Withania somnifera review

Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, and winter cherry, has been an important herb in the Ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems for over 3000 years. Historically, the plant has been used as an aphrodisiac, liver tonic, anti-inflammatory agent, astringent, and more recently to treat bronchitis, asthma, ulcers, emaciation, insomnia, and senile dementia. Clinical trials and animal research support the use of ashwaganda for anxiety, cognitive and neurological disorders, inflammation, and Parkinson's disease. Ashwaganda's chemopreventive properties make it a potentially useful adjunct for patients undergoing radiation and chemotherapy. Ashwaganda is also used therapeutically as an adaptogen for patients with nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and debility due to stress, and as an immune stimulant in patients with low white blood cell counts. Description Ashwagandha is a small, woody shrub in the Solanaceae family that grows about two feet in height. It can be found growing in Africa, the Mediterranean, and India. As a result of this wide growing range, there are considerable morphological and chemotypical variations in terms of local species. However, the primary alkaloids of both the wild and the cultivated species appear to be the same. The roots are the main portion of the plant used therapeutically. The bright red fruit is harvested in the late fall and seeds are dried for planting in the following spring. The berries have been shown to have an emetic effect. Active Constituents The major biochemical constituents of ashwaganda root are steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones in a class of constituents called withanolides. (1) At present, 12 alkaloids, 35 withanolides, and several sitoindosides from this plant have been isolated and studied. A sitoindoside is a withanolide containing a glucose molecule at carbon 27. Much of ashwaganda's pharmacological activity has been attributed to two main withanolides, withaferin A and withanolide D. Mechanisms of Action The withanolides serve as important hormone precursors that can convert into human physiologic hormones as needed. Ashwagandha is thought to be amphoteric; i.e., it can help regulate important physiologic processes. The theory is that when there is an excess of a certain hormone, the plant-based hormone precursor occupies cell membrane receptor sites so the actual hormone cannot attach and exert its effect. If the hormone level is low, the plant-based hormone exerts a small effect. Ashwagandha is also considered to be an adaptogen, facilitating the ability to withstand stressors, and has antioxidant properties as well. Other studies have shown ashwaganda to have an immunostimulatory effect.

red blood cell count. 50-59 years old. This effect was attributed to increased production of inducible nitric oxide synthase. superoxide dismutase. hair melanin. These results suggest Withania somnifera extracts may prevent or inhibit tumor growth in cancer patients. administration of a powdered root extract from ashwagandha was found to enhance total white blood cell count. (9) An in vitro study showed withanolides from Withania somnifera inhibited growth in human breast. (6) Nitric oxide has been determined to have a significant effect on macrophage cytotoxicity against microorganisms and tumor cells. catalase. Iuvone et al demonstrated Withania somnifera increased NO production in mouse macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) Immunomodulation and Hematopoiesis A series of animal studies show ashwagandha to have profound effects on the hematopoietic system. and colon cancer cell lines comparable to doxorubicin. and suggest a potential for development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In addition. lung. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased significantly and 71.4 percent reported improvement in sexual performance. and demonstrated the potential to reduce tumor growth. (3. (10) Anxiety and Depression . Withaferin A more effectively inhibited growth of breast and colon cancer cell lines than did doxorubicin. on the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (8) The chemopreventive effect was demonstrated in a study of ashwagandha root extract on induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice given ashwagandha before and during exposure to the skin cancer-causing agent 7. Serum cholesterol decreased and nail calcium was preserved.12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. levels of reduced glutathione. somnifera extracts. (5) Recent research suggests a possible mechanism behind the increased cytotoxic effect of macrophages exposed to W.4) In a mouse study. and seated stature was observed. and glutathione peroxidase in the exposed tissue returned to near normal values following administration of the extract. A significant improvement in hemoglobin. at a dosage of 3 grams daily for one year. both in vitro and in vivo. ashwagandha was tested in a group of 101 healthy males. an enzyme generated in response to inflammatory mediators and known to inhibit the growth of many pathogens. The chemopreventive activity is thought to be due in part to the antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity of the extract. Additionally. (7) Ashwagandha exhibited stimulatory effects.Clinical Indications Anti-Aging In a double-blind clinical trial. A significant decrease in incidence and average number of skin lesions was demonstrated compared to the control group. acting as an immunoregulator and a chemoprotective agent. this extract inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages when compared to a control group. central nervous system.

