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THEORETICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART 2. SYNTAX
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PART 1. PHRASE SYNTAX
1.1. TOPIC OUTLINE ………………………………………………….…. 5 1.2. TASKS FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES ………………………………. 8
The Study Guide is intended for third year students majoring in Linguistics. It aims to help them understand and use the fundamental principles of Theoretical English Grammar, as well as organize their self-study sessions in Theoretical Syntax of the English Language.
This is achieved in various ways. First, the Study Guide provides an outline of the topics discussed in lectures and those for self-study. Students are required to be able to expand on every aspect mentioned and to illustrate it with examples. Second, the Guide contains a variety of exercises to be done in practical classes. You will also find a list of the theoretical aspects of the course and a list of recommended textbooks and other reference materials.
i. o In most respects.e.1. however.PART 1. TOPIC OUTLINE SYNTAX AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS o Syntax as part of grammar. what patterns they combine on. the sentence – expresses a ‘complete thought’ the phrase – Doesn’t express a ‘complete thought’ – Has a nominative function – is a name of a type of real life situations/ – Has a nominative function – is a complex name of discrete objects of 5 . o The units of syntactic analysis are the sentence and the phrase. the sentence and the phrase differ. o The main objectives of Syntax are: 1) to study relations between words within word combinations. 2) to study the sentence as a structural unit which communicates a message in a definite situation. Syntax deals with combinability of words. They represent different levels of a hierarchy. and what abstract grammatical meaning they express. PHRASE SYNTAX 1. how words are combined to make meaningful utterances. o From the constructive point of view both the sentence and the phrase are groups of elements related with each other and organised in a definite way. o The subject matter of Syntax.
o A phrase has a grammatical structure as words in it are syntactically related. o Traditionally the phase is defined as a group of two or more notional words functioning as a whole. Personality) – Does not have intonation – Is part of a communicative unit of speech – Doesn’t realise Predication PHRASE SYNTAX o Definitions of the phrase.events reality or of elements of real life situations – Has a certain intonation pattern – Is a minimal communicative unit of speech – Realises Predication (Modality. Temporality. o Differences in phrase structure show up in differences of meaning. o The two basic types of syntactic relations between words in a phrase: coordination Coordinative phrases and subordination Subordinative phrases the main type of phrase in any language – The elements are equal in their – The elements are not equal in their status status: a head word + one or more adjuncts 6 . Besides notional words. o A phase is a grammatical and semantic unit. a phrase may contain one or more function words.
3) subtypes of syntactic relations variants of Subordination: Agreement. o Government in English is mostly prepositionally (syntactically) marked. 2) the degree of semantic fusion between the elements free phrases and phraseological units. i. the dependent element shares the morphological categories of the head word. The main and most common variant of subordination in English where the word order is fixed. Adjoinment. adjective phrases. 7 . o Agreement is the morphologically marked variant of subordination.(1) with the help of prepositions expressing coordination ( is formally marked) or (2) without conjunctions the relation pressing subordination ( pendence is formally marked) or (2) without prepositions the de- o The major criteria for classifying subordinative phrases: 1) the lexical grammatical class (part of speech) of the head word noun phrases. Agreement is not very common on the phrase level in English.– Are used to expand sentence com.– Are used to build the structure of the ponents but not to build the structure sentence of the sentence – Are built either – Are built either (1) with the help of conjunctions ex. adverb phrases. Government.e. o Adjoinment is formally unmarked. The word position in a phrase and semantic correlation matter. verb phrases.
o ‘Chains’ of phrases more complex constructions.g. Wisteria branches eventually grow to tree-size width and are meant for the sturdiest pergolas and arbors. Give detailed analysis of each phrase in terms of: (a) its type. 1. 1. (b) the syntactic relation and the means of its expression. or where multiple embedding occurs. 3. TASKS FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES Task 1. 2. the head and the adjunct). He came to my wedding and he looked so handsome. 8 . and (c) its constituents’ status (e.2. Place all the phrases you can find in the sentences below in brackets. Is it possible to change the position of the constituents in any of the phrases below without changing the meaning of the original phrase? What changes in meaning occur? An exciting adventure Jogging shoes Twenty minutes A cake pan William and Mary Fish and chips To write a letter To bring Mary a cup of coffee To go by bus Task 2. I also told him the story of my life. where one phrase is em- bedded in another phase. He is such a sweet boy.
