Cambridge International

Diploma
for

Teachers and Trainers

GUIDE

1 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers CONTENTS

CONTENTS This is a bookmarked document. Use the bookmarked links below (and/or the bookmarks tab in Acrobat) to navigate easily around the Guide.
Page INTRODUCTION Welcome The spirit of the Diploma Thinking about yourself as a teacher What makes a good teacher? Personality and professionalism Introducing you to the Diploma syllabus Approaching assignments Your personal development diary Resources Performance observation Being an observer yourself Scanning guidelines Images in Word documents Examiners’ advice to candidates MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Identifying learners’ needs Specifying the learning objectives Planning content, methods and resources Completing the programme plan Specifying the requirements for each learning session Completing session plans Preparing learning materials Preparing equipment and learning facilities Planning for evaluation Preparing the learning environment 4 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 15 16 17 24 28 29 32 40 41 47 51 59 63 75 82 88 92 95 99 100 105 111 116 121 2 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007

MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 Presenting information Giving instruction and demonstration Using visual aids Supervising learning activities Managing the flow of activities

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers CONTENTS

2.1.6 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4

Managing the learning environment Motivating learners Encouraging learners Guiding learners Supporting learners

126 136 144 150 154 160 161 169 177 183 190 195 206 214 220 223 226 227 234 238 243 249 261 265

MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 Preparing formative assessments Using formative assessments Analysing formative assessment data Providing feedback about progress Maintaining records of learners’ progress Preparing summative assessments Using summative assessments Analysing summative assessment data Providing feedback about achievement Maintaining records of learners’ achievement

MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Evaluating learning Using evaluation to plan improvements Making improvements and planning further evaluation Evaluating own practice Identifying goals for improvement Completing a professional development plan Specifying actions and evaluating outcomes

3 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION WELCOME
On behalf of the University of Cambridge International Examinations (CIE), we would like to welcome you to the Diploma for Teachers and Trainers and to this Guide. We hope you enjoy reading and using these materials. They are intended for everyone preparing for the Diploma – candidates and their trainers. The Guide contains guidance and suggestions for practice which can be used by individuals or used in group activities. It is organized into four sections, each corresponding to a module in the Diploma, following the sequence of the performance criteria, so you can easily find guidance and advice on particular aspects e.g. identifying learner’s needs. This is not a text book. It is a source of ideas, information and possibilities, all relating to the Diploma framework. You may like to use the materials in a different order from the way in which they are presented here. That’s fine. You may also like to modify and develop the ideas and exercises – and we would be happy if the materials are a springboard for such individual and group creativity. We have also provided a resource list of suggested readings and websites for the Diploma. We do encourage you to explore these, and yourself to look for and investigate others. For ease of writing and reading, we have used the terms ‘teacher’ and ‘learner’ as generic terms throughout. This is an opportunity to refresh your thinking and practice. We hope your Diploma experience is as fruitful and enjoyable an experience as possible. We wish you every success. Kind regards

Paul Beedle, CIE Manager Professional Development Certification

Bob Burkill, Principal Examiner Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers

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© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION

THE SPIRIT OF THE DIPLOMA
In its intent, purpose and content, the Diploma is geared to the concept of active learning. Active learning is very different from the traditional ‘teacher down’ model of learning which is still found in some parts of the world. This old model saw the teacher standing at the front of the class presenting information which the learners dutifully wrote down, learned (often by rote) and were duly tested upon. It was inflexible and authoritarian. Here is what such a classroom used to look like

But in a classroom where active learning is at the heart of experience, teacher and learner interact much more effectively, as in this image from a classroom of today.

Active learning involves the learners in activities developed and guided by the teacher. Such activities may involve a range of teaching and learning approaches including group work, role play, learner presentations, fieldwork, experimentation, and using simulations. Although active learning is more diverse (and certainly more engaging) it needs careful planning and preparation to meet the needs of the learners, clear identification of learning objectives, accurate tailoring of assessment and a real awareness of flexibility. This can be challenging but the Diploma is all about trying something new in the process of teaching and learning and the contents of this Guide are designed to meet the needs of enterprising teachers.

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© University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007

shaw.ca/mdde615/tchstylsquiz7. some may be 'quiet persuaders' and others can create order from seeming chaos. What you do with this knowledge can contribute greatly towards raising achievement and meeting the goals that you and your learners set. We have all benefited from the care.html and here is another useful audit you can try http://members. This is well worth a visit: http://web. rather than another? Are you the 'all singing all dancing' type or do you prefer to work to a calmer pace or rhythm in your classroom? It doesn't matter how long you have been teaching. They have made our education enjoyable as well as worthwhile. level or faculty.we all have something to offer.htm 6 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Therefore one of the keys to maximising the potential of the learning environment in which you work is to know yourself. board work or worksheets. Professor of Psychology at the University of Cincinnati. but in terms of the way in which you perform your role. warmth. All kinds of different personalities may help to make excellent teachers. Remember that we are all multifaceted so you may well find that you feel more comfortable fitting yourself into a combination of styles of teaching or definitions. it's still useful and relevant to carry out an internal audit on how as well as who you are in the classroom. including an inventory/audit.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION THINKING ABOUT YOURSELF AS A TEACHER Human personalities are extremely diverse. So what kind of teacher are you? Not in terms of subject. So much of what happens in the learning environment is influenced by the personalities of the people within it. for example. They have made our learning fun. humour and inspiration which many teachers have shared with us. lecture. This means that teachers will bring to teaching and learning all the features and characteristics which make us who we are. The Diploma recognises the enormous contribution which teachers' personalities make to the teaching-learning process.indstate. rather than one! The Indiana State University website carries an overview of teaching styles based on the work of Anthony Grasha.edu/oit/cirt/pd/styles/tstyle. Some may lead and amuse. In order for effective teaching and learning to take place in any learning environment it's useful for teachers to spend some time thinking about themselves as learners and teachers before starting to explore the needs of those who sit (or stand!) before them. What is certain is that the best teachers are those who can use their talents creatively in a professional context. Do you typically use one style of teaching. There is no single especially successful set of human attributes for success as a teacher .

e.' How would your learners describe ‘what makes a good teacher’? 7 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 ..uk/docbank/index.. • is kind • is generous • listens to you • encourages you • has faith in you • keeps confidences • likes teaching children • likes teaching their subject • takes time to explain things • helps you when you're stuck • tells you how you are doing • allows you to have your say • doesn't give up on you • cares for your opinion • makes you feel clever • treats people equally • stands up for you • makes allowances • tells the truth • is forgiving. However the concept of teacher effectiveness carries different meanings and emphases across the world. Year 8 pupils (i. One initial response might be that teacher effectiveness has at its heart • • • subject knowledge an understanding of how learning can take place and an understanding of how to manage the transformative process of teaching and learning.gov. age 12 and 13) gave the following descriptions of the characteristics of ‘a good teacher’: 'A good teacher . ask your learners what they think makes a good teacher. In the Hay McBer study of teacher effectiveness http://www.cfm?id=1487 which was undertaken for the UK Department for Education and Skills in 1999 and published in 2000.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION WHAT MAKES A GOOD TEACHER? There’s no quick and easy answer! The following ideas may help you to formulate your answer: • • • • think about the ideals you held when you started out as a teacher think about a session that went particularly well – what characterised that session? think about the full scope of a teacher's job in the context in which you work if appropriate. How do you rate yourself against the conclusions that you have reached? You may find it useful to discuss this with a trusted colleague.teachernet.

positive and dynamic inter-relationship between personality and professionalism. Teaching. All kinds of personality can flourish in teaching. 8 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .’ There is a natural. but they rapidly complain when an ‘entertaining’ teacher in practice does not show them an organized and effective way forward in their learning. Modern education programmes and techniques are diversifying rapidly. is very much a personal business. Education is taking place in an ever increasing variety of contexts and the idea of ‘lifelong education’ has been with us for almost a lifetime.’ Such views seem to set personality against professionalism. The Diploma approach to this is very clear. In developing their own teaching skills and experience. Teachers must respond to these challenges. care and enterprise. Experience surely indicates that no one personality type is ideally suited to the profession of teaching. activities and teaching skills. Communication media such as television bring other forms of communication in information into people’s daily lives. quite beyond the reach of education. Thus the expectations of learners are much higher in terms of learning programme design. teachers can become much more confident and effective. persistence.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION PERSONALITY AND PROFESSIONALISM You do come across sayings such as ‘teachers are born not made’ and mumbled remarks such as ‘no amount of instruction can turn a bad teacher into a good one. So it is ‘ying and yang. your future and your life. The vehicle for such development is their own imagination. therefore. determination. It could be argued that confidence in your own professional practice will have a most beneficial effect on how you see your job. Some learners may find certain types of personality more attractive than others.

the structure and templates for assignments.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION INTRODUCING YOU TO THE DIPLOMA SYLLABUS Let’s briefly go through the Diploma syllabus together. too. In this Diploma they become a vital tool because they deal with results or outcomes. Our syllabus aims to be as complete as possible. Pages 10 and 11 provide a double spread presentation of all the performance criteria in the Diploma.4 on Page 8 complete the picture by considering presentation.' Sections 2. There are some key phrases here which might prompt discussion and explanation with your colleagues on your programme .1 and see these facets for themselves Performance criterion summary statement (in bold) Characteristics of performance (in italics) Skills. The Diploma helps you explore the evaluation process. Section 2 on Page 6 then talks about how you will be assessed. We can now look at the main body of the syllabus (Pages 10-45) as a whole.g. We are going to highlight the most important parts. 'assignment'. and 'evidence. the framework for the whole qualification. Section 2. In practice it tends to get squeezed or even squeezed out altogether in the often hectic 'business' of teaching. Note the need for performance observation in Module 2. are sometimes seen as a chore. Sections 2.e. Records.3 and 2. You can look at Page 9 Unit 1.0 to 2. Each module's content is presented in the same way. and specific requirements of particular assignments. It explains everything to do with the Diploma and everything which needs to be done. Page 4 needs careful consideration because it sets out the 'Diploma Structure'. the scope of each unit is explained and their performance criteria are set out. The four modules are explained and the division into units is clearly shown. that is. Evaluation is a most important process. 'template'. and the balance between the modules.2 give a very good idea of the flavour of assessment activities. knowledge and understanding 9 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Individual unit titles are given. It encourages reflection and deeper thought about what has been experienced so that you can make improvements and explore new avenues of possibilities. You can get a 'feel' for what is involved. indicating the flow and sequence of teaching.0 also introduces the dimension of evaluation and the personal development diary. Section 4 sets out in detail the content of each of the Units in the four Modules and the assignment guidelines for each module. external assessment and results and certification.

covers the skills needed in Units 1. Page 45 shows everyone how the Grading is organised around themes and how criteria are used to identify Pass and Distinction grades.all the Units and Modules are set out in the same way. for example.2 and everything you will need to do for the assignment is set out 'step by step' (see pages 18 to 21).1 and 1. You can see from the syllabus that Assignment 1.this will help you connect with the way the syllabus works. Assessment Guidelines are included for each Module. and look at these in detail . Pick out one or two which have particular relevance for you. Now you have had a look through the syllabus you’ll be looking forward to what lies ahead! 10 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION You can then 'thumb through' the rest of the syllabus .

but what matters is how you put what you learn into practice ‘in the classroom’. please discuss with your centre. The Diploma examiners are interested to know about your real experience as presented in the evidence in your assignment. But credit is given to how you have applied this knowledge and understanding in your practice. If you have difficulties using the template. the content of each assignment is fresh and unique. Cover page . So you can easily check aspects such as word count and spelling by highlighting selected text and using the appropriate Word tools as normal. You need to complete your assignments in the light of your own professional practice. The template is a Word document.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION APPROACHING ASSIGNMENTS We want you to feel clear and confident about preparing your own assignments.g. then simply click on the section headings you wish to skip to. You should leave the page format as it is – there’s no reason to change it (you don’t get extra credit for spending time beautifying the document!). By all means you should be finding out (more) about theories and models of teaching and learning. By completing this you are also confirming the statement in bold at the top of the cover sheet. Template The template is already formatted – this makes life easier for you (and also for the examiners!). who will. Thus you can refer to published or Internet articles where you feel they have a particular bearing on your work. corresponding to the guidelines in the syllabus. You can also quickly navigate around your assignment by activating the document map (select Document Map on View pull down menu. Your reference points and the content of your assignments lie within your own working experience. You’ll see that the information supplied by CIE (e. and the space provided for you to make your entries is in Verdana font.your details are crucial You’ll see that on each assignment cover sheet you need to complete your candidate details. Although all candidates everywhere are using the same. We've chosen these fonts because they are universally available. The assignment template provides a standard framework for all candidates to use. common format for reporting. consult CIE for further advice. your reflections on this experience and how you can turn this experience and your reflections into future improvement. the prompts) is in Arial font. or click the Document Map button on the toolbar). 11 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . rather than simply citing names and references. if necessary. I have appropriately referenced and acknowledged any work taken from another source. namely: By completing this form and submitting the assignment for assessment by CIE I confirm that the assignment is all my own work.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION So as a first step. you really will not be giving yourself sufficient room in which to express your ideas and reflections. for example. Before you submit your completed assignment to your centre to send to CIE. so please submit two. teaching all ages and ability levels in all sorts of contexts. Remember that Diploma examiners have many assignments to look at each month. You need briefly to describe: • • • • Your personal experience Your role and responsibilities Your institution Your learners Please be brief. This is not intended to be a curriculum vitae. You may be a classroom teacher. a workplace trainer. The Diploma is equally accessible to all teachers and trainers – i.e. so will be asked to resubmit. so we'd certainly appreciate you being responsible about this. 12 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Many different teachers and trainers enter for the Diploma. it provides a ‘level playing field’ for assessment of teaching practice and performance. it's vital to complete the cover sheet properly and accurately. make sure you have entered the following in the boxes given: • • • the date of submission in dd/mm/yy format. If you submit only one. Very simple! But also very important. Do remember to respond to the three key themes in your Reflective Report in Part B of each assignment. Evidence – meeting the requirements Please also make sure that you meet the assignment requirements for evidence. an online tutor – or be working in another of the many ways in which teaching and training is practised in today’s world. There is no need to go way over the word limits at any point in the assignment. Imagine you had just met your examiner and had two or three minutes to explain to him/her the aspects of your context which really need to be taken into account. So it is likely that you will asked to resubmit. as you will not receive any extra credit for this. you are clearly not meeting the requirements. This applies both to Part A and Part B of the assignments. For example you are required to submit two session plans. An assignment without proper information on the cover sheet is a real problem. These are what you need to communicate – in writing. In Part B if you present several hundred words less than the word limit. Many thanks! Context The next sheet in the assignment template allows you to tell the examiners briefly about your self and your context. your candidate number (your centre will have given this to you) your name (as you wish it to appear on your certificate).

you have to include an example of an assessment. assessment or evaluation. about the impact and economy of your communication – often about complicated ideas or issues – is an important aspect of quality professional work. But they are approximate . Evidence is only evidence when it is looked at! Being careful. and scripts. If you do this. for example. practice. Inserts In Assignment 2 you have to insert Observation Records and Learner Feedbacks. be sure to convert the image from a TIFF to a JPEG format. Too little and there’s a risk that you’re missing important things out.i. If by hand. so please keep these). Of course. But you don’t have to use this. It’s up to you. The guidelines and template are designed to provide a comprehensive framework for gathering evidence. Be economical. These word limits are based on sound experience of how many words on average a candidate needs to demonstrate each point. However there may be a particular piece of additional evidence which enables you to highlight a critical feature of your experience in design. On the other hand some candidates have felt they needed to submit a large volume of supplementary evidence e. mark scheme. 13 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . you can scan the handwritten version and insert the scanned image.g. mark scheme. In Assignment 3. select a particular question. On the other hand if you find yourself going significantly over the word limits then you really need to be thinking about editing – and being concise. the assessed scripts for the whole learner group or their detailed CV or a series of testimonials! This is unnecessary. So try to be more or less in the region of the number of words requested. Please rest assured that we have been very careful to decide on the manageable amount of evidence which we need to see. too much and there’s a risk that not everything is going to be taken into account. So.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION There is also a sheet at the end of the template which you can use if necessary to provide brief additional evidence if you like. You need to use the standard CIE forms for these. using a low resolution – otherwise your assignment may become very large in terms of memory (see the notes at the end of this Introduction section for further advice). there is a very wide range of assessment etc you might choose. if your example is a written assessment. your observer and your learners whether they complete these by hand or by wordprocessing. Alternatively. ‘Brief’ is the right word! CIE is looking at the quality of your experience and ideas as a teacher not weighing the quantity of pages that you can present. you don't have worry about being exact! You’ll find it very difficult to present enough evidence if you only give very short statements – say only one or two sentences. like this. its mark scheme and the answers of the learners. instead of giving us a complete question paper. Word limits Please do try to keep within the word limits. and there is no reason or benefit in sending more than we have asked for.e. Remember that such additional evidence needs to be relevant and brief. you can word process the information on the handwritten forms and include this (but remember that we might ask you for the original forms. and high/mid/low work by learners in the assessment.

We do not assess use of language in this Diploma. their own professional development and that of their learners. as long as you’re able to talk about your real practice. But we want to reassure you and every candidate that as long as the examiners can understand the sense of what you are saying to us. Although you will use continuous prose. Many candidates for the Diploma are using English or another language which is not their first language. They are themselves expert teachers and teacher trainers.g. if you make spelling or grammar 'mistakes'.your words . e. Just think carefully about how best to provide sufficient. grammar. Look at the grading criteria on page 45 of the syllabus. rather than being concerned about how fluently you say it. these do not matter. Your experience . You can see that the examiners are looking to see if and how candidates have gone beyond the competent performance to consider implications of use of ICT for the institution. you can and should think of using point form (bullet points) especially in Part A. appropriate and economical evidence e. then this is the essence for our assessment. with a wealth of international experience. Do not be afraid to use your imagination and say how you think your ideas and work practices have changed and developed during and because of the Diploma experience – this is very much in the spirit of the qualification.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION It may be that you want to tell us about a very different kind of assessment. So. This is fine. We want you to write about your professional practice. They are not going to penalise you for spelling. So the more you use your normal voice and language the better as this will help your assignment to be a genuine reflection of you as a teacher. Of course it is always good practice to be careful about presentation! So we encourage you to take pride in your assignment. etc. which is intended to help teachers to ‘grow’ professionally. style. practical or online. 14 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Therefore it is perfectly appropriate and acceptable to write in the first person. for example.g. digital images or screen shots. Our examiners are really interested in hearing what you have to say.your voice Choose the style with which you feel most comfortable.

The most important thing is to find the format and content of diary which suits you – so that you keep it regularly up to date. plans and so on. Many teachers use a book the size of a desk diary. Some call it a 'log book'. this diary has several uses. One of our Cambridge Diploma trainers has a wellworn journal in which she writes down excerpts from articles.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION YOUR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT DIARY 1. 2. what actually happened and your own reflections on these. So you would include session and programme plans. It acts as a record of what you intended. The actual format of the diary is really up to you also. a PDA (personal digital assistant).g.' Whatever you call it. It contains raw evidence for • • • • developing your next designs for learning programmes and sessions appraisal contacts with parents formative assessment e.a source of personal and professional support and development. conferencing It can also help your colleagues when you are absent. A4 ring binders are better suited to storing data. or a laptop. What should the diary contain? This is very much up to you as an individual. but because it is genuinely useful to you. quotations and notes and she uses her journal in her training sessions! It is a 'good companion' . not because someone else has told you to. You probably need something more distinctive and portable. but generally in your career as a teacher. 15 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . and your own notes based on their outcomes. You could include • • • • • • • • • • draft plans calendar self-evaluation of sessions learner and others’ feedback on sessions on-going ideas for improvement suggestions based on conversations with other teachers brief notes of conferences and visits quotations references (publications and websites) excerpts from the press and other articles.not just for the purposes of a professional qualification like the Diploma. others a 'journal. evaluation and reflection . You might prefer to use a personal organizer. It can act as a source of enrichment. Why keep a diary? Many teachers keep a personal development diary. It is thus an invaluable source of evidence. Some are ring-bound and very useful.

16 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .g. Ask their advice and make the most of opportunities for share ideas.uk/qualifications/teacher/level2/diptt/index_html) This Guide is intended to complement the texts in the Resource List such as the CIEendorsed Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers Textbook and Workbook. Let them know what you're doing and how you're getting on.geoffpetty. Be resourceful and inquiring. You may be able to find a more experienced colleague who is happy to act as your mentor. There isn't a fixed encyclopaedia of professional knowledge for you to learn. you will find regularly of help to you during your Diploma programme.cie. by Ian Barker. e. like Ian Barker’s.org. We also highly recommend Geoff Petty’s book Teaching Today (and his website http://www.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION RESOURCES There is a Diploma Resource List (downloadable from the CIE website at http://www. but also look further afield. Their cooperation and feedback will be an important part of your Diploma experience. Don't forget your own learners. Your own colleagues are a vital resource for you. Instead there is an open world of developments in teaching and learning for you to explore. You should take the opportunity to read those materials which are particularly relevant to you in your context and for your interests.com/) as resources which. as you try new approaches to sessions.

The following table will help you to have some ideas. How do you feel about this? Why do you feel this way? Whatever your initial apprehensions. let's see if we can help you to approach this with confidence and enthusiasm. It's best if you interpret this as involving different teaching and learning styles and approaches . Collaborative project work Learner learning styles Learning environment 1. Very few teachers actually look forward to having their teaching observed. Involves individual research 2.not simply different content. Observation is an opportunity to develop the quality of your work rather than a trial to be faced! Here are a few design ideas for you to work on. The teacher uses a range of newspaper front pages 2. Remember that these sessions should be contrasting. You need to understand the purpose of these observations when you are planning for Module 1. taking the example of a language programme Aspects of teaching that can vary Teaching strategies Examples of contrasting sessions within a series of sessions 1. because the sessions which will be observed in Module 2 are the sessions you plan in detail in Module 1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OBSERVATION Observation of teaching is a requirement in Module 2 of the Diploma. The teacher uses collaborative writing with the class to create a class newspaper 2. The teacher uses web sites to research ways in which different newspaper report current events 1. Trip to a newspaper office Outcomes from the session A word processed class newspaper Researched notes on topic of interest 17 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Classroom-based 2. Use of role play to interpret the roles of personnel in a newspaper office Resources Teaching aids 1.

g. It's a good idea to choose someone you will feel comfortable with but are not familiar with. for example by showing him/her the session plans. an experienced senior teacher/trainer acting as a mentor) who can confirm that performance observed meets the needs of the syllabus Remember the purpose behind the observations themselves: YOU ARE NOT BEING GRADED. and also to help you when you prepare assignments for the Diploma. 18 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION Questions for you to think about 1. Performance in front of close colleagues or friends is often much more difficult than with someone who is more 'detached'. • impartial to be effective. INSPECTED OR ASSESSED FOR APPRAISAL The observations are intended to offer you guidance and feedback to support your developing professional practice. and not an examining one.to be able to give you useful feedback about your professional practice You need to brief your observer about what to expect. S/he needs to use the CIE Observation Record sheet. It's important to select an observer who is: • competent s/he should have experience of observation. Who should I ask to do the observations? The Diploma syllabus (page 6) refers to the observer as a competent person (e. s/he needs to approach observation objectively . be familiar with your own teaching area/subject and/or have experience of teaching a similar group of learners • comfortable s/he should be someone to whom you relate well and who will put you at your ease so that you can be observed performing well • clear about the role of observer s/he needs to recognise that this is a mentoring role. S/he needs to be familiar with your particular learning environment.

3. After all: TEACHING IS NOT TELLING You should be aiming to facilitate as much involvement. notes about learners with special educational needs in the group) Give your observer copies of texts/ worksheets which you will be using Give him/her the observation record form and highlight which particular aspects of your teaching you would like them to notice Give them a place to sit.g. but that should not be a problem if you are comfortable in his/her presence Prepare your group of learners to expect a visitor Tell your learners what the observer is likely to do. Ideally they will sit behind your learners to avoid distraction. But just because you feel a little nervous. 19 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . We all feel a little nervous when we're being observed. Indeed. Trust him/her. resources and activities you use will be new to you as a result of your new knowledge and understanding. reflective learners learn more from their errors and ‘practice runs’ than from occasions when everything goes well. that the observer might have questions or want to have a quick informal look at their work Introduce the observer to the group Arrange for a time as soon as possible after the session to receive oral feedback even if the written notes have not been completed Make sure that your observer has signed and dated the written feedback Accept feedback and advice professionally.g. You TOO are a learner and you are allowed to take risks. don’t be tempted to teach a safe.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION 2. Some of the teaching strategies. make mistakes. e. You can use this as evidence in your assignment work. try out new ideas. interaction and active learning as possible. 'Mistakes' are positive experiences if you reflect on what you can learn from them. What practical Issues do I need to think about? • • • • • • • • • • • Talk to your observer before the session Give your observer a copy of your session plan and any additional notes which will help him/her with his/her observations (e. How can I make the most of the observation sessions? Make sure you set aside time for debriefing at the end of each observed session. This means that you will be able to see them. Be sure to make notes on feedback from your observer. The observer should recognise this and make allowances when things don’t always go according to plan. ‘didactic’ session in which you simply lecture the learners.

what strategies have you devised to deal comfortably with such situations? 20 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . A sensible approach is to ask a few of your learners to provide group feedback on your teaching. • So supposing someone asks you a particularly detailed or taxing question during the observed (or any other) session.something of a paradox. if possible at the end of the session. Observation needs preparation. will find the role of giving feedback constructive and can give impartial comments. • How are you going to achieve these links and make them clear to your learners and to your observed? Your aims and objectives will be part of your session plans. knowledge and understanding for granted while you concentrate on meeting the needs of the learners. Ask them to complete the forms as soon as possible after the session. when you are observed teaching you may feel uncomfortable . knowledge and understanding being developed by the learners. You can seek feedback from members of your group who you know are representative of the group as a whole. looking carefully at the areas surrounding your two chosen observed sessions. These are very simple to complete. It's a good idea to check your programme plan. Do let your observer see the form well in advance of his/her visits. So how can you feel as comfortable as possible in such a situation? Here are some steps which you can take to help yourself.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION Observation Record and Learner Feedback We provide standard forms for both the observer and your learners to use. If they are to be successful the sessions must link with the rest of the programme and contribute to the learning sequence set out in the programme plan. You can fill in the details at the top of each form before you give them to your observer and your learners. you must be comfortable with the subject area – the skills. • How are you going to communicate these to your learners and your observer without making such communication seem detached or artificial? Some of your work in the sessions will require you to take your own skills. too! Arrange a pre-observation meeting in which you can talk your observer through the pro-forma and suggest points in your plan which he/she might look out for. But however comfortable you may be with your subject. 1. Preparing yourself for observed practice To encourage active learning. But we cannot have perfect knowledge even within our own subject area.

You may feel that a more detached approach is appropriate to your situation or you might see real benefits in greater professional 'transparency. So if the dive is a straightforward trajectory into the pool it is deemed low tariff. • So if you are going to use a new room. Divers are marked according to two assessment themes. of a different teaching/learning method. for example. The idea here is to advance your thinking on the way you teach and your learners learn. But if you do this you may have less opportunities to devise and use differentiation strategies and to demonstrate your own versatility and skills. There are clearly issues of confidence and maturity here. room layout or equipment. 'easy' option is like a low tariff dive. It's like in the sport of diving where one can choose the tariff of the dive. Going for the apparently 'safe'. Tariff This is a measure of 'degree of difficulty'. It is up to the swimmer to choose whether to do a low tariff dive extremely well or a higher tariff dive perhaps a little less well.' Remember also that reactions may well vary from group to group and also between age groups. A score is given for this. Each combination carries a tariff score. a new style of formative assessment. In a sense this is a microcosm of the big changes in the world of education practice. but if it includes a combination of tucks. Skill This is simply how well the dive was executed. The sport of diving has a very ingenious and appropriate scoring system. docile learners and/or straightforward activities. twists and pikes it is seen as high tariff. what preparations have you made to try these out in advance of observation? 2. This may come in the form. It may affect your choice of sessions to be observed. It is also good practice to experiment with and develop your own methods of facilitating learning. We are asking you to go for a 'higher tariff' in your teaching. or a study of fresh topic/theme material. The skills marks score is then multiplied by the tariff mark.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION It is good practice to be familiar with the physical learning environment in which sessions take place. Be careful! It may be tempting to choose two sessions involving only able. use of different audio-visual methods. Preparing your learners It's obviously up to you as teacher to decide how far to involve your learners in understanding your Diploma preparation and therefore the presence of an observer in two of their sessions. Obviously the higher the tariff the more the risk. 21 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Design and carry out a trial lesson as recommended in the ideas for Practice in 1. Picture a successful outcome as we recommend in ideas for Practice in 1.2. 22 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . • Are you going to opt for oral or written feedback or both? Whichever method(s) you choose. • So how much of the background about your Diploma preparation are you going to share with your learners? Obtaining feedback from learners about their sessions is a vital part of the assignment.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION You may feel uneasy about a high tariff dive . You need to plan for this now. You might make the tariff higher still in the second session! 4. Preparing your observer We've already suggested that you have a brief meeting with your observer before the observed sessions. Your high tariff dive could be just one of these if you wish. You could use. Go and see someone else using the teaching method in another context 3. so it would be a good idea for you now to • make sure you have copies of your session plans and programme plan to give to your observer at the meeting • take him/her along to the room(s) you will be using • note down in advance some important teaching and learning points/issues which you think your observer might look out for during the observation • say clearly when the two of you can meet for a feedback session (as soon as possible after the session).2. It's a very good idea to plan what you are going to say and do at this meeting. This needs thought and preparation.2. how are they (and you) going to record such feedback initially. A good session plan usually divides its time span into varied activity units for the learners.especially if it is being observed! There are four ways in which you can gain the professional learning benefits while minimising the risk involved.2. so that this can be provided as evidence in the assignment on the CIE Learner Feedback form. 2. for example • • • • notes questionnaires structured questions interview and notes. 3. 1.

make sure that others know what is happening and why. provide a layout plan of your institution. 4. and introduce him/her to the reception staff. If your observer is from outside your institution. show him/her where to park. organization. Where necessary. social side to this. security and professional friendship.courtesy. also.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION There is a practical. the location of toilets and rest areas. Preparing your colleagues Many of our Diploma candidates have found that integrating their Diploma preparation into their own professional working context has brought them into closer and more fruitful working relationships with many of their colleagues. Remember . You can involve your colleagues in what you are doing. These include • other members of your department • department heads and managers • principals and senior managers These arrangements need to be properly handled. Even if your observer is from within your own institution. 23 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Remember. Although it may be a little more complicated to arrange it could easily prove more refreshing and stimulating as a learning experience for you The second option is far easier to arrange but you need to be careful to get out of your own ‘comfort zone’. which technique would you like to observe? who might already be using this technique? (Think across the curriculum) how could you arrange an informal chat/approach to set up such an observation? in another institution where you work • 24 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .g. • • • Note You do not have to attend an entire session. Check your own timetable availability first. So who might you approach? It could be a teacher • • Note Do consider the first option. You can use the pro forma in Assignment 2 but it should be a basis only – your record will need to be more focused on teaching techniques. Try senior colleagues or department heads. Step one – who might you observe? Opportunities for observation are not easy to come by. Step three – how do you use such observations? When you do observe: • Design an observation record sheet for yourself.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION BEING AN OBSERVER YOURSELF People often say that the best interviewees are those who have had experience of being an interviewer. Step two – how to make a successful approach The teacher you approach may not be sure if you simply ask ‘do you think I could sit in on one of your sessions?’ He or she is much more likely to welcome you if you can be more focused. Friends and immediate colleagues in the department might not be the best or most challenging opportunities for you. e. So maybe the observed teacher should have him/herself experience being an observer. you are looking at the use of a technique rather than observing the teacher’s performance. Teachers are understandably nervous of such visits.

You'll need to consider four sources of evidence here. For example 'That was really awful!' 'They just do not understand what is needed here. husbands and wives across the world are well used to such reactions from teachers. Be structured. 2. You need self-discipline and focus in order to achieve self-appraisal of genuine value.' Colleagues. I'm going to try that again. 3. We have looked already at the benefits of keeping a personal development diary. Convert them into questions. Often it is 'knee-jerk' immediate comment based on class experience. and this really helps in self-appraisal. We all feel the need from time to time for a bit of emotional 'letting off steam' . We can help you here. 25 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Self-appraisal Feedback from observer Use of observer feedback Feedback from learners. It involves recording and persistence. Try not to use 'knee-jerk' appraisals. Self-appraisal All teachers engage in self-appraisal.1) could be converted into the question 'How successful was my presentation of information?' The whole series of questions you have created can act as a template for self-appraisal for your journal. Use it for the key sessions which you wish to highlight as evidence in your assignment.but it is only that! Useful. 1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION REFLECTING ON OBSERVED SESSIONS Reflecting on your observed sessions is a critical process in approaching the assignment.' 'That went well. 1.1. 4. systematic self-appraisal is a fundamental professional development practice of great value. Look at page 10 of the Diploma syllabus and use the performance criteria in the syllabus module 2 : Practice as your self-appraisal headings of prompts. partners. For example 'Present information' (2.

It needs structure and you will need to write down the outcomes. circle the response numbers. Feedback from your observer You will have this in two ways 1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION 2. but may well be more immediate. 3. Feedback from your learners This may well come as one of the pleasant surprises this programme has to offer you. The written evidence is durable and ready for inclusion in your assignment. putting it to really good use. 26 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Even if you felt that your session did not go as well as you would have liked. and relevant. 2. Make sure you note these points down. But the informal oral feedback from your observer after the session may be completely lost and forgotten. your learners may think differently! Sometimes learners truly appreciate what seemed to you a slow. methodical and unambitious session. the completed written observation reports to be included in the assignment oral feedback from your observer after the sessions. Use of observer feedback As long as you have got the written observation records to include in your assignment and your notes from the discussion with the observer. written learner feedback is durable and useful. how would you ever know? As with observer feedback. tick answer boxes or give feedback to you in whatever format you have given them. You and your observer might reflect upon any • • • critical moments or events in the session adjustments made to the timing or nature of parts of the session plan broader professional issues emanating from the session. Oral feedback is less easy to manage. as long as your learners have been given time to answer your written questions. you can go on reflecting in depth on the feedback. What are your thoughts on the following • Did any of your observer's comments come as a surprise to you? Which one(s) and why? • Which points made by your observer have reassured you as a professional practitioner and why? • Which comments have prompted you to further thought? • How might you modify the design of future sessions in the light of what your observer has suggested? 4. Don't be afraid to say to your observer that you need to jot down a few ideas for your own reference. richer. But if you were never to ask for their feedback. unless you take the opportunity now to manage the discussion with your observer to gain maximum benefit from it.