Significant increases in urine sodium. a condition characterized by high blood pressure. diuretic. and lipid peroxidation was measured in liver homogenate via antioxidant enzyme activity. and hypocholesterolemic effects of ashwagandha root were assessed in human subjects. indicating the plant has a stimulatory effect at the glandular level. lending support to the use of ashwagandha as an antistress adaptogen. A decrease in blood glucose comparable to that of an oral hypoglycemic drug was observed. No changes in T3 levels were observed. immunosuppression. Withania somnifera. Both botanicals were able to decrease the number and severity of CS-induced ulcers. In a rat model of chronic stress Withania somnifera and Panax ginseng extracts were compared for their ability to attenuate some effects of chronic stress. an extract of the root was administered orally to rats once daily for five days. in which six type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects and six mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were treated with a powder extract for 30 days. Serum was collected at the end of the 20day period and analyzed for T3 and T4 concentrations. and insomnia. (16) Cardiovascular Protection Hypoglycemic. however. sexual dysfunction.In an animal study assessing the anxiolytic and antidepressive actions of ashwagandha compared to commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals. and inhibit the adverse effects of CS on retention of learned tasks. (12-15) Chronic Stress Chronic stress (CS) can result in a number of adverse physiologic conditions including cognitive deficit. (11) Other similar studies confirm these results. water retention. via its effect on cellular antioxidant systems. muscle tension.4 g/kg body weight daily for 20 days. (18. has an advantage over Panax ginseng in that it does not appear to result in ginseng-abuse syndrome. and low-density lipoproteins were also seen. Withania may also stimulate thyroid activity indirectly. and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine for antidepressant investigation. Significant increases in serum T4 were observed. The activity of the Withania extract was approximately equal to the activity of the Panax ginseng extract. (17) Hypothyroidism Animal studies reveal ashwaganda has a thyrotropic effect. Both the ashwagandha group and the lorazepam group demonstrated reduced brain levels of a marker of clinical anxiety. gastric ulceration. and decreases in serum cholesterol. urine volume. Both botanicals also reversed CS-induced immunosuppression. The results were compared to a group administered the benzodiazepine lorazepam for anxiolytic activity. Ashwagandha also exhibited an antidepressant effect comparable to that induced by imipramine in the forced swim-induced "behavioral despair" and "learned helplessness" tests. reverse CS-induced inhibition of male sexual behavior. and changes in plasma corticosterone levels. Withania extract significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the liver . triglycerides. irregularities in glucose homeostasis.19) An aqueous extract of dried Withania root was given to mice via gastric intubation at a dose of 1. but only the Withania extract increased peritoneal macrophage activity in the rats.

patients should avoid alcohol. it should not be taken during pregnancy. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat lasi 1990. diarrhea. Stanescu U.34:854-856. (21. therefore. 1996:137-141. (20) inflammation.) Kuttan G. (18) Other Therapeutic Considerations Studies show ashwagandha to be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis.5 percent withanolides. with antifungal activity (25-26) and moderate antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. and vomiting. or 6-12ml of a 1:2 fluid extract per day. sedatives. (2. Use of Withania somnifera Dunal as an adjuvant during radiation therapy.22) stroke. New data referring to chemistry of Withania somnifera species. caution should be used if taking this combination. (3.) Bone K.94:385-387. References (1. (24) Studies also reveal ashwagandha to be a potential antimicrobial agent. Monographs for the Western Herbal Practitioner. et al. Indian J Exp Biol 1996. Warnings and Contraindications Large doses of ashwagandha may possess abortifacient properties. Australia: Phytotherapy Press. (23) and tardive dyskinesia. Side Effects and Toxicity Ashwagandha is generally safe when taken in the prescribed dosage range. Dosage A typical dose of ashwagandha is 3-6 grams daily of the dried root. therefore. (28) Large doses have been shown to cause gastrointestinal upset.) Elsakka M. These results indicate ashwaganda may be a useful botanical in treating hypothyroidism. Clinical Applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs. and other anxiolytics while taking ashwagandha. Since ashwaganda acts as a mild central nervous system depressant. . promoting scavenging of free radicals that can cause cellular damage. Grigorescu E.homogenate and significantly increased catalase activity. 300-500 mg of an extract standardized to contain 1. (27) Drug-Botanical Interactions There are anecdotal reports that ashwagandha may potentiate the effects of barbiturates.