SIMPLE SENTENCE SYNTAX 2. a scholar who won a Pulitzer for his biography of King. morphemes. PART 2. o The sentence vs. David Garrow. i. TOPIC OUTLINE THE SENTENCE AS A LANGUAGE UNIT ITS FUNDUMENTAL PROPERTIES o The sentence is a structural and semantic unity and unit which names a real life situation and communicates a definite message. the major of which are three – structural 9 .4. to build a sentence). the utterance = the potential language unit vs. as: 1) it is the minimal communicative language unit which expresses a ‘complete thought’.e. was skeptical about the whole notion of an autobiography. 3) the whole range of language phenomena – from intonation patterns to semantics and pragmatics – can be realised on the sentence level. a complete description of an event or state of affairs.e. i. the actualised speech unit. o The sentence is the most complex language unit that consists of a number of elements connected by different types of syntactic and semantic relations. words and phrases – is structural. o The sentence is the primary unit of Syntax. 2) its basic function is the communicative one (while the major function of all the other language units – phonemes.1. It can be studied in a number of aspects.
Sentence classification can be performed in each of these three aspects. o 1. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE IN THE STRUCTURAL ASPECT o Each simple sentence / clause is built on a pattern which names one of the typical situations of real life. and also by a Gerund. – is normally placed before the Predicate. 2. an Infinitive or a substantivised Adjective. o cally. THEIR SEMANTIC AND STRUCTURAL TYPES o THE SUBJECT: – denotes one of the participants of the situation which is characterized by the Predicate. It consists of a set of sentence constituents (parts/ elements) which in speech can be represented by either one word form or by a phrase. – is typically expressed by a Noun or a Pronoun. o Semantic types of the Subject: – the traditional approach: 10 . semantic/ nominative (meaning) and pragmatic/ communicative (function).(form). Sentence constituents are connected both semantically and syntacti- SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS.
doesn’t give any). 4. – Temporal S. Impersonal S has reference – does not name objects of reality has no reference in reality – is expressed by only 1 form – ‘dummy’ it 1a.– universal strative it NB: Anticipatory it truths Personal S Personal S necessary to make a correct Eng- – general statements about lish sentence typified situations – expressed by indefinite pro. info about the participants and components of the real situation: – Agentive S. you NB: demon. names the active doer / source of the action. indicates time. is specific grammatically (only 1 negation in the sentence). Negative S.e.– semantically empty. Interrogative S (what. no lexical nouns: they – clichés meaning 3. Indefinite – a purely structural element Personal S – statements about definite objects of reality one.1. General 1c. (2) structurally (word order. Personal S – names objects of reality in objective reality – is expressed by notional nominal words with a definite lexical meaning – has more or less definite individual semantics: 2. 11 . – A modern semantic approach: o semantic roles of the nouns in the position of the Subject. Definite 1b. i. who) is specific (1) semantically (asks for info. no auxiliary). – Patient names the passive participant of the action affected by it.
The Compound Nominal Pr = Link V + Predicative (i. o Structural types of the Predicate. 1.e.– Locative S. The Compound Pr 2a. o THE OBJECT: – denotes a (usu passive) participant of the situation other than the one named by the Subject. The Compound Verbal Pr = a Modal / Phase verb + Non-Finite verb form 3. 12 . Complement = a Nominal part of speech: N/ Adj/ ProN) 2b. o The verb phase in the predicative function is the central element in each sentence / clause.e. – occupies the position after the Subject. one which is attributed to it at the moment of speech). – is expressed by a verb or verb group. The Simple Pr – is expressed by a finite verb 2. o THE PREDICATE: – gives a predicative characteristic of the Subject (i. indicates place etc. as its valency controls the kind of elements that co-occur in the sentence (also see below). The Double Pr = Notional verb + a nominal word: – gives 2 semantic characteristics of the S at the same time.