27 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Careful analysis of your learners’ feedback puts you in the position of the learners reviewing what you had set up for them. For some it can be daunting. It has taken teachers a long time to incorporate such feedback into their normal practice. It is for the benefit of the learner that education is provided. Be careful with yourself and see the responses they give in a broader perspective. this may be the first time any teacher has asked them to comment on his/her professional practice. Some teachers may never do this – and thus will never benefit from it.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION Learner feedback may be affected by all kinds of subjective influences. Unless you give your learners some practice in giving feedback (which is a good idea). from loyalty (misplaced or otherwise) to personal feelings and simple misreading of questions. In analysing feedback from your learners. look for the following • • • • general trends in comments and responses any anomalous (unusual) responses which might be interesting and illuminating any indication of practical issues such as the ability to see and hear presentations and demonstrations responses to new (to your learners) teaching and learning techniques.

which is much smaller but with a larger loss of detail. The JPG quality setting is used to balance between file size and detail – 100% will result in minimum loss of quality but will result in larger images than. which means that the image stored on disc is not necessarily exactly the same as the image you first scanned. Scanned image output or ‘save as format’ should be set to JPG: JPG format JPG format images are generally smaller than those in other formats but they use ‘lossy’ compression. If you double the resolution of a scan. or a maximum 300 dpi. 75% is a good typical balance. • • Image type should be set to black and white drawing (not grey-scale or colour) whenever possible. Tripling the resolution of a scan makes the resultant file size nine times as large. 28 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Using lower-resolution scans can save time as scanning speed is faster. The higher the resolution the slower the scanning will be and the resulting file size will be larger. say 50%.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION SCANNING GUIDELINES In general: • • The resolution should be set to 200 dpi. then the file size increases by a factor of four.

and are time-consuming to edit.png format) and double-click on it.png) JPEG (.jpg) Images should be saved to a location on the PC in one of the three formats above. 3. Larger files are undesirable as they cannot be emailed easily. 29 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The following image file formats are recommended for insertion into Word documents: • • • GIF (.jpg. Bitmap images are very large in file size and are low in detail. If an image is copied from a location on the PC and pasted into a Word document. and then inserted into the Word document rather than being pasted.gif or .gif) PNG (. then it’s pasted as a Bitmap even though the original image that was copied was in a different file format. Find the image (. The following guidelines should ensure that the size of the Word document is kept to a minimum Insert images rather than pasting them Bitmap images are the least efficient of the image file formats to insert into a Word document. This will insert the image into your document.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION IMAGES IN WORD DOCUMENTS Ways to reduce the size of a Word document Although Microsoft Word can produce very professional looking documents. it can also produce very large documents depending on the way images are incorporated in to the document. The result of this is that the size of the Word document may be larger than should be. This will keep the original format of the image file the same and will help to reduce the overall size of the document How to insert an image into a Word document 1. take a long time to open and in some cases cannot be opened at all. . Click on Insert Picture From File… 2.

) 30 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Right-click on the image and select ‘Format Picture…’ 2. This resolution is suitable for on-screen viewing of a document. Make the necessary selections in the dialogue box and click OK. the ‘Screen resolution’ uses less file space than ‘Print resolution does’. How to compress images in Word 1. The ‘Web/Screen’ resolution will give the smallest image file size. (Please note that selecting the ‘Delete cropped areas of pictures’ will result in the cropped areas being deleted. Also. Word has a feature that allows images to be ‘compressed’ in order to reduce unwanted image data as mentioned above. The ‘Print’ resolution is suitable for printing a document. the resolution of the image might be higher than necessary – i. If the document if primarily going to be viewed and not printed. Click on the ‘Compress…’ button at the bottom of the ‘Format Picture’ dialogue box 3. then all images can be compressed to ‘Screen resolution’.e. then the cropped portion still remains in the image although it’s not visible.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION Compressing images If an image has been cropped after being inserted into Word. In some cases this may increase the file size unnecessarily.

when you save this file as ‘Rich Text Format (*.rtf)’. the file size will grow to 1. PNG. 31 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Therefore. or JPEG graphic as a different file format (for example. For example.rtf)).doc)’ may have a file size of 113KB. However.69MB. a Word document containing a JPEG graphic saved as a ‘Word document (*.doc)’ document if possible. the file size of the document may dramatically increase. it’s best to save the file as a ‘Word Document (.doc) or Rich Text Format (*. GIF.0/95 (*.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION Saving a word document containing images When you save a Word document containing an EMF. Word 6.

That is. Examiners do NOT mark the quality of your written language. If you think some additional evidence is particularly relevant and will help the examiner to understand more accurately your context and experience. Please note that ‘additional evidence’ should be sparingly used. Make sure you proof read the assignment before submission – e.g. ideas. milestones. and the following points drawn from this feedback are worth noting. if the candidate is going to mention an author on a particular point of teaching and learning. you are probably not going to be adding to the value of the evidence you have already provided. If you significantly exceed the word limit. evaluation and improvement. In fact. If you significantly fall short of the word limit. make sure you clarify these with your programme leader. If necessary. during and when finalising your assignments! General • Make sure that you have completed the information on your assignment cover sheet fully and correctly. good practice is that such a bibliography needs to link to actual references within the assignment itself. and keep track of your progress in the Diploma. before. with some degree of critical engagement/reflection on whether it proved useful/meaningful. the examiner will not read them. tutor or mentor. Some words may appear to be similar in everyday life but in the educational context are very specific in their meaning. • • • • • • • 32 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . You need to be fluent enough to express your ideas in ways which can be understood. Including your candidate name and submission date is not only important – it is courteous. checking for any formatting problems. depth and quality of evidence. and the examiner is not necessarily going to read the extra information. Nor is it an invitation to list all the resources which you may or may not have used on the Diploma course. You must be careful about making best use of words within the word limits. this should be backed up by a reference in the additional evidence – AND the point made should have practical application in the candidate’s experience. For example.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION EXAMINERS’ ADVICE TO CANDIDATES Our examiners provide feedback on assignments to centres. your Unique Candidate Identifier is essential in order that CIE can accept your entry. observations and reflections – your assignment is based on your practice and development. you are likely to have problems communicating enough range. The examiners do not wish to read a general or theoretical ‘essay’. trainers. It is not a requirement. They need to be clearly labelled and annotated. you can ask a colleague or your trainer/mentor to check a particular sentence or phrase to make sure that the meaning is clear enough. If you are not sure about the meaning of specific terms in the syllabus e. Present your own views. then you need to make clear to the examiner WHY you have added this evidence.g. Unless you refer to them in the body of your assignment.

candidates to respond to the three prompts for each Module as set 3. modify and be positive about the resources that you do have and can get? The context page is important – it helps the examiner to evaluate your professional development and practice The sample assignments provided by CIE. new thinking. CIE is looking for: 1. evidence of a keenness to continue the reflective cycle beyond this Course . Remember that many candidates are working within constraints of large class size or limited resources or both. CIE is interested in how you work within your context. and to continue developing professionally so that the learners will clearly benefit 5. clear and concise evidence that the candidate is constantly in reflective mode and is discussing his/her own practice and its implications 2. new approaches. quality and length – NOT as a model which you should copy. For example centre justification of text may mean that at least 30% of your evidence is ‘lost’ and not seen. You should try to refer to things you have learned about. • Simply use the templates – there is no need to reformat them. Make sure you reflect on the difference that the Diploma has made to the quality of your teaching and understanding. Do check that all is well with formatting before you submit your assignment. The same can be said for spelling. For example how have you managed to adapt. need to be careful? Adopt a wide interpretation of ‘special needs’. Of course we accept variations in use of language. apply these to your particular context and teaching with your learners – rather than recycling text book suggestions.to feed enthusiasm into the next programme plan/design or teaching scheme. sometimes reformatting can cause serious communication problems. a professional approach is reflected in communications with few. But remember that in doing a professional job. rather than using additional work after the sessions for slower learners. Think about how to differentiate within learning sessions.e. and local idioms. Perhaps teachers. innovation. applying a wide variety of methods and ideas to enrich the experience of the learners in one’s care. i. Wherever possible give specific examples from your own practice and observations to illustrate your responses and support the issues you raise. Sharing ideas with and learning from colleagues should be a feature in all four modules. changes to the ways in which things have been done previously 4. In fact. When you discuss teaching strategies. these are meant as guidance on content. above all. Demonstrate how you have engaged with your course materials and adapted or developed your own professional practice as a result. wider than physical disabilities. consistent probing of one’s own teaching and the way in which one’s learners were learning. if any. spelling problems.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION • For Distinction. • • • • • • • • 33 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . read and applied from your Diploma programme.

studied relevant readings etc. For example if the 2 lessons planned in Module 1 were not sufficiently contrasting. It is better to submit assignments one by one. it is best for you to have a reasonably-sized group of learners. responding to the reactions and needs of your learners. and you have time to take this into account when planning and carrying out your next assignment. Don’t be afraid of recognising and reflecting on points of improvement. Working with a very small group restricts the range of approaches you can use and can affect the quality of analysis and observations. you should list the book at the end of your assignment. This will help the examiner to get a real sense of your progress in practice. Try to use only part of the learners’ names – do not make it possible for anyone to identify who the individual learners are. • • • • • • • • • 34 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . or no learner feedback. if for any reason. When you are quoting from a book. So do make sure that you have worked on this. then this would be noted before the lessons would be delivered and observed in detail. You need to plan with your centres how to approach the timing of assignment preparation and submission in relation to your working context. there may be a point of improvement. Do save yourself from such a difficulty by checking that your assignment is complete. title. and the candidate has to resubmit. and the impact of this on the quality of your learners’ learning and the impact on your institution. and conforms to the CIE requirements. Make sure you arrange for a suitable performance observer to observe your learning sessions – you can’t just appraise yourself. Incomplete assignments are failed. You should record details of author. For example quote from your diary and from other background reading to demonstrate the change in your thinking and understanding. Many candidates need support to help them understand the concept and purpose of differentiation. For example no performance observation report. so that Cambridge can provide feedback. Think carefully about what is meant by differentiation – and what you mean when you use the term. Speak out about your own feelings and pressures and (instructively) how you have come to terms with them in tackling the assignments. Sometimes we receive assignments which are missing an important piece of evidence. Many have a limited view of how to differentiate within their lessons.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION • To make the most of the professional development opportunity provided by the Diploma. publisher and date. Keep a diary (journal) as required and use the information to support your comments and reflections.as long as the examiner is able to access the information required in each answer. discussed with your colleagues and trainer(s). Each step in each assignment has clear word lengths and also guideline questions which are required to be answered within this word length. or no session plan for lesson 2. This also helps you. There IS scope for originality in content and even in presentation .

you are describing two contrasting sessions. You need to avoid being anecdotal or summarising ‘good’ and/or ‘bad’ practice. will happen. on what you plan to happen (Module 1). Using bullet points in your responses in Part A helps to make your preparation of evidence more straightforward and concise – and it makes it easier for the examiner to understand. putting a small amount of theory into practice – and reflecting on how this went – is of course acceptable. and/or could happen in your teaching and learning context. In Part B a general (if complex) foray into educational theory is unnecessary and not required. you are clearly going to be falling short of what is required. Instead keep the specific focus required by the themes in Part B (these differ for each Module) and to respond and reflect on your own experiences. It is reflection on practice (the key points. While several parts of Modules 1 and 2 ask repeated questions. of course. So if you provide only a few words in response to a step which asks for a few hundred words. Some bullets are fine. Given the point just made. Using the present tense for events which have already taken place is confusing for the Examiner.) which is required. placing them at the centre of the learning experience. Your responses should be focused on actual teaching and learning events. This is the format which we find best conveys observations. It is fine for you to answer the prompts/questions directly – there is no need to introduce and/or qualify each response in great depth. it is better for you to write your responses in the past tense. 3 and 4) on what has taken place. using paragraphs. or (Modules 2. Part B should not be a general foray into the world of the teaching profession (e.g. we would prefer you do not use bullet point form too much.g. • • • 35 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . For example have you thought about how you are motivating your learners. and reflective practice. After all. However. not the present. ideas. for emphasis. Your Part A evidence should so how you have engaged with learners’ learning as well as your teaching e. extended definitions of ‘good’ teachers/teaching). Analyse what has happened. highlighting very specific examples. their learning needs and the learning environment. Don’t just describe events. we do not expect that your answers should be the same. It should demonstrate your ability to reflect upon ways in which you have applied your new knowledge in your own teaching context. please ensure that you provide an answer which responds to the particular prompt/question. On the other hand the word limits are guidelines for the amount of evidence (of thinking and doing) which we require. • • • • • Part B • Your Reflective Report should not be a demonstration of how you have understood your Diploma programme notes. But you need to write most of your Part B in continuous prose. the turning points. Also.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION Part A • In Part A. Unlike in Part A. etc.

It is preferable to limit the role(s) of the teacher/trainer. We expect candidates then to ensure that within the programme featured in detail Modules 1 and 2. We are interested mainly in reflection on practice in Part B. Responding directly to the three prompts is the most effective way to write the Reports. These sessions should take place over a sufficient period of time. There are some contexts e. • • • • Part B is not about ‘going through the motions’. hopefully through some innovation. many learners will actually be de-motivated by a session which sets out to cover too much. even a single day.g. well-balanced across the three themes. ideas and observations. you will be able to: 1. because you will lose your focus on the three given themes for discussion and reflection.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION • By focusing on the three themes given and keeping a sustained focus. and to consider how your teaching your learners’ learning might change as a result of your reflections and plans for the future. Don’t repeat the information you have already given in Part A. explain it (‘unpack it’) and then use illustrations from relevant personal professional practice to reinforce the idea. He or she can only do so much in a single session. and this can be considered from the outset – there is no need for a formal introduction. It is a good idea to remember the Grading Themes for the Diploma – remember these are about Understanding Learning as well as Understanding Teaching.there is no need to include other headings/topic areas. 36 • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . We encourage you to use the first person (‘I’) as this will help you in Part B to express your own reflections about the practice you have already described in Part A. intensive short course training in which the programme is contained within a short period. achieved through an appropriate number of sessions. the two contrasting sessions are planned in detail. In the Reflective Report it is often useful to begin with a point. consider your learners and their learning more closely. It is an opportunity for you to convey your thoughts. reflect on what has actually happened in the learning environment 2. In the Report you can recognise the value of reflection for your own professional development. promoting your ideas and views. Structure your reflections around the themes . for learners to be able to practice what they are learning. • • • • Module 1 : Design • Your programme plan should be around 15 to 20 hours of teaching learning. and for you to be able to reflect on practice and this reflection to make a difference to your practice. and about how your (and your learners’) experiences and how teaching and learning might be improved in the future. present ideas about how you might modify future teaching and learning 3. Nor is Part B a chance to air their views and frustrations about education in general. The number of aims and objectives for a session needs to be sensible and manageable and the learning requirements should relate to the session plan produced. Ideally the whole of Part B should be reflective (not descriptive).

As a result. For example you can use your second session by setting up a learner-led activity to explore the objectives of your first session. However.the planning and preparation. Candidates often note that they have had insufficient time to teach the lessons that they had planned. You need to experiment in these sessions. Assignment 1 should therefore focus on reflection on the design and not the teaching of the Plan. It is better to focus on fewer objectives and include fewer learning activities. the first teacher-led. If the first lesson is led by the teacher. able to reorganise/adapt planned moments and activities as the need arises. This is not a Step in which the assessment of learners’ learning should be considered. the first session might be instructional. This will often result in learner discomfort. it is an area in which you might comment upon the evaluation of learners’ whole experience in the learning environment. Be careful not to confuse evaluation with assessment. the first might be theoretical. Specifically in Step I.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION • In Part B of this assignment you are not simply recording classroom activity – you should be evaluating the design and planning process in terms of the three areas identified in the Syllabus. In planning the two sessions you need to explore a different teaching (and particularly learning) approach in the each. for example. The two sessions need to contrast in more than just content. So it is not necessary for each session to be all-encompassing. perhaps by trying new approaches. Your points in Part A should reflect the quality of teaching and learning – not just improved organization and management skills. for example. It is better to be sufficiently flexible. So. • • • • • • Module 2 : Practice • Try not to cram too much content into your sessions. and how you will use a range of evaluative methods. then consecutive sessions work fine. time-management usually becomes the main issue. the second will be practical. In fact there are occasions where less content is better – you should not try to squeeze too much into your two sessions – otherwise. compromise was often needed. So reduce the content of each of the two focus lessons – focus on fewer aims and/or objectives. You should be careful not to focus in Module 1 on the outcomes of the sessions and Programme Plan. where the focus is on how the Plan and the two sessions will go as a whole. Be realistic! In planning one can be tempted to be extremely meticulous so that in every lesson every minute is earmarked. It is an opportunity to plan creatively. 37 • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Too often candidates describe learning difficulties of individual learners without relating these to the aspect of the planning that had been designed to overcome the problem. Module 1 is concerned with the design . the second application. If you can be sure of such contrasts. the second learner-centred. The danger is that the two sessions can be rather similar – and the difference only being in the content. Realising this. Remember that a programme plan/scheme of work is not just a list of ‘linked sessions’. and probably increases the effectiveness of the teaching and learning. the second ought to be learner-centred. adds more value to your Plan. to experiment (a little) and to incorporate several forms of evaluation. perhaps by placing your learners in a different/unusual environment. This approach leaves parts of the Reflective Report divorced from the planning. It is might be better to avoid two consecutive sessions. but essentially by including a lesson in which active learning is at the forefront.

You need to also to have clear and achievable time targets. If your professional development plan is to be successful. Grasp the nature of formative assessment. It is an area in which you can innovate –going beyond normal testing mechanisms. • • • • • Module 4 : Evaluation • The Part A Steps in Modules 3 and 4 are fewer and with more words available so that you can look at your practice in more depth and breadth and debate some of the issues raised. Please note also that we would prefer to receive assignments (including evidence) as a single file. formative assessments do not have to replicate summative assessments. for example a typical response to a questionnaire. Try not to set yourself difficult or impractical targets such as learning another language or making major changes to the length of the programme . not simply narrate events. in the Additional Evidence section. including recording and reporting. Show you have taken note of your observer’s comments and made appropriate improvements. the success criteria must clearly identify what is to be to be achieved and not just reflect the undertaking of an activity. In Part B then concentrate on assessment for and of learning rather than the administration of assessment. There should be THREE samples of actual assessed work from your learners. not simply narrate events.e.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION • • Pay attention to the concept of learning and how you know whether or not learning had taken place during your learning sessions. Restricting submitted work to a single file will help you to focus on presenting a precise and concise record of work undertaken for the Module. which is often informal. Module 3 does not require extensive examples of assessment. In their methods. We would probably advise against setting a regular schedule for formative assessment. it need not be approached in terms of ‘frequency’ but rather as a response to learners’ needs. Module 3 : Assessment • The Part A Steps in Modules 3 and 4 are fewer and with more words available so that you can look at your practice in more depth and breadth and debate some of the issues raised. Look at assessment as an integral part of the teaching and learning cycle rather than as a task undertaken in isolation.areas which it would be impossible to control. Remember to include an example of your evaluation data. certainly not to the extent that additional files are required. • • • 38 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . So you might like to consider the suggestion that formative assessment is ongoing – i.

this is not a ‘defect’. Reflecting on how one can improve oneself is a positive behaviour – ‘self-criticism’ is not inherently negative. developing public speaking skills and IT courses are all admirable. but for the purpose of this assignment. If your colleagues have suggested way(s) in which you can improve your practice.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers INTRODUCTION • Remember that the goals you set yourself should relate not only to your own teaching skills – look more closely at the needs of your learners. The question is – how can you make best use of their advice and feedback? • 39 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . So make your targets for improvement realistic and manageable . Ideas for learning new languages.and focussed on the learner. practical development based in the learning environment will provide improvement and positive feedback from the learners in a short time frame.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Module 1 DESIGN 40 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

(From now on we’re going to use the term 'teacher' as shorthand for 'teacher'. thoughtfully and effectively. In this new educational landscape we begin by looking at the needs of the learners. It shows a learner in discussion with a teacher during a practical science session. teachers facilitate successful learning for every learner. The whole purpose of education. e. and learning can take place in all sorts of places and all sorts of ways. Learning is lifelong and unique to each individual.g. The teaching role is very complex and challenging . 'lecturer'. ‘tutor’ etc). The interaction between learner and teacher is at the heart of the Diploma. Learners learnt what teachers taught. technical.1.but also very exciting and rewarding. 'trainer'.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1.1 IDENTIFYING LEARNERS' NEEDS LEARNER AND TEACHER Let's start with this photograph. It was like a one-way street. In the past. and to apply these resourcefully. face-to-face. In all sorts of ways. and on-line. So the teacher – as in the photograph above – is now much more a ‘guide on the side’ rather than the ‘sage on the stage’. education and training typically involved delivering standard programmes to groups of learners. at a distance. 41 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The one-way street has become two-way traffic! Learners may be of any age. personal and inter-personal skills. the techniques of teaching and learning and the needs and expectations of the learners themselves have changed. Enormous changes in technology and society are leading to a very different educational landscape. They have to have a wide range of professional.

We could easily add to this list of questions. and how and when to ask them. Do they have specialist needs in terms of health. Which methods in their previous learning experience have they liked best? 3. you can see that if we ask all these questions and more. What have they already achieved? 6. Are learners' levels of physical. How would they like to learn? 2. diet. What learning progress have they already made? 5. You need to decide what questions to ask your learners. What is their current level of knowledge and understanding? 8. Which skills are they confident in? 7. Which skills and/or knowledge might need to be revisited and/or upgraded? 9. social and/or emotional development likely to affect their learning? 4. language? 10. If you read it through again. (For older learners) what are their aims for education. we are asking learners to provide a lot of information. disability.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN KEY QUESTIONS We can think of learners' needs in terms of key questions: 1. 42 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . long term career aspirations and life goals? The teacher in the photograph could be asking the learner one of our ten questions.

Each summer 200 or more students will enrol at the college hoping to study mathematics. but others are only just beginning to read. What might be the best way for Phil to learn about their needs in detail? This is Maria.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN TAKE THREE TEACHERS Here are: • • • Phil Maria Anna This is Phil. How can Maria ensure that the students select the course which best suits their needs before the first semester begins? This is Anna. The medium of instruction is English. Some of the children are academically very able. She works as a teacher in the Mathematics department of a college. He works as a trainer for an international finance corporation. Each course involves 12 adult trainees in 5 days of study per week for 3 weeks. She has a class of 7 year old pupils. Many of the children have English as a second language. How can Anna plan a programme which will meet all these individual needs? What are some of the issues she needs to think about? 43 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The recruits are all pleased to be starting a new job. His team of trainers deliver specialist courses for new recruits into the company. The department runs four different types of mathematics course for different types of skill level and content.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN WAYS TO FIND OUT Teachers can find out about learners’ needs in various ways. The more an individual in involved in identifying his or her learning needs. and the individual with a range of existing skills and needs. the easier it is for the teacher to make a judgement about the best learning solution to meet that need.g. as is the need to create a comfortable environment in which individuals will want to participate fully.g. with a variety of learning opportunities to offer. you need active participation from the learner concerned.can be completed before the interview checking that the layout does not create any physical barriers (e. You can select one or more of these techniques. avoid having a desk between teacher and learner) and that there will be no interruptions (e. You should therefore take a few minutes to create empathy with the individual through the following effective interviewing techniques: • • preparing the interview location and any paperwork needed. • • • • • • • observation of learners in first week of programme diagnostic testing talk to parents interview with learner review of previous school reports teacher/learner discussion review of previous achievements • • • • • • • postal or email questionnaire 'live' questionnaire informal chat to learners at induction event role play exercise examination of CV and reference material scrutiny of previous work discussion with learner's previous teachers ASKING YOUR LEARNERS Asking your learners about their needs is a vital step in ensuring the success of your learning programme and your learning sessions. Effective interviewing and questioning techniques are therefore vital. The interview is a negotiation between two parties: the teacher. Some paperwork – applications for example . from people or telephones) being open and friendly and taking time to put individuals at ease addressing individuals by name and giving them full attention explaining to individuals the purpose of the interview and what will be covered 44 • • • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . AND this is probably going to be your first interaction with these particular learners! So how do you get to the situation in our photograph at the start of this section? What methods can you use to identify the needs of your learners? To make an accurate decision about learning needs.

individuals will have their own needs. or check they have understood something correctly making sure the interview is a sharing of information where individuals supply information and the teacher gives and receives all the information needed to make an accurate decision about what is best to suit the circumstances listening closely and avoiding excessive note-taking while individuals are speaking using open questions to elicit as much information as possible giving feedback to individuals on judgements made about the best learning programme to follow in the circumstances and allowing time for questions • • • • Where teachers are only actively involved after initial recruitment. aspirations and abilities. 45 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN • arousing their interest and making sure they play an active part in the interview by creating an environment in which they feel comfortable to ask any questions. Generally. the better s/he will be able to help each individual to progress and achieve. the more information the teacher has about individual group members. for example where learners have already enrolled for a programme. So the above techniques can also be used to make sure individuals have been correctly advised and will be motivated to take responsibility for their own learning within the group. it is important to realise that within the needs of any group.

Think about (and jot down) a series of actions which will enable Phil to gain a detailed profile of his trainees' needs and current learning preferences. If you are a college tutor. given the circumstances and the purpose. what might be the best way? 4. Maria's situation is quite different to Phil's. and collecting these 200 questionnaires? There are many possible ways but. His course is very intensive and will quickly become quite technical. 5. How do teachers and trainers in your area go about identifying the needs of learners? If you are a teacher. now is the time for calling your teacher friend to see what happens in his or her school. take the opportunity to find out how a college tutor or company trainer approach getting to know the needs of their learners.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice 1. She is faced with a mass of newlyenrolled students. So. and if you are a company trainer ask to view the enrolment and induction process at a large college. for example. A questionnaire of some kind might be a good idea. 46 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . You can learn a lot from observing others and sharing practice. Supposing you were Maria. take a little time for reflection. Make a list of ways in which Anna can gather information to help her plan an appropriate programme. administering. ask company trainers about their approach. Of course. Draft a set of questions for her 16 year olds. In Anna's case. if you are a school teacher. many of her young pupils will be unable to answer her questions. Imagine you are Phil. you can also learn a lot by stepping outside your own context. Remember Maria has to review and process each one of these questionnaire responses! Once you have done that. 2. 3. how might you tackle the practicalities of distributing. Now that you are actively involved in the Cambridge Diploma you have the perfect reason for a bit of fieldwork.

2 SPECIFYING THE LEARNING OBJECTIVES AIMS We can think of these as broad statements about the educational purposes of a learning programme. If you're starting from scratch or feel you need to select or branch out from published aims then the following examples might give you an idea of content and style. 47 - © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Aims: give a 'flavour' of the course or programme are often long-term are usually general (and non-specific about methods).1. Extract from syllabus: The aim of the qualification is to acquire knowledge and develop management skills to a level which reflects a candidate’s current or future role in management. Let's look at some aims as they are set out in a typical educational syllabus. an examination syllabus or certification programme then your aims should at least use their published aims as a basis or framework.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1. These aims come from the syllabus for the University of Cambridge International Examinations International Diploma in Management at Professional Level. The Diploma enables candidates to: • Acquire an understanding of a range of management concepts • Apply learning through work-based and case study activity • Implement a personal study and development plan • Demonstrate learning acquisition through written assignments. - If you are following a set curriculum.

To gain an understanding of 2D and 3D shapes OBJECTIVES Objectives bring educational purposes into much sharper focus They should be SMART i.0 4.e. Here are some assessment objectives from the same Management syllabus Extract from Management syllabus: Managing Finance – Core Module Assessment Objectives 1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN To develop road sense.0 5.0 2.0 3.0 Construct a balance sheet for a project or department Interpret and construct a profit and loss statement for a project or department Differentiate between fixed and variable costs Construct a budget for a project or department Describe the role of finance in the general management of a project or department. 48 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .: SPECIFIC MEASURABLE ACHIEVABLE REALISTIC TIME-SCALED Objectives are often geared to assessment. driving skills and a mature and safe attitude to driving To impart the basic understanding of accounting for book-keepers in the public and private sector A beginner's guide to using the web.

He'd already imagined the movie and its impact. But remember . intrigue. Then you'll be able to assess (measure) what has been achieved. The legendary film director Alfred Hitchcock used just this technique for movies like 'Psycho' and 'Vertigo'. For example: what learning activities will the learners have enjoyed? what assessment have they succeeded in? which new skills will they developed? what records of all this have they taken away? Imagine the sequence of learning sessions which might lead up to this. He knew exactly what kind of outcomes he wanted for his audience (shock.such as 'show'. 'demonstrate' and 'recall' .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN SUMMARY For AIMS think of long-term broad statements . Actually directing the actors around on set was a secondary task! 49 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .if you can't define the aim clearly and precisely. When you phrase objectives try to use active words .think of these as your 'strategy'. Your ideas will be partly based on your previous teaching of the subject or age group. even terror) and how he would achieve this scene by scene.which state exactly what needs to happen and what you can see happening.think of these as 'tactics' or 'outcomes'. you can't effectively plan to reach that aim.try to envision what the outcomes of a successful learning programme might look like. For OBJECTIVES think in more specific terms . VISION A final thought: Successful programme design should begin with the end product! That is .

We will concentrate on objectives in designing learning sessions. So now you need to focus more sharply on the aims of the programme you are about to develop.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice Think about your own learning programme. Maybe you've been asked to design and develop a learning programme from the beginning. Write out in simple form the aims of your learning programme. It may be part of a national or international curriculum. • • • • • Are you clear about the purpose(s) of the learning programme? Can you identify the skills involved? What kind of knowledge and understanding needs to be developed? How can the activities you have in mind meet the needs of the learners who will undertake it? Will you need to gather specific resources to support learners in their learning? In programme planning we need to concentrate on aims rather than objectives. 50 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . For your programme think about the following questions. A few notes will help you. It could be a series of programmes related to a syllabus published and developed by an awarding body such as CIE.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1. Teaching methods 10. Modes of learning 9. 51 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .1. Additional learner support 5. Needs of the learners 4. 2. Methods of assessment 7. You need to be familiar with what each of these involves and consider the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Organisational considerations 3.3 PLANNING CONTENT. you need to consider and include various inputs as set out in this diagram: 1. TEACHING-LEARNING METHODS There's a wide range of possibilities including: lectures presentations instruction demonstrations simulation use of ICT projects and assignments role play one-to-one coaching self-directed study team/group work case studies experiments. Available resources LEARNING PROGRAMME PLAN 8. Evaluation opportunities 6. Equal opportunities and access Let’s consider each of these inputs in turn: 1. METHODS AND RESOURCES WHAT DO YOU PUT IN YOUR PROGRAMME PLAN? To plan learning programmes successfully.

well-directed excerpts rather than a whole 60 minute tape. or a blend of. materials and resources. Video material. In planning for assessment of progress and achievement it will help you to ask the following questions at this stage: • How will I know if learners have gained the knowledge. you'll need to allocate appropriate time.but what resources are available to YOU in practice? You need to consider space. MODES OF LEARNING Learning programmes may be one. appropriateness and effectiveness at this stage. AVAILABLE RESOURCES There is a very wide range of resources which might be available in theory . modes including: full-time face-to-face part-time face-to-face distance online 'sandwich' in-house. and information and communications technology (ICT) facilities. So whichever method(s) you decide to use. If you think carefully about their availability. METHODS OF ASSESSMENT Again a wide range of methods is available. furniture. can be most effective if you use short. including: written and oral tests diagnostic tests observation of performance projects and assignments practical skills tests formal written examinations. However limited resources may seem to be. 4. and should match the teaching and learning method being used. it will really pay dividends later. 3. audio-visual aids such as overhead projectors and flipcharts. understanding and skills required to go on to the next stage? (this needs initial consideration of formative and summative assessment methods) 52 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . materials and resources in your programme.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 2. Each method has its particular demands in terms of time. for example. it's your approach to using the resources which will make the difference.

counsellors) • What recording mechanisms can I use to monitor individual progress? 5. For example if a learner has dyslexia you can prepare separate worksheets. coaching. Reflection about your own performance and practice involves evaluation and time. when will it be carried out? 53 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . You need to plan to get proper and thorough information on potential difficulties at this early stage. 7. work at varying pace and can experience various difficulties of understanding or motivation. need more support than the rest of the group? (consideration must be given to what learner support will be necessary for a variety of special needs. or additional resources to support him or her. ADDITIONAL LEARNER SUPPORT Individual learners have different learning needs. NOTE Assignment 4 in the Diploma is based on evaluation as a continuous activity during design.it should not be something you only do finally as a bolt-on extra activity or an afterthought! You are not only looking ahead to the thorough programme evaluation at the end of the programme. for whatever reason. 6. and you need to build opportunities for such evaluation into your plan.g. practice and assessment. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES AND ACCESS Activities and assessment should be equally available to all your learners. careers advisors. mentoring or just simple reassurance. physical disabilities. those who are excelling and need support to continue to achieve) • Does the structure of the programme (and the centre) allow me to involve external agencies for support? (e.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN • How will I provide for those who. Evaluation is going to be ongoing aspect of your programme from Day 1. so that your evaluation is continuous and systematic . You can include time and space for additional support. But to what extent can additional support be budgeted for within your learning programme itself? If you can't give it very much time. EVALUATION OPPORTUNITIES The Diploma encourages teachers to be reflective practitioners. The assignment can't be an exercise based on hindsight alone.g. but also will find that regular on-going evaluation during the course will help you in making adjustments and improvements to teaching and learning as you go along. learning opportunities. so it is much better for you to plan evaluation at this stage. dyslexia. e.: employers.

g. topics may take longer to cover than you anticipated. There's an important reason behind this. 10. or the ways in which the sessions are planned. …a flood may have swept the room away! How far have you designed your programme to be flexible enough to cope with the unexpected? For example learners who complete the activity quickly could follow up a previous activity with some additional independent research. NEEDS OF THE LEARNERS Induction events. 'BLANK BOX' When you look(ed) at the diagram. 54 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . This is the rate at which learners make progress through the activities. calendar of events and timetables. ORGANISATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Most learning programmes take place within institutions of some kind e. kindergartens. 9. you'll have noticed that we've included a box (number 10) with nothing in it. conferencing. You need to make sure that your plan is appropriate e.culture. colleges. companies. schools.g. access to resources.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 8. Some skills and understanding may require reinforcement and further practice. Each institution has its own life . allow for and when appropriate make educational use of such events. previous records of achievement and other sources of information may indicate strengths and weaknesses in learning. With younger learners you might also need to consider the length of sessions. For example some learners may complete an activity quickly. a session may not take place. the learners may not be available. the number of sessions for a given topic. It can affect the order in which activities are presented. Life doesn't always go according to plan. You'll need to give some attention to progression.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN HOW DO YOU PLAN YOUR PROGRAMME? Now we've touched upon the inputs involved in designing the learning programme we can move on to the design process itself. Stage 3: Objectives and content For each session. in which case it might be 12 hours a week for 2 weeks (24 hours in total)? What is the mode of delivery (eg full-time. plot in the titles of the modules (main sets of topics) to be covered in logical order until the whole programme has been outlined in the most sensible order. indicating estimated start and completion points of the programme. The line must include the whole programme. 55 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Stage 2: Time frame How much time have you allocated to the programme? For example. Remember to allocate time for skills practice. Stage 4: Teaching strategies. is it a series of 2-hour sessions lasting 10 weeks (i. modes of learning and assessment How will each session best be delivered and assessed? Stage 5: Materials and resources (including use of other people) Working with the detail in stage 4. define the content. Keep the definition broad . Follow the stages to draft a learning programme design for your particular learning programme. The table below gives you a format for the design of a learning programme. part-time. On this line. 20 hours in total)? Or is it a two week topic for 10 year olds. what resources and materials will be needed? Again you don't need lots of words and detail is not needed here . Make sure that each session follows logically from the previous ones.e.you'll include detail in your session plans. Stage 1: Overview Draw a line on a piece of paper.it doesn't have to be detailed in a programme plan like this. short programme)? For each section of the programme begin to allocate timeframes and numbers of sessions. assessment and feedback. There are questions you should ask and information you should gather.