Adaptogenic activity of a novel.71:193-200. Growth inhibition of tumor cell lines by withanolides from Withania somnifera leaves.) Ziauddin M. Phytother Res 2001. Adaptogenic activity of a novel. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003. Effect of Withania somnifera on CTL activity. Phytomedicine 2000.) Davis L.74:125-132.21:115-118.) Bhattacharya A. Dinda AK. Withania somnifera root extract prevents DMBAinduced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice. Kuttan G.72:1617-1625. Ghosal S.(4. Antioxidant effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides in chronic footshock stress-induced perturbations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex and striatum. Immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera. (11. Bhattacharya SK. Life Sci 2003. et al.) Dhuley JN. Nitric oxide and the immune response. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs. Life Sci 2003. Saxena AK.70:57-63. (10. (12. (8. Phytother Res 2001.15:311-318. J Ethnopharmacol 2001. Sairam K. Seeram N. et al. (13. Phansalkar N.50:69-76. Nutr Cancer 2002.) Singh B.) Bogdan C.2:907-916. Namasivayam A. (16. (6.) Bhattacharya SK. Gupta SK. (5. Zhang Y. withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the root of Withania somnifera. Chandan BK.) Archana R.74:1-6. withanolide-free aqueous fraction from the root of Withania somnifera. Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study. et al. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2002. (14. Saxena AK. J Ethnopharmacol 2000. Capasso F.) Singh B. Esposito G. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha.) Jayaprakasam B. Bhattacharya A. (9.15:311-318.) Davis L. J Ethnopharmacol 1996.7:463-469.42:9197. Izzo A. Patki P. (7. Ghosal S. Kuttan G. J Ethnopharmacol 1999. Chandan BK.) Iuvone T. (13.) Bhattarcharya SK. Nature Immunol 2001. (15. Induction of nitric oxide synthase expression by Withania somnifera in macrophages.75:547-555. Nair M.64:91-93. Muruganandam AV. . Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress.) Prakash J. J Ethnopharmacol 2000.

J Pharm Pharmacol 1998. et al. (22. (28. Parveen Z. Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. (18.67:233-239.) Choudhary MI. Influence of an Indian medicine (ashwagandha) on acutephase reactants in inflammation.) Chaudhary G. (26. Patki PS. Kusnick C. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind. Lindequist U. Sadique J.) Panda S. Kar A.42:299-302. Julicch WD. Phytochemistry 1995. J Ethnopharmacol 2001.) Abou-Douh AM. Kumbhaakarna NR.50:1065-1068. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia pupurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice.(17.) Bhattacharya SK. (21. Dur-e-Shahwar. placebo-controlled. (25. Kar A.) Angalagan K.) Andallu B. (19. J Ethnopharmacol 1999. Sharma U.40:1243-1246.9:167-170.) Kulkarni RR. Hypoglycemic.) Ali NA. Long-term effect of herbal drug Withania somnifera on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Gupta Y. Sairam K. Arch Pharm 2002. Radhika B. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2003.19:245-249.38:607-609. (23.74:173-179. diuretic and hypocholesterolemic effect of winter cherry (Withania somnifera) root. Jagannathan N. (20. (27.) Begum VH.33:91-95. Indian J Exp Biol 1981. Chhibba AD.26:877-882. Indian J Exp Biol 1988.335:267-276.) Panda S. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwaganda root extract to adult male mice. cross-over study. Subacute toxicity study of the combination of ginseng (Panex ginseng) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) in rats: a safety assessment. New withanolides and other constituents from the fruit of Withania somnifera. Jog VP. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1998. Evaluation of Withania somnifera in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Sadique J. J Ethnopharmacol 1991. Indian J Exp Biol 2000. (24. Phytomedicine 2002. Antifungal steroidal lactones from Withania coagulance.) Aphale AA. et al. et al. Bhattacharya D. Ghosal S.30:399-404. .