called  prepositional Objects. neither takes a preposition = they are 13 . o If a Ditransitive verb is used. o If a Monotransitive verb is used. usually a person at whom the action is directed / for whom it is performed = a ‘recepient’ / ‘interested witness’ / ‘beneficiary’. Pronoun. as: – they are used when there is no direct object in the sentence.prep. direct Object and  indirect Object: – general semantics: names the third participant of the action. (3) the object which appears as a result of an action. non-emphatic: SVOiOd prepositionless. (2) the object of perception or emotion. o The order of the direct and indirect object: 1) standard. 2) reversed. with emphasis on Oi. – Prepositions only mark the syntactic relation of Government between the verb and the object. directly involved in or affected by the action (semantics of ‘patient’). – is typically expressed by a Noun. – semantic subtypes of direct Object: (1) the object of a physical action. there are two objects in the sentence. etc. o Many linguists argue that Prepositional Verbs also take objects. (prepositional indirect Object). or Gerund. which also changes its form by taking a preposition (to or for): SVOdOi.– is placed after a Simple Verbal Predicate expressed by a Transitive Verb.  direct Object: – general semantics: names a passive participant of the situation. there is one object in the sentence.
cause / reason. – Another point of view: the main sentence category. purpose. o THE ATTRIBUTE: – is not a separate sentence constituent. O. it can only form part of another sentence constituent – S. Predication. manner. degree….o Summary table on types of Objects: prepositionless Objects prepositional Objects direct Object (SVOd. degree. but to expand other sentence constituents from within. adverb phrases and prepositional phrases. – functionally. which establishes a relation between the sentence and the real situation (the phenomenon of sen14 . – is represented by adverbs. 1. or Predicative / Complement rank among the sentence constituents. is used not to construct the basic pattern of the whole sentence. SVOiOd) indirect Object (SVOiOd) prepositional indirect Object (SVOdOi prep) prepositional Objects (SVOprep) o THE ADVERBIAL ( / the Adjunct): – gives information about the circumstances of the action denoted by the Predicate: time. place. which distinguishes the sentence from the phrase: – 1 point of view: the interrelation between the Subject and the Predicate (the predicative basis of the sentence). it’s the lowest in syntactic SYNTACTIC RELATIONS ON THE SENTENCE LEVEL o A hierarchy of 3 basic types.
to complete the sentence by introducing other sentence constituents apart from the Subject and the Predicate (Object etc. 3. the utterance is elliptical. 2. Subordination.tence actualisation which makes it an utterance). Coordination homogeneous (parts of) sentence constituents are formed OBLIGATORY AND OPTIONAL SENTENCE CONSTITUENTS 1) The traditional approach: o Only the Subject and the Predicate are obligatory sentence constituents while the others are optional. Modality. The category of Predication is a combined expression of 3 sentence categories: Temporality. o S + Pr form the predicative basis of the sentence. 2b. to give more info about other sentence constituents by expanding them from within (Attributes). 2) Another approach takes into account not only grammatical correctness. If either of them is missing in speech. which has two functions: 2a. but also the following criteria: – if the sentence is informatively and communicatively complete. o The main argument here is that no English sentence is grammatically correct and complete without either the Subject (S) or the Predicate (Pr) whereas there are correct sentences without Objects (O) or Adverbials (A). – if it makes sense 15 . sometimes also called a clause. Personality.).
o Nominative semantics: – there is a system of a few basic types of situations into which innumerable real life situations have been arranged as a result of natural systematizing. BASIC PATTERNS OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCE: THEIR STRUCTURAL BASIS AND NOMINATIVE SEMANTICS o Any utterance is built on a pattern which is a structural semantic unity and unit. i. every sentence pattern has both its specific. o Adverbials in sentences with Verbs of certain semantic classes (e. o The form: 16 . – every sentence pattern names a typified situation of objective reality. individual meaning (nominative semantics) and form (structural basis).g. and can be omitted without ruining the grammatical structure and affecting the meaning of the sentence.e. about the circumstances or manner of the action.g.( o . o From this point of view only some Adverbials are optional – those which give additional more details. e. with verbs of movement or location) are also considered obligatory. not only the Subject and the Predicate but also the Object in sentences with a transitive verb as the Pr are obligatory sentence constituents and form a clause. ).