56 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .g. Timelines are used in a variety of contexts. science.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN A good way to start designing a programme plan is to use a timeline. project planning. e. of a history timeline and a programme timeline. history. Look at these examples.

g. visits. you need to plot on the timeline • • • • sessions available topics/skills to be covered institutional events and public holidays any other significant events which might affect attendance at sessions e. This gives you a framework within which you can start planning. and end with the final session. How can your sessions best be organized to cover the topics/skills? 57 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . when the learners arrive for the first session.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN The programme timeline can begin at the start of a term or course. To start. fieldwork and departmental meetings.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice Now you've completed the draft design. Not only is on-going evaluation good professional practice but consideration and review of accumulated evaluation experiences is an essential process in Module 4 of the Diploma. Try also to see these experiences from your learners' point of view. colleagues etc. showing dates. homework etc Learning session Learning objectives Planned content Teaching method Assessm't method Resources needed Method of evaluation POINTS TO WATCH 1.plans can be quite extensive documents. (Teachers often refer to such a plan as a 'scheme of work' and professional trainers use the term 'course map'. We need to use these notes to produce a completed learning programme plan. tutorial/mentoring time.this is a professional working document for you the teacher. the chances are that it could be just a series of notes and symbols. times and headline content would be very useful for your learners. Alternatively they may not have acquired skills necessary to do the work you have planned Should your learners get a copy of the plan? Probably not . 58 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . such as selfstudy.) Here are the headings which you could use for constructing the plan. Learners might have already covered some of the work and could move more quickly through the programme. BUT an outline 'map' through the sequence of sessions. 3. Remember plans are often amended in the light of experience. 5. You'll need to expand the plan horizontally to include text (especially for the 'Planned content' section) and vertically to include study opportunities outside formal class tuition. 4. Don't worry if this plan extends to several sides of paper . Notice that in the framework above we have included a final column for 'Method of Evaluation'. They are taking part in the programme. Try to see the plan as an unfolding set of teaching-learning experiences. 2. You can keep it in note or point form but make sure that someone other than you is able to understand and follow your intentions.

4 Completing the programme plan REVIEWING YOUR PLAN Now’s the time to take the programme plan you've just constructed and review it. Reviewing your plan like this will give you confidence.scheme of assessment? . understand it and put it into action without any consultation with you? if your department or team were to be inspected or checked would the people reviewing your work be able to see the logical sequence in the planned programme? does your plan include a realistic and manageable . Ask yourself a few key questions such as: • supposing for some reason you were unable to teach the learning programme yourself.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1.1. are the ones who consistently provide excellent learning opportunities for their learners.method of evaluation? • • If you can say yes to these questions then you've probably come up with a robust and useful document. It's all part of thoughtful and valuable professional practice. 59 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . and then review strengths and areas for development. PLANNING FOR EVALUATION Experience has shown that teachers who systematically and continuously evaluate the learning they provide. It can act as a working framework for putting your learning programme into practice. do you think someone else would be able to take up the plan.

KEY QUESTIONS Think about: • • why do I need to evaluate the programme? how and when should I carry out the evaluation? It’s tempting to rush into selecting a method or methods of obtaining feedback for evaluation purposes. PROCESS OF EVALUATION Evaluation is a process which involves teachers and learners. either group or individual feedback from employers. You’ll find it helpful to think in terms of issues. However the effective teacher will already be making plans for continuous evaluation at the programme design stage. Teachers carry out evaluation to: make sure learners and other stakeholders are satisfied with all aspects of their programme identify problems so that they can be resolved promptly evaluate their own professional practice on a continuous basis identify potential or actual improvements that need to be made. requires classroom teachers to exercise judgement in deciding how to act. including questionnaires completed by learners after selected sessions more in-depth questionnaires designed to collect a variety of information about the learning programme oral feedback from learners during or after sessions or in regular tutorial sessions. Evaluation can be time-consuming. 60 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . It will help you in planning future programmes.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN As Pollard and Tann say "…teaching is a complex and hugely skilled activity which. Use the right method of evaluation at the right time in the right context. But you should try to resist this temptation because you may address some issues better through different feedback procedures. You can use a variety of methods for continuous evaluation. parents or others involved in the programme. You should avoid letting assessment and evaluation dictate or dominate the programme. above all. We see reflective teaching as a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgements can be developed and maintained…" We are going to cover the process of evaluation in detail in Module 4. Evaluation is a valuable tool if you use it appropriately.

the good ideas and advice of your colleagues…i. Try to jot down notes etc in this whenever you can but as soon as possible . whatever is important to you in your professional life.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Ask yourself what are the relevant issues to do with your learning programme (and also the learning sessions). your own ideas and reflections.that you find manageable and useful .e.while the event. Develop a diary that works for you . Then you can refer back to this at a later stage. 61 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . There is a big pool of these to think about as in the following diagram: methods of assessment modes of learning pace and timing of activities effectiveness of teaching materials development of learners' skills individual learner t learning environment use of resources opportunities for learner participation learner motivation effectiveness of teaching methods KEEPING YOUR OWN RECORD You'll really find it helpful to keep your own personal development diary. You can record in your diary the critical events.keep the diary in whatever style and format suits you . idea or whatever is still fresh in your mind.but keep it going and up to date. (This can be called a 'journal' 'log' 'logbook' 'daybook' etc).

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN

Practice
‘Fishing’ in the pool of issues you can ‘catch’ a particular issue and use questions to examine the specific points of interest within it. For example, most programmes involve the development of learners' skills. Key questions here could be: • • • • Are the skills being fully introduced and explained? Which skills seem to be easy to pick up and which seem difficult? Is enough time in class being allocated to practise skills? Are learners gaining confidence from skill tuition or is further reinforcement needed?

You can now select a few more issues from the pool. Fish them out one-by-one and frame questions about them as we've just tried to do for 'skills'. Once you've opened up two or three issues you can consider which might be the most effective way of gaining feedback on each issue. Remember: there are a number of methods available who is proving feedback - learners or others?

If you're opting for a questionnaire method or an interview or a combination of these, the questions you've developed for each issue can be refined into actual questions in the feedback/evaluation exercise. Some teachers approach such feedback exercises with trepidation. There's no need to see it like that! It's a good idea to let learners know a little about the technical side of teaching and learning. This is a form of involvement which many learners respect and enjoy. It can often build confidence and relax the teaching-learning 'atmosphere'. How much time and effort you devote to this is up to you. What do you think is the difference between evaluation, assessment and reflection? Produce your own definitions - and then compare these with the definitions in the Glossary.

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1.2.1 Specifying the requirements for each learning session

POSSIBILITIES FOR SESSION PLAN DESIGN - BRAINSTORMING Here we are looking at possibilities for trying something new in teaching and learning techniques within our existing programme plan. It is sound practice to identify as wide a range of possibilities as you can for new approaches. To do this we can use a ‘spider diagram’ to open up our thinking. Here is an idea of how to use the diagram. We have developed one of the ‘legs’ of the diagram. You can add more and more such ‘legs’ as you thinking of more possibilities.

Group chooses project title Pair work Group work

Seminar

Group brainstorming

Use a different teaching/learning method

Produce project as a group

Possibilities for new approaches

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This is one possible way to think of innovations. There are various other tools you can use to help you generate ideas e.g. outlining and mind mapping. There are software tools that can help you do this. When you have looked at possible ways to innovate, you can go on to select one possibility for further development as an activity or session. Choose the one which most appeals to you. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Each learning session needs only the statement of a simple learning aim. For example to enable learners to understand the use of percentages and their relationship with fractions and decimals It should be relatively straightforward to develop a learning aim for each learning session within your learning programme. Learning objectives are much more our focus of attention in session planning. Often one session will cover more than one learning objective, and in this case, you might need to identify a key learning objective. Once again, we should produce learning objectives which are: SPECIFIC MEASURABLE ACHIEVABLE REALISTIC TIME-SCALED Think of these in terms of responses to the question: By the end of this session, learners should be able to …

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Here is an example from a Numeracy module AIM: To enable learners to understand the uses of percentages and their relationship with fractions and decimals

OBJECTIVES: 1. To identify the various places where percentages are used 2. To be able to write percentages in decimal or fraction format 3. To calculate percentages of given amounts in realistic situations 4. To express one item as a percentage of another 5. To use percentages to solve realistic and practical situations Sometimes when you develop the session plan you might realise that it could be difficult to achieve all the objectives. If you write them in sequence, you should have no problem in achieving some and continuing with others in the next session. You'll find it helpful to prioritise your objectives very carefully and think whether some of the secondary objectives could be achieved in self-study, homework etc. Each session plan must been seen as a step in a sequential programme, so each must take into account what has gone before. There is a danger of considering each session (even each learning activity) as an entity in itself rather than part of a ‘bigger picture’. The programme should have coherence and a flow, to which and the individual sessions contribute. DRAFTING A SESSION PLAN You're now ready to develop the content of the session. REMINDER! A session plan needs to contain: session details - date, time, place, group and teacher aim(s) and objectives content learner and teacher activities timings resources and learning materials, including additional support available from other people methods of assessment.

It should give an 'at a glance' guide to the learning session.

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Here are some key questions for you to think about: 1. Which will be the most appropriate and effective learning activities for you to employ in this session? Activities you could consider include: - Lectures and presentations - Discussions and debates - Video and audio - Simulation - Using ICT - Experiments and practicals - Group and team work - Demonstrations - Seminars - Role play - Case Studies - Projects and assignments - Coaching. 2. 3. 4. How much time will you allocate to each activity? What will you do as teacher? Write down your role will be. What will the learners do? Write down what their role(s) will be. And remember the Chinese proverb I hear and I forget I see and I remember I do and I understand 5. 6. NB Learners will learn if: the teaching is varied - in that way a teacher can ensure that all learners in a group are taught with their preferred learning style for part of a session they are involved in the learning - putting learning into practice links skill, knowledge and memory together to enable learning to take place. Assessment - how will you measure the learners' progress and achievements? Resources and materials - what will you use and how? What will the learners use and how?

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full and in the correct sequence If prolonged. use of humour. Activity 1.learners can easily become distracted - - - - - 2. Instruction - Can be used with groups or individuals Can be combined very effectively with demonstration then skills practice - - Needs very careful planning to ensure instructions are clear. etc Difficult for teacher to keep control if learners do not pay attention .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN The following table describes advantages and disadvantages of each teaching and learning activity. Formal lecture Advantages Often used with large groups unlimited number of learners can attend Useful for group sessions to deliver required knowledge. Presentation - - - Not as formal as a lecture . can be used effectively to deliver knowledge needed to complete activity Time for questions or clarification can be built in - See above 3. theory and concepts Formal input by teacher can be prepared in advance and used on numerous occasions Can be enhanced through effective use of visual aids Knowledge retention can be enhanced through provision of handouts covering input Disadvantages No interaction with learners therefore no method of assessing understanding Knowledge often not retained especially if lecture is prolonged Relies on ability of learner to take notes Can be boring unless enlivened by visual aids.may be formal or informal Usually used in groups to impart knowledge Innovative approaches and use of humour can be used well to promote learners' interest If combined with activity.. learners will 'switch off' 67 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

flight simulator) - - - Needs careful preparation of location to ensure all learners can see and hear demonstration If skill is complex. Assignment - - Can be used effectively with groups or individuals Effective method of assessing understanding after knowledge provision.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 4. Demonstration - - Learners observe skill performed to required standard Very effective if based on analysis of component parts of skill then delivered in a logical structured sequence which promotes good practice Health and safely information and practice can be incorporated If combined with opportunity to practice skills under supervision. Work based project - - Can be used effectively with groups or individuals Effective method of assessing understanding after knowledge provision where learners can adapt taught input into a work context Can be used to provide a structure for learners to learn new tasks or enhance existing ones - - Requires careful preparation and criteria for successful completion Marking of projects takes time 68 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . may need several structured demonstrations so needs careful preparation Teacher is role model in demonstrating skill and learners will reflect both good and bad practice unless carefully prepared 5. is unlikely to fully cover pressures and constraints of real workplace May be expensive to provide facilities and equipment 6. where learners can adapt what has been taught into different contexts Learners can work in groups to foster teamwork and problem solving skills - - Requires careful preparation and criteria for successful completion Marking of assignments takes time If learners have worked in groups.g. Simulation - - - - However carefully planned. need to draw out work completed by individual learners 7. can be most effective method of learning a skill Can be used effectively with groups or individuals Especially useful if realistic workplace conditions can be simulated Useful in gaining skills in protected environment before attempting skills in real work environment (e.

Role play - - Most effective if used with groups Teacher is able to observe learners practising skills in role play situations and provide prompt feedback Excellent for building learners confidence in communication and interpersonal skills in supportive atmosphere - Some learners will not perform well in role play situations due to fear of mockery from peer group. followed by a plenary sharing of findings to compare and contrast If business games are prepared based on taught knowledge. so needs careful monitoring by teacher. each of whom complete the activity.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 8. learners can work with different scenarios to adapt knowledge into these. so excellent for building problem solving skills Can be used with small groups with plenary session on completion to discuss findings and compare and contrast findings of different groups - Needs careful preparation by teacher to ensure usefulness 9. learners can work with different scenarios to adapt knowledge into these. Business game - - - Learners are given a business scenario and asked to explore options for resolving issues Most effective if used with small groups Can be used successfully when a larger group is broken down into smaller groups. so excellent for building problem solving skills - Needs careful preparation by the teacher to ensure usefulness 69 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Learners should not be forced to 'perform' if unwilling 10. Case study - - Can be used effectively with groups or individuals If case studies are prepared based on taught knowledge.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 11. Team work - - - Used mainly with individuals. can be used very effectively with groups or individuals as part of a programme to avoid too much information-giving in sessions Useful before tests or examinations - - Time consuming for teacher If carried out by others. Small learning or project groups - - - - Sometimes called small group work or syndicate exercises. especially if additional support needed by one or more groups Groups need careful instruction to complete tasks to required standards Danger of quieter learners being left behind by more assertive group members unless closely supervised 70 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . need to check that they have coaching skills and vocational skills as bad habits can be learned Less effective where input is not carefully planned for sequence and content. working as a member of an experienced team can be of great benefit as the learner gradually becomes more and more involved as skills grow More experienced team members can act as mentors and/or carry out coaching Helps learners to develop team work skills in addition to subject or vocational skills - Takes time for integration into the team Learners can feel left out unless team members are patient and allow time for skills development 14. intervene to give additional support and give prompt feedback - - - Teachers may find it difficult to share time between groups. but can be used to provide additional support to group members Should only be used after training in skills as aim is to help to improve rather than gain new skills and its use is very effective at this point Teacher can observe learner and provide prompt feedback Useful for gaining of planned amount of knowledge. Self-directed study - - - - Learners need time management skills and can easily become distracted if not supervised Teacher needs means of assessing understanding of knowledge gained 13. this is most useful for groups Promotes interpersonal and communication skills Promotes understanding as learners interact with peers and can learn from them or help slower members Plenary discussion after teamwork can compare and contrast findings Teacher can observe progress and successful completion of tasks. as learners can become confused if too great or too little 12. One-to-one coaching - - - Most useful with individuals on one-to-one basis.

can be difficult to define who did what TWO CONTRASTING SESSIONS In Module 1. 71 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The first session might be largely teacher-directed. • There are many ways in which such contrasts could be achieved. The first session might be focused around 'theory' while the second might look at 'application' the teaching and learning techniques being offered. Have a look now at your course plan and draw up a list of possible choices for these contrasting sessions and then go for the two which appeal to you most. Learner pairs - - Useful for groups or individuals. the Diploma asks you to draw up plans for two contrasting sessions.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 15. involving teacher presentations and demonstrations. How will the observer notice a contrast between the two sessions? It could be in terms of • • the nature of the material being used by the learners. On page 27 it says that the two sessions reported on should be the same as those featured in Assignment 1 It's worth thinking about the timing and content of these two sessions in terms of the observer's visits. The second session might be centred around learner feedback and presentations. The first session might use individual learner contributions and the second might make great use of group work learner involvement. learners pair up with a partner who may be at same level or above share tasks Again promotes understanding through team work plus interpersonal and communication skills - - Can become competitive Pairs need careful selection to avoid discord or unsuitability to work as pair If joint project or task completed. Note that there is a follow up to this in Assignment 2.

critic or respondent? b) informal participation . further instruction or reinforcement. Participation How far had you allowed time in your plan for learner participation? Did you accommodate: a) formal participation . But given what was available to you. Think in terms of three very different teaching and learning issues: 1. Use of resources Very few teachers have all the staff. say as reporter. and notes or other material about the session you may have . spontaneous questions. in your personal development diary? Do a short but searching review of that session by thinking about its success and/or its shortcomings. Participation 2.g. searches for clarification. Differentiation How far had you planned to provide learners with different needs and abilities a chance to be involved and successful? Through differentiation one can enable learners to build on their success and protect them from a sense of failure.for example. equipment and teaching aids they'd like. 3. 2. could you have used your resources more effectively? 72 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . presenter. Use of resources 1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice UP FOR REVIEW Think back to a learning session you've very recently carried out.e. Refresh your memory by reading back through any plans.actually allowing time for learners to have an active role in the session. Differentiation 3. inspired ideas which spark off discussion.

For example. different use of a teaching method. 73 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . a different approach to a problem . Have a test drive in a new model! If possible. a poster or a time line. All you need to do is to plan and implement one section of a learning session taking into account what we've covered so far. try a 'test drive' with a new model! Include in your existing programme and session plan(s) something just a little different! Undertaking the Diploma invites YOU to do some learning for YOURSELF. It could be a 20 minute topic. tell your learners you’re trying something new. instead of giving individual learners a set of comprehension questions to answer.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN TEST DRIVE If by now you're feeling keen to improve. Ask them to think about the effectiveness of the method and their reactions to it. Try out something different. encourage them to present the information in a different format such as a character sketch.but do something you have not done before.

but make sure you are in a quiet. Olympic athletes preparing themselves frequently describe 'picturing getting the gold medal at the award ceremony. Our imagination (or 'picturing ability') is a great gift. 74 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . you will need to repeat it several times. Many successful people in different careers and walks of life achieve much of their success because they can picture a successful outcome.' All you need to do it to picture a successful outcome and keep on doing it! Ask your learners themselves to picture 'a really good session' . There are two good opportunities for this during each day • just before you go to sleep • immediately you awake Very often you may be able to think of little changes to improve your session as you run it through in your mind's eye. We all have it to a greater or lesser degree. Make this a warm. It's certainly true for teachers. pleasant experience. undisturbed environment when you do it. These skills are widely adopted by orchestral conductors. even joyful ending for the session. chief executive officers and performers of all kinds. This process helps reinforce your session plan and will be a source of great reassurance to you ahead of any session. Picture the way you will begin . how these activities will unfold and a calm. Try to run through your next sessions in your mind's eye. To make the most of it.this will give you an insight into their preferences. There's no need to spend a great deal of time on each picturing session. Repeat this picturing several times. positive. It becomes more effective with practice. Some teachers are able to picture whole programmes and then picture individual sessions within them.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN PICTURING A SUCCESSFUL OUTCOME This activity may well be a new experience for you.the learners settling down to their learning activities.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1.2 Completing session plans POINTS TO CONSIDER This diagram shows you the points to consider for successful session planning. ASPECT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Question What are we trying to do? Action Write out aims and objectives ENVISAGING What will I do? What will they do? Specify teacher activities Specify learner activities METHODS What will be the most effective learning methods? Select most effective learning methods RESOURCES AND MATERIALS What equipment and visual aids will I need? List materials you will produce and equipment needed ASSESSMENT How will I know what they have learnt? Select appropriate assessment techniques EVALUATION How will I know how effective the session has been? 75 Select method(s) of evaluation © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .2.

- - BUT …. How do these activities contribute to the learning programme as a whole? • Middle Your main input for the session. Give praise and encouragement.and have a nice weekend" Always leave with a smile and conclude the session in an upbeat manner. Finally make sure that everyone knows what they need to do for next time. This may also be opportunity for you to evaluate the success of the session. "See you next Friday in this room 10 am .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN BENEFITS Session planning is always an imaginative and challenging activity. bid farewell appropriately. • Summary Highlight the main achievements of the session (these should match your objectives). a middle and a summary (or plenary) • Introduction Give your learners a brief outline of the session objectives.g. 'nobody said it would be easy'! So make sure you have a STRUCTURE You'll need to build into your session plan 1. An introduction. For example "Well done for that we've been dealing with some difficult ideas but we've done well. 76 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Then. it acts as an invaluable resource for future programme and session planning. e. Approximate timings for each activity 2. When handled properly." Help your learners to reflect on their own learning. it has direct and identifiable benefits such as: it's a great source of confidence and reassurance for both teachers and learners . materials and human effort into an effective blend of activities it helps you to foresee difficulties and maximise opportunities properly evaluated.it's good to know where they are going and what they'll be doing in a session it's a method of marshalling ideas.

appraise. LOW LEVEL Knowledge Appropriate verbs: memorise. construct. On-the-job training Practice by doing Simulations of job settings Synthesis Appropriate verbs: arrange. learning requirements and teaching methods You'll find this table useful and thought-provoking. collect. 77 Trial and error Mentoring Coaching © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . express. assemble. contrast. Note that the suggested examples in the table are intended only to indicate possibilities. calculate. Role play Observation Case studies Analysis Appropriate verbs: analyse. Real-life situations Games/role playing Simulation of job settings HIGH LEVEL Evaluation Appropriate verbs: argue. Appropriate verbs: classify. criticise. compare. create. The 'appropriate verbs' are very useful for planning and assessment. judge. compose.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 3. Bring together parts of knowledge to form a whole/solve problem. recall. criticise Break down knowledge into parts and show inter-relationships. name. design. defend. assess. estimate. Cognition. order. discuss. recognise. indicate. locate Use knowledge in a novel situation. compare. rate. Make judgements on the basis of criteria. reproduce. predict. describe. appraise. Comprehension Discussion Observation Case studies Application Appropriate verbs: analyse. categorise. relate. state Interpret information in his or her own words. identify. Bloom's cognitive taxonomy links several considerations in session planning. Ideally sessions or parts of sessions should begin with low level cognitive domains and push out towards the higher levels. attach. repeat. contrast. COGNITIVE DOMAIN I NEED THE LEARNER TO: EXAMPLES OF SUITABLE METHODS AND MEDIA Lecture Reading Audio-visual Recall information. choose. calculate. compare. explain. categorise.

00 Welcome and introduction Content Introduce yourself and provide an overview of the programme. (It's actually been used by CIE trainers to introduce the Cambridge Diploma).Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 4.30 Break Summary/plenar y Trainer input OHP n/a Powerpoint n/a 78 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . EXAMPLE Here’s a sample session plan for part of a two day professional development course. The unexpected Anticipate and plan for the unexpected .30 Summary 9. fire exits.10 Activity 9. • • • Make sure you can adjust your session in case of interruption Flexibility in planning means you can capitalise upon successful learning The safety and security of you and your learners is paramount.15 Ice-breaker Group work n/a Group work and feedback Paper and felt-tip pens n/a 9. Deal with domestic arrangements Invite participants to introduce themselves to each other Form participants into groups of four to devise team icon and report back results Summarise findings of first sequence of activities Outline main features of Cambridge Diploma Comfort break Method Trainer input Resources OHP and handout Assessment n/a 9. toilets and first aid facilities are located. so make sure you know where fire extinguishers.as far as possible. Aim: To introduce course members to the Cambridge Diploma Objective: To recognise the value of collaborative learning Timing/Activity 9.40 Presentation 10.

The same applies to assessment. but as an active participant in the assessment not just as the person 'being assessed'. If the room is flooded and a whole session has to be abandoned your programme planning should be flexible enough to make sure that continuity of learning and programme objectives are not prejudiced.for example. such as selecting and designing a group icon. The ‘icebreakers’ are light-hearted exercises in which everyone can find a role and have some fun. • • • Remember to leave space in your planning so that an activity might be prolonged if successful . 5. 79 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . discussion arising from a particularly useful learner question or contribution.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN This excerpt from a session shows how: • The trainer informs and relaxes the learners. the first group session is introduced at 9. simulations etc Learners learn best in situations where they are able to participate and be actively involved.30 the trainer and learners had already achieved a good deal and the trainer summarises these with encouraging feedback to the participants. exercises. Methods of formative assessment can include question and answer. Assessment The last column on a Session Plan concerns assessment and you will have to decide which assessment processes are most appropriate for use both during and after the session. observation. By 9. This will allow for expansion and contraction of activities during the session. In fact this 'expansion joint' notion needs to be carried forward into programme planning. Notice only 10 minutes had elapsed before the learners were given an active role. The task is at a low level in Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy (but an appropriate level for this stage in the programme) and uses humour to smooth the path of learning. This sets a positive atmosphere with an involved group of learners for the activities to follow. Information is distributed by a variety of methods. This acts like an 'expansion joint' in a bridge and it will absorb minor disruptions. With this in mind. One of the trainer’s objectives is to show the value of group learning activities. The trainer avoided making a long uninterrupted initial presentation. There is a variety of learning activities.15am right ‘at the top of the schedule’.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN

You need to ask: • • • what are the skills to be learned and the knowledge the learners must gain? how will I assess whether or not learners know and understand the information I will provide? how will I measure progress?

Remember: • • • Learners are individuals Each with his or her own needs, learning styles and motivation There might be the need for additional support

And consider: • • • • How will I know if learners are ready to go on? How can I support those who need more help? Who else can I involve? What recording methods are available?

Here is an example from vocational education:
Skills and/or knowledge to be learned Practical skills in using equipment Possible activities to be planned into programme For groups or individual learners: Instruction - demonstration - skills practice Probable assessment method Observation of performance during practice Skills test during which performance to required standard is observed Telephone techniques For a group: Presentation - discussion simulation using real equipment For an individual: Teamwork to provide opportunity to observe skilled personnel Coaching Work experience How businesses operate in a variety of markets Presentation of information Case studies Small learning groups to undertake project Self-study Observation of performance Oral questioning during discussion Simulation

Oral questioning or multiplechoice test Observation of performance as learners work in groups Marking of final project

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Practice
You can now move on to designing your own learning session Begin by heading the plan with initial information such as teacher name venue date/time session title aim(s) objectives name of learner group size of learner group name of course

Go on to draw up a plan of activities, perhaps using headings such as: Aim: Objective:

Timing/Activity

Content

Method

Resources

Assessment

When you’ve finished your plan: check to see you've got an ordered sequence or ‘flow’ of activities include into the plan an introduction and a conclusion - write these out consider how you'd evaluate such a session and who'd be doing the evaluation note down what preparation this session plan will require.

Your session plan is now written BUT it is not ‘set in stone’. During any session various things can happen which change the pace of the session or cause you to change the content as it progresses – anything from a fire-drill to learners not understanding and topics not developing along the route you expected. There is nothing wrong with this – it is part and parcel of teaching practice. The difficulty would be if you found it difficult to adapt. To help you: • • • use your “notes” column on your Programme Plan continually to update the programme’s progress be ready to adapt – even re-write – future Session Plans always have a 'fail-safe' outline backup plan and emergency activities - this will give you reassurance when you are using complicated equipment, relying upon external speakers, or have other activities planned which could 'go wrong', due to reasons which you cannot control.

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Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN

1.2.3 Preparing learning materials

POINTS TO CONSIDER Check these points and save yourself time and trouble. 1. What are the functions of learning materials? Possible functions: to provide information - graphic, photographic, text, statistical to arouse interest - e.g. in ideas, places, methods to stimulate the exchange of ideas and opinions to simulate real-life conditions.

2. What kinds of materials are available? Possible materials: audio-visual aids handouts virtual investigations exercises case studies interactive software educational websites games apparatus simulations.

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Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN

3. When you are constructing learning materials All materials should be legible and accurate. You should pay attention to aspects such as: language level - is it appropriate to learners at their current level? terminology - should be simple, avoiding jargon and technical terms unless these are explained. The purpose is to communicate not show off format and layout - use space effectively - sentences and paragraphs should be kept short. Use double space to create space between sections bullet points create a good visual impact as do diagrams, pictures and flowcharts ease of understanding - should explain without having to supplement the information ease of use - exercises and case studies should contain clear instructions as a source of reference visual impact - use of space; pictures and illustrations; short sentences and paragraphs for younger learners, diagrams and pictures will aid their understanding.

4. Different groups may require amendments to learning materials Learning materials may have to be adapted to suit the needs of individual learners groups which contain learners with very different needs different learning sessions learning requirements and objectives to be achieved different sizes of groups the learning environment the literacy level of individuals.

NB when you use or adapt learning materials, remember that material obtained from external sources, especially published sources, may be the subject of copyright law. Photocopying or use without permission from the author/publisher may be prohibited and you should check on your centre’s policy if you are in any doubt. DIFFERENT OPPORTUNITIES Much of the time, teachers facilitate learning. We can look at two examples of such a situation. 1. Site visits and fieldwork These provide excellent learning opportunities and can be used in many different subject/topic areas - not just in geography, geology or biology. You can also capitalise on the value of site visits if you are developing learning sessions in mathematics (a maths trail around the school) music (performance attendance) art (workshops and gallery visits)
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Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN

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language (interviews with learners/adults/visitors) drama (workshops, masterclasses and performance attendance) literature (festivals, talks, visits to literary locations) sciences (visits to exhibitions, museums) business (company visits, exhibitions).

You can use visits and fieldwork in most learning situations and programmes. They may range from a few hours to weeks including overseas work. NB if you are thinking of making use of such an opportunity, your first step should be to get in touch with your colleagues especially: colleagues who already manage and operate such visits for practical advice your own line manager of Head of Department to discuss feasibility and timing Administrative and Faculty staff for advice on funding, legal responsibilities and issues of health and safety.

2. Guest speakers Guest speakers can be refreshing and stimulating. They can bring new perspectives to the material and skills you are trying to develop. Their visits work well if: you’ve checked out their ability to communicate successfully with your kind of learners they are given SMART objectives well in advance they are properly introduced and helped during their visit - including things like hospitality, refund of expenses etc your learners are well prepared for the visit. This may well include preparation of questions timings for the visit are agreed in advance and observed in practice you can involve learners in appropriate 'thank you' e.g. younger learners can write letters.

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In the foreground we've got a winding valley cut into the local sedimentary rocks. 85 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Learners will need some help in using it so we need to adapt this photograph. hydrology and biogeography. This will jeopardise session timings Learners may not be confident in drawing and so lose confidence in the learning activity itself. the southern coast of Portugal. You could scan it and copy it. embryonic sea stacks and vegetation typical of the area. In the middle ground you can see an arch formation. If you were to ask the learners to produce a sketch based on the photograph you would immediately produce unnecessary problems: • • • You'd be making a serious demand on drawing skills rather than geographical interpretation Learners who find drawing difficult may spend a great deal of time on producing a (poor) product. It's an attractive and seemingly versatile learning focus. This photograph could be used in a learning session for physical geography. The photograph was taken close to the tourist resort and ancient port of Lagos. but what would the learners do with it? It’s actually quite difficult to refer to. It would have many uses in a number of sessions on coastal features.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN EXAMPLE: USING A PHOTOGRAPH? Let's look at adapting and designing learning material Here we are on the Algarve. difficult to label or even annotate. Its slopes are steep and they show signs of collapse and recent violent erosion.

standard of finish. consumer goods. Our learning materials will be better received if it is clear that we have taken care about their neatness. and it can be used as material for assessment. even the way they are arranged on a slide. It can also be easily replicated. OHT or page. pick up a magazine or textbook and see how it has been set out and how the information has been presented. Our learners are aware of the value of design in other contexts . understand and access.television.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN EXAMPLE: ADAPTING MATERIAL So in this case we need to adapt the material into a simple but clear drawing which can be easily accessed by learners. packaging and automobiles.the biggest and fastest growing business on earth. magazines. Design makes such information attractive and easy to digest. If you're in doubt about the essentials of design. design In education we're part of the communication and information business . design. for example as an overhead transparency. websites. film. labelling. NB Design. 86 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

See if you can find ways to make improvement(s). to practise a newly learned skill. to assess knowledge? if the presentation of information clear? is the level of work appropriate to the needs of the group? is progression through the sheet correctly paced? do the examples on the sheet really clarify or could they confuse? are the examples on the sheet culturally appropriate? are there open-ended questions that assess learners' application and not just acquisition of knowledge? 87 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice Now look at your own existing graphic material and see how you might adapt it for learning purposes. Ask yourself: does this diagram.is it to teach a new skill. map. chart. for example by acting as a fresh stimulus or case study? can the image be readily replicated or adapted? how can the learners adapt it. learn from it? Published worksheets and worksheets from the Internet should be adapted to suit the needs of your learners. Find one that might be appropriate for one of your learning activities and consider: what is the purpose of the worksheet . picture or other form of image actually do something useful in the learning session? does it illustrate a series of points? provoke discussion or questioning? bring a different dimension to study. use it.

flowcharts. 88 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .avoid use of capital letters throughout and write clearly so that everyone can read. 3. 1.large size gives greater visual impact you can use humour as a way of reinforcing and helping learners to remember key points. 2.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1. diagrams. Slides for overhead projectors .4 Preparing equipment and learning facilities TYPES OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS We're going to look briefly at the range of equipment available and how to use it. bullet points appeal to visual learners by highlighting key learning and discussion points should be legible . Computer-based learning materials make sure all learners are able to operate ICT facilities make sure the materials are suitable for all learners and their current capabilities appeal to both visual and kinaesthetic learners capitalise on using learners to help each other. Flipchart/blackboard/whiteboard can be used effectively if pre-prepared to show.slides on conventional projectors remember ‘ a picture paints a thousand words’ be sparing with the amount of text .bullet points on slides work well and can be used as main points for teacher notes and handouts make sure text can be seen by everyone .2. for example.

For flipcharts and whiteboards ensure that pens are fully operational (and available!) Back-up If equipment fails. Teachers often have drawing or cartoon skills which can be used to great effect in classes. tell the learners beforehand what you want them to look for. whiteboards. This kind of event causes embarrassment and frustration for teachers and learners alike. 89 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . overhead projectors and computing facilities can all be used for spontaneous illustration or notation. Ensure that you reserve the relevant machines for your use a) formally b) well in advance. Video and audio : films: LCD can be used effectively to reinforce key learning points ensure suitability for learners and their current capabilities make sure the resources will help to illustrate the point you are making only use small sequences/sections as attention can quickly drain away will allow only for visual and oral learning so how will you record this learning experience? if appropriate. have you located a potential reserve supply? If the equipment fails and there is no reserve can you move convincingly and effortlessly to alternative activities and an alternative session (plan)? BE SPONTANEOUS! Blackboards. NB we’ve all been to presentations where visual aid machinery malfunctioned or was misused. always have a spare bulb available. BE PREPARED! Availability Learning technology is often shared between departments and teachers. In the case of overhead projectors. Frustration and amusement quickly turns to exasperation and disappointment. television monitors and video cassette recorders are relatively complex machines.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 4. A great many such failures can be avoided by simply being prepared and taking precautions. At its worst such a breakdown can spoil the whole outcome of a learning session. Reliability ICT equipment. Check in advance that they are functioning properly and immediately before use ensure that they are set up ready for action.

teachers find themselves working in increasingly specialist teaching environments. Good advice here is: practise the layout of your efforts ensure that everyone can read them don't overcrowd your working space take your time to produce an effective piece of work if you have difficulty with spellings. opportunities and potential for use appropriateness levels of equipment technical support health and safety Whatever the specialist environment. check them out beforehand use lower case lettering as this is more helpful and easier to read than upper case. SPECIALIST TEACHING ENVIRONMENTS As learning needs become more complex. They'll be able to offer practical advice which will usually address each one of the five points we've highlighted for research. These include: laboratories workshops workplaces play areas theatres studios sports halls and gymnasia outdoor sports facilities libraries ICT suites For each of these you need to research carefully: features.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN You can practise your ‘boardwork’ .and you should. it is always best practice to consult the person in charge of the facility right at the start of planning. 90 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

There is often equipment elsewhere in the institution which one can access and use for teaching/learning. think laterally . don't be put off. For example. Many teachers work exclusively in one department. This goes even beyond mere equipment. reliability. 91 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .but remember the points to watch out for e. one section of the company. If you return from your research unimpressed or empty-handed. why not try other places for loan or hire of equipment? Be creative.g. Now is the time for a bit of research and investigation. different rooms with built-in specialist facilities may be available at the very time of day you are interested in! Make a checklist of the facilities you're likely to use and leave spaces for those which are available and may have a use.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice TIME FOR AN AUDIT! If you think you're limited as far as equipment and facilities are concerned. even one room.

time and timing of your reflections. we need to consider some important questions: KEY QUESTIONS 1. So we begin by building evaluation into our session plan designs. To plan successfully for evaluation.learning outcomes? How do I know that this learning took place? Assessment? How successful were the teaching/learning techniques which I used? Were the learning objectives achieved? 92 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . but even (and especially) if you choose ‘Self' you'll need to plan carefully the format. Who will be carrying out the evaluation? Evaluation can be done by one or combination of: Self Learners Observer.but often these reflections are 'here today. What are the points to be evaluated? The most immediate concern is usually ‘How did the session go?’ You need to break that question down into: What did the learners actually learn during the session . All teachers almost instinctively reflect upon their teaching . gone tomorrow'.2. recorded and purposeful element of practical teaching. We want to strengthen reflection as an active.5 Planning for evaluation WHY PLAN? In the Diploma we encourage teachers to become more reflective. 2.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1. The choice is yours.

using questionnaires or pro-formas. He/she could talk it through with someone else. can be an extremely valuable learning resource for the teacher. You need to take care about recording and storing evaluation information. a second opinion. Feedback may be informal and/or formal. At this stage you can think through the issues and identify how you could gather and record information to help your reflections for Module 4. and/or observer). e.g. Module/assignment 4 of the Diploma provides the framework for just such an evaluation. learners. Evaluation is based on feedback. How much time is available for all concerned after the session? Where will the feedback session take place? With longer-term evaluation you'll need time to analyse records and material and written observations on the analysis. In self-evaluation. TIME AND TIMING You need to build in time for evaluation into your session plan. especially senior colleagues. Think carefully about ‘after the session’. the teacher is reporting to him/herself. a fresh face. Briefly these are: did all the learners benefit? was the pace of presentation/learning appropriate? what changes might I have to make to future sessions in the light of this experience? did my session plan work effectively? Was it too detailed or no detailed enough? were there any problems which arose and need to be solved soon? RECORDING AND REPORTING Evaluation can help to generate many of the fresh ideas to help improve teaching and learning in the future. This is where colleagues. 93 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . It can happen: during the session (by learners and/or observer) after the session (by self. It must become part of your regular professional practice. But there is a second stage to this reporting. He/she could store it for future reference. You also need to take care of reporting. Learner and observer feedback can be oral or written or a combination of both. what does the teacher then do with it? He/she could ‘mull it over’.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Other issues will need to be covered. Having received the feedback.