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A great deal of it. Yet there is hope. Not only are some ecosystems being protected (and restored) and non-frantic lifestyles being adopted. antiarthritis. in one scientific study after another. on us.from the toxic industrialized environment and frenzied societies we have created and their effects. [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Most PopularCBS MoneyWatch. 1996 | 0 Comments • • Print Share Email Digg Facebook Twitter Google Delicious StumbleUpon Newsvine LinkedIn My Yahoo Technorati Reddit Recommend0 o o o o o o o o o o o o • • • • • facebook twitter digg buzz Considered the oldest healing science in existence.Ashwagandha: an anti-cancer. and with some astounding results. Ayurvedic herbal medicines are proving their tremendous value in protecting mankind from itself -. Gormley | Feb. in turn.com Blogs • • • • • Privacy is Dead: How To Network Now The End of the Euro? The Best and Worst College Degrees by Salary New Cars: Are 2011 Ford Mustang and Fiesta Worth the Money? 5 Best Cities To Rent Your Next House .' by James J. but ancient wisdom from the dawn of civilization is also being applied to modern medicine. anti-ulcer 'adaptogen.

Singh informs us that. significantly reduced the incidence. and (c) It must have a normalizing action. it must meet the following criteria: (a) It should be relatively harmless and cause minimal disruption in the physiological functions of an organism. Brekhman and I. Al-Hindawi and colleagues looked at how well the botanical could reduce inflammation-related effects in treated animals.. Solanaceae). Uma Devi and coworkers (1992) attempted to ascertain "the antitumor activity of Ashwagandha root and to determine an effective drug dose which can be used without serious [. for a substance to be an adaptogen. in an article which appeared in the International Journal of Crude Drug Research. "inhibit (prevent) tumor growth" in Swissalbino and BDF1 mice. an adaptogen is any drug. In 1992. and any side effects such as diarrhea or weight loss... Sahni . preventing the action of psychological and physical stress on the human organism. total number and severity of ulcers formed compared with salt-water-placebo-treated controls.P. arthritis. More recently. or NSR (non-specific resistance) to illness/disease-causing factors. exhibiting a strong immunosuppressive effect by stopping cancerous cell division in its tracks. or compound. They found that daily administration. (1989). Battacharya and coworkers investigated the extract's effects in relation to stress-induced gastric ulcers. treatment resulted in an 89 percent reduction in arthritic score as compared to those which received no treatment. Ashwagandha. observed a "significant effect" of Ashwagandha on the acute inflammatory response in animals. and hypertension. with proven effects in the prevention and treatment of cancer. it took twice the dose of aspirin to equal this activity. In 1987. In 1970.I. This was nearly double the effect (44 percent) produced by treatment with hydrocortisone. (b) Its action should be non-specific. and without mortality." They found that administration of an alcohol extract of the plant resulted in complete remission of tumor growth in 25 percent of treated animals and more than 50 percent regression (reversal) of tumor growth in 63 percent of the animals. Shohat and colleagues found that two isolated components of Ashwagandha. is just such an adaptogen. I. increasing resistance to adverse physical. which increases the "SNIR" (state of non-specifically-increased resistance).K. Withaferin A and Withanolide E. in general. By day 49. Anti-inflammation/anti-arthritis. Animals which received the extract revealed a 65 percent inhibition in edema (swelling). an extract from the roots and leaves of the plant Withania somnifera (fam. ulcers. P. Y. and.V. Dardymov (1969) would add that (d) It should have a wide range of regulatory activity which only manifests its action against the actual challenge to the system (be it a particular disease or disease-causing agent).What are adaptogens and why are they important? According to N.] side effects. chemical and biological factors. Cancer suppression. Singh. S. et al. et al. Al-Hindawi. for a period of four days prior to ulcer induction. Anti-ulcer.

and hyperlink (<a href></a>) Latest MoneyWatch Segments • Financial Reform Moves Forward • Stocks Rise After Roller-Coaster Day . and stimulatory for lactation (Sholapurkar. has also been shown to be: anti-bacterial (Kazmi. COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group MoneyWatch TalkbackShare your ideas and expertise on this topic Please add your comment: 1. beneficial for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (Kulkarni.and D. Srivastava observed similar results in 1993 in terms of number of ulcers formed and the severity of those which occurred. anti-depressive (Singh. anti-hypertensive (Ahumada. which is typically taken two times daily in 300 mg doses. 4. 1993). underline (<u></u>). learning and memory-enhancing (Kulkarni and Verma. italic (<i></i>). helpful for symptoms of chronic fatigue (Jayaram. 1989). COPYRIGHT 1996 PRIMEDIA Intertec. 5. a PRIMEDIA Company. 1992). 1986). Ashwagandha. 1991).N. Alert me when new comments are added Basic HTML tags that work in comments are: bold (<b></b>). 3. 1992). You are currently: a Guest | Log in 2. All Rights Reserved. 1991).

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