which is most often a verb (in a simple verbal predicate) but can also be a noun or adjective (as part of a nominal predicate). – ditransitive verbs (with an indirect object and a direct object). – S V Cs 17 . – monotransitive verbs (with a single direct object). which describes the situation of existence / presence. – copular verbs (followed by either (1) a subject complement or (2) an obligatory adverbial). o The main predicating word. the number and type of which vary from pattern to pattern.= a specific combination of obligatory sentence constituents. o There are 6 basic patterns of the English sentence which are recognized by most grammarians: – There V S (There – Copular Verb (typically be) – Subject). valency of the predicating word controls the number. – complex transitive verbs (followed by a direct object and either 1) an object complement or 2) an obligatory adverbial). governs the sentence pattern. i.e. type and semantics of obligatory sentence constituents which make up a sentence/ clause. o Types of verb valency: – intransitive verbs (with no obligatory element following).
(where Link Verb + subject Complement can be seen as making up the Compound Nominal Predicate). which describes a situation with two participants – an active (S) and a passive one (O). which denotes both an action directed at a passive participant and the characteristic it has or acquires as a result. which denotes actions / states / events which are not directed at any particular object. o Some grammarians single out some other sentence patterns: – S V Od A * 18 . – S V Od (Subject – Monotransitive Verb – direct Object). – S V Oi Od (Subject – Ditransitive Verb – indirect Object – direct Object). passive participant is involved. – S V Od Co (Subject – Complex ransitive Verb – direct Object – object Complement). which describes a situation with three participants. which are involved in the action. –SV (Subject – Intransitive Verb). which is used for characterizing sth.(Subject – Copular Verb – subject Complement). where an active participant performs an action directed at another participant and in which still another.
19 . o Verbs with more than one meaning. but also optional constituents – Adverbials and Attributes (as parts of S / O / C) – are often added the sentence becomes expanded and gives more detailed information about a particular situation. or unexpanded. not only syntactic positions are filled with definite words. e. The simplest correlation is as follows. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE IN THE SEMANTIC ASPECT THE SEMANTIC PATTERN OF THE SENTENCE o Language means model and represent situations of objective reality..(Subject – Complex ransitive Verb – direct Object – Adverbial) formed by a special semantic class of verbs (verbs of movement / location) and allowing only for adverbials of place. sentence patterns are language units include only obligatory sentence constituents. o Basic. * It is an arguable point whether these patters are separate ones or variants of other basic patterns. get. make. can have multiple valencies build up different sentence patterns. –SVA * (Subject – intransitive / Link Verb – Adverbial) where the locative semantics is expressed by both the verb of movement / location and the adverbial of place.g. When they are actualised in speech as utterances. etc. grow.
usu. + an actional verb: 1a. which makes the sentence semantically complete. noun groups referring to the predicate) + syntactic and semantic relations between them o Arguments perform definite semantic roles according to the type of the participant of the real life situation they name. that performs an action consciously and/ or purposefully. between the participants of o The basic semantic pattern of the sentence = proposition: The meaning of action / event + the minimal set of semantic roles.A real life situation – An event – Its participants – Its circumstances + interrelations between them A sentence – the predicate (usu. others are optional. SEMANTIC ROLES o Agent – an animate object. 2) it reflects the relations between its arguments ( the real life situation). o The function of the predicate is central to the semantic structure of the sentence. a human being. Causative agent performs an action. V) – arguments (usu. as: 1) its semantics determines the whole range of semantic roles that can be expressed in the sentence (= the role structure of the verb / the frame of the verb). 20 . some roles manifested by the verb are obligatory.