94 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . You'll need to approach this in simple professional terms. You simply want to observe a session with a view to designing a method of feedback for your learners. This person may be a friend.g. You can then design an appropriate format for the comments e. a questionnaire or a simple report form. Even professional friends may turn you down! Don't be put off . This can be a delicate issue. Move on to someone else.remember that they are NOT practising professionals.you might have done the same.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice At this stage. What could they observe and comment upon . So ask someone else if you can sit in on one of their learning sessions. Remember to ask advice from the teacher whose session you've just observed. Once you've observed a session you should be able to list the important issues which the learners should be able to comment on. perhaps outside your usual professional/social circle. think through the issues and identify how you could gather and record information to help your reflections for Module/Assignment 4. colleague or even someone you do not know very well. Likewise the best evaluation often comes from those who have evaluated others. It's often said that the best interviewees are those who have conducted interviews themselves.

a river. You have sheng chi when you feel positive aspiration. In Feng Shui chi is sometimes described as the cosmic breath. the animals are healthy. Feng shui is about understanding the forces of nature in order to design living and working spaces which are in balance with these forces. the woods. They are called Sheng.6 Preparing the learning environment A LITTLE FENG SHUI Feng shui is a traditional Chinese philosophy. When we think of the learning environment we must consider physical and social factors. Si and Sha. It is the force of change and transformation.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN 1. sheng means moving upward or ‘waxing’ si means dying or ‘waning’ sha indicates harmful energy (from ‘Feng Shui Step by Step’ by T Raphael Simons 1996) We need to develop a learning environment which has sheng chi. chi has three phases. mountains. or the ocean. Notice how the description of sheng chi contains human as well as physical attributes. or as the vital principle. and when it overlooks a beautiful park. a field.2. the people are prosperous and happy. a garden. a lake. A place has sheng chi when it feels fresh and bright. 95 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

the person’s awareness 96 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . furnishings. So we should aim to provide our learners with an environment which is: comfortable .free from interruptions such as telephones (especially mobiles) noise levels .well why not? Let’s go for feelings of positive aspiration. This is a common (too common) human condition. The key to this is in meeting self-fulfilment needs. creativity and selffulfilment 3. This has four emphases: 1. the whole person a holistic synthesis of mind. Some learners may come to learning sessions with low self-esteem. They'll work better together if they know each other and respect what each is trying to achieve. At the base of this pyramid of needs are the purely physical needs which keep us safe and well.in terms of ventilation. SOCIAL FACTORS Our learners have needs which enable them to co-exist happily with other learners in the group. body and feelings 2. HUMANISTIC ENVIRONMENT Carl Rogers has written about the advantages of developing what he calls a ‘humanistic learning environment’. personal growth individuals moving towards higher levels of health. You should strive to develop an atmosphere of shared learning harmony in which individuals can happily ask questions and spark discussion. toilet/wash facilities undisturbed .learners can see the teacher and the visual aids sheng chi . It takes some time to build self-esteem but you can help it along by: providing encouraging feedback to contributions however slight framing remarks and presentations in a persistently positive fashion setting up learning situations in which everyone can make a contribution discreet use of humour showing enthusiasm for an interest in the work being undertaken.outside and inside the room/learning space.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN PHYSICAL FACTORS Abraham Maslow described human needs in terms of a hierarchy or pyramid. Noise level inside at the teacher’s discretion maximum visibility .

97 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The environment for learning should encourage learners to feel that they have responsibility for and control over their learning. personal agency the power of choice and responsibility.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN their subjective views about themselves and the world 4. A humanistic environment will depend largely on the teacher’s positive approach to the learners.

younger learners will develop their social skills and also their ability to become aesthetically aware. Are there any ways in which you could foster greater learner involvement in the direction taken by their learning? You could begin by inviting them to bring along and make physical contributions to the room in which the sessions take place. 1. effective and a home for ‘positive aspiration’? begin to change the social environment of your learning groups. If the learning space is dull and boring. reinforcement and motivation. Through this. 98 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . 2. 3. Are there any ways in which you as teacher can • • affect the physical environment to make it more pleasing. perhaps introducing new methods of delivery. They may have been whirled along by a subterranean mass rapid transit system. let's brighten it up! You could bring in some flowers or plants.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 1 : DESIGN Practice Consider your own environment(s). appropriate artefacts … 5. They may have problems on their mind. pictures or posters. What do the learners bring to the beginning of the learning session? Where have they been before they came to the class? They may have trudged for miles to the building. How can you focus their attention and give everyone equal access to the learning session you have devised? 4. Encourage your learners to take some responsibility for their own learning environment.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Module 2 PRACTICE 99 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

usually using audio-visual aids. manner and pace of communication and the involvement of learners in the presentation. enthusiasm and interest. So let's look at the world of human communication. If further information is needed. knowing that learners will only be able to concentrate for about this length of time. An effective teacher will limit the length of a presentation to about 15 minutes. a session may be broken up into several presentations. You should take into account the size of your group. How then do you progress from the point of recognising the need to give information on a particular topic to enabling learners to absorb that knowledge? PRESENTATION AND COMMUNICATION A teacher needs to be able to communicate subject content and session structure with clarity. Presentations are most effective when combined with an activity which checks that learners have understood. and ways of communicating information – such aspects as tone. each building on previous ones.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2. 100 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .1 Presenting information A presentation can be defined as: 'A planned and structured input by a teacher. designed to impart information' A presentation is usually given to provide information to a group on a specific topic. By ‘presentation’ here we mean that part of the session in which the teacher gives direct input. the learning outcomes to be achieved and the level of experience of your learners.1.

Non-verbal communication may come in the form of handouts. video clips. at-aglance) make sure you know your subject. too. This amusing and thought-provoking book is well worth a read . inflection and other sounds) and 55% nonverbal Birtwhistell found that the verbal component of even a face-to-face conversation is less than 35% and over 65% is done non-verbally The most important aspect of non-verbal communication is body-language.especially for teachers! PLANNING FOR PRESENTATIONS How will you present the topic? • • • • • you can use visual. auditory. Remember: ☺ ☺ ☺ Tell them what you are going to tell them INTRODUCTION Tell them INSTRUCTION Tell them what you have just told them REINFORCEMENT 101 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Not all of this will be verbal. kinaesthetic styles visual aids can focus information and attention you can use palm (hand held) cards to help you remember key points you can use your own teaching notes (but make sure they are highly visible. • Albert Mehrabian found that the total impact of a message is about 7% verbal (words only). slides or photographs. This is a vital consideration for teachers because guess who your learners are going to be looking at most of the time? Yes. that's right.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE TYPES OF COMMUNICATION For much of a presentation the teacher will be concerned with conveying information to the learner. you! • • If you wish to learn more about the fascinating topic of body language we recommend 'Body Language' by Alan Pease. Plan to appeal to as many of the senses as possible. Body language is an important consideration. 38% vocal (including tone of voice.

keep it varied.. Really convincing presenters To be really convincing you should be: • • • • • • • • flexible enough to adapt to the response of your learners skilled at organising information into a logical and effective sequence use language appropriate for your learners and context operate in a positive and relaxed learning environment make clear the purpose and structure of the presentation spark interest through use of interesting case studies and/or examples link the presentation clearly to the programme as a whole and to related learning activities (which may have already been completed. especially video and Powerpoint Check slides.use positive and open body language Use pauses to stress points Only you know content and sequence Set parameters for questions before you start Use humour where it is inclusive of learners and appropriate Regularly scan the group to check involvement and motivation Target questions at different learners . 102 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . may be currently underway or to follow) use examples which relate to the learners’ experiences..Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE GIVING THE PRESENTATION Your checklist of essentials: Check equipment . carefully. OHP. clearly Avoid technical jargon unless terms are explained Use tone of voice to stress key points Avoid fidgetting . other audio-visual aids are clearly visible to all Speak slowly.learners find it distracting Eye contact with all learners .

These can include stylised facial expressions ranging from permanent tooth-spangled smiles to a newsreader’s bland expression.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE RESEARCH AND OBSERVE Take time out to look at a few presentations by other professionals. A good source of information is television. hands are shaken. too. Body language. Clearly we don’t need to go this far. comes in for the full treatment as shoulders are embraced. Our presentations have a different purpose and are intended for a different ‘audience’. 103 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . After all our learners are seeing 'presentations' in many different contexts in their daily life. Television presentation has created a particular world of presentation skills. On the other hand we may be subconsciously compared with other professionals. and postures are carefully refined and readjusted. Politicians now receive specialist coaching for their television appearances.

Use a mirror if this helps you. It need only be a 10-15 minute slot. Then try out your presentation for real . find a quiet room and actually speak through your ‘lines’ (it can feel a little strange at first but actors and media presenters do this all the time!). write a few notes on content and method.with your learners Presentations work best when the audience feels involved. Have your visual aids on hand and remember to use body language. bring in an artefact for them to pass around? How were they involved in what you did? 104 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Take a presentation from one of your session plans . How did your learners become involved? Did you ask a question. Ask yourself two questions:• • How would I usually present this material? How else could I present this material? For the second question.one which you know you will have to give in the near future.

take a few minutes to create a comfortable learning environment by: • • • • being open and friendly calling learners by name telling the learners what you are going to cover in the session arousing their interest and making sure they play an active part by creating an environment in which they feel comfortable to ask any questions. It involves several types of activity: • • • • instruction practical demonstration skills practice one-to-one coaching.2 Giving instruction and demonstration TOWARDS ACTIVE LEARNING One of the most important ways of encouraging active learning is by planning tasks and activities which will further learners’ curiosity. Instruction and demonstration will be used in the main by teachers teaching practical or scientific subjects or whose main role is in the workplace. INSTRUCTION Before starting to give the instruction. Imparting skills to learners is a fascinating. or when it is complex. creativity and interest. the easier it is to check their understanding.1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2. The more the learners participate. 105 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . or check they have understood something correctly. particularly when the task is new to them. rewarding and enjoyable experience.

often the expression on someone’s face will tell you that they do not understand something you have said. carefully positioning yourself so that they can see everything you do clearly and the parts of the equipment you are using make sure they can see and hear you clearly ask them to approach the equipment if necessary so that they can examine small parts or controls be aware of the learners’ body language . • • • • DEMONSTRATION Before starting to give a demonstration. make sure you have: • covered your explanation and instructions in a relatively short time. To make sure you communicate effectively. Make sure you comply with all health and safety requirements when using the equipment . even if that person is too shy to ask a question allow a reasonable amount of time for any questions or further information after your instruction. you should: • • • • • • speak slower than you normally do use simple words and avoid technical terms wherever possible check learners’ existing knowledge cover only the necessary information to avoid confusion cover the information in a logical order. learners will copy what they see and you want to set a good example.after all. • 106 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . start your instruction with an explanation of what the overall task is. referring briefly to your flowcharts if necessary allow learners to look at parts of any equipment you are explaining and ask any questions.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE When you feel the learners are relaxed and comfortable. because the aim of this participative style of training is to get the learners using the equipment as soon as possible included any health and safety issues before the demonstration. then reinforce these in the commentary you give as the demonstration progresses.

Tell someone it’s easy and s/he may lose confidence if they don’t find it easy! Tell someone it’s difficult and you may make them nervous.“that’s a very good question.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Follow the principle of: • • instruction .telling learners what they need to know about the task. You do not want to influence learners in any way. You’ve probably carried out the task many times . Give the demonstration step by step. When covering several tasks. first start with the easiest task. encourage learners to ask questions. Demonstrate the task slowly. I’m glad you asked that.but remember how you felt when you first tried it! Repeat the demonstration only once with relatively simple tasks. You could praise a learner for asking a particular question . Learners must learn the basic skills so that they can progress to more complex tasks which build on those basic skills.of all or part of the process if necessary. then repeating it as necessary to make sure learners see the logical steps in the process. explaining exactly what you are doing and why. especially if that person lacks confidence. Not every learner might find it easy. • • During the second demonstration. including health and safety demonstration . or difficult. then repeat it slowly.showing how it’s done and repeating the instruction as each step of the demonstration is given. Throughout the demonstration.” In this way. You should: • • • Allow time . or to clarify reasons for doing this in a particular way. Give further instruction and demonstration . demonstrate the whole task once from beginning to end. This is why it is necessary to take such care to create a comfortable learning environment. try to avoid making comments about the simplicity or difficulty of the task. Enabling them to feel comfortable in asking questions is very important. With a more complex task. the learners will know that you encourage questions. or in a particular order. breaking it down into its component steps in a logical sequence. John.for any questions to check understanding. 107 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

with his or her own ways of learning. or even a further period of instruction. so try to be as patient as possible. but make sure you are available to support them.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE SKILLS PRACTICE Learners now need to practise the new skill. ask brief questions in a friendly manner. but only offer this where necessary. Before each learner has his or her turn. Give as many opportunities as possible for the learners to practise their skills without constantly supervising them. supporting them on an individual basis. Sometimes a reminder of a key part of the training may be necessary. just to check that the learner is confident that s/he remembers what to do and the order in which it should be done. Accept that every learner is an individual. demonstration or coaching before the skills transfer is complete. such as: • • • asking the learner to refer to written instructions to try it out for him or herself letting the learner work with a more experienced member of staff temporarily asking learners to help each other if they get stuck. or whether you need to repeat all or part of her training. Try to avoid giving unnecessary information or instruction and only stop the practice if you know the learner is making a mistake. If further support is necessary. rather than stepping in to give the answer. This is better than simply repeating instructions. Will they remember your teaching. since you are assessing whether the learner has made the mistake due to nervousness. you may wish to offer alternatives. or the learner is not able to remember. Let learners do the task with as little support as possible. only giving further instructions if no-one can answer. so that you can judge whether or not your teaching has been effective. ask the other learners what the correct action would have been. or do you need to reinforce it? Let the learners practise their skills. or to correct their work if necessary. If the answer is incorrect. guiding only when necessary. 108 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . and what s/he will do next. If a learner makes a mistake. Learners need support and encouragement at this time. test the group’s understanding by asking the other learners to help him or her remember. You might ask each learner where s/he will start and why.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE DURING EXERCISES AND ACTIVITIES • remember that observation is an effective assessment method . 109 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .watch all stages of activity and pay particular attention to learners’ body language to gauge progress and participation levels be prepared to clarify instructions or give further instructions where necessary to ensure full understanding of what is to be achieved make sure there are no interruptions adapt or intervene only when necessary (i.e. • • • • • • • Think about: • • • the number of different techniques you use (from the above list) the reaction of your learners . as well as completion of tasks allow time for feedback and encourage learners to participate in discussion congratulate learners wherever possible check that learning outcomes have been met take time to reflect on how the exercise or activity has worked and how it could have been improved if necessary.g. it is clearly good practice to get everyone together (summary/plenary) Remember to: encourage learners to compare and contrast outcomes achieved to the benefit of the whole group encourage learners to reflect on the learning which has taken place and skills gained e. encourage group members to nominate someone to do this use questioning to assess understanding. to ensure that outcomes will be met) allow learners choices rather than giving advice use activities as a vehicle for identifying further learning needs where necessary if feedback from groups is required. communications. to issues of health and safety? AFTER EXERCISES AND ACTIVITIES Once the instruction has been given and the learners have done their work.are they ‘catching on’? how much attention do you pay to visibility. teamwork.

Review).co.geoffpetty.as soon as possible. 110 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .com/ and explore Geoff Petty’s excellent website for many useful resources for active teaching and learning. For example.teacherstoolbox. PAR (Present.uk/index.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Go to http://www. Select one which you’re particularly interested in.html These two websites and Geoff’s books ‘Teaching Today’ and ‘Evidence-based Teaching’ are wonderful resources which you can turn to frequently for advice and guidance. Apply. You can see Geoff in action by going to http://www. and apply it in your teaching .

some using rotary magazines for the slides It needs black out for use It can show large-scale photographic images to large numbers of learners.1. printing directly on to special transparencies or photocopying of a printed sheet onto photocopiable acetates. you will use visual aids and materials of some description. adhesive letters or via a computer. Slide projector There are various models.dimmed lights are usually enough You can face and talk to the learners while showing the transparencies You can prepare transparencies before the session and store them for future use Transparencies can be made up using spirit-based pens. 111 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2.3 Using visual aids TYPES OF VISUAL AID Whatever context you teach in and style of teaching you may use. You may use: • • • • • • • • overhead projector slide projector ICT facilities (including powerpoint) handouts TV/video flipchart white/blackboard worksheets. Overhead projector This versatile machine does not need a blackout .

keys are confusing 112 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . including moving images and animation. This can include images of all kinds. digital video/scanner.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE ICT facilities Hardware and software can include facilities such as individual PCs. colour or underlining for emphasis avoid symbols. abbreviations and angled or v e r t i c a l words diagrams: excellent but avoid clutter and too much colour label directly. Sound is easily added.e. Flipcharts Flipcharts can be used in the same way as whiteboards but can also be prepared in advance if necessary. powerpoint/projector. TV/Video Educational and other useful programmes are often available on television. coaching and training. interactive whiteboard Powerpoint has made a great impact upon the world of mass audience presentations but it can just as easily be used with a small group Powerpoint enables the teacher to design and prepare what amounts to an entire presentation in advance. suitably edited or excerpted) it can be versatile and interesting. especially public service broadcast channels Video is widely used in teaching. Flipcharts and white/blackboards minimum size 3mm lower case use UPPERCASE. This is helpful if you have a problem with spelling They can be used for individual or group contributions in plenary sessions and individual sheets can be displayed as an outcome The following style conventions apply to flipcharts and also to whiteboards and blackboards. Used wisely (i.

copies of OHTs supporting handouts that give additional information. 113 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .will it help to make learning easier? when will you use it? .washing and cleaning especially check your supplies of chalk/felt-tip pens. information handouts should be distributed at the beginning. They are cheap and reliable BUT: they demand written/diagrammatic skills – so practise your boardwork they need a bit of maintenance .as a general rule. a summary of the main points. Information handouts can be notes that relate to the content of the session . Worksheets These are handouts for the learner to use and write on either during or after the session as part of the activity When designing handouts or worksheets you need to consider: is it really of use . to supplement a session or to form the basis of learner activities. The latter include worksheets. worksheets as and when necessary for learner activity always make it clear how the handout is to be used: ‘use the worksheet to make additional notes’ ‘you may need this for later work’ learners will work better and learn more from worksheets that they have to complete rather than from pure information .for example.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Whiteboards and blackboards These are probably the most commonly used visual aids. Handouts These are mainly information given to learners.learning will not be reinforced if the learners are given a copy of the presentation and are asked to do nothing but read it will the worksheets be used as a piece of assessed work? (This may change the nature of the questions).

How do they use lettering. spacing and colour? look at posters .such as websites .some of these have become classics of artwork computer software .these are also about conveying message and information quickly and effectively.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE DOING YOUR OWN You can be confident in designing and developing your own visual aids. try this: Take time out to see how other material is presented.are often well-designed 114 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . If you're not so confident in design. Used carefully these will always add to your sessions. Teachers with limited graphic skills can always settle for clear hand-written or computer-generated handouts worksheets and transparencies. for example: • • • take a look at advertisements .

These are good sources of teaching/training skills and ideas. by all means make use of it in your presentations If you have a personal computer. in cartoon fashion. say.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Try using a new visual aid: • • If you do have graphic skills such as the ability to draw quickly. 115 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . the start-up package may include an animated presentation which uses humorous references from a cartoon character to offer online assistance and tuition.

They should be structured to maximise learning opportunities and to encourage learners to participate fully. but it is flexible enough for learners to work at their own level learning activity. where learners are required to address the same level. So we need to look closely at differentiation. where the same general task is set.4 Supervising learning activities LEARNER NEEDS Exercises and activities should be based on accurate identification of learners’ differing needs and abilities.1. where learners can cover the same content at the same level but at a different rate dialogue. but in a different way pace. where learners cover the same content but at different level outcome. Stradling and Saunders (1993) identified five different types of differentiation. They describe differentiation by • • • • • task. These might help you to think about differentiation in your own teaching context. where the teacher discusses the work with individual learners in order to tailor the work to their needs. 116 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2.

This is better than simply repeating instructions. ask the other learners what the correct action would have been.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE In addition. We call this kind of involvement formal involvement because the teacher has designed it into his/her session plan.g. within adult learning groups However the more thought you can give to differentiation. you can include • differentiation by level of support. the more effective your learning session will become since learners will be much more comfortable with their own work. Don’t worry if in your learning sessions you ‘mix and match’ these techniques . guiding only when necessary. so try to be as patient as possible If a learner makes a mistake. Try to avoid giving unnecessary information or instruction and only stop the practice if you know the learner is making a mistake – this is the time when learners need support and encouragement. These points will help you monitor activity successfully: • Let learners do the task with as little support as possible. perhaps as a follow-up to a discussion or a question and answer session. LEARNER INVOLVEMENT Another key to successful learning is to include in your session design structured opportunities for learner involvement Opportunities include: • • • • discussions led by learners presentations given by learners role play involvement in simulation exercises. Informal involvement happens spontaneously. Activities such as investigations and debates also need an appropriate amount of time. since you are assessing whether the learner has made a mistake due to nervousness.needs can vary quite considerably within groups e. for younger learners. only giving further instructions if no-one can answer. MONITORING ACTIVITY Good session planning will include time for setting up and introducing practical work and experiments. Learning outcomes are better if the learners don't 'have to hurry’. or whether you need to repeat all or part of his/her instruction • 117 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

learners forming their own groups . but make sure you are available to support them. such as: • • • asking the learner to refer to written instructions to try it out for him or herself letting the learner work with a more experienced member of staff temporarily asking learners to help each other if they get stuck. split groups who are troublesome or isolated and bring individual learners into groups where they normally work alone. in all phases and contexts of education and training. Then learners will never experience and appreciate working with anyone other than their own group. Throughout our lives. Of course friends do not always work well together! The balance of groups will depend on what they are being asked to do and how well you know them. SETTING UP GROUP WORK Group work is a very effective approach.this may encourage group working and harmonious teams. But the disadvantages of this approach can include possibly causing some resentment or groups not working satisfactorily at least to begin with. However a disadvantage can be that the same groups will form time after time (since they are based on friendship groups). • POINT TO WATCH Accept that every learner is an individual. our self-esteem helps us to make the most of our abilities. with his or her own ways of learning. In the latter case . Before you set up group work remember: • • You need to decide how the groups are chosen. or correct their work as necessary. If further support is necessary. we should avoid causing them to feel undermined or devalued in front of others Give as many opportunities as possible for the learners to practise their skills without constantly supervising them. Do you put the groups together or do you let the learners choose? In the former case you can put together learners with different or similar perspectives or abilities. So when we try to support learners to find the correct answers. most primary school classrooms use group work as an organisational and as a learning strategy. 118 • • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . but only offer this where necessary. remember to protect a learner’s self-esteem. For example. You may have to go over a section of your initial input to emphasise a difficult or contentious operation. Sometimes a reminder of a key point of the instruction. coaching or demonstration may be necessary. you may wish to offer alternatives.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE • When you are dealing with mistakes or misconceptions by learners.

a very useful follow-up. e. you must move between them (it is good practice to circulate slowly among learners in any case). watch the other groups for questions. But group work can be used as an everyday teaching/learning technique. There will.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Several types of learning activities spring to mind as being ideal for group work: drama and simulation games role play team exercises sporting and recreational activities site visits fieldwork such as geography. however. always be times when one group demands more time than another. This way the less able group will build their understanding more gradually to the same level as the others. SUPERVISING GROUPS One of the most challenging situations to manage in a classroom is when learners are working in small groups. because of lack of understanding. develop a viewpoint on the material or summarise effectively what they thought were the main issues arising from the topic. meanwhile. archaeology laboratory work project work These can be seen as ‘special situations’. One way is to set the less able group small tasks to do while you attend to other groups. For example having given instruction on a topic a teacher can form up groups to frame important questions about the topic. biology. but other groups will not be left waiting for attention.g. Once groups are working. You will need to give this group additional time. rich in learning outcomes. 119 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . geology. but. This group work can then be followed by a summary/plenary session which can pool ideas . Spend time with each group equally as far as possible.

The only way to assess its worth and effectiveness is to give it a try! 120 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Group work can set the teacher new challenges in design and class management. Many activities are better undertaken by learners as individuals – putting learners in groups can be a distraction for many. Do check that the activity which you have set is an appropriate one for group work and discussion. This is a good opportunity to try a little experiment of your own.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Think about incorporating group work into your teaching and learning activities.

But if you start in a loose and casual way. This is a time when your learners will expect you to be in control.5 Managing the flow of activities THE FLOW OF ACTIVITIES You need to ensure that the session: • • as a whole is coherent and balanced leads to positive and productive outcomes. 2. 3.1. This is also your opportunity to identify the objectives for the session.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2. STARTS This is a time for formality. clear and purposeful. 121 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . running through any domestic arrangements and setting out the programme for the learning session. There's no ‘right’ way to begin. Individual teachers have their own approaches. There are a number of important elements here: 1. calm and in control. But whatever method you use it must be definite. You need to be clear. Starts. checking presence or absence as necessary. You'll need to call the learners to attention. You can always 'relax' afterwards. 4. you'll find it difficult then to move to giving direction and instruction. transitions. conclusion Time management Maintaining learner interest Adapting activities.

’ set out what the learners need to prepare for the next learning session. It can mean a break in concentration but see such breaks as an opportunity.g. with a group quiz provide an opportunity to evaluate your session from the learners' perspective. files etc issuing a fresh set of learning instructions forming groups or pairs. You'll need to bear in mind possibly: • • • • • • distributing learning materials using different audio-visual aids moving furniture finding text books.g. Everyone can ‘draw breath’ . 122 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . measured and purposeful conclusion which can: • • • • • • reinforce the main learning outcomes of the session e. ‘what important points have we covered today?’ celebrate success where possible e. ‘This was a difficult set of ideas to study but we did well. Then you can make a fresh invitation to start the new activity. just as often.. Again. activity. (Transitions can be identified on your session plan).g. This may be reading. and you can give new instructions. revision. new.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE TRANSITIONS You'll need to indicate and direct the transition from one mode of learning to the next. inviting your learners to make the most of the next. CONCLUSIONS It is often said that you can tell an accomplished and effective teacher by the way he or she finishes a class. ‘next time we will go on to . this is where the learners will expect you as the teacher to be in control.g. conclusions can be seen as unimportant and teachers sometimes rush or forget them altogether.relax a little. But. provide an opportunity to make a quick assessment of learning e.’ say how this learning session will link up with the next and invite further study e. especially with . It's very good practice to finish the learning session with a clear.. You should manage transitions with clarity and a sense of purpose. research or formal homework such as completing exercises or attempting a learning task or assignment.

three equal components. disinterest. 123 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . a new task to try. a gentle touch of encouragement. This is often a matter of body language. Teachers soon develop the skills to recognise uncertainty. a different way of looking at a problem. There is a balance for you to strike here between letting a learner find his/her own way and intervening in the learning process. clear and if necessary. encourage learners to spend equal amounts of time on each. say. happiness or disaffection without so much as a word being spoken. There is also a balance between attending to the needs of the individual and to the needs of the learning group as a whole. engagement. can you adjust the other timings in your session plan? Deal with small tasks quickly.. reinforced instruction/guidance on how much time and effort learners are expected to devote to particular tasks or activities.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE TEACHER TIME When you are timing your own activities: • • • • • Be aware of the actual time and the total time available to you for each activity in your session plan Prioritise .’ If the task has. Give an accurate idea of time required eg.. MAINTAINING LEARNER INTEREST As you circulate around the class. LEARNER TIME Give realistic. ’20 minutes. be aware of cues and signals of learner behaviour.yours as well as the learners Be realistic . It is good to make a considered response to such body language.if an activity needs longer. confidence.see that the main points of the session are covered and the main learning outcomes are achieved Match time to tasks . This is the opportunity for reassurance.

In each case you will have to prioritise and rearrange or adjust timing within the session as you go along. For many it is one of the pleasures of teaching. Of course these are not the only circumstances which may mean you have to modify the sequence of learning activities. The elephant showed no interest in ‘numeracy skills’ whatever and carried happily on its way. say of understanding or skill operation. The learners were quietly studying some material when an elephant calmly walked past the picture windows on one side of the room. it may be that a topic has so aroused the interest of learners that lively discussion produces important new ideas. for the learner Sometimes. It took some time to restore our focus on the learning session! 124 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . You can draw up your own list of interruptions which you have experienced or might experience .if only because our learners are individual human beings and what went well with one group might not work as well with another. External factors may come into play.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE ADAPTING ACTIVITIES You may need to adjust the timing and emphasis of learning activities within the session plan. Sensing this and doing something about it is one of the outstanding skills in the art of teaching. For example A teacher trainer was once conducting a skills training session for teachers in a training venue located in a building in a zoological garden. Initial surprise turned to laughter. Teachers everywhere know and recognise that this happens very often .from freak weather conditions to unwanted distractions and visitors. • • Sometimes we need to adapt our plan because there are problems.

3. 3. 2. Well done! for 1. 2. 3. What we will go on to study next time 1. You can use this pro-forma Planning an effective conclusion Time for plenary/conclusion (minutes) Session objectives Purpose of the plenary Main points we have gained from this learning session 1. See you next time! at on 125 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Try planning a worthwhile conclusion in at least one of your teaching/learning sessions. 3. You will need to bring: Preparation needed for next time 1. 2. 2.

In either circumstance teaching is difficult.1.6 Managing the learning environment We cannot always teach in a perfect environment but we can plan around and within the known setting to make the most of it. The 'traditional' classroom layout with separated desks and chairs in rows (theatre style with chairs only) is best suited to whole group presentation instruction and individual/private work by learners. 126 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Is the room appropriate for the group size? Learners will not work well if they are in cramped conditions or expecting to work as a small group in a large room.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2. Changing the layout of the room may be one possible solution to either situation.

The arc of questioning and instruction is like the beam of a torch. those in the middle and to the front will be more attentive and interested. 127 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The teacher needs to be remember that.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE The teacher needs to be aware of learners who are sitting to the side and at the front since otherwise he or she may seem not to include these learners. So he or she needs deliberately over time to direct attention to all in the group. other things being equal.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Alternative layouts include: This is a layout more conducive to discussion and. flipchart and overheads can still be seen by all. A horseshoe layout without desks is appropriate for controlled discussions where learners will not need to take notes. The teacher is still “in control” and presentation styles are still feasible – the board. perhaps. is a more informal arrangement than. while giving everyone a desk. 128 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . a row of desks.

129 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . They have all the advantages of the horseshoe but put the teacher as “one of the team”. there can be a sense of vulnerability and it is difficult if the group cannot balance all their books and papers. The disadvantage may be that overheads and whiteboard cannot be seen by all without moving some of the chairs. These layouts may best be used for practical work such as role play. A second advantage is that with no tables or desks.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Cluster and Board layouts can be with or without a table. depending on the proposed learner activities. debate. discussion.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Small group work is best conducted when the furniture is arranged in groups around a table ('cabaret' style). programmes and activities which involve particular permanent layouts – in practical areas. laboratories or in the workplace for example – and these will have to be taken into account when sessions are planned. boards and overheads. Furniture may need to be moved if it is only part of a session. of course. There are. as not all will be able to see flipcharts. 130 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Interruptions will affect the “flow” of any session as well as the learners and staff. have a quiet word with them after the session. warm and friendly more business-like more stimulating more mobile clearer about their classroom rules. Experienced teachers were: • • • • • more confident. it is for the teacher to agree on an appropriate level. There is no harm insisting that learners pay attention in silence especially where teachers are giving detailed instructions or explaining a difficult point. It is in fact good practice. Wragg and Wood (1989) compared the approach and behaviour in class of experienced teachers with that of new recruits to the profession. Turn off or unplug any handsets before the session starts. In less practical situations. Distractions and interruptions should be at a minimum – outside noise can distract. This is two-way traffic and not just a one-way street! All teachers are concerned about the ‘way they came across’ to their learners. Maximum visibility for all is essential.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Whatever the layout certain fundamentals should be considered • • Comfortable learning environment – for example consider space. It is a waste of everyone's time if learners distract each other in conversation when vital work is being covered. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER AND LEARNERS We need to be able successfully to manage the learning environment so that cooperative. as can people walking in and out of the room or alongside windows. Telephone interruptions – especially mobile phones – should not happen. 131 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . as well as comfortable chairs. some learners can work with a low level of noise. In teaching and learning there is a time and a place for everything. Noise levels within the room are at the teacher’s discretion. temperature. active and effective learning can take place. This may sound dictatorial. In some sessions – or in the workplace – certain work levels are normal and cannot be decreased. (One proviso on this is when the telephone is an emergency connection and cannot be turned off). • • • It is up to teachers to establish 'ground rules' on aspects such as noise level. There will be time for conversation and discussion and the teacher will be able to point that out to the learners. If a learner persists in disruptive conversation. Anyone coming into the room should be dealt with promptly BUT finish any instruction or presentation at a convenient point before answering their query. lighting.

so: • • • your interpersonal skills such as your tone of voice. You can develop a happy working climate by consistently applying a few 'ground rules' such as: • • • • • keeping quiet when others are trying to make a point cutting out backchat and casual quips listening to an alternative point of view helping others with a skill rather than watching them flounder making a positive contribution to a shared atmosphere of achievement. If a learner or small group of learners deliberately ignore or break these rules then it is time for you to have a quiet word with them. 132 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNERS Learners will thrive in an atmosphere in which they feel comfortable with each other. too.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE and they: • • made greater use of eye contact had greater presence and authority. nervous or relaxed and confident? how do you ‘come across’ to them? If you put yourself in your learners’ shoes for a while you will soon see that details do matter . how do your learners ‘see’ you? • • • • • • • • are you organised and effective? do you ‘know your stuff’? are you approachable? can they ask you questions freely . You should not do this in ‘open class’ as you may then give them the attention they are seeking and they will misbehave even more. but teachers who are neat and tidy and well turned out show not only respect for their learners and their work but for themselves.without fear of a put down? are you interested in them . Fine! But what about expectations at the other end of the ‘two-way street’? In other words.as individual learners? do you care about what you are doing? are you apprehensive. body language and mobility are very important in framing the social environment if you invite and encourage learners to study. this is more likely to gain their approval than issuing an authoritarian instruction or command the learners have to look at you for considerable spells of time. Dress codes vary from culture to culture and institution to institution.

