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By: Jan Zumwalt - August 11, 2016

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 1 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Table of Contents
General Design Criteria ..................................................................................................... 4
DIY HobBYist 1 or 2 layer ................................................................................................. 4
Commercial Boards .......................................................................................................... 4
Power Pins .......................................................................................................................... 6
Power supplies.................................................................................................................. 6
Transistors ........................................................................................................................ 6
IC chips ............................................................................................................................. 6
Vcc, Vdd, Vee, Vss, A+, B+ .............................................................................................. 7
Trace Width & Spacing ...................................................................................................... 8
DIY HobBYist 1 or 2 layer ................................................................................................. 8
Commercial Brds 1 or 2 layer............................................................................................ 8
Commercial Brds 4 layer ................................................................................................... 9
SpaciNG............................................................................................................................ 9
DIY HobBYist 1 or 2 layer ................................................................................................. 9
Commercial Boards 1 or 2 layer........................................................................................ 9
Commercial Boards 4 layer ............................................................................................... 9
Drills & Holes .................................................................................................................... 10
DIY HobBYist 1 or 2 layer ............................................................................................... 10
Commercial Boards 1 or 2 layer...................................................................................... 10
Commercial Boards 4 layer ............................................................................................. 10
VIAS ................................................................................................................................ 10
IC .................................................................................................................................... 10
Capacitor, diode, resistor ................................................................................................ 10
Hole Sizes ....................................................................................................................... 11
Drilling ............................................................................................................................. 11
Pads................................................................................................................................... 13
HobBYist 1 or 2 layer ...................................................................................................... 13
Commercial Boards 1 to 4 layer ...................................................................................... 13
Silkscreen Text ................................................................................................................. 14
Capacitors & batteries ..................................................................................................... 14
LED & diodes .................................................................................................................. 15
IC .................................................................................................................................... 15
By Jan Zumwalt

Page 2 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Common Text Mistakes .................................................................................................. 15


Environment Factors ....................................................................................................... 18
Surface Mount Sizes ........................................................................................................ 19
Chip Size ........................................................................................................................... 19
Packaging ......................................................................................................................... 21
SOT .................................................................................................................................... 22
Resistor Markings ............................................................................................................ 23
Capacitor Markings .......................................................................................................... 24
Capacitor Marking EXAMPLES....................................................................................... 24
Circuit Software Formats................................................................................................. 25
Common Conversions ..................................................................................................... 26
MM vs MIL ...................................................................................................................... 26
Time ................................................................................................................................ 27
Standard Components ..................................................................................................... 28
Generic Board Specifications .......................................................................................... 29

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 3 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

General Design Criteria


Note: Many successful designs use up to 1amp of current through 1-ounce traces of 0.25mm (10-12
mil) widths. The most common, and thus cost effective, material is FR4 glass fiber epoxy
laminate. FR stands for flame retardant and has a max ambient temperature of 125
250F .

DIY HOBBYIST 1 OR 2 LAYER


1 or 2 layer board: ......... 1.60mm (62mil / .062) FR4 material, 1oz copper
Trace width: ................... 0.75-1.0mm (30-40mil)
Trace separation: ........... 0.75mm (30mil)
Drill size: ......................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Hole. device: ................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Pad ,device: .................... 1.25mm (50mil)
Via hole: .......................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Via pad:........................... 1.25mm (50mil)

COMMERCIAL BOARDS
1 or 2 layer board: ......... 1.60mm (62mil / .062) FR4 material, 1oz copper
Trace width: .................... 0.25mm (10mil) preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

Trace separation: ............ 0.25mm (10mil) preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

Hole, IC: .......................... 0.65mm (26mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) maximum

Hole, resistor & cap: ....... 0.80mm (31mil) preferred

1.0mm(40mil) maximum

Pad ,device: .................... 1.00mm (40mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) minimum

Via hole: .......................... 0.50mm (20mil), preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

Via pad:........................... 0.75mm (30mil), preferred

0.45mm (18mil) minimum

4 layer board: ................ 1.60mm (62mil / .062) FR4 material, 1oz copper
Trace width: ................... 0.25mm (10mil) preferred