o Nominative / External causer / Source – an animate or inanimate object which is the ‘source’ of the action. o Patient – the animate / inanimate participant which is directly affected by the action performed by another participant (Agent) and undergoes a change as a result. o Event / Action. o Factitive / Resultant – an inanimate object which is created/ produced as a result of the action. o Object of perception – an animate or inanimate object that is perceived (by Experiencer).1b. 21 . Permissive agent lets an action be performed by removing the obstacle for the object. o Recipient / Beneficiary – an animate being that receives sth as a result of the action. o Locative – place. o Temporative – time. feels or realizes sth. (NB: it is NOT a semantic role if it is expressed by the verb in the predicate!) o Experiencer – an animate participant that perceives. o Instrument – an inanimate object which an agent uses to perform the action.
Fill in the gaps with appropriate grammatical terms. o The same sentence constituent can realize different semantic roles in different sentences. called the (6) ___________. o Attribute etc. A (3) _________ sentence contains a subordinate clause and at least one main clause. The predicate in an English sentence always includes a (10) ________. TASKS FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES Task 3. A simple sentence has one (1) _________. The (9) _______ is used to say what is happening in an action or situation.o Quality possessor.2. This is followed by a (5) _________ which may be followed by another noun group. A (2) ___________ sentence has two or more main clauses which are equally important. Clauses usually begin with a (4) __________ called the subject. 2. o The same semantic role can be realized by different sentence constituents. 22 . The (8) _________ is a person or thing affected by the action or situation. The (7) _________ is a person or thing that the sentence is about. This can have one or two (11) ______ or a (12) ________ in front of it. o The same sentence constituent can realize different semantic roles in the same sentence at the same time.
If you believe in yourself you can succeed. He likes her. It never rains in Albuquerque. Tommie. No one could do that. 7. 8. 6. 17. 5. Things have got too tough.The (13) _______ is a noun group or an adjective used after link verbs like «be». The rich should help the poor. It’s a bird. 13. The adverbial. 3. 4. 2. What language means is it expressed by? 1. Task 4. People here are hot-tempered. 11. 9. Why do bad things happen to good people? 12. 14. They say he’s rich. Identify the type of Subject in the following sentences. The (16) ________ tells you more about the action or situation. Anyone could do that! 16. Who could do that? Task 5. or (14) _______. 15. It wasn’t very wise of you. It’s warm in here. What language means is it expressed by? 23 . The complement tells you more about the (15) ________. «become». They’re coming over tonight. Some like it hot. is an adverb or a prepositional phrase that follows the verb group. 10. Identify the type of Predicate in the following sentences. «feel» or «seem». People say he’s rich. the object or the complement.
What language means is it expressed by? 1. 3. 4. I have to go now. He was lying on the sofa. 5. Who did you buy it for? 8. Match each symbol in the basic sentence patterns on the left with the corresponding part of the sentence on the right. Identify the type of Object in the following sentences. The picture lay hidden in archives for 40 years. Task 6. She was beginning to feel irritated. The young should respect the old. Take it easy. This is my favourite book. Tina. 6. 2. 8. They gave him additional funding. Your books have sold millions of copies. It smells delicious! 10. Are you having a good time? 3. 2. I felt totally terrified. Task 7. 7. Why are some parts of the sentences not represented with symbols? 24 . She was feeling her way in the dark. Pick up your pen and write me now. I was given this address by a friend of yours. 4.1. 5. Everyone deserted me. 7. 6. Why are you smelling it? 9.
SVOdCo That makes me so mad. Represent the following sentences in symbols and underline the sentence constituents. SVCs He and Jane aren’t married. They’ve been given the red-carpet treatment. Do you work late? SVOd She changed her dress. She taught children French. They elected him President. I’m making such a big sandwich. Mum. Task 8. The pleasant summer lasted well into March. SV Sarah and Michael disappeared. There were lots of people going through the tills. Say what language means they are expressed by.ThereVS Once upon a time there was a beautiful princess. The cheese has gone bad. I’ve always treated her with respect. SVOdA They are sending us to Disneyland. Have you got an exam on Monday? SVOiOd Lizzie bought herself a mountain bike. There are frequent trains to Bordeaux. She placed the baby on a blanket in the living room. SVA Marc was in the bathroom. She smiled sweetly. I like my steak well-done. She reached for the scissors. She sounds funny on the phone. 25 .