ORGANIZATIONAL This is to do with organizing the use of materials.you certainly learn how to think on your feet! Most such trainers will agree that the earlier they can visit the training room(s) and venue the better. You should treat the work you collect from your learners with great care." ". You need to: • • • maximise the use of what IS available make the best of the physical environment make constructive suggestions to line managers as to what could be reasonably available.. HINTS AND TIPS We can learn a lot from professional trainers who travel (often worldwide) from one set of learners and venues to many others.that OHT on the Andes shows the point well ." ". Particularly important here is the management of work.. resources and equipment.if I can only find it. personnel and.. This can be a rewarding experience . on occasions.I’m sure there were enough handouts to go round. the learners themselves. There is nothing more infuriating for learners than working with a teacher who frequently says things like: ".Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Remember: 'Praise publicly." Learners feel that the teacher is disorganised and is being unprofessional. distribution and collection of resources and materials. If you say you are going to mark the work by Wednesday make sure that it is ready for return on Wednesday. production.. It is a question of trust and authenticity. making assessments properly and returning them promptly.. 133 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . They are right.where is that case study file? I’m sure I brought it in.. We need to pay attention to the availability. but reprimand privately' PHYSICAL Physical factors such as: location group size visibility staffing levels heating and ventilation lighting acoustics programme funding room layout furniture and fittings available resources can all help or hinder learning.

name-calling. Racial prejudice Racist behaviour is unacceptable at school. in order to prepare pupils for life in our multicultural society. We aim to foster a sensitive.so that they can check and adjust heating. informed attitude amongst its pupils. Every pupil has rights to the best possible education. Multicultural harmony It is the responsibility of all governors and staff (teaching. 134 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . support. They will also check health and safety aspects such as fire exits. Actions by pupils which are clearly hurtful to others include: a) b) c) d) e) racist jokes. The multicultural curriculum The school aims to encourage respect between individuals by increasing their understanding of cultural diversity.at least 30 minutes before . NO DISCRIMINATION In his book ‘Effective Teaching in Schools’. 1. It is important that pupils recognise the equality. They will also get to the venue well in advance of the learners . check the operation of machines especially OHP. We aim to develop an understanding of different cultures and lifestyles. catering and cleaning staff) to implement this policy. projectors. first aid and telephone points. creating a caring atmosphere in which diversity can flourish. 4. 3. ventilation.’ We include it here because it lays down a policy framework for the whole school community which applies especially to learning sessions. library. colour. religion or sex. Chris Kyriacou includes ‘one school’s multicultural policy. videos and Powerpoint. This policy affects every aspect of school life and all staff are committed to opposing any form of racist behaviour. 2. Equality of opportunity The school will endeavour to meet the needs of all pupils and staff regardless of racial origin.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE They will go through a (mental or actual) checklist of physical and organisational features. warmth and dignity of people from all cultures. and equality of opportunity must be afforded to all. graffiti. lighting. rearrange furniture as necessary. insults and threats language deliberately offensive to others’ beliefs behaviour such as wearing racist badges or bringing racist literature into school racist comment in the course of discussion in sessions physical assault against a person or group because of colour or cultural background The school will act to deal with racial prejudice in an appropriate manner and support the sufferers. Every member of the school is held to be of equal value. administration. Pupils will have opportunities to learn about their own and other cultures throughout the school curriculum. toilets.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Good news . how would you identify potential disruptions and interruptions? . how would you create a positive and effective rapport between you as a teacher and. what checks would you like to make immediately before your session? 2. 200 people you have never met before? 3. say. You've assembled your material. and how would you avoid discrimination in your activities? 6. 1. air-conditioned and lavishly equipped has been set aside for your exclusive use.remember the vessel is at sea and the passengers are on holiday? 5. A very fine lecture hall. how would you ensure that the organisational side of your enterprise ran smoothly? 4. any issues of health and safety you need to think about? BON VOYAGE! 135 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . fully carpeted.you're on a cruise ship! You're in charge of education courses on board! You need to conduct a 45 minute session introducing passengers to the main points of interest in their next port of call. made a careful session plan and can expect an interested and varied group of learners.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2. but also through • • • • • the resources you use your body language your facial expressions the nature of the tasks you set the flow and pace of the instruction you give. Motivation embodies the factors that come together to maintain our interest in. It is the reason. As a teacher you’ll be drawing on all sorts of techniques to help you bring out the best in those you are instructing.1 Motivating learners Motivation is goal-directed behaviour. and motivational techniques will be among your most valuable tools. that we have for behaving in a certain way. There's always the possibility of inadvertently de-motivating learners. a goal. Motivation is facilitated and encouraged not only through the language you use to communicate to your learners. working understanding of motivation and how it works. Everything that you do as a teacher can usefully have the motivation of your learners at its heart. 136 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .2. or reasons. In fact everything you do as a teacher has the potential to motivate or de-motivate. and move us towards. If your teaching and their learning is to be as efficient as possible. they will need to be as engaged as possible throughout your interactions with them. So it’s clear to see why you need a solid.

achievement or affiliation ERG seeking to fulfil needs of existence. to be a leader in this field but there are also many other theories on motivation.org/explanations/theories/a_motivation. 137 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . that supports our ego Extrinsic Motivation external tangible rewards Intrinsic Motivation internal value-based rewards Cognitive Evaluation we select tasks based on how do-able we feel they are Investment Model our commitment depends on what we have invested Goal-Setting we are motivated differently by different types of goals Acquired Needs we seek power.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Theories of motivation are usually based in psychology. Many consider Abraham Maslow. relatedness and growth Expectancy being motivated by desirable things we expect we can achieve Control seeking to control the world around us On the ChangingMinds website.htm • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Consistency seeking the comfort of internal alignment Self-discrepancy needing beliefs to be consistent Cognitive Dissonance finding non-alignment uncomfortable Attitude-Behaviour Consistency aligning attitude and behavior Reactance feeling discomfort when freedom is threatened Attribution needing to attribute cause. an American thinker on motivation. The following list of motivation theories has been adapted from the ChangingMinds website http://changingminds. you can follow the links for each of the above to find a more detailed description of each theory.

’ Perhaps we can encourage ourselves towards these positive expectations by reviewing four aspects of our own practice 138 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . This is a complex issue.. • Expectation for success This is the extent to which learners feel they are likely to succeed in a course or learning programme.. • Intrinsic motivation This is where learners engage in a learning activity to satisfy their curiosity and interest in the topic area to be covered or develop skills in this topic area for their own sake. From this one can point to three important influences on learner motivation. emotional climate for those individuals give feedback to that group on their performance give more input (information). ‘Trainers with positive expectations of trainees: • • • • create a warm. OK. though.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE TYPES OF MOTIVATION Much research and many learned books and articles have thus been produced on the subject of motivation. DEVELOPING MOTIVATION This involves encouraging and making the most of learners’ intrinsic. for example a training or academic qualification. • Extrinsic motivation Here learners engage in a set of learning activities which fulfils a goal or a need and is a means to an end. extrinsic motivation and expectation of success. that learners will be motivated to learn when they: • • • • • • • want to learn know what is to be learned find the subject interesting]understand why they have to learn have the chance to contribute see opportunities to learn and carry out tasks in the way they would like are given opportunities to work and cooperate with each other. what is our response to this as professionals? A helpful perspective on this comes from Phil Green. fine .. whose company ‘Optimum Learning’ has trained hundreds of trainers. It is clear.. Phil says this of trainers . have sessions planned which enable all learners to have opportunities for success. set higher expectations and demand more of them give more opportunity for output (question and answer).

then share this and the learning objectives with your learners. roles in learning. It can confirm their activities. to further understanding. There is a difference between a question and a speech! There are three types of question: • • • closed questions open questions multiple-choice questions. closed questions • • • • • These expect a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer or at least a limited response They are not designed to gather views or opinions Their value in learning environments is very limited They are NOT usually employed to assess knowledge or understanding They are probably simply a method of information retrieval. to highlight different points of view of prepare for some kind of assessment (you can see that in this short list we have already covered all three types of motivation.) It is a good idea to provide learners with a route way through the learning sequence. For example ‘what is the purpose of the learning activities?’ Is it to develop skills. ASKING QUESTIONS Experienced teachers (and other professionals) can find this a difficult set of skills to develop.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE SETTING THE SCENE FOR LEARNING We need to tune into the expectations of our learners. If you have got a session plan. 139 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . short and unambiguous. Here is one way of sequencing questions to support learning: Ask question ↓ Listen carefully to answer ↓ Respond to answer giving feedback ↓ Build on response positively ↓ Perhaps by using a follow up question POINT TO WATCH When you ask questions keep them clear. timescales involved and expected outcomes to be achieved. This could be in the form of a visual aid or handout.

more empathetic and is designed to begin the self-assessment. The second is much wider. The first question implies criticism. Look at the following examples.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Examples Did you enjoy the lunch? Which button do you press next? How many wishes did the fairy grant? open questions These are designed to gain a fuller response to a given question. Learners are asked to select the correct answer from a range of options (usually listed in random order). They are always written questions. Open questions usually start with one of the following: who? when? what? which? why? how? Since the response to such questions cannot be predicted. where a teacher is asking a learner to self-assess: What do you think you did wrong when dealing with that customer? How do you feel you handled that situation with the customer and what would you do differently in the light of that experience? Notice the tone and usefulness of each of the above. multiple choice questions These are usually used as methods of formative or summative assessments. but enable the learner to: • • • • say as much or as little as she/he feels she/he wishes use his or her own words and ideas expressed in his or her own way interpret the question as widely or as narrowly as she/he sees fit express his/her own opinions. it concentrates only on what went wrong. although they can also be used in an oral format in a class quiz. you need to frame open questions carefully to elicit the information or opinions needed. 140 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

but do make sure that everyone is happy and understands. For example. 141 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . CONTROLLING GROUPS An experienced teacher will always modify his/her style of delivery and method of class involvement to the size and composition of the learning group concerned.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE For example If a computer you were using suddenly ‘crashed’. Your institution will have codes of discipline and you should consult these for further information. encouraging the learners to take responsibility for their own behaviour if you can develop cheerful rapport with your learners early on. which of the following actions would you take: hit it call your supervisor for help switch off the computer and restart after 10 seconds look at the manual and follow the steps given POINT TO WATCH In the learning session don’t be put off if there are NO questions from learners. there is a world of difference between a college seminar group of 10 or 12 and the 200 ‘learners’ we had on the cruise ship! There are some key issues here: • • • • it is sound practice to adopt positive discipline. this will help later if difficulties arise knowing your learners and taking an interest in their aspirations (without being too involved) helps to build mutual respect indiscipline is best dealt with in stages. Confrontations are always best avoided and sanctions against learners will be most effective if used sparingly. This will help you ‘customise’ learning situations to learner needs and their preferred learning styles. USING KNOWLEDGE Learners will be confident in your skills as a teacher if you can consistently demonstrate your own subject knowledge BUT a teacher who only does this will quickly (and rightly) be seen as a show-off and a bore. In demonstrating your subject knowledge you need to express real interest in and enthusiasm for the topic.

reading and individual written work. 142 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Some are shy.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE POINT TO WATCH Not all learners ask questions and throw themselves into active discussion. Recognising and rewarding these kinds of involvement will help the learners enormously. Some learners are quiet and cautious by nature. Just because they are not giving overt signals of appreciation does not mean that they are not actively engaged! They may shine in more passive learning activities such as research.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE

Practice
Many teachers find it difficult to frame questions as they go along in teaching/learning situations. One of the benefits of undertaking the Diploma is that it is focused on your own actual professional practice. So let's go back to basics for a moment. 1. Think of a concept or topic or piece of instruction with which you're familiar. 2. Think of some open questions which you could use in this context 3. Write these questions down 4. Think of likely responses to these questions 5. What use would you make of these responses?

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2.2.2 Encouraging learners

SPONTANEITY Formal components of learning sessions - such as imaginative presentations, interesting demonstrations and absorbing practical work - can often stimulate extra-ordinary spells of learning. These spontaneous learning opportunities are ‘unplanned’ and so we call them ‘informal’ activities. Here are two examples of this happening. Example 1: taken from a primary class In a primary classroom a planned story session on folk tales was interrupted by the arrival of a school visitor from abroad. The teacher used the opportunity to ask the visitor to tell the children a folk tale from her own culture. Example 2: taken from a secondary learning session

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This drawing is based on a field sketch made during a geography fieldwork study week in Tunisia. The learning session took place on the beach and had two objectives: • • to tell the story of the formation of the Mediterranean Sea to look at beach profiles in the locality.

The first part of the learning session was a little sleepy as the teacher told the story of the geological sequence which brought about the sea we now call the Mediterranean. The learners basked on the sand and made notes and the teacher stood in the sea to cool off. In the second part of the session beach the plan was to measure profiles. One of the learners, perhaps a little bored by the story of the Mediterranean, idly unearthed one of the small plants which braved salt, sun and sand in the beach. The learner’s excavation revealed an enormous tap root over one metre long! Pretty soon everyone was digging for taproots! As the teacher tried to explain the reasons for the length of the roots, the learners took photographs and as they went further up the beach the group had a lively discussion about other topics such as plant density. The beach profile exercise had to wait until another time (it was partly absorbed into profile drawings to plot and measure the location and proliferation of species with distance from the sea). This spontaneous study produced a memorable and exciting learning session for both the teacher and the learners. Clearly this sort of event is not exactly an everyday occurrence in the lives of teachers and learners! But small-scale examples can and do happen more frequently. The skill is to recognise them when they happen, make the most of them and build upon them. MAKING THE MOST OF OPPORTUNITIES Such learning activities are like plants. They need a rich soil and invigorating climate to grow in. The teacher can set up that soil and climate as we have seen but it needs some additional skills with which to encourage learners. You can: • enable your learners to feel comfortable with themselves (self-esteem), their fellow learners, you the teacher and the learning environment. You want them to feel confident enough to say what they have found, what their theory might be - without worrying about being 'wrong' listen carefully, attentively and sincerely to what your learners are saying and show appreciation of their contribution take up a learner’s idea and develop it with enthusiasm
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encourage other learners to develop their own interest in the topic include a summary of the value and impact of such contributions in your conclusion to the learning session

This kind of experience is part of the magic of teaching and learning. The key is encouragement. Whatever their ability, skills or understanding, every learner thrives on encouragement. The teacher who can see the value of encouragement is preparing the soil in which our 'plants' - our learners - can grow! THINGS TO DO TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY WITH LEARNERS

☺ Be aware of your appearance
remember that you never get a second chance to make a good first impression learners form their first opinions of you in under 10 seconds - think about the impression you give and how you can promote the image you want adopt an upright posture whatever you wear (and some teaching situations are less formal than others), make sure that you and your clothes are clean and tidy.

☺ Be enthusiastic about the subject
do not expect learners to be interested if your body language and tone do not reflect your interest good eye contact with learners is essential as this is a natural expression of your interest in your learners.

☺ Use your voice and body language effectively
make sure your gestures are natural and spontaneous and avoid nervous habits use gestures to emphasise your points use all the space available to you - a teacher who delivers information in a wooden voice standing absolutely still in one place is boring and uninteresting BUT continually pacing across the room can be a distraction remember that your voice adds energy and interest to your learning sessions so vary your tone and project your voice to keep learners' attention practise breathing deeply as this helps to project your voice speak louder and more slowly than normal make sure the words you use communicate what you want to say use learners' names wherever possible use humour wherever possible remember a smile costs nothing.

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☺ Active listening skills
The ability to listen actively to another person is one of the most appreciated qualities any teacher can have. Learners will be motivated to ask questions, express feelings and respond to questions only if such conversations are handled effectively by the teacher. The first time a learner asks a question or expresses his or her feelings will set the scene for future communication. If a question or opinion from a learner is badly handled, the learner, plus other group members if learning is taking place in a group, will be discouraged from repeating the negative experience. Here are some tips for listening actively to your learners: clear away your thoughts and feelings from previous events if possible and give full attention to the speaker be aware of your own and the speaker's body language and tone of voice give encouraging verbal and non-verbal signals (smiles, nods, etc) keep good eye contact with the speaker, but avoid staring maintain silence while the speaker is asking a question and avoid fidgeting never be judgmental check that you have heard or understood correctly, asking your own questions to clarify if necessary listen for the main ideas and paraphrase these if necessary to make sure you have understood them remember that we are all liable to 'switch off' if we are bored or disagree and keep your full attention on the speaker re-state what you think you have heard if you are not sure about it, or the point is a little complicated summarise what has been said at the end to allow the speaker to clarify what s/he said if necessary.

Non-verbal communications are also important in establishing rapport. You need to be aware of:

☺ Body Language – yours and your learners’.
What are you portraying by the way you stand, sit and place your hands? You cannot hide body language - you can be aware of it and control it. The same applies to your learners. A small experiment which convinces people of the impact of and on body language is unexpectedly to change your approaches to a group of learners. Say something controversial and watch the defensive postures; be more relaxed and “laid back” than usual and see the learners “open up”. This is only recommended for those who are willing to accept the responses and what it tells them about their normal style. You can see, by the body language, how well a session is being received. Are the learners showing boredom, lack of understanding, or total enthusiasm? If so, you may have to change your teaching strategies to create a more positive atmosphere. You may need to show more enthusiasm than you feel!
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frown etc – and eye contact are excellent communicators.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE It has often been said that teaching is “not a million miles from acting” and it often feels that you are “performing”. Someone who stands and paces is unsettling. 148 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . but do not worry if you are a little nervous. Also remember that proximity . Being a teacher is both enjoyable and rewarding and the adrenalin will run a little . Do not be afraid of 'being on stage'. Proximity and touch must be deal with in a very sensitive way.respecting other people’s space – and touch can hint at many things. sit and move communicates to others.let it run! ☺ Posture How you stand. Some world-famous actors are almost impossibly nervous before appearing on stage and some excellent teachers with over twenty years' experience may yet be a little 'on edge' before a session. Leaning forward shows interest. Most centres will have guidelines which deal with this. but folded arms indicate defence possibly expecting criticism. facial signs . It can express itself as an equal opportunities or harassment issue. ☺ Show your confidence You also need to take into account that dress.smile.

in your personal development diary . Reflect on aspects of your personality and approach which encouraged learners to make these contributions. Do you think you and they made the most of the opportunity? If and when this happens again.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Make a few notes . Think of occasions when your sessions took an unexpected turn which resulted in purposeful learning. would you approach the moment in the same way or differently. and why? 149 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .about a couple of occasions in your experience when a formal learning activity led to exciting informal and unexpected learning contributions from the learners.

3 Guiding learners INITIAL INFORMATION GATHERING This can form part of an induction event. to be followed by an interview) a discussion with a teacher colleague. after analysis of the responses. period or phase at the start of a learning programme and can include: • • an interview with the learner in which the main purpose is to help him or her to identify a programme or learning activity to suit his or her needs and level of skill a diagnostic test that assesses skills specifically related to identified tasks .2. • • • • 150 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .these are best as single answer or multiple-choice questions which are simple to assess with quick results (computer-based tests are ideal for this purpose) questionnaires which identify skill strengths and aptitudes of an individual .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2.these are particularly useful where the potential learner has not yet specified the particular area they want to study (in these cases the questionnaire will need. about the specific requirements for an individual. include the learner a discussion with previous teacher scrutiny of learners' previous work. at some point. This discussion should always. an employer or other stakeholder.

POINT TO WATCH • • • individual teacher-learner interaction is not just used or useful in cases of difficulty able learners often encounter problems and may need added stimulation and support to develop their interests and aptitudes towards heightened learning outcomes recognition. and classroom observations can often provide valuable insights into: • • • • • • • learner interests. the remainder of the learning group may: lose concentration and attention 151 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Within learning sessions As you can see from the spidergram there can be many reasons for switching your attention from group activities and devoting your teaching time to the needs of an individual learner. quick fun/quiz activities. reward and reassurance are needs shared by all learners. long and short term aspirations the learner’s current levels of skills and knowledge learner expectations from the learning programme his or her personal and inter-personal skills his or her preferred learning styles and learning environments any special needs which a learner may have level of social or physical development.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE ONGOING INFORMATION ABOUT THE LEARNER Ice breaker sessions. switching attention like this can cause problems e. goals. METHODS OF ADDRESSING INDIVIDUAL LEARNER NEEDS 1.g. impromptu chats. As all teachers are aware.

So you need to be confident that instead they can: be getting on successfully with their own individual or group work continue with a fruitful and ordered learning atmosphere respect the fact that individuals (including themselves) have specific learning needs. Teachers conducting one-to-one learning activities outside formal classes should pay very careful attention to professional (and legal) regulations laid down by their employer educational. It is not a good idea to enter into an open-ended commitment. objectives and schedules and should work to agreed learning outcomes. This is sometimes referred to as an audit or conferencing session.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE - misbehave feel alienated from your attention be underemployed feel neglected or demotivated. corporate or other institution. Beyond learning sessions Clearly the duration of activities like remedial teaching and coaching sessions will vary enormously with the kind of subject and activity being undertaken. You can also conduct such sessions with groups who are working as a team towards some identified set of learning objectives 152 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . 2. emphasising what has been done well highlight but do not condemn negative issues end with future action which can be taken . A clear start and finish time should be set in advance. FEEDBACK TO INDIVIDUAL LEARNERS You can: • • • • • write written comments/annotations on the learner's written exercises or assignments add individual remarks/comments to contributions when handing assessed work back to the learner give feedback comments on in class conversations and discussions hold conferencing (audit) sessions in class or after/outside class provide comments on achievement and progress in formal reports. It is wise to conduct such sessions in conditions which protect the teacher’s (and the learner’s) integrity. Such sessions need clear aims.set targets agree this action with the learner relate feedback to the objectives set for the work One method of giving learners such feedback is by reviewing their work on a one-to-one basis. When you give motivational feedback: • • • • • be positive.

a sample session • • • You could give this a limited (sample) trial either within or beyond the learning session.‘carry out review with all your learners (i) (ii) make sure you plan the time and activities in an around this review into your learning programme/session plan(s) allocate enough time per individual. You could use this technique for a small number of learners. Level 2 . What should be the outcome(s) of this review for: • • the learner? the teacher? If this review is being held during the learning session how do you: • • reassure the remainder of the group who have not been selected for review? ensure that they have something useful to be getting on with? Remember to make sure that the review happens as soon after the session as possible. You should now try to list some of the advantages and disadvantages of conferencing as a review/feedback technique. eg • • • did it take appropriate time given the kinds of benefits it produced? is it better as a formal (planned) exercise or as an informal procedure? does it suit your style as a teacher and your learners’ style(s) as learners? 153 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Why not be honest with the learners? Tell them you're trying a new technique! They'll soon give you motivational feedback on how you are doing! POINTS TO WATCH How are you going to record what you say and what you find? It is reckoned to be poor practice to sit down with the learner and his/her work and make (furtive) notes all the time.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Try audit review/ conferencing with your own learners Level 1 . Don't just spend time with ‘problem cases’.

The learner may live many miles from reading sources. The dominant lifestyle may be dismissive of or antagonistic towards education 154 • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .4 Supporting learners ADDITIONAL SUPPORT Individual learners sometimes require additional support to help them achieve the learning objectives. This kind of action is a step beyond the kinds of learning activities covered in 'Guiding Learners'. libraries or a computer terminal. He or she may experience a downward spiral in morale if nothing is done to help It may be that access to learning materials and resources is a problem for an individual learner.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 2. too. For example: • • key family members may not have the levels of literacy or numeracy they need to offer guidance to their children/relatives the learner’s family may be unsupportive. • ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Environment issues may be important pressures upon the learner.2. even hostile to the whole concept of education in general and the time and money being spent on the learner’s programme of study in particular the learner’s neighbourhood may present problems for him/her. It is important to recognise that: • If a learner’s ability is only just sufficient to cope with the demands of the learning programme then some kind of individual learning support may be needed. The learner will be all too aware of his/her difficulties and may lose self-esteem. This may simply be a matter of location.

g. They may: • • be embarrassed and wish to say nothing accept your offer of help be relieved that you have taken some notice of their difficulty reject any form of help try to make light of the issue If you get any form of encouraging response then you can agree ways forward with the learner If you feel that the learner wishes to disengage from offers of help then you need to raise awareness of this problem with others including colleagues and specialists. so that you can refer to this as and when necessary See what the effect of this interaction with the learner is. These may include shyness.especially body language. lack of participation. Many may produce concurrent psychosomatic problems. actual pressure not to learn from friends.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE • social and peer problems e. ask others classroom helpers. deafness. They may exist within as well as beyond the immediate learning environment and extreme cases of pressure may manifest themselves in bullying physical considerations such as illness. and migraine. poverty. playground cliques etc. Look for signs of disengagement. This will involve referral as a process. motor and mobility difficulties. lack of self-esteem. feelings of isolation or alienation physical problems and disability may include poor vision. lack of attendance personal issues may lead to learning difficulties. away from the main group of learners. sad or ‘vacant’ expression Identify carefully and accurately the nature of the difficulties in a one-to-one chat. Cultures and institutions vary in their methods of approaching such individual difficulties but the following advice can help you: • • • • • Be aware of your learners’ general behaviour . 155 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . peers. assistant teachers etc to add to your observations Make a record of your findings from this discussion. • • • THE TEACHER’S ROLE Experience has shown that each individual case is different. Reassure the learner In the case of younger learners. lack of confidence.

The following form gives some of the major factors which may indicate that support and guidance are needed.g. colleges and universities have in-house pastoral care systems Some teachers may become pastoral care specialists All teachers are aware that they are responsible for some element of pastoral care in their teaching e. This may be more a significant concern for teachers working with children and young people than those with adult or professional learners . They need to get to know each learner as a whole individual. Successful teaching is based on the care of the teacher in encouraging the learner’s educational development.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE PASTORAL CARE Pastoral care focuses on the individual well-being of each learner.but even with the latter there are issues. and supervising health and safety. Pastoral care deals with four main aspects of learning Learning progress Individual and social behaviour and attitudes Personal and social development Individual needs • • • As the diagram shows these aspects are inter-linked Many schools. keeping an eye on apparently 'simple' issues such as presence and absence. 156 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

ability level) Examples of how to recognise these Recommended action • • • • Fast learners exhibit signs of boredom and may start to miss sessions Slow learners struggle to make progress and start to fall behind Disruptive behaviour may result from both groups Slow learners may hesitate to ask for help and problem may only be identified during assessment of work • • • Include more challenging tasks for fast learners or adjust programme to one which will meet their needs more closely Allocate tutorial time to slow learners or discuss possibility of wrong level of programme selected take appropriate action if this is the case Advise slow learners on self-study or selfdirected study or allocate peer mentor in group to work with learner 2.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Factors affecting progress and achievement 1.e. including in cost of learning Prepare list of recommended reading materials and pass on to library facilities in time for next programme 157 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Learner's capability to progress and achieve (i. if necessary. Access to materials • • • Learners do not have access to materials and this reason is given for non-completion of work Learners are not able to afford necessary materials and work suffers Sharing of materials due to financial constraints is causing problems when completing tasks • • • • Check that necessary/recommended learning materials are available through library facilities Check if these can be ordered from public library Discuss possibility of purchasing necessary materials and.

Social or group relationships • • • • • • Bullying is evident Learners start to miss learning sessions Learners who have previously made good progress have problems in reaching required standard Disruptive behaviour is causing problems and interrupting learning Personality clashes in groups or syndicate groups Break up of romantic relationships between group members has effect on progress and achievement of those concerned • • • • Refer to specialist advice or counsellor if outside own competence level Raise matter delicately during tutorial sessions Separate learners with personality clashes Bring out into open and discuss problems with group if widespread.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE 3. Environment • • • Learners do not attend sessions due to travel difficulties Location for training is cause of complaints from learners Chosen methods of learning do not suit preferred learning styles of individual learners and progress is affected • • • • Discuss alternative sites or methods of travel with centre or learner Analyse complaints to identify problems and take action to remedy or improve within limits of authority and pass on those outside limits to those who can take action Provide access to counsellor to discuss alternatives Discuss directly with learner if within own level of competence 4. handling very carefully and avoiding allocation of blame 158 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

is very quiet in learning sessions but shows signs neither of enthusiasm nor of disinterest. A learner who has clearly underachieved. think about the individuals who get the least time and attention from you. is enthusiastic about programme and session content and seems happy and welladjusted B. They can be three contrasting case studies: A. Why is this? How many fall into this category? How can you make more of their needs and stimulate more involvement from them (and you as teacher)? 159 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . has been on occasions disruptive in sessions and has shown little interest in the activities. Some questions for you to think about: • • • which one of the above might occupy most of your time and attention and why? which one of the above might occupy least of your time and attention and why? how did you deal with the problems you identified for any one of the above? Next time you're with a learning group. A learner who has achieved more of less what was expected of him/her. A learner who has been or is a high achiever throughout the learning programme.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 2 : PRACTICE Practice Think of three learners you are currently or have recently been teaching/training. C.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Module 3 ASSESSMENT 160 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

of course.’ No-one would argue against frequent formative assessment but it must be properly targeted. The answers to your ‘what’ and ‘why’ questions become your assessment objectives. Summative assessment is used at the end of the programme formally to assess a learner’s skill. It is assessment for learning. 2.1 Preparing formative assessments Formative assessment tests the current level of understanding and progress at any point in a learning programme and provides feedback information to teacher and learner. 161 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . ‘How am I doing?’ ‘How is my son/daughter getting on?’ ‘How are my learners progressing with their learning?’ These are among the most commonly asked questions in everyday education. These need careful consideration and precise identification as we shall see later in this task. Assessment becomes ritualised – ‘Wednesday is test day. parents. that is the means for assessing learners’ progress. Formative assessment. In order to ‘target’ assessment you must be clear about what you want to assess and why. They illustrate the important point that assessment is a vital teaching-learning process. It's easy to fall into the habit of ‘assessment for assessment’s sake. Once you have identified your assessment objectives you can choose your methods of assessment.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. knowledge and understanding gained as a result of that programme. is a good way of embedding assessment into learning sessions and programmes.’ ‘the weekly essay.’ This is where you collect in work and ‘mark’ it with no special purpose on mind. Learners see the need for it as much as teachers and. 3. Before you start consider these essential points 1. Ritualised versus Targeted Assessment. to guide the next phase of learning. It is assessment of learning.1.

Business Games Almost guaranteed to produce lively learning sessions! Can teach a number of skills imaginatively and effectively. developing a skill. The better ones contain useful directions to possible methods of assessment. can be fun and marks can be simply recorded. It needs expert and experienced assessors. are all appealing tasks. Skills Assessment using Formal Assessment Criteria These may be the foundation for many skills-based courses. ‘Purpose’ is the key word here. Projects Increasingly used in modern education as it is felt that developing your own learning material/methods gives you an ‘ownership’ of your own learning experience. design and complexity. especially in conjunction with homework. preparation of material for a class discussion. A very useful and increasingly used method. These are informal. Easy to design. The assessment methods of the various project components need careful design and clear communication to the learners. This method requires experience in ‘on the hoof’ assessment and systematic recording. Difficult to manage and assess. Extended or Multiple-choice Answers Very widely used. mark and assess. visits and interviews. Written Questions / Exercises with Short. 162 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Observation of Performance This is often used in the arts such as music and skill assessment such as team and leadership exercises. This includes Question and Answer in the Session This is perhaps the most commonly used method and is almost instinctive for teachers. Simulations. Learners will make good use of homework if they feel it is useful. May involve library and internet investigations.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT TYPES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT There is a large range of formative assessment methods available. Short Tests and Quizzes These are either from textbooks or devised by the teacher. May well be time-consuming. seeing how a piece of writing ends. It gives instant feedback. Homework Exercises These vary in purpose. Used with care they can become part of every day teaching and learning. Assignments This term spans a vast range of tasks but an example might be individual research assignments say for a group project. can be used to develop motivation but is largely ephemeral – that is to say that it is momentary and difficult to record. for example.

A very useful and beneficial process for teachers and learners. written tests of skills. Was it because: • • • • you had used them successfully before? it was department/programme policy to use them? you felt comfortable handling them as a technique? you felt they did the job you were asking them to do? 163 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . 1. A learner can start at any point in the cycle but to be really useful the stages should be followed in the order shown on the diagram. knowledge and understanding and many other methods. Three points to watch when operating it as a method. REFLECTION David Kolb described experiential learning as a cyclical process. involvement and motivation into the teacher-learner relationship. oral tests. Let’s just rest at Stage 2 for a moment and reflect on the kind of formative assessments you have already used. You could have used oral questioning. Make notes on learner performance immediately after the review.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Conferencing / Reviews / Audit This involves sitting down with learners and reviewing their written work/homework/progress in general. It can be time consuming as you have to give all learners a review session. (If you do not – those who are omitted will feel rejected!) 2. If you do it in class you must ensure that those not involved have something useful to be getting on with. Can be used to introduce care. not during it. 3. Ask yourself why you chose these methods.