0.15mm (5mil) minimum

Trace separation: ........... 0.25mm (10mil) preferred

0.15mm (5mil) minimum

Hole, IC: .......................... 0.65mm (26mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) maximum

Hole, resistor & cap: ....... 0.80mm (31mil) preferred

1.0mm(40mil) maximum

Pad ,device: .................... 1.00mm (40mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) minimum

Via hole: .......................... 0.50mm (20mil), preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

Via pad:........................... 0.70mm (27mil), preferred

0.45mm (18mil) minimum

No blind/buried vias
Resistors and caps 0.80mm (31mil)
By Jan Zumwalt

Page 4 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Keep hole size in the 0.75-1.0mm (30-40mil) range.


Keep mounting holes 65mm (250mils) or less.
Specify 6 or fewer hole sizes per board.
Make pads at least 90mils (35mils) bigger than hole size.
If any holes are plated-through, then all holes should be platedthrough.
Make silk screen characters at least 1.75mm (70mils) tall.
No internal routes, no v-scoring, only drill files are sent to the fab house
Solder mask 1 side
No limit on the number of vias
No limit on pads or components
Multiple designs, multiple copies are allowed!
Test print circuits, print on paper and see what it actually looks like.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 5 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Power Pins

Place decoupling capacitors as close as possible to power and ground pins of ICs to maximize
decoupling efficiency. Its not uncommon to use two or more different-valued, even different types of
capacitors to bypass the power supply, because some capacitor values will be better than others at
filtering out certain frequencies of noise. For low-power ICs 10uF to 22uf are the most common (0.1uF
in 0402 or through hole ceramic is std for SMD).

POWER SUPPLIES
The output of the power supply should typically get a 10F to 470uF capacitor.

TRANSISTORS
Should have pin numbers or base, emitter, collector abbreviations

IC CHIPS
All inputs must go somewhere. A solid connection to an input signal, to +V, or to ground must be
provided for all inputs, particularly when bread boarding. An unconnected and unused input lead can
have a time constant of half an hour or more before the gate mysteriously changes state.
Unconnected pins can also "track" neighboring pins.
Protect the protection. Avoid ever having the input protection diodes conduct. If you must use diode
current, limit the current to 10 milliampere or less. Watch for the effects of diodes on time constants
and other shaping circuits.
Use high impedance test inputs. If you remove supply power without removing "stiff" input signals, you
can damage the input protection or latch up the package.
Avoid static during handling. Store the ICs in conductive foam or metal carriers. Leave them on foil or
on a cookie sheet during bench work. Don't use a soldering gun. Make sure any inputs going off board
have a load resistor (1 meg ohm) across them.
Condition all mechanical inputs going to clocked logic. Push buttons, switches, and keyboard contacts
must be debounced with contact conditioning (Chapter 4) to make them noise - and bounce free.
Use fast rise and fall clocks. The rise and fall times on the clock input of clocked logic blocks must be
faster than 5 microseconds. Otherwise, erratic operation caused by clock skew can result.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 6 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

A CMOS package with its supply-power pin may seem to work, only to turn out slow or limited drive
power. Why? Because the chip is getting its supply power from the inputs through the protection
diodes. As long as at least one input on the package is high, the chip gets some supply power.

VCC, VDD, VEE, VSS, A+, B+


We suggest the use of V+ and GND for modern circuits.
TRANSISTOR
VCC / VDD = +V
(collector / drain)
VEE / VSS = GND (emitter / source)
In 1960s or earlier logic was implemented with bipolar transistors. It made sense to someone that the
positive supply voltage would be called Vcc (collector). Sometimes (but less commonly) the negative
supply was called Vee (emitter).
When FET logic came, the same naming was used, but now the positive supply was Vdd (drain) and
the negative Vss (source). With CMOS this makes no sense, but it persists.
The Vdd and Vss names have stuck for historical reasons. Technically Vcc/Vee is for bipolar and
Vdd/Vss for FETs, but in practice today Vcc and Vdd mean the same, and Vee and Vss mean the
same.
TUBE
A+ = low voltage 1.5 28V
B+ = high voltage 50 1000V (tube heater)
To make the discussion complete, in the early days of tubes two power supplies where usually
needed. A+ was used for most components except tube heaters, and B+ powered the tube heaters.
A+ power supply was low voltage 1.5 - 28V and the B+ was high voltage, up to 1000V (67.5V DC for
batteries).
The separation of voltage between A+ and B+ is only a rough generalization. High amperage and
power circuits usually used very large voltages, will smaller or low power circuits used much smaller
voltages.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 7 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Trace Width & Spacing