Simon spoke first. coordinative noun phrase pronoun verb [subord. I’ll keep in touch with you. My dislike of the man returned. There were only four of us. He painted the roof of the house red. 20. 17. He really told his father the truth. 16. 5. Od SVOd(A) personal monotrans. 14. 11. 3. 15. So that made her popular. 2. He considered it a dumb question. He didn’t get his hair wet. People called him Johnny. Carrie felt a little less bold. 12. he’s out. Then they fell in the sea. He put his hand on the child’s shoulder. 8. 13. 18. I just got really hot. 26 . noun phrase+ a noun] 1. We were in a meeting all morning with Barbara. 4. Which basic patterns are the sentences below built on? 1. Fred Unsworth gave her a huge note of confidence. 19. Task 9. She was carrying a long whippy willow twig. They certainly couldn’t tell her the truth. – Is Mike in? – No.Example: Then A Time adverb they S heard V a loud cry and a splash. More people came. Tako is really a smart dog. He gave all that information to the FBI. 9. 7. 6. 10. 21.
Could you stand being alone with me for five or six days? 10.A. Distinguish between the obligatory and optional constituents of the following sentences. Later. London stands on the River Thames. During her short life. 4. Flying is the only way to travel! 6.2. after dark. 9. Did he say ‘hi’ to you? 11. 10. Hot. The Portuguese named the place Bom Bahia for its harbour. Which criteria do you use? 1. The boy lives in Washington now. The house was built in 1965. for a few months back in 1987. Show the inspector your ticket. He left it in the bushes. 7. 7. 2. The work changed in the post-war period. 12. 4. He went to the corner shop. Could you open the window. Task 10. 11. 3. 27 . Her father had called her one evening. She went crazy out in L. a boy brought him a plate of food. The minibar was filled with candy. mineral water and soft drinks. This lightly effervescent Italian white wine seemed sharp at first. Charlie. 5. 8. please? 8. We got home too late. isn’t it? 12. The stewards all spoke French. 5. 6. 9. 3. You will never change the world. Here I find you in some dark plot against me. her two sisters bought her a small teddy bear.
1. 16. We can’t promise you that.Task 11. 21. Yes. and the clause elements that follow each main verb. 19. 13.S. 4. 11. I’ve found her a friend. make a list of the different valencies for each of these verbs. Identify the valency of each verb. 7. translate into Russian. 5. A. The mug of coffee had not got any hotter. I just stood there. We might find a body.S. Your dog’s got brown teeth. 18. 15. 9. peacekeeping troops. B. 2. officials considered them a serious threat to U. He got his clothes very dirty. The government has begun its controversial plan to compensate the three domestic airlines. Compare uses of the same verb in different sentences. I promise. 17. They are considering the launch of their own political party. You might find these notes useful. 12. 28 . U. His wife sometimes made him curry. 14. I really couldn’t stand him. In the sentences below verbs with multiple valencies are used. Why don’t you go and get us both a pie. You don’t stand a chance. 8. 10. 3. Malcolm made no sound. 20. She brought him a sandwich and a cup of tea. The sheer intensity of the thing me nervous. 6. Martin’s course begins on 1 November. Then we’ll bring our friends.
drive. What is wrong with the following sentences? 1. * The stream flowed. * He put the book. Analyse the sentences on the right in terms of the semantic roles their constituents realise. Some boxes will remain blank. Task 13. Find / make up sentences that illustrate the fact that the verbs below have multiple valences and can build sentences based on different patterns. 4. * Mr. * She was sent. 3. Sentence pattern SVCs Exper – – Attr ib He turned traitor – – She’s happy S Oi Od Cs Co A Example sentence The Sahara is hot Last night was warm The show was interesting 29 . Scott was looking anxiously. look. Translate the sentences into Russian. turn. * I’d better start growing. 5. 2. smell. leave. Then fill the appropriate boxes in the table with the name of the semantic role for each argument. Call.Task 12. Task 14. grow.