Then consider the possible assessment methods available and select the most effective method of assessment for your teaching and learning environment. reasons 2. Think also about the position of assessment in the programme and sessions planned. Consider what you need to discover from the learners. or will it require a good deal of preparation and planning? how much time will it take in terms of operation. Criteria for selecting formative assessment methods Ask yourself these questions: • • • • • • is the method appropriate to the nature and abilities of your learners? can it be deployed quickly. Selecting methods The methods of assessment you choose will be those best suited to the learning objectives and material present in your learning programme and learning sessions. Remember: • • most formative assessments tend to be relatively brief so tests and quizzes need to be brief and to the point (hence the need for careful targeting and design) some formative assessment techniques such as conferencing (‘Audit’) are brief in so far as the teacher talks to the learner about his/her work but may be very time consuming when the ten minutes per learner is multiplied by the thirty learners in the class.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT There is nothing wrong at all with any or all of these reasons for selection but when we are selecting a method of assessment we do need to think about 1. criteria We can now go on to stage 3 of the Kolb cycle. the ‘abstract conceptualisation’ stage. say during a learning session. marking and feedback to the learners? how will you record the findings of the assessment exercise? how formal or informal will it be? will learners be able to develop their motivation as a result of using this method? 164 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

On the other hand if you are casual about formative assessment. You should think of assessment as a partner to learning in the education process. Frequency of assessment also needs some thought. Clearly you need to strike a balance . Your learners can then get used to assessment and become more comfortable with assessment. You can also vary the formality of assessment. You can find these at: http://www.qca. dominating all that happens.the best thing to do is to review and to prioritise your learning objectives in terms of skills. Pestering learners with a stream of questions and tests is not constructive. formality and frequency Keep teaching and learning fresh and engaging. Then you can match the appropriate assessment method etc to each. They may also come to feel that they have had little preparation for the formalities of important internal or external summative assessments. learners may feel they are not receiving sufficient review and guidance about their progress. Integrate assessment into session activities so that assessment feels like a natural part of learning. These include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • question and answer in the learning session short tests devised by the teacher homework exercises skill assessment using formal assessment criteria observation of performance standardised tests designed by an external agency projects assignments written questions with short. extended. or multiple choice answers simulations online assessments observations presentations to whole group/institution. knowledge and understanding.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT As explained above there is a large range of methods available. 165 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .uk/907. Frame the assessment task and format to the nature of the material and the learning objectives involved. You can assess the same learning objectives in a variety of ways and your learners will thank you for it.html How far do you agree with these statements as principles? How practicable to do you think they are? Variety.org. The UK Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) have a useful set of principles for Assessment for Learning. It should not be a dictator.

rather than explicit. assessor to assessor. Reliability is difficult to achieve in any assessment scheme. the full experience of learning in that subject or topic the justifications for the assessment should be as transparent as possible. in other words. the breadth and depth of learning sampled by the assessment must be correctly weighed in the marking…Validity is also compromised if questions are difficult for the candidates to understand. You will have identified the skills and knowledge that learners need to acquire and the more specific. as holistically as possible. 166 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .. Geoffrey Petty says: ‘. an assessment must also sample across a large proportion of the topics . (available for assessment) .the validity of an assessment depends on whether it actually measures the knowledge or skills it is designed to assess.’ Any assessment you do should ideally be based on the objectives that you have set at the start of a course of learning.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Validity. It is common for teachers to confuse poor learning with a learner’s difficulty in understanding . questions. carefully defined and elegant these are the easier it will be designing valuable and useful assessments. Reliability can be improved. These criteria are what help to make meaning out of the whole assessment process and should reflect the following points: • • • • • • • any assessment should ultimately be standards-based it should support and help to facilitate further learning any assessment methods adopted should be consistent it should achieve what it sets out to achieve it should be appropriate to the subject of the assessment it should embrace.. For example an objective test cannot measure a candidate’s practical skill. reliability and fairness Fairness is most important. the criteria help to convey exactly why the assessment is taking place at that particular time and in that particular format (note that this is often implicit.. About validity... For example in criterion-referenced assessment schemes much depends on the opportunity for the candidate to ‘perform’. Total reliability implies no variation whatever in the application of marks or grades from candidate to candidate.. Any accurate assessment of learners' learning will have assessment criteria at its core. Each person being assessed in this way must have an equal opportunity to demonstrate their skills. for example by strict use of assessment criteria or mark schemes. in assessment criteria). or his or her ability to develop a coherent argument. To be valid. or are culturally biased..

) go ahead. There are ten learners in the group which meets twice weekly in two hour sessions for ten weeks per term. But how can formative assessment by the teacher best support learning and also prepare learners for the summative tests? Imagine yourself in this teacher’s position and think of answers to the following questions.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice A teacher of dance. mime and drama is running a course for adults. art. These might be the kind of things the teacher is trying to assess 167 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Think about the assessment objectives formative assessment issues The assessment objectives What might these be in such a programme? Perhaps: • • • • • • • • suppleness/fitness use of balance use of breathing sense of rhythm ability to express emotion mastery of steps/movements creativity working with others. Don’t worry about your lack of knowledge of the course content! If you wish to substitute a similar skills-based programme (sailing. develop individual skills and lead to a diploma in essential stage skills. wrestling . Clearly the teacher will be responsible for preparing the learners for these assessments.. Summative assessment at the end of the course will comprise a series of practical and written tests provided by an external awarding body. The course aims to introduce learners to the techniques involved.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Formative assessment What kinds of assessment techniques might be appropriate to these assessment objectives? What advantages and disadvantages might they have in terms of reliability.'on the spot' observation will be a key method of gaining information. How can the teacher keep records of observations? 168 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . validity and fairness? Issues There may be some important issues to deal with in assessing a course like this on a session-by-session basis. jealousy or other forms of dissatisfaction? Individual versus group assessment .supposing two or three learners quickly emerge as talented learners with considerable ability and high levels of aspiration while the remainder seem rather slower to progress? How can you deploy appropriate formative assessment without causing resentment.how do you ensure that individuals are aware of their progress and achievement in each learning session? In skills-based courses such as this the teacher can easily speak to the group about progress but how does he/she get round to assessing and re-assessing and motivating individuals? Recording observations . For example how might you as a teacher deal with matters such as: Differentiation .

1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. Methods of assessment of activities in learning sessions will depend heavily on the types of activities undertaken. It is often useful to consider the best methods of assessment to be used before considering the activities to be undertaken to promote learning.2 Using formative assessments Formative assessment is fundamentally diagnostic. testing the current level of understanding and progress at any point in the programme. 169 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .no one can write and observe at the same time. With methods such as observation. skills tests and simulations. There are three principles which should be followed: Short term and informal • • • • this will take place either during or immediately after a session Question and Answer is the most obvious method. although short tests and “homework” are also relevant and widely used an emphasis must be on improvements that can be made rather than a mark or grade to be awarded it is a motivational tool. adequate time should be built into learning sessions for assessment to take place. No matter which assessment strategy is adopted. quality of information recorded depends heavily on both: • • your ability to design assessment records which will capture a variety of information in the simplest way possible your ability to record what has been observed quickly and without interfering with observation taking place .

These reviews could be formal or informal and include individual tutorial sessions and more informal reviews.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Rapid feedback • • • • to be most effective. It is almost always easy to check whether work is complete and if it is not identify what is missing. Praise and encouragement can be given for work well done and learners who went that 'extra mile' to take their efforts to a new level. For this reason. structured opportunities for reviewing progress should be made available and information on the availability and purpose of these disseminated to all learners. The purpose of these opportunities will be to: • • • • create opportunities for learners to discuss and review their progress in an informal setting give constructive feedback to learners on what has been achieved and what is yet to be achieved discuss alternatives where expected progress has not been made or where learners have progressed more quickly than expected identify any problems or areas of concern which are preventing expected progress 170 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . emphasising what has been done well negative issues should be highlighted. not condemned feedback should end with future action that can be taken. but can be through comments in the classroom or in tutorials one helpful technique is to ask learners to describe what they have done . A brief look around work and files and an encouraging chat with learners can make them feel valued and cared for. REVIEWS Assessment of progress on learning programmes must take into consideration the fact that all learners are individual and will progress and achieve at different rates. Motivational feedback • • • feedback needs to be positive. It is good practice to sit down with learners during a class and look through what they have been doing. It can also short-circuit small problems which may become bigger ones by the time a more formal review is due. New ideas can be fed back to the group as a whole so that they can try them out. in which case it will not be immediate but within a short time. To apply these principles means that you should plan the use of the techniques into your Learning Session Plan. some more quickly than you expect and some more slowly.in this way understanding can be gauged and feedback and support can be immediate rapid may mean comments following a short test or work done. feedback must be immediate or as rapid as possible in the case of written work this is most effective with question and answer.

Rose is teaching a programme for a group of new recruits to a large international corporation. perhaps from others within the organisation or from external agencies plan future progress and achievement and agree appropriate action with learners. It is a formative assessment because it will provide Rose with information to help her prepare the next stage of the course to meet particular needs. Note that it is NOT a good idea to make copious notes during the review. Individual review sessions are time intensive but are extremely useful.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT • • discuss additional support. This programme aims to introduce and develop a series of skills which will be vital for the learners to apply in their various roles within the corporation. The programme has a number of learning objectives such as • • • • • • the ability to work constructively as a team member the ability to contribute usefully and effectively to group discussions development of time-management skills development of problem-solving techniques making a presentation constructing a short written report. Then immediately after the review. It is essential that results of these reviews are recorded fully and accurately and used to inform future sessions. A few brief notes of important points are all that is required. Records would contain information such as: • • • • • • the purpose of the review where and when it took place what was discussed any issues or concerns any problems identified as a result of the review future actions agreed to ensure progress and achievement. the teacher can make a fuller record of what went on. The quality of the time given is more important than the amount. A CASE STUDY We're going to look at a case study to see how teachers can manage assessment to ensure fairness and to facilitate performance. 171 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Rose is using a criterion-referenced assessment scheme It works like this NB: Rose produced this assessment scheme herself. They involve rapid recording (circling numbers) and only a brief comment so they are easy to use in an observation assessment context. method of operation and kinds of outcomes to learners before the assessment takes place. Usually the boxes for scores contain descriptors which are quite specifically worded and go well beyond simple statements like ‘little evidence’.they can be reproduced quickly in advance. 172 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . GOOD PRACTICE It's always good practice to outline in advance the purpose. conditions. Clearly such ‘scoresheets’ minimise the amount of preparation you need . Note that the scoring system is augmented by a brief supporting comment. Rose prepares her learners by reassuring them about the nature of her assessment. Such assessment schemes are widely used for skills-based exercises and activities. the criteria being used and what she would be looking out for in the discussion.

employers. Learners should leave the session confident about what they have done and can do and know how they can improve their performance. rather than be worried or not knowing about how they have done. Always write a time and a date on the assessment sheet (as Rose has done top right on James Cheng’s sheet) You should always take care storing such assessment records. But is 20 minutes enough time for that? Some learners may offer three contributions.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT If time is available you can conduct a ‘dry run’ of the assessment. This means that your feedback should be immediate where at all possible. A ‘LEVEL PLAYING FIELD’ In Rose’s case it might be good practice to try to assess each learner within the same discussion context (i.a visit from an ‘outside’ individual or even a simple sneezing fit. Does the composition of the group affect the performance of individuals? Does this matter? Even when enough time has been allowed. the discussion may be disrupted . FEEDBACK AFTER ASSESSMENT Even the most confident of learners can become concerned about an aspect of performance in a learning session. 173 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Note that if other groups are in the room at the same time they must be usefully occupied and in no way intrude upon the assessment. other teachers. It is very good practice in skills assessment for learners to have more than one opportunity to demonstrate their competence at this particular set of skills. They will provide useful evidence for: • • • • conferencing with learners about performance and progress compilation of summative and other reports discussions with internal/external visiting moderators reporting to parents. the same learning session). Has enough time been allowed for this kind of assessment? Probably not. carers.e. some only one. Rose probably needs to see the group in action again to give everyone a fair chance.

But many of the points above can be applied to more complex schemes relating to role play and simulations or the implementation of simple question and answer sessions. • Tests should be unambiguous Tests should make clear how the learner should tackle the problem and under what conditions • Tests should be valid Tests should be confined to the content within the learning session. If there are particular reasons why they should not know whether their answers were right or wrong. You can then keep more detailed feedback until you can use ‘purpose-built’ feedback such as conferencing sessions and written progress reports. Do not include questions just because they are good. You can overcome this by giving learners the chance to change their answers and letting them review questions they have selected. 174 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . give them a ‘thank you’ message • The learner is in control Because tests are important to learners. you must take whatever steps are necessary to reduce learners’ anxieties. One source of anxiety is the level of control they have over the questioning. the questions must relate to an identified objective. We have looked at only one method of formative assessment in action. With these points in mind it’s worth taking time out to think about the way you use your own formative assessments. You should allow time for • • a few well-chosen and positive general comments reassurance for those who are aware that they have not done as well as they could. • The learner always receives some feedback You must always give learners feedback to their responses. A final word on ‘what makes a good test?’ Phil Green reckons that the features and characteristics of a good test are: • Questions are based on objectives When they are used to test transfer of knowledge and understanding.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Clearly time and need are important questions here.

Such a notebook can help the teacher to ensure that. Perhaps the place for this record should be in the file. for feedback and further development. She asked the learners to consider a slide which showed a Picasso painting of a sad young clown. ability to support his arguments and presentational skills. Here’s an example. There should be some record of his contribution – he should have credit for its content and style and effectiveness. The teacher invited the learner to take his time to explain to the group what were clearly deeply held personal views about Picasso’s work. all children have been observed. In a primary classroom. A General Studies teacher was conducting a learning session on developments in art in the twentieth century. courage in his own views. A lively discussion followed. Unexpected happenings and evidence of learning can be recorded as they happen. diary or log which the teacher maintains as a record of his/her teaching activities? An event like this would certainly also figure in the teacher’s regular reflections and ongoing evaluation of his/her learning sessions. He had shown understanding. Many teachers keep notebooks with a page for each child. It was a memorable learning session for all present. But it was certainly an opportunity to record evidence of the learner's progress. one of the learners began to speak about his own views on the colours and construction of the figure in the painting.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT INFORMAL EVIDENCE The most informal of formative assessments can happen naturally as part of the teaching-learning process and may be totally spontaneous. 175 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . the teacher is always undertaking informal assessment. over the course of time. The learner in question had made a big contribution and had stimulated other learners’ thinking. Spontaneously. This wasn't a prepared assessment task.

Is there scope to record any other aspects of learning which Rose had not planned for or anticipated? 176 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . How can the teacher best prepare learners for such an exercise and assessment? 6. How might the teacher arrange individual feedback from the assessment to individual learners? 7. What about conditions in the specific learning environment in which the discussion exercise takes place? Have you any recommendations for the physical conditions for action and assessment? 4. Supposing there are five group members in the discussion exercise: 1.should the learners see a copy of the assessment grid before the discussion? 5.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Using a scheme such as Rose’s criterion-referenced assessment grid raises a number of assessment issues for you to think about. can/should Rose look at another discussion session to see if the learner takes part then? 3. How many learners can Rose usefully and accurately assess during a 20 minute discussion? 2. What issues of session and programme design might surface as a result of using such an assessment scheme? 8. Supposing a learner makes very little or no contribution. The issue of ‘transparency’ .

3 Analysing formative assessments Quantitative Data Teachers normally accumulate sequences of scores based on exercises held during the course of the module. For example there are the short vocabulary tests used by language teachers.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. They are part of the pattern of formative assessments. It might look like this distribution: Marks Number of learners (Total 113) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 2 6 15 21 30 20 10 5 2 We can use these raw marks (each out of ten) to construct a frequency distribution histogram: 177 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Here are ideas to help you analyse numerical data. it is usual to get a frequency distribution of the marks. Numerical data will fascinate some teachers but may (unnecessarily) scare others! We need to be able to make some sense and some good use of this valuable store of information. tests of arithmetic.1. Supposing a large group of learners take the same short test. term or part of the learning programme. spelling and short tests of skills. These tests may well have raw marks or percentages as an outcome.

It occurs at the peak of our histogram. It is calculated by adding all the marks together and dividing by the total number of learners. Notice here we have arranged the marks in order and there are as many scores below the median as there are above it. For our original scores the mean was 653 divided by 113 = 5. The median is the mark of the middle learner. So if you had eleven learners in your group and their test scores (out of 20 marks) were as follows: Marks 2 5 6 8 10 12 13 14 15 17 19 The median mark here would be 12. So in our original table of marks the mode was 6. Given the stage of learner development.78. Means can be very sensitive to extremes in data sets but medians will be less affected by one of two very large (or very small) scores.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Test 1 35 30 25 Learners 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Mark 6 7 8 9 10 The teacher needs then to evaluate the distribution. 178 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . the purpose of the test and its level of difficulty is this distribution expected? Or are the learners’ scores skewed towards higher or lower marks? Three other measures can be useful in analysing performance data: • • • mode mean median The mode is the mark which occurs most commonly. The mean is the arithmetic mean.

It doesn't help the learner. • Performance below the level required Where this happens you can say whether it is typical of the assessed performances or whether it has occurred occasionally. e. median and modal values will give you a picture of ‘average’ performance.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Ranking learners by scores can also be a useful exercise. So most measures of performance tend to be converted into a quantifiable form (for example the criterion referenced scheme used by Rose in the previous section). the teacher or any other stakeholder in the learner’s record of achievement to ignore unsatisfactory performances. POINT TO WATCH Comments and reports based on analysis of assessment data (quantitative or qualitative) should be objective. One of the most useful styles of analysis comes about when quantitative and qualitative evidence is used together. truthful and evidenced. Histograms show the spread of scores among the candidates. descriptive paragraphs or notes. attention and congratulation? These may be exceptional or typical in the learner’s list of achievements. QUALITATIVE DATA If you have a sequence of qualitative statements. Ranking also shows spreads and the order of performances. you cannot apply quick arithmetic measures.g. For example: “Her performance has been consistently impressive: on no occasion did her marks in tests fall below 70% (mean marks 46%) and her rank order in tests was never less than 5th (out of 26 in the group). in point form. Mean. For example: Marks Rank 2 11 5 10 6 9 8 8 10 7 12 6 13 5 14 4 15 3 17 2 19 1 All these measures are useful. However you can analyse qualitative data by commenting on the following: • Variations in performance Did the learner perform well (gain positive remarks) right across the range of assessments or did he or she perform much better in some exercises than in others? Did the learner produce performances which require special praise.” 179 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

g. Leave the next column on your paper blank. • • • Educational – ability to respond to tasks of knowledge. For each learner now compare the expected marks (which you have in two columns on your piece of paper) with the observed (actual) marks which you have on your existing lists.think clearly but don’t spend too long pondering. mood. Record the differences e. +5. In your ‘differences’ columns are there any: • • • ‘Wild variations’ – big negative and/or big positive differences? ‘Spot ones’ – zero differences? Performance as predicted? Small perhaps trivial or inconsequential differences which can be explained in part by minor variations in performance (and the crudity of the method). then draw in a third column and repeat the exercise for the second assessment. Briefly refresh your memory as to the nature of the last couple of assessments.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Expected vs Observed Take a piece of paper and align it vertically so that the list of learner names is revealed but their marks for the last couple of exercises/tests are concealed. motivation. 0. You can now reveal the two columns of actual (observed) achievements. +1. manage time. The next step is where things get really interesting. -2 etc. How would you take this information further? Were the variations in the first column of differences repeated to any extent in the second? Are we actually looking at ‘achievers’ and ‘underachievers’ here or were there any other reasons for the differences? These may encompass variations in three aspects of your learners’ make up. 180 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . prioritise effort Personal – health. maturation aspects of performance. For the first assessment quickly write down beside each name the mark or percentage that you think he/she ought to have achieved (the most likely outcome) . skills and understanding Managerial – ability to use assessment instructions.

Really. Totals were calculated and a rank order was produced as follows.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Food for thought Marks and quantitative assessment can be fun. they can! Have a look at the following. Perhaps it might be fairer to scale the marks so that the top mark for each subject was 100 and the bottom mark in each subject was 0? If this strategy was put into operation. The question is to whom should the overall prize for best achievement be given? Maths Alan Belinda Charles Diana Edward Fiona George Helen Ian Jill Kenneth Lucy Fre Eng Geog Hist Bio Chem Phys TOTAL RANK 100 90 61 63 56 80 23 40 85 72 50 10 30 38 36 32 55 45 47 35 40 54 56 60 47 43 40 51 41 49 45 52 60 50 55 59 72 6 45 90 82 64 55 70 40 10 34 20 40 20 41 30 45 65 60 56 28 25 70 35 75 65 55 70 40 45 80 20 51 35 60 30 30 48 62 47 49 38 32 60 55 66 36 70 47 70 80 35 41 20 60 65 30 75 10 58 441 434 420 418 409 406 402 398 389 387 371 342 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Well. It is used by John Lewis in his book ‘The Teaching of Skills’ and has caused much amusement at many a conference. it looks as though the overall form prize should go to Alan. the results would look this: Maths Lucy Kenneth Jill Ian Helen George Fiona Edward Diana Charles Belinda Alan Fre Eng Geog Hist Bio Chem Phys TOTAL RANK 0 44 69 83 33 14 78 51 59 57 89 100 100 87 80 33 17 57 50 83 7 20 27 0 95 75 50 100 60 25 45 5 55 0 15 35 13 30 0 38 75 56 68 90 100 44 63 78 30 100 10 16 72 80 90 50 20 42 0 40 17 67 25 52 0 100 42 33 83 58 75 92 100 15 90 63 75 5 20 48 43 80 45 0 69 0 93 29 79 71 14 44 36 100 86 53 424 418 417 414 411 408 407 404 403 401 400 398 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 181 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The story begins with a class of twelve learners who took their 'in-house' examinations and the marks were collated. But is this fair? The top mark for mathematics was 100 whereas the best mark for English and French was 60.

Supposing the top learner in each subject is given 1. The figures can then be totalled and the learner with the lowest mark gets the prize.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT You can go on with this. Maths Fiona Kenneth Charles Helen Ian Edward Diana George Belinda Alan Jill Lucy Fre Eng Geog Hist Bio Chem Phys TOTAL RANK 4 9 7 10 3 8 6 11 2 1 5 12 6 2 9 10 7 3 11 5 8 12 4 1 7 3 12 4 1 11 5 9 10 8 6 2 5 10 8 4 9 2 1 7 6 3 12 11 2 1 6 4 10 5 9 3 12 7 11 8 8 5 6 12 7 9 3 1 4 2 10 11 9 10 3 4 5 6 8 11 7 12 2 1 11 12 1 4 10 8 9 5 3 7 2 6 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= 1= This final table makes everyone equal! So we can see that different presentations can produce very different results. the second learner is given 2 and so on. Food for thought? 182 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . with the bottom learner being given 12.

You need to be careful with the wording of these comments. Always comment on the work and not on the learner himself/herself. 183 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . objective and constructive. but not at the same time as responding to the work being assessed. Obviously you must avoid any threatening. You can use them for: • • • • • • indicating good work and giving praise highlighting unsatisfactory work and making connections showing where further explanation is needed pointing out where ideas/material are missing setting targets commenting on whether objectives have been achieved.1.4 Providing feedback about progress WRITTEN COMMENTS These need careful handling. You can also address attitude and behaviour. abrasive and excessively negative language. you should try to be informative.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. You can get your point across to the learner without having to make destructive annotations! Instead.

You need to be able to support what you say with evidence. As with annotation of assessed work it is good practice to be professional. You can always see learners individually if you know that difficult issues are going to be involved. In each of these you need to be careful with tone and use of language. It is a good idea to have your files with you. fieldwork and team exercises. etc. extended project work. games. private reading etc at this point the teacher might outline techniques for self-assessment by learners. parents and learners together. Try to give some perspective on your comments.but their assessment regimes can be equally complex involving several sources and times of assessment. Answer questions honestly and openly. FEEDBACK TO PARENTS Feedback to parents of younger learners may be communicated in a number of ways. however. eg • • • written reports delivered by hand or postally telephone calls (usually as part of pastoral systems) oral feedback at meetings with parents. outline a few possible ways forward from them. Such follow-up sessions can have functions beyond assessment such as: • • • • • review and reinforcement of themes and topics which learners have found difficult links with sessions which lie ahead in the learning programme advice on assessment handling technique motivational advice linked to further technical practice. These are often rewarding and exacting experiences for teachers and learners . If you see signs of potential . If there are problems. If you mark work to high professional standards you can always invite parents to look at their son’s/daughter’s work on a regular basis. These are particularly useful for revision programmes.say so. Some formal assessments are based on complex learning activities such as simulations. This is a good idea but you need to take care not to embarrass individuals in any way. 184 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT ORAL FOLLOW-UP Many teachers follow up the return of written work with individual and/or group oral remarks. So you need to allocate time for careful interpretation of assessment outcomes. objective and constructive.

Such self-assessment. It may be that you receive a telephone call from a stakeholder demanding instant feedback. Introducing such processes is well and good but it is very frustrating for the learner if it is: • • • introduced as an idea but never followed up outside the regular feedback/reporting system not acted upon. ‘Knee jerk reactions’ ‘top of the head comments’ and other forms of reply are not advisable. such as departmental heads. They may not present a full picture of the learner’s range of performances. may need regular formal updates on learners’ progress in which case the same approach as that suggested above for parents is applicable. SELF ASSESSMENT BY LEARNERS Learners. The teacher can help directly. can be a very fruitful exercise which can also help the teacher plan further learning activities. 185 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Experienced and mature learners can often articulate their own feelings about their progress and would appreciate a framework on which to develop them. done thoroughly. Its use in coaching and other one-to-one learning activities is widely recognised. like teachers. will improve their performance if they are encouraged to reflect on their own progress and performance. They will give little evidence and may be anecdotal and inaccurate. perhaps even the company which also employs you. Line managers. They will need guidance from you for this to happen and you will need to help them with processes like: • • • • • identifying their own learning needs reviewing the rate and effectiveness of their learning progress updating and developing their own aspirations looking at learning outcomes still to be achieved when and if to consult ‘outside’ agencies. This requires deft handling by the teacher.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT FEEDBACK TO OTHER STAKEHOLDERS Your learners may well be employees of a company. If you politely reply ‘I will call you back’ you will have the opportunity to: • • • research reflect report.

learners on areas of progress and achievement and areas where further development is necessary to achieve learning outcomes. Here are some examples of 'framing' in different contexts (the 'frame' is in italics) "Jane. Often in tutorials or review sessions...Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT The value of self-assessment by the learner as an integral part of providing support and guidance cannot be underestimated. it can detract from the overall effect. I know you want to make your career in this area. The teacher does not offer any opinion which may bias this information in any way until after the self-assessment." "Ahmed. Let me tell you about where I believe you have progressed well then we will go on to discuss the areas you need to concentrate on if you want to be a good programmer. Think of a painting you like. Let me point out all the areas where I believe you have made excellent progress." 186 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . I know from what you say that you don't believe it is important to study independently. If the frame is not exactly right for the painting. By finding out the learner's perception of 'where s/he is now' before venturing an opinion. Problems can arise where the perception of learners about their progress and achievement is different from the perception of the teacher. framing is where the teacher has already examined the facts about progress and achievement and has formed a view about the feedback s/he will provide and the action the learner needs to take to ensure progress (if any). Let me explain the advantages of this and how it could improve your work. In the learning process. but is seeking information from the learner on which to base constructive feedback. you can pitch feedback on performance or progress at exactly the right level using a technique called 'framing'. It is always enhanced by having the best possible picture frame around it." "Manuel. the teacher receives from. Self-assessment may be defined as: The process in which the teacher asks the learner for information on his or her current ability to perform a task. the teacher puts a 'frame' round the content of the feedback based on the learner's self-assessment. or after a period of learning. and provides valuable information to. you have told me you think you are progressing well in computer skills despite missing several sessions. I can see you think you are not doing well on the programme. Since the whole purpose of constructive feedback is to encourage the learner to take responsibility for his or her own progress willingly.

so that each learner is fully aware of progress and achievement to date. Constructive feedback by the teacher This type of feedback gives learners specific information about those aspects of their learning which have been done well and those where further development is necessary. constructive feedback should concentrate on the one or two main aspects of learning which needs improving. Without knowing these opinions. Constructive feedback can be defined as: The process in which the teacher communicates his or her decision on the competence of a learner in performing tasks or in progress and achievement on a programme. Constructive feedback should be given at different points of the learning programme: • • • immediately after a learning activity . plus information on ways in which the learning or performance can be improved. 187 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Constructive feedback involves praise for those aspects of learning or performance which have been done well. usually after the learner's self-assessment of how s/he has performed. and any areas where further progress or learning is needed at specific points of the programme where problems have arisen and must be resolved promptly. Any more than this might be demotivating in a situation where people are learning new skills. the teacher's feedback may not be pitched at the right level or be based on what the learner perceives to be the case about his or her progress.to congratulate or provide information on where further progress or learning is needed at structured points of the learning programme . rather than any criticism.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Feedback provided in this way is far more effective and motivating because it is based on the opinions held by the learner. When teaching a new skill.

especially when learning a new skill so remember the key principles: The Principles of Feedback • • • • • • • • • Give feedback as soon as possible and keep comments brief . you can receive essential information about the effectiveness of the programme itself and your own professional practice. Feedback is very important. keeping comments brief and to the point.people can change their behaviour or rate of progress.rather than measuring against perfection Be positive and give encouragement to motivate Refer only to progress made not the person . 188 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . but not themselves Offer alternatives .better ways of doing things .rather than criticism Stress the learning achieved and what will happen next Agree actions necessary to make or maintain progress and keep a record of this in readiness for the next feedback session Obtaining feedback Remember that each review session with learners is an opportunity to gain valuable information about the aspects of the programme which are helping learners to progress and those where improvements can be made. If you can encourage learners to reflect on the value of the learning programme in meeting their aims and learning needs. constructive feedback should be done quickly and well.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT To be effective.don’t let a feedback session become an inquisition Base the feedback on the person’s self.how well does s/he think progress is being made? Give comments which are constructive and help to perfect skills Concentrate on one or two key areas .assessment (where available) before commenting .

189 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Such self-assessment is not only related to making assessment as 'transparent' as possible. however: Consider learner maturity. in terms of: • • age/maturity. You'll certainly need to prepare the kind of initial guidance you'd give to learners (an outline of possible ideas is given in ‘self-assessment by learners above . younger children will need some step-by-step help experience gained of the learning programme.you might wish to include other reflective components).but this is for the moment an experiment . but also may well add a different dimension to your professional practice. Self-assessment may be something to introduce once the programme is well under way and the learners have developed confidence in it and their own ability to succeed in its various demands. e. A useful way forward might be to link self-assessment to some form of conferencing system with learners. There are of course constraints .g. You can't make an informed assessment of its effectiveness until you've designed it. Perhaps the most important (and interesting) section of your experiment is to decide on how learner self-assessment will be communicated and then developed by the teacher.a ‘one-off’.time comes to mind straight away . There are design considerations. We are getting into some very powerful evaluation here! It can also be linked to your record-keeping. New goals for the individual could then be agreed on the basis of shared input to reflection. This is an opportunity for you to experiment with the technique to assess its feasibility and effectiveness in your particular teaching-learning context.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Many teachers may not have considered building learner self-assessment into their learning sessions or programmes. tried it and reflected upon it. where their work is reviewed and your assessment is matched to the learner’s self-assessment.but the list is not exhaustive .

analyse. Paper-based systems are being replaced by computer storage which can now be space-saving and very versatile. at the press of a button New assessment methods such as school-based assessment in public examinations often require greater accuracy.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3.5 Maintaining records of learners' progress THE NEED FOR RECORDS Teachers need to give this area of professional practice more attention than ever before. 190 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . They enable hard copies and electronic transfer of extensive data to be made. management and other stakeholders in learner achievement. There are many reasons for the increased interest in record-keeping including: • Requirements of national government bodies concerned with educational achievement and standards for evidence of learner performance with accompanying remarks/commentary Inspection of educational establishments. teacher competence and other performance issues Increasing involvement of parents. fairness and sophistication of record storage and maintenance. • • • • Teachers are therefore accountable for ways in which they gather. store and publicize assessment data. For example sponsorships and scholarships may require considerable material about individual learner’s progress as part of the application process The technology for keeping records is changing rapidly. literally.1.

Data quickly accumulates but the same demands may be placed on its input. Design of well-planned. There may be insurance and even health and safety considerations at issue here. • Who has access to such records? What procedures are in place to give colleagues and line managers easy access to your records? Do the learners have any rights of access to these records? If so how and when can they exercise such rights of access? Confidentiality is a problem for teachers and learners. too Updating of records must be regularly (preferably immediately) and thoroughly carried out. It’s not just a matter of physical safety of filing cabinets and store cupboards. • • • • MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION This has become a crucial issue for educational establishments and training organisations. Teacherassessed and practical assessment schemes may make big demands on space for learner portfolios. we need to ask questions about human resources. Given the importance and sheer size of such material and data flows. This involves taking and making records (say of review and conferencing sessions) as well as storing and using such information Security is also an issue. easy to replicate paper of software systems is well worth time and effort Teachers need to be on the lookout for new developments in information storage and retrieval systems.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT ISSUES These changes mean that you need to be aware of issues which are developing concerning the maintenance and storage of records of learners’ progress. easy to operate. storage and retrieval. files of work and product of practical work. as they need to keep ever-increasing volumes of data about learner development. but system and network safety and the need to keep back-up copies and anti-virus protection for electronic storage systems. Some learning programmes involve many different assessments and the number of learners involved may number thousands per year. • • • • • Who manages these systems? Who operates them? Who is responsible for maintaining them? Who advises on legal systems which may change and in turn cause new requirements to operate? Who in the institution is ultimately responsible for such activities? 191 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT

POINTS TO WATCH Some societies are becoming increasingly litigious. Education and training can be caught up in this. Any form of legal action will ultimately call for evidence and evidence is mainly found in records. The more complete, relevant and up to date your records are the better position, you, your learners and your employers are likely to be in. Issues of management may call for changes to be made in your information systems. This may well be a new requirement in your programme design, or one to which you need to give more importance or attention.

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Practice
Remember:
• • •

performance records are information which is in demand such records form part of a range of professional information important issues surround access to storage and retrieval of such information.

AND NOW
AN INSPECTOR CALLS!

A simulation: Imagine that you face an official external inspection within the next 28 days Your head of department or training manager has given you the task of reporting on your 'maintenance of systematic, useful and usable records of learners’ progress’. Ever mindful of your enthusiasm for and skill in handling issues such as this your line manager has proposed the following steps in producing your review. Conveniently these address possible questions which the visiting inspector might pose.

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1. Current procedures On a pro-forma like this indicate how information on your learners’ performance is managed and maintained (you will need to produce a larger version - this version is to show column headings only). Examples are given.
Types of assessment information recorded
observations of drama techniques

Method of recording
notes made on observation of performance

Method of storage
placed in files stored in secure staff office

Access
• • me H of Dept

Additional notes
Files are colour coded by course: • yellow = basic • red = standard • blue = advanced

2. Management of information Who in your institution is responsible for:
• • • • •

Direction of overall input, storage and retrieval policy? Designing and maintaining records of assessment? Supervising security and storage of record material? Updating staff on legal and regulatory developments regarding records e.g. data protection legislation? What, if any, training have you received on issues affecting the nature and maintenance of such information?

3. Recommendations for development What recommendations would you set out for improving your own use and management of assessment information?

