added weight.

Density. The weight per unit volume of a
substance.

Displacement.

Block Coefficient. A coefficient of fineness
which expresses the relationship between the volume of displacement and a block having the length, breadth, and draft the vessel.

Center of Buoyancy. That point at which
all the vertically upward forces of buoyancy are considered to be concentrated; the center of volume of the immersed portion of the vessel.

The weight of water displaced by a floating object. Equal to the weight of the object. Downflooding Angle. The angle of heel where water first enter the hull of a vessel through an opening. This angle is the maximum angle at which the intact stability curves are valid.

Draft. The linear distance from the bottom of
the keel to the waterline.

Center of Flotation. The center of gravity
of the waterplane; the point around which a vessel trims.

Dynamical Stability. The energy which a
vessel possesses to right herself due to the work performed in inclining her.

Center of Gravity. The point at which all
the vertically downward forces of weight are considered to be concentrated; the center of the mass of the vessel.

Equilibrium. Vessel in a state where there is
no movement; line with B.

G must be in the same vertical

Change of Trim. The algebraic sum of the
initial trim and the trim after weight has been shifted, loaded, or discharged.

Factor of Subdivision. A number less than
1 obtained from curves of factor of subdivision which when multiplied by floodable length, produces permissible length of compartment. It is the reciprocal of the compartment standard.

Compartment Standard. The number of
compartments in any location which can be flooded up to the margin line without causing the vessel to sink. Based on a certain permeability, usually 63% for cargo spaces and 80% for machinery space.

Floodable Length. At any point of a ship,
the length of the space having its center at that point, which can be flooded without causing the ship to sink.

Couple Moment. Created by two equal
forces exerted in opposite directions and along parallel lines. In stability, the forces through G and B.

Founder. To sink due to loss of reserve
buoyancy.

Freeboard. The distance from the waterline
to the upper deck.

Crank Ship or Tender Ship. A vessel
with small metacentric height; top-heavy.

Free Surface. Condition existing when a
liquid is free to move in the tank or

Hydrostatic Curves.) Permeability of Surface. Practically. Weight of vessel in long tons when fully loaded. Opposed by the righting moment. GM. Permissible length. Intact space below the surface of a flooded area. Moment. TPI. The highest point to which G may rise and still permit the vessel to have positive stability. increase of draft without change of trim. Inclining Experiment. Experiment which. Permeability. Weight in long tons of vessel a light condition. increase of displacement for one foot trim by the stern. displacement in salt and fresh water.2 compartment of a vessel. The moment tending to heel the vessel. Exist when G coincides with M. Curves based on the form of the immersed portions of a vessel. Height of metacenter above keel. by inclining a vessel a few degrees. Found at the intersection of the line of action of B when the ship is erect with the line of action of B when the ship is given a small inclination. Metacentric height. produces with the aid of a formula the metacentric height (GM) and the position of the center of gravity of a vessel. The tendency of a vessel to return to its original longitudinal position. The transverse angle of inclination of a vessel. The maximum length permitted between main transverse bulkheads. The percentage of the volume of a compartment which can be occupied by water if flooded. Parallel Sinkage. Stability of a vessel for small angles of inclination (up to 15 deg. Causes a virtual rise of the ship’s center of gravity. Metacenter.) Negative Stability. Height of center of gravity above keel. MTI. Load Displacement. nor to continue its inclination if the inclining force is removed. Found by multiplying factor of subdivision by floodable length. Longitudinal Stability. Initial Stability. KM. height of B and M above the keel. List. Mean Draft. The percentage of the surface of a flooded compartment which is occupied by water. KG. That draft midway between the draft forward and draft aft. Transverse angle of inclination of a vessel. Metacentric Radius. Distance between B and M. Heel. The vessel does not tend to return to an upright position if inclined. (When vessel is upright. Created by a force or weight moved through a distance. Intact Buoyancy. KB. Linear distance from the keel to the center of buoyancy. Range of Stability. They include: coefficients of fineness. . distance from the center of gravity to the transverse metacenter. Light Displacement. the range of stability is ended shortly after deck edge immersion in most vessels. Vessel increases her draft so that the drafts forward and aft are increased by the same amount. The end of stability is reached at an angle of inclination when righting arm is equal to zero. Heeling Moment.

The product of the weight of the vessel (displacement) and the righting arm (GZ). Vessel does not tend to return to an erect position after being inclined but. The tendency of a vessel return to an erect position after being inclined by an exterior force. The volume of water displaced by a floating object. Exists when G is above M. Transverse position of center of gravity. The distance between the line of force through B and the line of force through G. from port to starboard and back to port again. a weight moment will be produced. Synchronous Rolling. tends to continue inclination. Righting Arm.3 Reserve Buoyancy. TPI. TCG. Righting Moment. The volume of all intact space above the waterline. that is. Vertical Center of Gravity (VCG). for small angles. Unstable equilibrium. or meters. A coefficient of fineness which expresses the relationship between the area of the water plane and a rectangle having the length and breadth of the vessel at that water plane. Intersection of ordinates with curves produces the abscissae (righting arms). A vessel will tend to return to an erect position if inclined to a small angle. Trim. . Stabilogauge. a condition to be avoided. or of the center of gravity of a vessel above its keel. Occurs when the rolling period of the vessel is the same as the wave period. The difference between the drafts forward and aft. The plane defined by the intersection of the water in which a vessel is floating with the vessel sides. Volumetric Heeling Moment. Water Plane Coefficient. Volume of Displacement. Water Plane. A moment produced by a volume acting through a distance. If a volumetric heeling moment is divided by a stowage factor. Stability. Vessel with low center of gravity and large metacentric height. Exists when M is above G. varies with draft. Units of volumetric heeling moment are in feet. Statical Stability Curves. Rolling Period. Number of tons necessary to change the mean draft of a vessel by one inch. The ordinates are angles of inclination. The vertical height of the center of gravity of a compartment above its bottom. Caused by the “swinging” motion of water in a slack tank. Stable Equilibrium. Curves for various displacements up to and past load displacement. when there is positive stability. The time it takes a vessel to make complete roll. weight of this volume of water is equal to the weight of the object. Stiff Ship. as done in the practice of stability calculation for bulk grain. Virtual Rise of G. A device which automatically calculates GM when actuators indicating weights loaded or discharged are turned.