SVA He was at school She got into the car He is lying on the floor SV He was working She is standing The wind is blowing The curtains disappeared SVOd He threw the ball Lightning struck the house She has a car He is holding a knife The stone broke the window We paid the bus driver They climbed the mountain 30 .
The bus seats thirty I wrote a letter They had an argument He nodded his head SVOiOd I bought her a gift She gave the door a kick She knitted me a sweater SVOdCo He declared her the winner The sun turned the grass yellow The revolver made him afraid I found it strange SVOdA He placed it on the shelf The storm drove the ship ashore A car knocked it down 31 .
– the clauses can be: (1) of equal status the relation of coordination between the clauses a compound sentence. patient locative 2. 6. 5. COMPOSITE SENTENCE SYNTAX 3. TOPIC OUTLINE THE COMPOSITE SENTENCE vs. That was a tactical decision.Task 15. He struck me on the knee. THE SIMPLE SENTENCE o A composite sentence has the following properties: – it consists of 2 or more clauses which are related both syntactically and semantically. PART 3. Identify the semantic roles of the arguments in the sentences below. Did you hear what I told you? 7. e. 8. He drew lines on the paper. or (2) of different status complex sentence.g. He’s travelled the world. – the syntactic relation can be (1) marked with a linker or (2) formally unmarked. agent 1. 3. 32 the relation of subordination between the clauses a . He put the book on the shelf.1. London faced a severe winter last year. She was given a ring for her birthday. 4. The glazier cuts glass with a diamond.
o Types of semantic relations between the clauses: – Copulative: similarity. nor. yet. o Coordination can be formally unmarked intonation. b) a coordinating conjunctive adverb. so. however. otherwise. – Cause and effect. contrast. either. which can shift its position: besides. contradiction. thus. o The syntactic relation of coordination between the clauses. – Adversative: opposition. o Coordination can be marked with a linker (coordinator): a) a coordinating conjunction: and. – Disjunctive: mutually exclusive alternatives. addition. 33 . consequently. neither. punctuation. still.THE COMPOUND SENTENCE o The clauses are of equal status = at the same level of the syntactic hierarchy. o The syntactic relation can be either marked or unmarked. o The order of coordinate clauses is more or less fixed. then. therefore. but. simultaneous or successive events. moreover. or.
o The functional classification of subordinate clauses: – is based on the functional and semantic correlation between subordinate clauses and simple sentence constituents (S. when. than…. a predicative subordinate clause. where. which is part of the clause (= occupies a notional and structural position in it): who. so far as. punctuation. Pr. if. as… o Subordination can be formally unmarked intonation. – paired: as…as. though. because. O. who. o Subordination can be marked with a linker (subordinator). until. o The syntactic relation of subordination between the clauses. in case…. 34 . as if. whose. such…as. b) a relative pronoun (/a connective/ a subordinating conjunctive adverb). why. Attr): a subject subordinate clause. which occurs in a fixed position at the front of its clause: the main / principal clause and one or more subordinate / dependent clauses which are embedded as part a) a subordinating conjunction: – 1-word: that.THE COMPLEX SENTENCE o The syntactic status of the clauses is not equal of the main clause. before. since. that. what. which. – phrasal: in order that. A. an object subordinate clause of the following semantics: – substantive.