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3.2.1 Preparing summative assessments

Summative assessment is used at the end of a programme formally to assess a learner’s skill and knowledge gained as a result of that programme. The table provided below illustrates assessment methods and gives advantages and disadvantages of each:
Assessment method 1. Observation of performance Advantages • • The most reliable method of assessing performance of practical activities Can be used to assess application of knowledge and understanding into a real work environment as well as skills performance If carried out using a welldesigned checklist, observation can capture evidence of performing a range of subject or vocational skills plus interpersonal and communication skills to measure actual performance against desired outcomes Most useful when used to individuals rather than groups Observation can be carried out by others (e.g. supervisors) and used as evidence of reaching learning outcomes May require more than one observation to assess consistency of performance Can be combined with oral questioning to confirm knowledge and understanding or 195 Disadvantages • Time consuming, especially if teacher has to travel to carry out observations May not be suitable for assessing in group situation as evidence of individual performance must be recorded simultaneously Not all skills can be observed readily Requires careful planning for situations when teacher can observe the maximum possible range of tasks being carried out Learners may feel under pressure Learners may be nervous when they know they are being observed and may make mistakes If carried out under simulated conditions, may not assess learner's ability to perform in a real work environment (see simulation)

• •

• •

• •

• •

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any areas not observed 2. Skills test • Can be effectively used to assess ability to carry out a practical task to the required standard after training has taken place, e.g. speed, accuracy, performance to standards Learner completes task against given parameters which are then used to measure successful performance Can be used to assess application of knowledge and understanding into a real work environment as well as skills performance Can be effectively used as tool to measure current level of performance and note areas where skills must be improved during diagnostic assessment Successful achievement may be measured through observing skills test or by examination of products completed during skills test May be carried out through computer-generated programmes where learners work through scenarios and have to successfully complete each one before starting the next • • As with observation Can be expensive to set up in terms of provision of resources and equipment

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g.g. e.g. e. e. assessing ability to fly an aeroplane Successful achievement may be measured through observing or by examination of products completed during simulated activity Useful for providing opportunities to learners where real work environment is not available. Simulation • • • • • • 4. knowledge and understanding in a real work environment Can be used to assess learner’s problem-solving and decisionmaking strategies as well as ability to complete to required standard Can be used effectively with open or distance learning Most effective if used with marking scheme and grading criteria (if relevant) which provides basis for assessment and can be used for fair and objective assessment of results • • • May be difficult to reflect pressures and constraints of a real work environment Expensive to set up and resources and equipment required for successful simulation may not be available IT skills may be needed and success may depend on how well these are used • • • • • • May require a level of literacy and/or numeracy which is not a requirement of the task Need to ensure that material submitted has been completed by the learner Requires careful preparation of learners by teacher to ensure ability to complete and full understanding of what is required 197 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . flight simulator If conditions for simulation reflect pressures and constraints of a real work environment. e.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3.g. provision of a ‘model’ office where learners can practice skills by carrying our real tasks for members of staff May be used successfully using appropriate IT programmes Work-based projects are an effective method of assessing application of skills. where unsuccessful performance could cause danger or damage. enables learner to perform tasks in a learning environment before undertaking them in the work environment Suitable for assessing performance where assessment of performance in real work environment is not suitable. Projects and assignments • Can be effectively used to simulate realistic conditions.

as for 'tests' 7. thus is an objective measure • • Requires considerable expertise from teacher in interviewing and questioning techniques Learners are under pressure or may be nervous 6. Oral questioning • • Can be combined successfully with observation.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 5. Written and oral tests • • • • • • • • • • Assesses knowledge and possibly understanding if well designed Considerable expertise is required to ensure tests are fair and at correct level Adult learners may have been adversely affected by past experience in the educational system Does not provide a true reflection of a learner's ability to perform tasks May require literacy or numeracy skills which are not immediately required for performance of a task Rationale of tests depends on ability of learner to recall selected information 'on demand' May not provide the opportunity to review performance and identify future learning or actions unless these are planned into time available Requires 'examination techniques' on the learner's part Otherwise. skills tests or simulation to assess knowledge and ability to apply understanding in different contexts Useful where learners have literacy problems or disability as alternative to written tests Useful to assess retention of knowledge Multiple-choice tests and those which require learner to adapt learning to provide answers offer opportunities to assess understanding All learners complete same test under same conditions. Examinations • • As for tests Examinations can be used effectively as a final measure to assess achievement of learning outcomes on a learning programme • • 198 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

So the summative assessments themselves should hold no surprises in terms of concepts. and any other stakeholders in the successful delivery of the learning programme. You should have to hand necessary exemplar material. With young learners. POINTS TO WATCH You should be well prepared yourself for these sessions.this is a matter of judgement about how much and what information will reassure.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT PREPARING YOUR LEARNERS Formative and summative assessments complement each other. calculators. topics and skills for those who have to undertake them.g. mobile telephones the exact duration of the assessment sessions : dates. schedules and copies of regulations (if these are appropriate/relevant to learners). assessing progress and achievement in relation to the learning objectives. They should be aware of: • • • • • • • • • the purpose of the assessment process the nature of the assessment objectives and criteria for success appropriate methods of response to/involvement in assessment methods any revision or preparation requirements permissible learning aids e. You will need to be formal when administering summative assessments but in practice assessments and preparatory sessions you can reassure learners should be reassured and reduce nervousness. Your learners need to be prepared. Also younger learners will need to know the procedures they can follow e. can they ask questions? can they use dictionaries? 199 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . times and venues arrangements for the communication of results and feedback regulations from the external awarding body (if any) or company administering the training programme. e. You should properly introduce summative assessments to your learners. many teachers undertake summative assessment procedures without taking the learners through all of the items above . This continuity should be clear to your learners as well as to you the teacher. laptop computers regulations about what cannot be used in the assessment room.g.g. programme notes.

The rubric (instructions to candidates . depending on the types of outcomes required. these points will help: 1. at the end of the programme or part programme (module) a mixture of coursework and module tests or examinations module assignments or projects. You and others should be able to identify continuity between them In the case of written assignments such as tests and examinations make sure that you design a full mark scheme to accompany your question paper. the assessment strategy selected and the centre in which the learning programme took place. When setting out your question paper pay particular attention to: • • • • • 2. In a training organisation or a company where the learning focus is skills development. Questions should be clearly and unambiguously worded Options and sections should be clearly identified Any additional material (such as maps. This is particular important if more than one person is going to mark learners' work. final assessment may be through: • • • • formal examination. In an educational institution. each contributing towards the final marks obtained a portfolio of work gathered over the length of the course. diagrams etc) should be clearly produced and headed Check that the learners know what has to be handed in at the end of the assessment session 200 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . DESIGNING YOUR OWN SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENTS You will find it useful to gain experience of this and the various disciplines involved. If you are going to design your own summative assessment material. 3. final assessment may be through: • • • skills tests assessment of performance in the learner’s work environment e. syllabus and session content and your summative assessment objectives. Opportunities may arise for such design work at the end of modules for ‘internal’ school or college examinations or tests.including time allowed) The layout and wording of questions. through observation evaluation of information from the learner’s supervisor or line manager relating to successful and consistent performance to the standards required.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT ASSESSING FINAL ACHIEVEMENT Assessment of all agreed learning outcomes may take place in several ways.g. Check out the relationship between programme aims and objectives.

The following table illustrates possible assessment strategies for the activities listed: Activity 1. e. Activities in small groups • • • • Observation where assessment of the process is a key component. Check validity and reliability. and teamwork skills Examination of the results of activities Learner's self-assessment may contribute Video-recording of activity and scrutiny of final tapes 3. Skills practice • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT • • • Ensure that the allocation of marks is clearly shown on the paper itself Make sure that sufficient copies of the test/examination paper are available with spare copies in the assessment session. Business games • • Scrutiny or discussion of written or oral summary of findings Observation of process Observation combined with oral questioning to confirm knowledge and understanding 201 8. Simulation • • • Observation Examination of products created during simulation Video-recording of simulation and scrutiny of final tapes 4.g. Assignments and projects • Scrutiny of assignment or project using marking scheme as basis for assessment Scrutiny or discussion of written or oral summary of findings 6. Role-play • • • Observation Learner's self-assessment may contribute Peer assessment 5. Case studies • 7. communication. where learners are developing interpersonal. Practical tasks Most suitable assessment methods • Observation combined with oral questioning to confirm knowledge and understanding 2.

knowledge and understanding to be assessed • Guidance over what to prepare and how • Time schedule for marking. results and feedback • • • The time schedule for these should be familiar to all learners and should be adhered to There should be as little variation as possible in scheduling if more than one group undertakes the same assessment exercise Clearly the same mark scheme must be operated and the same methods of results communicated and feedback to stakeholders employed if more than one group undertakes the same assessment exercise. 202 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT ADMINISTERING SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT You must be careful with the environment in which assessment takes place. There should be restrictions on conversation and comment so that everyone has the same chance to think and write in comfort and confidence. paper. ventilation. etc. Fairness/equality of access to assessment In both formative and summative assessment teachers should ensure that all learners involved in the assessment exercise should have: • Equal notice of the time. then the room must be quiet. results and feedback.the ‘level playing field’. etc • There is silence within the room so that all may concentrate at ease • Matters of comfort such as light/shade. venue of the exercise • Clear instructions as to what materials they are to bring along • A clear picture of the skills. temperature. Fairness/equality of operation The assessment environment should be managed in such a way that: • All learners have the requisite test/examination materials. well-ventilated and so on. date. if learners are asked to prepare for a one hour set of written tests. 2. It has come to mean a combination of concepts which include: 1. 3. The term ‘level playing field’ is commonly used in discussions about assessment. have been dealt with in advance • Teacher supervision ensures that no form of copying or discussion takes place during the assessment session • External interruptions and disturbances are minimised • Timings are clearly stated and adhered to. For example. This enables equal opportunity for each learner . Marking. well-lit.

Performance and Personality It is important to emphasise. workplace skills. Here environmental considerations can include the noise levels and activities outside the test location as well as conditions inside the venue. to what extent and to whom should such disclosure be effected? There is no single simple answer to these questions. local or national regulations to guide you on this issue or it may be left to your own professional discretion. that any criticism you may advance is of a learner’s performance and not of his/her personality. Nervousness and Sensitivity Learners are understandably nervous about three stages of assessment: • Preparation for assessment exercises (revision) • The assessment exercise itself • Feedback. MORAL ISSUES As well as fairness in assessment (the ‘level playing field’) a number of moral issues may arise in the context of assessment. justification of choice of assessment and communication of results and feedback be ‘transparent’? Why. drama and music qualifications. administer the second stage rigorously and fairly and handle the third stage sympathetically and honestly.: Transparency To what extent should our designs. getting the results and dealing with the feedback and other consequences An understanding teacher will reassure and clarify in the first stage. If there is choice available on this issue be careful to consider the likely consequences of your options. 203 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . especially in feedback to learners. oral examinations for languages. purposes and operation of assessment regimes. These include. teamwork demonstrations etc). There may be school. Sports and outward bound assessment need to pay careful attention to: • • • • weather forecasts and conditions issues of health and safety transport to and from outdoor venues suitability of candidate's clothing.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Such practical considerations need even more attention when important observation of performance assessments are taking place (eg for coaching and sports certificates.

especially with summative assessment results.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Public v Private Results/Feedback This may be a difficult balance to strike. Even in the communication of formative assessment results care needs to be taken when work is returned to learners in class. Those with problems can be helped by: • • Realistic and constructive comments on returned scripts A quiet chat after the class 204 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . etc followed by individual feedback which stresses ways forward for the learner is an effective combination of methods especially in cases of difficulty and/or disappointment. Many teachers feel that a factual communication of results by lists on notice boards. websites. postal information.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Revising assessment procedures Check out these questions against your experience with a summative assessment: Validity .did the assessment test all required levels and subjects? Relevance . technically correct and appropriate? Were tasks relevant .did the assessment meet the needs of all stakeholders? Did the learners view the assessment as valid and reliable? Was the standard of the assessments appropriate to the programme? Were most learners able to succeed? Was the time allowed for each assessment task reasonable? Were tasks clear. although they have the ability to perform competently learners’ assessment is carried out using methods that are inappropriate to the skills that must be demonstrated although criteria for successful performance have been set. or do not fully understand. the teacher adds additional standards based on his or her opinion of what the learner must demonstrate or interprets the criteria in too stringent a manner the teacher does not like the learner and is biased OR the learner does not like the teacher and does not expect a fair assessment younger learners may be fearful of expectations. Avoid these pitfalls and you will be ☺ 205 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . processes or outcomes. the criteria against which they are being assessed learners are assessed before they are fully prepared and at a level where they are able to demonstrate competence learners are nervous and intimidated by the environment or administrator of the assessment process. and make small mistakes as they perform tasks.not going beyond the content of the programme? POINTS TO WATCH There are number of factors which may impact on the teacher’s ability to be fair and impartial such as: learners are unaware of.

2. This is a sequence of linked processes: 1. Assessment of outcomes . Results and feedback to learners 6.marking/grading 5. Management of assessment sessions 4. Design of assessment tasks and mark schemes 2. Instructions of and preparation of learners 3.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3.2 Using summative assessments SEQUENCE OF USE Here we are managing summative assessment to ensure fairness and to facilitate achievement. Evaluation of the summative assessment process 206 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

There are no quantitative marks as such. Case Study 1 Christina has decided to run a 2½ hour practical assessment of her learners’ drawing skills. The assessment objectives follow closely the technical instruction themes carried out in the sequence of learning sessions. 207 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The levels of performance are graded from ‘poor’ to ‘acceptable’ to ‘outstanding’. She has devised an assessment grid which includes her marking scheme.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT CASE STUDIES In this section we are going to look at two case studies: Christina is dealing with a summative assessment exercise for her sequence of drawing classes Etienne is setting up an end of module examination in AS level physical geography. These include: • • • • • ability to use line. methods of shading composition use of tone (light and shade) confidence in handling appropriate materials observational skills.

only part of the paper is shown) Question paper AS LEVEL PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY TIME ALLOWED 1½ HOURS INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The number of marks is given in [ ] at the end of each question or part question All the figures referred to in the questions are contained in the Insert Sketch maps and diagrams should be drawn whenever they serve to illustrate your answer Make sure your name is on each piece of paper you use for your answer and you indicate clearly which question you are answering Answer one question from Section A and one question from Section B 208 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Her assessment system looks like this: (only part of the grid is included) Skill Requirements Level of achievement 1 2 3 Poor Acceptable Excellent Assessor Signature Date 1 Ability to locate drawing sensibly and accurately on paper Ability to apply basic principles of composition to still life assembly Ability to use line and shading confidently and appropriately 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 This scheme is Christina’s own design. This is how it begins (again. Case Study 2 Etienne has set up an examination paper for his AS level geography learners.

Study diagram 1 (a) What kind of rainfall is being generated on the diagram? [1] (b) Give an example of an area of the world where this type of rainfall is frequently seen [1] (c) The diagram shows a cross-section through a drainage basin. (a) Outline the processes by which rivers erode their channels (b) Explain the effect of erosion on the form of river channels [7] [8] (c) Using examples discuss the effects human activities may have upon the different flows that occur within a drainage basin system [10] 209 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Section A Hydrology and Fluvial Geomorphology 1. What effects might the basin suffer if much of its vegetation is suddenly removed? [11] (d) What kinds of human and physical forces might be responsible for the rapid removal of vegetation from the basin [12] 2.

West Africa. slopes of Vesuvius. for 1-4 marks Poor quality level of explanation.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Mark scheme Here is part of Etienne’s mark scheme for question 1 (a) orographic or ‘relief’ rainfall (b) west coast of USA or South America (except desert areas of Peru and Chile) (c) for 9-11 marks [1] [1] High quality explanation with abundant illustration: wide range of points covered. answer skeletal with one. Rapid run-off. gullying and other accelerated erosion. e. French Alps: Albertville. 210 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . two or no examples. Sahel (ii) Human forces of removal: creation of ski-runs/slopes e.g. increased sediment yield. Reduced transpiration from surface. Portugal 2003 for 5-8 marks Explanation of some of the above points with some examples.g. deforestation in Nepal. (d) for 9-12 marks High quality explanation with wide use of a range of illustrations. Brazil.g. lakes and reservoirs.g. St Helens. increasing acidity e. Mentions and explains – incompetence of soil from removal of root system. Indonesia. for 1-4 marks Poor quality level of explanation.g. Rocky Mountain National Park. Sudan. Destruction of humic layout of soil with reduction in soil fertility. volcanic eruptions e. Only a few explanatory points identified. clogging of channels.g. Etna. Partial answer. overgrazing e. slopes of 1990s Madagascar. fires (accidental and deliberate) e. collapse of channel banks. S France. skeletal answer only.g. Cumberland or West Virginia in 1930s. Mentions and explains: (i) Physical forces of removal: fires (natural) e. Reduced interception therefore more direct pounding of surface. for 5-8 marks Explanation of some of the above points with some examples.

mark schemes and wording of assignments is often very useful. This is good professional practice and it’s good to give your summative assessment material such a critical read/review before it gets to the learners! 4.even if they conduct entirely different learning programmes. highlight ambiguities and suggest amendments from his/her experience. A colleague will often identify omissions. Changes can – and should – be made were it is found necessary or desirable. not related to the teaching). 3. layout of questions. the reason will need to be identified 211 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . If a number of your learners use English as a Second Language (and the test is in English) you need to check that they are disadvantaged by the vocabulary used in the assessment. if not. His question 2 is in fact taken verbatim from the specimen paper for AS Geography which was published by Cambridge International Examinations. These steps give his learners some experience of summative assessment which is close to the kind of examination experience they will shortly be preparing for. REVISING ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES In all programmes it is necessary continually to check and perhaps revise the assessment procedures being used. When he was developing his summative assessment paper. Many of your teaching colleagues can be of direct help to you . You need to ensure that the validity of assessment (checking against a syllabus or Programme Plan to ensure a representative sample of topics and abilities are being assessed) and the reliability of them (through a mark scheme to ensure that all assessments are consistent for all) continually improve.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT POINTS TO WATCH 1. Etienne modelled his rubric (instructions to candidates) on past examination papers. However it could be developed into a more effective ‘criterion-referenced’ scheme of assessment. too easy. A second opinion on assessment objectives. 2. For example she can improve the descriptors for levels of performance. It is useful periodically to ask the following questions: • • • • • validity: does the assessment assess all required levels and subjects? is the assessment meeting the needs of stakeholders how do the learners view the assessment (valid and reliable?) is the standard of the assessments appropriate to the programme (check against the Programme Plan)? are most learners succeeding? ( are assessments too difficult. It has some weaknesses and may lead to a high degree of subjectivity. On the other hand Christina designed her entire assessment scheme.

or were some disadvantaged because assessment tasks (e.not going beyond the content of the programme? • • Assessments must be fair. questions) were too easy/hard and were therefore unable to show their true skills? were tasks clear. awarding bodies or internal personnel help to ensure this. 212 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT • • • are results what you expected? If not. There are a number of factors which may impact on teachers’ ability to be fair and impartial. Most educational institutions will have verifiers who check assessors’ work and external agencies will moderate a centre’s grades and systems.g. and the scrutiny by external agencies e. Such factors include: • • • • • • lack of awareness by learners of the criteria for assessment learners are assessed before they are fully prepared learners are intimidated by the environment. teacher of the assessment process inappropriate assessment methods additional criteria added lack of time or resources for assessment. technically correct and appropriate? were tasks relevant . objective and impartial. why not? were assessments achievable in the time allowed? do assessments allow for the assessment of all levels of ability.g. Internal assessments need to be above reproach with no bias.

g. ventilation and/or air conditioning. 213 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Check out the room in which your summative assessment session is to take place and the staff who may be involved in it. Examination in Progress’ any potential difficulties with heating. noisy fans count numbers of desks and chairs. etc) (a) who would you contact to check room availability? (b) who would you contact to arrange invigilation (supervision) if you could not be available yourself? (c) what arrangements would you have to make with the invigilator to: • • • check presence or absence of examinees? Give instructions to examinees? supply script and question papers? return scripts and question papers (if required)? 2. 1. Step One – ‘Talk the Talk’ Imagine you had to hold a summative assessment session of your own design (i. building work potential causes of interior disturbance e.g.e. outside the normal schedule of public examinations. Step Two – ‘Walk the Walk’ Go to the room selected and check it out for yourself for the following: • • • • • • potential causes of exterior disturbance e. If insufficient. lighting. where can extra supplies be obtained? Include chair and table for invigilator arrange furniture so that desks are equally spaced construct notices asking for ‘Quiet Please.

blistering heat and driving rain! 214 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . There may be a meeting then to agree how the marking will be interpreted and details managed. This is not easy at the best of times and teachers who work in outdoor environments can describe the difficulties of writing assessments in snow. completed assessment written work from learners) to mark. be fair to yourself and your learners by breaking up your marking sessions. If you know you have a great many scripts (i. consistency and thoroughness. This can be very taxing and a great deal of concentration is required.2. In a skills-based context. similar advice applies. This means you need to refer closely and carefully to mark schemes and assessment criteria.e.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. If you are part of a marking team you may have to submit samples of marked work to the team leader who then checks your marking and compares your marking with those other markers in the team. It is an essential part of the formal assessment of public examinations.3 Analysing summative assessment data MARKING In written summative assessments it is essential to mark work with accuracy. Some of these assessment systems ask for the provision of comments and remarks. such assessment may require more than just circling of letters of numbers on a scoresheet. Moreover. This process is called standardisation of marking. taking proper comfort breaks and maintaining your concentration. although here you could well be dealing with a series of exercises involving use of assessment criteria.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Not many teachers see marking as being the highlight of their professional activity. If we see marking as part of a process or design. 215 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . linked to specific sections of teaching and learning. It therefore shows learners’ varying abilities to respond to different learning experiences. correcting and scoring does not make the most of a valuable opportunity to feedback directly to the individual learner. So it must be carefully targeted and interwoven into the Programme Plan. enquiry and professional development then it can act as a key source of information on the way in which learners can act as a key source of information on the way in which learners can develop their own skills. Can it be elevated above the level of ‘necessary chore’? It can certainly be made more interesting and more worthwhile if it is geared to a variety of assessment designs which are in turn. Not many such opportunities may exist. So take the opportunity to: • • • • • Highlight successes (however small) Correct errors or misconceptions Say what a mark means Show the learner ways in which his or her work can be developed Set new goals – ‘try this’ Marking makes much more sense if it is seen by learners and teachers to perform a series of valuable purposes. understanding and knowledge. not some misconceived ‘ritual’ or ‘habit’ should drive the frequency of marking. These. It should be a natural follow-up to learning and assessment objectives. Marking is at its fairest and most productive if a mark scheme is consistently developed applied. Merely ticking. Make marking work for you.

We’ve substituted learners’ names with letters of the alphabet.55. We can see the range of the data from the highest (1st) of 92% to the lowest (25th) of 20%.55% and the modal mark .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT PROCESSING OF EXAMINATION DATA Let's assume that we have collected summative assessment data from our group of learners who have just completed a written examination. 216 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .88% the median . We can calculate the mean mark . giving the relative positions achieved by the learners. Have a look at the table which shows the results obtained. Candidate A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Percentage 61 92 57 68 48 32 43 57 37 88 20 47 86 70 57 44 85 45 50 57 45 51 46 56 55 Rank 7 1 8= 6 16 21 22 8= 23 2 25 17 3 5 8= 21 4 19= 15 8= 19= 14 18 12 13 You will see from the table that we've already processed the data by producing a rank order. The examination was designed and conducted ‘in-house’ and there are 25 learners in the group.57%.

and modes and we could if necessary look at percentiles and standard deviation. We can also look at year-on-year comparisons for the same or similar tests. plus rank order and mean marks (for set and/or group/year) will give an accurate numerical response to the first two requirements but what did you as teacher make of the performance? Here we need to look at the relationship of the expected to the observed performance there is no reason. extend your analysis by reference to percentiles. We can look at comparisons of marks ranges. college users Here there are other considerations such as how did groups perform relative to each other. Departmental. iv.e. why you should not pencil into a fourth column on the results table the mark or % you would expect each candidate to achieve. a measure of outright/raw attainment how the learner did relative to other learners in the same class/group/year/cohort what the teacher made of this performance. ii. given the choice. In a fifth row you can indicate with + and . iii. How much detailed analysis you enter on such reports is determined by: i. means. 217 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . But there’s an important question for you to consider here: Who is going to be making use of such data? There are two main groups of users: 1. parents and other stakeholders These will want to know • • • the marks or percentage achieved i. standard deviation and other such measures.. Learners. school or college or departmental policy your own preference perhaps a combination of i and ii requirements of local or national bodies You can. an interesting exercise! 2. having constructed the test paper and the mark scheme. medians.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Very often such measures are recorded on and form the basis of summative assessment reports. You can end up handling great masses of data (as examination boards do) and there is no doubt that computerisation can help you enormously especially through adept use of software packages (eg spreadsheets)..signs the differences between the expected and the observed performance . In these circumstances • • • raw marks or percentages. school..

4 and 6 are not really marks. They are levels or bands of skills attainment. Much depends on how the descriptors are constructed and worded and what the designers’ expectations of performance were and are. They could just as easily be called gold. teachers thought it better in practice to include three other ‘marks’ . silver or bronze or A. But when the scheme of assessment was trialled. B. and the presentation is interesting and competent 6 As 4. These feature levels of competence or performance plus descriptors of qualities needed from the learner to establish themselves at that level. You can use limited numerical analysis of performance but be very careful of what such measures actually mean. 3 (not quite a 4) and 5(not quite a 6). As we've already seen. and the presentation is confident. enjoyable and appropriate to the audience Here you have three levels of achievement. C or whatever.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT SKILLS-BASED DATA Supposing our group of learners has been undertaking a course in communication skills. which was in the end adopted into the assessment scheme. 218 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . many such skills can be assessed using a criterion-referenced assessment scheme. Such skills might include: • making a presentation • speaking and listening • conducting an interview • note taking • producing a short report.1 (not quite a 2). 4 and 6 only eg: Making a presentation 2 The presentation is complete 4 As 2. This was a useful suggestion. In this scheme a six mark range is employed but the descriptors are written for 2. Notice that we have written ‘marks’ in single inverted commas because strictly speaking 2. A simple example of such a scheme in the UK is the Diploma of Achievement 16-18 skills-based course. enabling teachers to make finer judgements. You will come across similar criterion-referenced schemes.

219 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . marksheets. report forms handle the marking of a component. you can collect example of learners’ work for each of the ‘levels’ identified in the institution’s curriculum. Your team could actually manage. question or paper be responsible for making calculations based on data produce graphs. process and evaluate the entire summative assessment system for your particular set of responsibilities. Individual team members can be assigned to: • • • • • • • draw up possible questions. if you work in a small institution (eg a small primary school). You can annotate samples with descriptors of ways in which they have met the required standards (the criteria/mark scheme employed). charts etc of data produce written analysis of findings from data processing. When examination boards undertake this task they work through a number of examination teams. The whole team could finalise task designs • • • • agree mark schemes standardise marking and assessment procedures help process data evaluate the assessment exercise(s). assignments and assessment tasks produce mark and assessment schemes develop score sheets. try working as a team. each with its team leaders. chief examiners and so on.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Next time you're involved in the processing of summative assessment data. Alternatively.

others may request information about individuals' performance for reference purposes.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. 220 • • © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Success in one set of summative assessments may allow entrance into new courses and further qualifications – e. They will almost certainly affect prospects for future courses.g. reading them out in learning sessions and even publishing them in newspapers. Some employment activities cannot and will not accept applicants who do not possess nominated fundamental qualifications. making them available for collection at institutions. Of course the most important and immediate 'consumer' of such results of summative assessments is the learner himself/herself but there may well be other users of such information: • • • Within companies results of training programmes held in-house or externally may well affect the direction of a trainees' career within the organisation. pinning them up on university noticeboards. The results of examinations.4 Providing feedback about achievement 'HIGH STAKES' Communicating results of summative assessments to learners is always a momentous event. You can use all kinds of methods including sending results by post. performance on training courses and skill tests are becoming more and more important. The institution itself will wish to record and store internal and external summative assessment data. future employment and future life styles. professional and vocational qualifications. They are pivotal to academic. Even once the learner or trainees has left. especially public examinations.2. In some cases the publication of a school’s results will affect parental choice of school for their children. Employers are users of this data. They are not only indicators of success but also milestones in people's lives. the transition into higher education depends to a great extent on summative assessment data.

Stress is also an important feature in the lives of younger learners. details of retake opportunities where applicable and other potentially useful ideas. • • Here the learners may call at the centre to find out their examination results Where this happens (and it happens at most schools or colleges) then staff should be available on-site or at least on-call to deal with enquiries and agree new career or educational strategies as and when these may be required. There may be a health and safety issue. ‘Knowing the learners’ is a key quality for a sensitive teacher to have. FEEDBACK FOR THE NEXT STAGE Where groups and/or contacts with learners resume after the results of summative assessments have been made known. Senior colleagues may need to be present to deal with the possibility of queries about marks/grades.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Given the growing importance attached to performance in summative assessments it is vital for us to consider the way we as professionals support learners when they receive such results. These are stressful events for even the most 'laid back' of learners and there might be some risk of illness or injury if results are disappointing. career data and notebooks also come in handy. Directories. It may be necessary for learners who are applicants to colleges or universities to telephone these establishments. • • • • 221 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . It is important to be positive as well as realistic.usually a learner's situation after external examination results. new sources of information. • This kind of feedback session needs to be carried out promptly once the summative assessment results have been made known. being sensitive to the emotional needs of the learners Set out ways forward for all the learners. This will include details of new courses to apply for. the teacher should: • • Debrief learners on the outcomes of the assessment. Clear up any individual problems arising from marking or other technical issues. FINAL FEEDBACK Where the learners leave the institution and have no more learning sessions with the teachers . reassuring those who have not done so well. It is good to set aside a room with telephone facilities for this purpose.

Some questions for them include: • • • How did they feel about the way their learning centre handled the distribution of results? What was their view of the role played by learning centre staff in acting as counsellors and 'back-up' in the hours after results were made known to learners? Can they suggest any ways in which: results might be better. more thoughtfully. This could be done in the context of winning and losing school matches. For teachers of older learners: Canvass the opinions of former and current learners who have undergone the stress and worry involved in obtaining external examination results. distributed? the facilities open to learners at 'results times' might be improved? 2. 222 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice 1. quizzes etc. For teachers of younger learners: Consider how learners are helped to cope with ‘success’ and ‘failure’.

2. 223 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . access and security. though there are advantages and disadvantages with each format. filing cabinets etc It's paper-based and so copies can be readily made It requires no power source other than human labour to operate it It requires little investment in machinery and training though it can become unwieldy without photocopying facilities. Special rooms and cupboards may be needed for physical storage of files. HARD COPY? Advantages • • • • It's already in existence .a known set of methods such as filing and cheap. In one way this seems to involve a question with a straight choice between: hard copy or disk storage? Increasingly institution and teachers are opting for the latter. Disadvantages • • • • It's bulky and time-consuming. easy to operate systems such as folders. Now we're going to focus on the format of records.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT 3. registers etc It's paper-based.5 Maintaining records of learners’ achievement FORMAT? We've looked at problems involved in storage. Paper is both heavy and inflammable It's clumsy in terms of entry of data onto pro-formas etc It's not easy either to use for cross-referencing and or to access and replicate.

CDs. Disadvantages • • • • Cost: equipment is still more expensive to purchase than hard copy but it is decreasing and reliability is increasing Distribution: if the institution is to purchase these machines then which members of staff. make proper recording of data highly mobile. speed. data can be quickly and easily retrieved (but also easily erased!) Even cheap printers can produce copies of very acceptable quality very rapidly Spreadsheets and other software applications make entry and processing of information easy The price of PCs is gradually decreasing There is little doubt that technological developments will make this option even more attractive in the future in terms of size. hard disks. etc can hold enormous amounts of data on a very small physical space Once saved. As they are versatile they do have resale value so are attractive targets for theft of material stored on disks. especially. etc.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT DISK STORAGE Advantages • • • • • • • Disks. 224 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . This can be attached by hackers and corrupted by viruses • Individuals: computer-based records work well for the recording of ‘statistical information’ but may not reflect other areas of a learner’s progress and achievement. applicability. which departments will receive them and where will they be located? Training : some basic training in procedures and keyboard skills may be required Security: of the machines themselves. versatility and price The machinery concerned takes up very little space and can be operated in a wide variety of teaching/learning areas. Laptops.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 3 : ASSESSMENT Practice Think about the following questions: • • • • How long should you maintain records of learners' achievements? What kind of material needs to be stored for a long period? Does your learning centre have any policy framework for dealing with the difficulty of length of storage of information like summative assessment results? Can long-term storage be concentrated around one or two 'master' or 'central' storage facilities? POINT TO WATCH Is your institution affected by regulations brought about by data protection legislation and. if so. how? Check your understanding if data protection legislation. 225 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Module 4 EVALUATION 226 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

It will also enhance the variety of your professional practice. Let's remind ourselves about the Kolb experiential learning cycle Looking at the diagram you can see how we could almost rename it 'the reflective learning cycle'. This series of activities will build up your awareness and confidence. and we've lost the freshness of the ideas. Many teachers would benefit immediately from devoting more time to the process of evaluation. we can't quite remember all the points which were important. Be positive! Think of reflection as being an exercise to build strength. and assessed the learners’ progress and achievement. Then by the time we get round to it.1. Reflection is a most important part of our professional practice. squeezed out by other pressing needs. You've been keeping notes and reflections which you have kept since you started your Diploma experience. 227 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Some shy away from it because they are worried about 'criticism'. Or we may just simply forget. But we all know that reflection is often put off until later.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4.1 Evaluating learning REFLECTION You've planned and taught your programme.

detailed performance indicators describe the standards which should be reached by anyone performing a skill. You can't measure unless you have something to measure against. not only about the assessment of learning. The criteria for evaluation may comprise any or all of the following: • • • • • performance indicators measurable objectives national or professional standards centre standards personal expectations or goals. too 3. Whether these five types of indicators of success are designed by the teacher as measurable objectives. Decide what you want to find out about 2. Effective methods of gathering and analysing information 3. are part of national or professional standards or are set by the centre. Decide from whom you can obtain the variety of information needed for successful evaluation. Decide the methods you will use to collect the required information 4. they indicate the required performance levels. A set of criteria against which success can be measured 2. Design your criteria for success against which you can evaluate the information you will collect. Use notes on self-evaluation.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION PLANNING FOR EVALUATION Successful evaluation can only be carried out if you have three things in place: 1. i. Remember: this is about evaluating the programme. Procedures covering the ways in which evaluation is to take place and the part to be played by everyone concerned.e. they are essential as a measurement tool. Properly worded. 1. 228 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . BASIC STEPS IN PROGRAMME EVALUATION You should have given these some thought along the way as you have been teaching your programme.

don't waste people's time 2. Make sure you can list main points arising from your feedback sources. but the main aspects include: • • • • • • learning methods/learning strategies organisation of learning sessions and the learning programme itself use of resources the content of the programme individual satisfaction of results and addressing needs contribution of activities to other aspects of learner development e. other non-teaching staff working alongside you line managers other stakeholders funding agencies awarding bodies and other external agencies. WHAT SHOULD BE EVALUATED? All aspects of the programme can be evaluated. Feedback information needs careful examination and analysis which may be quantitative as well as a qualitative. POINTS TO WATCH 1. language skills.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION METHODS OF EVALUATION Evaluation can be achieved by using a wide variety of methods: • • • • discussion planned oral feedback during the programme written feedback spontaneous feedback.do a bit of 'networking' Go that extra mile . It is important that you ensure everyone involved in evaluation has a clear idea of their role and the desired outcomes.go to see them .make a special effort Have your questions sharp and ready . People who can be involved in evaluations can include: • • • • • • learners colleagues or members of a teaching team. So: Keep your contacts with people 'warm' .g. POINT TO WATCH It's good to aim for a variety of evaluation sources as each of the above will have their own (probably different) perspective on the learning programme. Use appropriate methods to support and illustrate these points 229 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . When designing questions think of the best format for answers in terms of processing those responses 3.

you personal development diary. If you are going to use methods of quantitative analysis. there is no need to involve yourself in sophisticated statistical techniques . Think of yourself as a journalist looking for quotes.made during the progress of the learning programme. Make sure you make a clear written record of what is said 6. means etc will suffice.e. Note down key issues which are raised. Listen carefully to oral responses to your questions.g.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. Look for what is significant in your data and any anomalies which occur 5.unless you want to. This is vital reflective evidence! 230 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Simple frequency charts. Do not forget to review and use your own reflections from your records . your log or 'day book' .

1. Decide from whom you can obtain evaluation information 3. and others who have played a part in the learning programme line managers responsible for learners and their progress and achievement.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice Now try your hand at designing your own evaluation questionnaire. both in your own centre and in companies where learners might operate 231 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The following are important questions to ask but don't be afraid to add in your own: • • • • • • did the methods used achieve the outcomes required? were sessions organised effectively? did activities used within sessions achieve the desired outcome? were resources used effectively? was the content of the programme suitable to achieve desired outcomes? were both learning outcomes and individual learning needs satisfied for all learners taking part? You can add your own specific question(s). Questionnaires are by far the most widely used method for collecting information. There could be a great many of them. Decide what want to find out 2. You could go for responses which are quantifiable and easy to process eg The learning sessions stimulated my interest in the subject as a whole (Circle the number to indicate your response) Strongly agree 1 2 3 Agree 4 5 Disagree 6 As well as from the learners you might wish to obtain information from: • • teachers. support teachers. Methods of collecting information? Step 1: Decide what you want to find out You'll want to discover the strengths and weaknesses of your learning programme. so processing the data could be very time consuming. It will help to know which parts of the programme you organised and carried out well and where your professional practice could be improved. so here are steps you can take in designing your own questionnaire. Step 2: Decide from whom you can obtain evaluation information Clearly you'll wish to get feedback information from the learners themselves.