TASKS FOR PRACTICAL CLASSES Task 16. 4.– adverbial. 1. 3. he couldn’t believe his luck. etc. 2.2. She told me that she was leaving. – circumstantial semantics (cause. 3. concession. an adverbial subordinate clause of the following semantics: – time. He never knew when she would phone. – ‘parallel’ subordination. – content. – place. purpose. Identify the type of the linker in each sentence. – manner / comparison. result. o types of subordination: – hierarchical ( 1st. – general event. When the good news came. Ideas that seem difficult to understand at first may appear obvious later. 35 . 2nd degree of subordination). an attributive subordinate clause of descriptive. restrictive or appositive semantics. condition…). Which characteristics do the composite sentence and the simple sentence share? What makes them different? Task 17. reason.
excuse me if I talk too much. It is very good although it is cheap. R. S. 36 . G. or it would be in a museum. That it would be unpopular with students or colleges was obvious. P. U. that I had the impression that they were very seldom read. Q. It must be a forgery. H. remediable. The programmer can establish when a transput operation is complete. you pay for what you want. I’m tense. New clinical trials show that including garlic in the diet can reduce cholesterol. The golden rule is if you are reversing you must look behind you. D. they were so clean. E. That’s what I’ll do tomorrow. All you need is love. T. What I can’t bear is her disobedience. everything seems reversible. N. J. I’ve no idea why she said that she couldn’t call on us at the time I had suggested. It is cheap but it is very good.Task 18. When you’re young. I promise that we will take great care of him. I like these foreign pictures because I can believe in them. Well. At that age. which I judged to be near 50. They’ve given me a position I could never have got without them. He looked as if he had seen a ghost. M. he looked extremely young. B. Which of the following composite sentences are compound and which are complex? Why? How many clauses does each sentence consist of? What kind of syntactic relation is there between the clauses? Is it marked? A. C. I. But all the books were so neatly arranged. Do you see what I mean? F. L. K. O.
Its semantic and/ or structural types. Types of syntactic relations on the phrase level. – . 13. . . 11. 7. its structural and/ or semantic types. . The Object.. . 1981. types of language unit(s) studied. / . . Types of phrases 3. – . . 12. The Complex Composite sentence. 9. Semantic roles and their realisation in a sentence. Its semantic and structural types. Syntax: its subject matter. SYNTAX 1. The Compound Composite sentence. . its structural and/ or semantic types. . types of subordinate clauses. Obligatory and optional constituents of a simple sentence. .: .THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE COURSE. . 6. The Predicate. The simple sentence and the composite sentence: their comparative characteristics 14. REFERENCES 1. . . Basic sentence patterns: their structural basis and nominative semantics. The Subject. The Adverbial. The semantic pattern of the sentence. The phrase and the simple sentence: their comparative characteristics. Types of syntactic relations in the simple sentence. 15. – 285 . . – 380 . . . / 2. 10.. : . 4. . - 37 . expanded and unexpanded sentences. 2. 2000. 8. 5.
– 487 p. . . . . . .Supplementary reference materials 3. / . – 256 . – 638 . . 2000. 2003. 1983. . : .– .: . . : . – 168 . 2000. 1985.: . . . – 2. . – 707 .. . 1982 . .– .– . : . . . . . . . 5. / . Biber D. 2002. : . 2004 . 2004.. .: 11. . . 2002. . : Academia. Biber. . / . . / . : . – 399 . . . 38 . = A new university Eng.– . . Conrad. . 6. . 2003. – . : . .: : / . . . ... .: . – 471 . .. 9. 12. . . . . Leech. .– . . . lish grammar : . . .: / .: . . – 391 . . . . . 8. . : . . . Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English / D.– . – 354 .– . / . . .: - 13. . .– . . / . . . . 10. . / . . . . – Harlow : Longman. . . – 496 . . G. : 4. . .. – 160 . 7. .– . . S. / .
– 140 p. 2004. Sinclair. Leech. D. 15. Conrad. G. Conrad S. Longman student grammar of spoken and written English: Workbook / S.14. Biber. – Harlow : Longman. Collins COBUILD English Grammar / d. – 486 p. – London . 1991. Glasgow : Collins. in Chief J. 39 .
. 80 - .ru.32. . 598-026 ( http://www. 204-133. SYNTAX - . ) . . .07. 394000. . 60×84/16. 01. .THEORETICAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR PART 2.ppc. .vsu. .ru 394000. e-mail: pp_center@typ. 2.06. 208-298. 1126.vsu. . 10. . 3. . . . . . 40 . .
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