This will certainly become necessary if you're dealing with very young learners. open days etc . professionally phrased letter to accompany it if you are using a postal method. But. More effective as a method is to take your questionnaire with you and use it as a working basis for interview. You could keep the main approach of the questioning the same but amend the length and format. Think about the spatial design (layout) and quality of production of the questionnaire itself. You might want to use the questionnaire at events such as parents' evening. 232 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . POINTS TO WATCH 1.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION • • learner's employers (if relevant) funding agencies who have paid for all or part of the learning programme (where relevant) Methods of collecting information? Step 3: You could use postal or other methods to send your written questionnaire to the evaluator.but don't make the questionnaire too long and cumbersome! You can build in regular times during the programme when you encourage the learners to reflect on their own learning. you can still get a flavour of their views! How did you like the session on friendship? (Colour in the face which says your answer) ☺ 3. Don't produce a 'rushed' version. You might wish to consider different types of questionnaire tailored to different events/circumstances and different types of respondent. Make sure it is typed or word processed. 2. postal response. You would then expect a written. Write a clear. These tend to be either slow or 'overlooked'.

Take one example of a ‘high five’ and write the reasons for its success in your diary. Identify reasons for their relative lack of success. the activities which didn't go so well.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION HIGH FIVES AND LOW NO’S Look at the information you have been collecting through evaluation during the programme. In this activity you will look in turn at 1. ‘High fives’ Activities which went well need careful thought. your diary is for you to include as much detail as you think will be useful for future reference. 'Low no’s' Activities which didn't go so well also need careful thought. Filter out from the feedback information the teaching and learning activities which went really well (let's call them the ‘High fives’) and those which misfired (let's call these the ‘Low no’s’). when completing your assignment. the activities which went well. Identify reasons for their success 2. In the same way as you analysed the reasons for the success of high fives look in detail at the reasons for lack of success in the low no’s. Take one example of a low no and write the reasons for its lack of success in your diary 233 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Remember. for example. How are you going to define ‘what went well’? Perhaps they were frequently mentioned in feedback? Perhaps they were easier to manage in the classroom? Perhaps they motivated learners or helped them achieve learning objectives successfully.

Don't be afraid to recognise the strengths in your programme. Note dissenting views and 'anomalous' remarks. Don't be afraid to quote directly from your own notes or remarks made in writing. look for emerging trends which repeat themselves from a range of sources. DETERMINING FEASIBILITY AND BENEFITS The first stage of planning for improvements is to review the feedback you've had and physically highlight (or write out afresh) all potential improvements. 234 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . count those smiling faces! Also remember that younger learners remember more about how they learn than what they learn. calculate your percentages and your means. draw your histograms.2 Using evaluation to plan improvements ANALYSING INFORMATION FROM EVALUATION SOURCES • • For quantitative responses. For qualitative responses.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. Use spreadsheets where applicable or possible. For younger learners. • Generally look particularly for responses which will help you: • • • • • make changes to learning methods make for more effective organisation make changes to topics and content make more effective use of resources devise more effective methods of satisfying learning outcomes. Identify and use statements which seem significant for any reason. Young learners will also need to learn the ‘vocabulary’ needed to express an opinion or to give an example to support what they are thinking.1. You'll have had subject specialist and other questions which will produce useful feedback. tabulate your data. This list is just a start.

listed in priority order the benefits to be obtained from each improvement how each improvement will be implemented by whom each improvement will be implemented by when each improvement will be implemented. is easy to implement and will resolve an issue of which the teacher was unaware before evaluation. Identified problems relating to health and safety issues and must therefore take priority to ensure the health and welfare of learners and safety of the learning environment 2. They'll need factual information on which to make decisions about expenditure in terms of costs and time: • • • • • the improvements need to be made. FORMULATING AN ACTION PLAN An effective action plan will provide the following details. A problem has been identified which is preventing the majority of learners from achieving their identified outcomes 3. listed in order of priority: 1. The benefits to be obtained from implementing the improvement will outweigh the costs or time implications in implementation 4. The improvement is within the teacher’s control or level of authority. These will be necessary for a variety of reasons.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION After you've done this. Bear in mind that your recommendations might need approval by other persons. you can select the improvements which are necessary. Objectives must be: Specific Measurable Everyone knows exactly what has to be done The teacher can evaluate whether or not improvements have actually brought about the intended benefits and have been achieved by the planned deadlines by nominated persons The desired outcomes can be achieved to the required level by the deadline required The outcomes can be achieved within existing resources and practicalities Everyone knows the intended deadline for implementation Achievable Realistic Time-scaled Here is a sample from an action plan 235 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Timing of presentations and Q&A sessions Etc Shorter presentations will allow for improved knowledge retention Selection of vital information for Etc Teacher Immediate and on going Etc Etc Etc 236 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Photocopies to be checked prior to sessions to ensure legibility and ease of understanding by learners How improvements will be made Prepare set of master copies for each handout Store these in folders under name of session Meet with support staff to discuss how quality of copies can be improved Allow time for checking of copies prior to session Sessions plans to be examined and improvements made to timings By whom Teacher Support staff By when Immediate 2. photocopies will in turn be legible and of higher quality.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Area for improvement 1. Allowing more time for photocopying by support staff will avoid these being rushed. Photocopying of materials Benefits to be obtained Some of these are admittedly poor as copies are then photocopied. By improving the quality of master copies.

It converts a document into a living document. You can make a start on your own action plan You can use a pro-forma such as the one used in our 'sample from an action plan'. a line manager or something from your own reflection? It could be good to have this as you'll be looking at this document quite frequently. That's a good idea. In order to internalise your goals it's helpful to write them down as part of your commitment to making improvements in your professional practice. A point of good practice here . It might be useful to you to devise a way of mentioning the source prompting the 'area for improvement'. and how can you avoid these? There may be many reasons why the best laid plans do not work out in practice. Was it the learners. get their agreement and keep talking to them! POINT TO WATCH The very act of listing your areas for improvement and methods of tackling them will etch this plan on your subconscious mind.give it a try! You might want to include in your plan an area for notes on progress of each 'area of improvement'. Talk to those involved in implementation as early as you can. Are there any factors which will cause problems. you don't have to take it as the only way to produce an action plan. 237 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice Fine . If you want to use a different format . go ahead. If you want to redesign. reword the headings. and how can you get them to help you? Jot down your ideas in your diary. But. But how are you going to put ideas into practice? Various factors may have an effect.go for 'agreement in advance' over as many points as you can. including • • • people resources organizational structures. What factors will help.you've got ideas for improvements.

MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. line managers and any other stakeholders. This is about dealing with people effectively. practice and assessment. eg: • • staff are not committed to the ethos of continuous quality improvement implementation of improvements has not been planned so that it does not interfere with the learning process in any way 238 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . POINT TO WATCH Implementing change is one of the most difficult tasks you can set yourself. Changes in education and training will affect not only learners but colleagues. Well planned improvements may fail for a variety of reasons.3 Making improvements and planning further evaluation CLOSING THE CIRCLE We've now got to stage 4 in the Kolb learning cycle. This is where we get to put plans into action. This means that when we come to the next round of design. we can include changes we have ourselves identified as a result of on-going evaluation. Planned improvements must be put into action effectively however and we must plan for evaluation of the results of the improvements. Why planned improvements sometimes fail Let's be realistic.1.

by stages. ‘Failure’ is part and parcel of professional experience as it was for: • • Thomas Edison . Try to find out what the budgetary constraints are and are likely to be.failed then thousand times before he perfected a lamp which could be worked by electricity J K Rowling . For example a sudden change by your managers may result in an overall reduction in your budget or contact time with the learners. It enables others to respond in a considered fashion rather than give a 'knee-jerk' reaction which is usually negative 2. WAYS FORWARD It might be that you did not make your case for improvement particularly well Don't be put off! Here some practical ways of making progress: 1. Introduce the idea of making changes gradually. You'll see that several of the difficulties may be beyond your control. 'Warming' colleagues and line managers to your thinking reduces suspicion. Then they will feel more receptive 3.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION • • • • • no mechanisms have been planned for checking progress and/or for evaluation of successful implementation of improvements time or cost implications cause practical difficulties in implementing improvements staff are constrained by other priorities or have insufficient time to carry out improvements staff are unable to see that benefits will outweigh efforts in implementing changes resources which are needed to implement improvements are not made available.turned down by several literary agencies before Harry Potter became a worldwide success 239 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Make them feel part of your ideas. Frame proposals in that light 4. Involve people in your thinking. Do as much research as you can. Do not be put off by 'failure'.

It is said that one million people attended his funeral. 5. Oral or written feedback from learners and others involved in the next programme Final evaluation of the next learning programme Own observation to ensure planned benefits have been achieved Observation carried out by others to obtain an objective opinion.maybe from a different department or discipline.do not pester. It's a good idea to talk through your ideas with someone else.one or more details in your plan might not get realised. Persistence . You'll be able to 'bounce' ideas off them. sound out ways forward. Keep your eyes on notice boards. It wasn't you who 'failed'! 6. This data may be collected through a variety of methods including: • • • • • Evaluation of learning sessions on a continuous basis. in requirements of external bodies e. It helps to share experiences. Early warning . its operation and development. Always picture ‘success’ in your mind. websites. professional journals .any source of information which might convey changes in your institution. Targets without evaluation have a nasty habit of disappearing from sight! So keep your eyes firmly on your targets through evaluation. 240 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .MODULE 4 : EVALUATION • Guiseppe Verdi . You'll probably know someone whose professional thinking 'chimes' with yours.g. went on to write Aida and other operas.always be up to date. We're planning 'active experimentation' before we incorporate it into our next design session … our next Module 1. They might be someone from a different institution or company. EVALUATING THE SUCCESS OF PLANNED IMPROVEMENTS Here you are planning for a fresh round of evaluation data to be collected. newspapers. Don't get 'attached' to outcomes . This is a very powerful method of development and can effectively produce a third thinking force: 1 + 1 = 3! 7. but be persistent! 8. They might be a colleague .rejected by a music conservatoire in his native Italy. We've almost closed the Kolb learning cycle … we're at Stage 4. awarding bodies.

produce developments quickly. The training often involves group exercises. You will find it useful and therapeutic to talk to someone else about professional matters. you should think about using teamwork to greater effect. allocate tasks. exhibitions. motivate each other.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION WORKING WITH OTHERS Our trainers travel worldwide to introduce the Diploma to new centres. It’s good if they are. 'Mutual moan' sessions produce even more negativity – avoid them at all costs!! 241 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . yet it's surprising how little they use teamwork techniques in getting their own work done. department or field of interest. The ‘other person’ may be from a different discipline. This may sometimes be true but there are ways of breaking the mould and learning a lot by doing so. Think now about who you talk to frequently and frankly. monitor and evaluate improvements effectively. In reflecting upon your course plan and considering improvements to it for the next teaching-learning cycle. This kind of interaction can be very effective and productive (hence 1+1=3 not 2). Always choose someone with a positive approach. 1+1=3 is a technique frequently used by professional people. Teamwork enables you to bounce ideas off each other. fieldwork designing and monitoring induction. ‘Lonely’ in the sense that teachers may see their tasks as being solitary or individual. Teachers make fine team members and leaders. It's noticeable how quickly and effectively teachers respond to group and team challenges. Which of the questions on this list might be more effectively and efficiently tackled by teamwork? • • • • • • • • • • • • • designing course plans designing session plans designing assessment schemes managing assessment developing use of audio-visual aids developing use of ICT programme plan evaluation designing improvements to plans implementing improvements to plans trialling new techniques evaluating new techniques attending external courses. It is a kind of sharing. discuss the pros and cons of methods. We have looked at teamwork as a way forward but there are other ways. organising learner visits. Teaching can often be seen as a lonely business.

might there still be a case for inviting external observation of your learning sessions? Do you need to expand your canvas of the opinions of other stakeholders in the learning programme's success. Have a good think about 1 + 1 = 3. 1. Such discussions can be professionally and personally beneficial. • • • 2. • • Think about sharing your ideas with one other colleague. POINTS TO WATCH Always choose someone with a positive approach to life as well as with an open and positive professional standpoint.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice Two things for you to try. Sharing successes with a colleague prepares the ground for those times when you'll need to share the ‘failures’ too. or with a support group. Did you really give enough time and opportunity for learner feedback? Even when you are not taking your learning programme as a context for undertaking this Diploma. Such involvements can have all kinds of professional benefits. Some thoughts to help you with this: • Was your on-going evaluation of the learning sessions and the learning programme strong enough and consistent enough to be of much use to you when final evaluation was considered? If you're not really satisfied. Avoid people who'll tell you 'it can't be done' and 'you'll never get that off the ground!' If the Wright Brothers had listened to them at Kitty Hawk they would have made just another boring canoe! 242 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . What improvements are you going to make to evaluation features in the next and revised programme plan? Evaluation itself can be improved so as to be as streamlined and effective as possible. then you need to make some practical changes.

Some of these reasons might be to determine what changes you may need to make in your planning or classroom practice. We tend to give 'ourselves' remarkably little space. Although there will be a natural correlation between the quality of teaching and the quality of learning. It involves you as a person as well as you as a professional. This Diploma asks you to take a planned approach to evaluating your own professional practice. or to recognise when a particular session or technique has worked effectively. you will amass a significant amount of evidence on which to base your self-evaluations. beneficial and fascinating set of processes. there's also the actual programme or scheme of work that you must deliver that can have its effect too. If a session appears to have been 243 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . It is interesting that in teaching we can often learn as much if not more when things go wrong as when they go well. as can the resources available to you and the time scales in which you must work. evaluation of the work of a teacher is necessarily complex. In short. This is a positive. It's not possible to evaluate yourself as a teacher simply through the assessments that you do of your learners' learning. Evaluating own practice WHY? There are many reasons for evaluating your work as a teacher. Evaluation doesn't always have to be done to identify change. Many factors impact upon what learners learn. If you get into the habit of spending time regularly reflecting on your practice in the classroom and in the profession generally. this is not as clear cut as it may sound.1. it is also something that can be achieved on an ongoing basis. and not possible to achieve on the basis of one single line of enquiry. Although evaluation is complex. Sometimes it can establish that change is not necessary. As well as teaching styles for example. criteria and goals. BE POSITIVE One of the curious things in life is how little time we spend thinking about ourselves and what we do. including courses.2.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. such as the educational outcomes achieved by learners.

we need to reflect on reasons and think about the changes which we might need to make. Methods include self-analysis and analysis with professional colleagues.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION successful we often don’t feel the need to reflect.learner qualifications etc results of observed performance results of assessment by others against national and/or centre standard results of own evaluations of learning sessions and learning programmes results of appraisals of performance ongoing feedback from others including learners and others in the centre information on future changes relating to areas of work. a set of criteria against which success can be measured 2.'talking you through' the steps involved checking that you have thought through all aspects of your evaluation helping you to get issues in perspective and identify experiences. which may have been developed by either the teacher or the institution work results . However. Select those which are likely to provide valid and reliable evidence of your own professional practice. These can be quantitative and/or qualitative. Again. These include: • • • • • • • • self assessment against set criteria. or do not appear to have learned anything. procedures covering the ways in which evaluation takes place and the part to be played by everyone concerned. We 've already mentioned the benefits of '1 + 1 = 3' . The principles for evaluating your own professional practice as a teacher are very similar to those used for evaluating learning programmes. 244 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . if the learners have been difficult. three things must be in place at the planning stage: 1. These benefits include: • • • simple re-assurance . effective methods of collecting and analysing information 3.they are seen clearly when your colleagues help you to conduct evaluation of your own practice. COLLECTING DATA It's good to gather information from a variety of sources. CRITERIA. METHODS AND ANALYSIS Criteria can include: • • • agreed performance indicators measurable objectives organisational standard.

Although technically they only need a yes. Go through the questions one by one. These questions are only intended as a guide and you may well find that there are other more suitable questions covering issues that relate to your specific circumstances. For example: • • • line managers and heads of departments colleagues with experience of professional development and experience of inspection members and officials of professional and subject associations. which you can add if necessary.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Perhaps other professionals can be of help. using them to evaluate yourself as a teacher. 245 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . you’ll find a basic self-evaluation tool you can use. no or sometimes answer. too. you may wish to think about any further comment that you would like to add in your diary. On the next page.

3. or ‘no’ (coded as Y. 2. N). how can you improve. who would help you. 2. …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… Help …………………………… …………………………… …………………………… Resources ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………… 246 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y S S S S S S S S S N N N N N N N N N My learners feel happy and safe in my classroom They are able to question me when they don’t understand something They have the opportunity to develop their thinking skills through their written and oral work I work hard at developing sound working relationships with my learners I help my learners to feel self-reliant and to show self-respect in their behaviour and dealings with others I nurture effective communication in my classroom There is a culture of trust in my classroom My learners develop self-worth and self-esteem in my classroom I help my learners to develop skills such as creativity. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… For each of these aspects. Evaluating my other work as a teacher Y Y Y Y Y Y Y S S S S S S S N N N N N N N My classroom is set up for effective learning to take place I collaborate with other teachers where appropriate The assessments of learners that I do inform my teaching I work within institution-wide policies I teach with emotional awareness in mind I involve parents in learning where appropriate I encourage a relationship between my learners’ homes and school Identifying what I do well in my work Which three aspects of your work as a teacher do you do well? 1. S. ‘sometimes’. and what resources are available to you? How 1. 3.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Evaluating my work with my learners Answer each statement by circling either ‘yes’. 3. literacy and numeracy. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… Identifying what I would like to improve in my work Which three aspects of your work as a teacher would you like to improve? 1. 2.

You might want to list the areas which seem to you to be of interest and concern and then expand each area. 247 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Those dealing with special needs education may have a number of issues which need specific reflection and analysis.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Analysis You can use a variety of methods to analyse the impact of your own level of skills and competence on learners and their learning outcomes. the typical and the atypical. supporting the findings you list with evidence (either qualitative or quantitative) from the data you've collected from the various sources you've used. These tend to be generic professional issues but there may also be subject specific issues which you also wish to identify from your teaching and training experience. Look for the expected and the unexpected. Teachers of science subjects may wish to look at aspects of experimental and laboratory work. For example teachers involved in skills tuition and training courses 'on location' in manufacturing or business workplaces are often involved in demanding learning environments. Chris Kyriacou lists some useful areas for professional reflection: obtaining a 'measure' of the classroom climate or working atmosphere exploring your use of classroom rules exploring how pupils feel about particular topics monitoring a particular learner's curricular experiences for one week examining tasks in terms of their learning demands investigating question and answer sessions evaluating the techniques you use to assess learners' progress reviewing the motivational qualities of different activities looking at the quality of your relationships with learners examining the time learners spend on different types of activities reviewing the work you set for the more able learners reviewing your use of information technology activities. Highlight areas of good practice and be frank about areas for further improvement.

248 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . It's important to make notes on these themes and collate them into a series of expanded points.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice This is the time for sorting through the information you have collected and making sense of the important themes which you can identify. One way to think of this is to imagine you had to produce a written report on your own practice for some outside body.

2. Goal setting as a technique involves a lot of quiet contemplation by the goalsetter – and imagination.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. It is an important stage in the professional development sequence: 249 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . When we talk about 'personal' goals we are talking about goals specific to you as a teacher.2 Identifying goals for improvement GOAL SETTING We've reached the point where we can identify and record personal goals for improving professional skills and practice.

But we are often reluctant to use this technique and are even more reluctant to talk about it! The fact is that all successful people have these 'pictures' in their mind and are determined in achieving their aims. distance learning. Achievable. curriculum development and new areas of work. Step 1: Consider yourself • • • • • Your current level of skills and competence Your individual aspirations connected with your current job and future plans learning aims Your current and anticipated job requirements Your preferred learning styles.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Goals: • • can be characterised by their priority and their feasibility should be ‘SMART. Step 3: Research ways to achieve your goals • • • • • • publications attendance at conferences information from professional bodies through subscriptions and periodicals internet information on government policy relating to your future needs emerging national and international standards.’ that is to say: Specific. Human beings can be very effective at this. Realistic. Step 2: Think practically how to achieve your goal • • • • • • • programme attendance/attendance at professional courses work experience on other programmes of where delivery methods are different job shadowing/ observing a colleague in a similar teaching role coaching from more experienced teachers mentoring from another teacher open and flexible learning. e-learning through internet or intranet self-study through books and other publications. 250 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . Measurable. Time-scaled It does help if you can 'picture' where you would like to be with certain aspects of your professional practice by when.

Subsequent compilation of a set of master copies for each learning session 5. Review handouts and materials provided to learners to ensure content and format are clear and accurate and provide all necessary information. 251 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Step 4: Create a realistic plan of action Remember that professional practice goals need to be Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time-scaled Example As a result of a completed Evaluation Plan for her own performance as a teacher Maria identified these goals for developing her own professional practice: 1. Review of time allowed for tutorial sessions with Programme Co-ordinator 6. Improve time management skills to ensure that all resources are available prior to learning sessions 4. identifying specific delivery areas where insufficient time has been problematic 3. At first glance these seem to be clearly identified goals. Address issues of timing of activities within session plans. Develop use of IT Skills so that I can operate new computerised system of maintaining learner records 2. but we asked Maria to sharpen them up a bit by considering two additional considerations for each goal • • Feasibility Priority These helped Maria gain a fuller understanding of what exactly might be involved in advancing these potential improvements. Closer supervision of learners when completing classroom activities.

Anna Craft emphasises the wide range of methods of professional learning. or self-study using multimedia resources) 252 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . It is a question of redirecting attention and effort in the learning sessions and should be easily achieved. through email discussion groups. These include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • action research self-directed study as well as teacher research linked to awards such as masters and doctorates using distance-learning materials receiving and/or giving on-the-job coaching. development and sharing of experience and skills teacher placements including those in business but also in other schools personal reflection experimental 'assignments' collaborative learning learning mediated by information technology (for example. so its priority is high. It is therefore feasible. 2000). Thoughts on continuing professional development In her book Continuing Professional Development (RoutledgeFalmer.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION For example: In Improvement 6 '…closer supervision of learners when completing classroom activities' Maria knew from feedback from learners that this was an important issue for them. mentoring or tutoring school-based and off-site courses of various lengths job shadowing and role rotation peer networks membership of a working party or task group school cluster projects involving collaboration.

Put simply. the ambitions and targets of the individual would. but this does not negate the inevitable tension that will exist between individual and institutional priorities for development. In fact. It's no good training to be a pastoral leader because it would really fit nicely with what your principal has in mind for you when what you truly have your heart set on is being a head of department. the way in which you handle these will ensure you gain as much as you can from what's offered. THE TENSION BETWEEN PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT There's no doubt that all forms of personal and professional learning and development can have a positive impact on a school. change. Factors which indicate the presence of a state of mind that is open to personal and professional development include: • • • • a willingness to seek out learning opportunities a willingness to see positive learning potential in all aspects of life an affinity with the process of reflecting on learning and change an overriding leaning towards curiosity about. it could be said that a successful approach to professional development is dependent upon your attitude of mind. Regardless of any external factors that may impose limitations on you. but they are not interchangeable.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION THE PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MINDSET The mindset that encourages in you a drive to progress in your career (even if that means maintaining your current position) will undoubtedly enhance your mental and intellectual well-being. 253 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . a balance needs to be sought. be perfectly matched to internally and externally perceived development needs that must reflect nationally imposed targets and obligations as well as reflecting the need for the school to be accountable for the education it provides. Responsibility for appropriate development must be accepted both by you as an individual and by the institution in which you work. want to travel and the direction in which others within your school would like you to develop. in an ideal world. as an individual. rather than resistance to. In order to avoid damaging degrees of tension between the direction in which you. These will be linked.

occupations become more demanding and complex and the balance for individuals between work and life more difficult to manage. last week or last month. The needs of learners are becoming more demanding. as the world around the school becomes more sophisticated. We have drawn the petals as though they occupy equal space in our lives. Note that WORKSPACE is only one of our petals. Each one occupies a space in our life. Supposing you were to draw each petal proportionate in size to its importance in your life. Teaching is an excellent example of this.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION WORK-LIFE BALANCE As societies and economies develop and modernise. designers. mentors. organisers. trainers and so on. Work is occupying an increasing and increasingly dominant part in our lives. Each petal represents activities in your life. Look carefully at the diagram. This flower diagram shows a broad classification of activities which make up our lives. You could check it out by looking at the actual time you spent on each ‘petal’ yesterday. Teachers can point to the growing number of roles expected of them as professionals. they are becoming counsellors. specific and urgent. They never do! But have you got the shape of flower that you would like? Notice the arrows on the diagram. They all emanate from the centre ‘SELFSPACE’ because it is from our own minds and imaginations that the power to effect changes in the petals originates. You can invent new categories and have more petals if you wish. As we have seen in this guide. how big would each be? Sketch your personal flower taking each petal (and the centre) in turn. 254 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

Try to manage your effort at work more effectively. A full. enthusiastic and care a great deal about their work. clashes with colleagues and many of the frustrations which can wear you out so easily.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Teaching brings with it many possibilities to expand into other spaces. The Diploma itself may seem to add to your pressure on time. writing and out of school activities can easily invade the spaces around actually being in school. Our insistence that you consider properly-targeted design and carry out full on-going evaluation adds to the time already spent on other teaching-learning activities –or does it? Proper. Perhaps you might take a bit of time for your own selfspace and now that you are in control of your workspace you might look at some of the other petals in the same constructive light.’ fraught negotiations over resources. working as a team or a group can lighten your load by sharing the work equitably. Involving others. fully thought-out design can lead to efficiency as well as effectiveness in teaching. detailed teaching course plan can cut out ‘last-minute panics. If you plan your time at school effectively you should be able to get some marking done before you leave for home. For example marking. This is understandable – most teachers are lively. 255 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

and have little contact with other teachers. These trees make up your own 'forest'.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION BRANCHING OUT Teachers can sometimes see themselves as isolated professionals. 256 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . get on with the teaching and return home. Look at this diagram. Notice the function of the branches. It's possible to turn up to school. the tree is firmly rooted in professional skills and training. But let's see things differently. Teamwork is a very strong way in which you can branch out. which shows a teacher as tree! In the diagram. We're thinking in terms of your own institution and its professional teachers. subject specific knowledge and grows upward in professional skills and training. By reaching out to others in the school the tree will • • make a contribution to the development of others derive beneficial input from others.

MODULE 4 : EVALUATION This diagram shows that there are many other forests. In your experience. what has worked best for you in terms of interacting with colleagues outside of your own school? 257 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The following list will give you a start: • • • • join a professional association and attend its meetings self-study through books. How can you reach out to them? There are plenty of options. publications and on-lone courses observe professional practice in other schools arrange teaching/learning exchanges with other schools.

medium and long-term think about what's urgent to you and what's important to you 258 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 . The questions in the framework are not exhaustive by any means. Read the questions and think about the responses that you want to record in your diary.MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Feeling good and moving on The following table offers a framework of questions that have been designed to help you to focus your thoughts on any development and career planning needs that you may have. Consider these points as you work through the table: • • • • • always trust your instincts and intuitive feelings when deciding where you want to go in your career and the path you'd like to take to get there think about the development of new skills and the expansion of existing skills and the relationship between the two gather as much information as possible about the resources available to you consider the short.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 259 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .

You can identify and refine your own goals for potential improvements in your own professional practice. You can now use a pro-forma to state/identify your potential improvements. The themes arising from your analysis of your evaluation should help you immediately. For example: Potential improvement Need to keep records up to date Feasibility of making improvement I need to redesign my system so that it becomes easier to operate Priority? Urgent – each week I get further and further behind with my record keeping because my existing system is too complex 260 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2007 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice Draft your own development plan. comment on their feasibility and identify their priority.

3.3 Completing a professional development plan BE PRACTICAL You can now draw up a development plan to identify and prioritise development needs so that you realise your goals.2. Long-term priorities can be recognised but only insofar as they provide a working context for more immediate issues. 2. COMPLETING A DEVELOPMENT PLAN As we have seen there are essentially four principles in developing your own professional development plan: 1. use this opportunity to discuss your perceived needs and bring them to the attention of line managers. assessing your own current professional practice identifying areas for potential development prioritising these identifying the most suitable methods of satisfying identified development needs. 261 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 .Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. If your institution has an appraisal process in operation. Many people almost set themselves up to fail in their intentions largely because: • • • they have planned too 'long-term' and been too ambitious and so … deadlines appear far away in the future and … the impetus of the plan is then lost. 4. A development plan should concentrate on immediate short-term and mid-term priorities.

Here is a sample development plan. Development plans can be finalised after advice and guidance from these or any other relevant sources. Individual session plans to be reviewed and revised at least 2 weeks prior to each session. such as your line manager or head of department. An ideal opportunity for raising such issues is at an appraisal. with amendments completed in time for photocopy deadline. If development is planned only against short-term goals and targets. your progress may slide as deadlines appear to be far away and not urgent. Both are important in terms of lifelong learning and development. All amended materials to be supplied to support staff by Completion by date of implementation of new system Feedback from learners for selected sessions indicates that support and supervision has been effective and enabled identification of any problems Collect together all session plans for review at scheduled time Carry out review of all plans and identify those areas where problems have occurred due to insufficient time allowed Rewrite sessions plans to incorporate planned changes By the end of this week Deadline in two weeks from start of new recruitment At least two weeks prior to each session to allow time for 262 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 . The long-term plan is again based on evaluation of current practice but sets out to be your long-term goals to further your career. Training covers all necessary knowledge and skills. Development plans should be agreed with everyone else involved in your development. Time is allowed for practice to make sure learning is applied to new system before next induction sessions All plans collected and placed in folder by the end of the week. Permission to attend granted. or to remedy current problems.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION SHORT-TERM AND LONG-TERM DEVELOPMENT PLANS The short-term plan is based on the evaluation of your current practice and you use it to develop your professional practice in your current role. If development is planned only against long-term goals and targets. you may not strive to advance in your career. Area of improvement Information technology training to operate new computerised system of maintaining learner records Actions to be taken Contact Programme Co-ordinator to identify dates and times of IT training programme Register for training programme and carry out all necessary training Target date By the end of this week Criteria for success Suitable dates identified. developed in more detail from the draft plan written earlier.

Self assessment after each learning session is then necessary to ensure that supervision has been effective Ongoing during each session Self assessment after each session POINT TO WATCH You can see that a lot of thought and preparation has gone into the way this plan has been designed and phrased. The range of measures being considered is also realistic. The 'Target Date' column makes the scheme time-scaled SMART work indeed! 263 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 . Feedback from learners for selected sessions indicates that support and supervision has been effective and enabled identification of any problems Closer supervision of learners when completing learning activities Review of session plans should ensure that time allowed for activities is realistic. 'Area of improvement' and 'actions to be taken' have been sharpened up to make them specific. You can see that the teacher has concentrated on quite detailed short-term objectives which are achievable. Including the 'criteria for success' column has made them measurable.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION photocopying photocopying deadline.

Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice Over to you! Now's your opportunity to draw up your own professional development plan. It's a good idea to approach this in two clear stages. Stage 1: Short-term development plan Using the columns and headings in the 'sample development plan' as a working template write in your own: • • • • areas of development actions to be taken target dates criteria for success. 264 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 . Long-term development plan Stage 2: You can use the same template for this This is more personal and 'timings' may be more difficult Try to use the same phrasing and be specific.

4 Specifying actions and evaluating outcomes ACTIONS AND BENEFITS This is about the ways in which you can put the main points of your plan into action. Maria.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION 4. Then we'll see how these steps can be evaluated. There is no really foolproof way of doing this . • • • 265 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 .much depends on what suits you as an individual.2. Using the planning example we set out above in the guidance for Completing a Professional Development Plan we can look at what our teacher. had to say about the actions she intended to take and the benefits she expected to gain. The teacher can make small improvements along the way which lead to big improvements in the programme as a whole The teacher can develop time management skills by implementing the development plan to deadlines set The teacher will be able to facilitate learning outcomes more consistently. She commented on benefits for her as a teacher: BENEFITS FOR THE TEACHER • • • Forward planning will help improve time management during the next programme and meeting deadlines New skills learned through the Diploma have already been put into action in the current programme Continuous evaluation and self-assessment help the teacher quickly to identify and act on potential problem areas. leading to job satisfaction The teacher will receive a better response from his or her learners by developing better or more appropriate learning materials.

All successful individuals and successful organisations are careful to follow up one achievement with another so that a 'culture of success' is developed. MILESTONES AND RECORDS You need to involve yourself in implementing and updating your plan. You should make a record of what you have achieved and what the benefits of that achievement have been. These records act as milestones in your professional development. but achievement and recording achievement is just as important for professionals like teachers to do for themselves as it is for their learners. and encouragingly. This includes actually ticking off targets when they have been achieved. This will enable them to give their own views. Maria also looked at benefits for her learners BENEFITS FOR THE LEARNERS • • • • • Sessions and activities will be more realistic and help learners gain skills and knowledge through doing rather than listening Learners will be able to learn through reflection on what was achieved and how achieved if more time is allowed for feedback and review of activities Learners will benefit from higher quality of resources and clarity of handouts Learner records of progress and achievement will be computerised and this will lead to greater safety sand security of records Learners will continue to be involved in review and evaluation of the programme and individual learning sessions. Playing a part in constructing such a professional working environment is a great source of professional satisfaction. It sounds almost naïve. There is a saying 'nothing succeeds like success'. and they can be produced and discussed in appraisal and may be used in inspection or other professional reviews.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Interestingly. 266 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 . feel involved and so improve learning on a continuous basis. You can incorporate these records into future design and evaluation. Achieving important improvements and planned objectives is a cause of real satisfaction for teachers.

Write them down exactly 3.without realising. Try to picture what you'd like to happen in your life as a whole. Write them down. friendships. People you know best can be the first to discourage you . Don't show them to anyone. and how will your learners learn? 267 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 . how are you going to teach in the future. Never give up 4. you will be in command of your own efforts. sports and hobbies. You can set yourself 'life goals' and pursue them enthusiastically. Pursue them tirelessly. But notice our choice of words .family. If you can manage your professional work effectively and satisfactorily. People who write their goals down are many more times more successful than those who do not 2. These include: • • • • • • • • family and partner relationships happiness with your current post awareness of fresh opportunities elsewhere financial and accommodation matters leisure and social interests need for further training and qualifications desire for promotion or work in another field desire to travel and/or live and work overseas There may be many more considerations we have omitted. spiritual and religious activities … The final words in the conclusion to CIE's video about The Reflective Teacher are 'What have you learned for the future?' So. You'll be able to manage not only your own work but also the other spheres of activity which make up your life . Career development is clearly closely related to professional development but it is part of a much wider range of considerations. home.you can see these as 'considerations' not 'constraints' POINTS TO WATCH You've gained a taste for achievement. If you do set yourself these broader goals: 1. Not even friends and relatives. This is fine because this Diploma is about developing professional skills and practice and projecting these developments into the future in a positive and constructive manner.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND LIFE GOALS We have been involved almost completely in explaining goal-setting and development in professional terms.

were dumbfounded by such a thought. his learners. 'Well what are you then? A piece of driftwood bobbing up and down on the sea or a speedboat cruising smoothly across the ocean en route to Paradise?' and finally … Learners sense a teacher or trainer's feelings If you feel confident. they will feel confident in your ability to pull them through If you enjoy then so will they Enthusiasm is greeted by enthusiasm so in your teaching be confident and enthusiastic. their faces showed little sign of response. In a personal development course a trainer was trying to explain the benefits of 'taking command of your own life'. but above all Enjoy 268 © University of Cambridge International Examinations 2006 . Perhaps his audience.Guide for the Cambridge International Diploma for Teachers and Trainers MODULE 4 : EVALUATION Practice Our final activity is something for you to think about. With just a little air of desperation the trainer cried out ….