Here are some standard trace widths for specific maximum
currents. The temperature shown in the table should be
subtracted from the delamination temperature for the PCB base
material. If the result is negative, the trace is too narrow. For a
relatively isolated trace the values may be used directly, but
closely spaced traces should be considered as one for
temperature calculations. (i.e. an isolated .005" trace carrying
1/2 amp will have a temperature 20C above ambient. A bus of
10 .005" traces carrying 1/2 amp each will raise the temperature
about 30C) This does not allow for the temperature rise from any parts mounted on the board.

PCB Base Laminate Data


Designation
ANSI

Dielectric
Thickness

MIL-P-13949

Max
Temp

PX

105C

GE

125C

FR-4

GF

.004-.014"

120C

.015 +

130C

FR-5

GH

.025-.054"

140C

.055 +

170C

Consider keeping your trace size to a minimum


of .010. If you have the room, .030 is a nobrainer for the shop. A .030 trace will survive if
every process in the shop has a problem. A
.010 trace will survive as long as everything
does what it is supposed to. A .005 trace will
only survive if everything goes just right.

Width
.005"
.010"
.015"
.020"
.025"
.050"
.100"
.150"
.005"
.010"
.015"
.020"
.025"
.050"
.100"
.150"

1 Oz. Plating, External Conductors


10C 20C 30C 45C
60C
400 mA 500 mA 650 mA 800 mA 1.0 A
800 mA 1.0 A 1.3 A 1.6 A
1.9 A
1.2 A 1.5 A 1.8 A 2.1 A
2.8 A
1.5 A 1.7 A 2.0 A 2.5 A
3.1 A
1.7 A 2.2 A 3.0 A 3.5 A
4.0 A
3.2 A 3.9 A 4.8 A 5.7 A
6.5 A
4.8 A 6.2 A 8.0 A 9.5 A
10.4 A
6.0 A 8.5 A 11.0 A 12.6 A 13.5 A
1 Oz. Plating, Internal Conductors
200 mA 225 mA 250 mA 275 mA
400 mA 450 mA 600 mA 750 mA
550 mA 600 mA 750 mA 1.0 A
650 mA 700 mA 800 mA 1.2 A
750 mA 1.0 A 1.2 A 1.7 A
1.5 A 1.7 A 2.2 A 2.8 A
2.2 A 3.1 A 3.7 A 4.5 A
3.0 A 4.0 A 5.2 A 6.1 A

DIY HOBBYIST 1 OR 2 LAYER


Trace width: ............. 0.75-1.0mm (30-40mil)
Trace separation: ................ 0.75mm (30mil)

COMMERCIAL BRDS 1 OR 2 LAYER


Trace width: ......... 0.25mm (10mil) preferred
................................. 0.18mm (7mil) minimum
Trace separation: . 0.25mm (10mil) preferred
................................. 0.18mm (7mil) minimum

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 8 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Trace separation: 0.25mm (10mil) preferred


................................. 0.15mm (5mil) minimum

COMMERCIAL BRDS 4 LAYER


Trace width: ........ 0.25mm (10mil) preferred
................................. 0.15mm (5mil) minimum

SPACING

Voltage Between Conductors


(VDC or Peak)
0 thru 15
16 thru 30
31 thru 50
51 thru 100
101 thru 150
151 thru 170
171 thru 250
251 thru 300
301 thru 500
More than 500

B1
.004
.004
.004
.004
.008
.008
.008
.008
.010
.0001
/Volt

Conductor Spacing
Minimum Spacing (inches)
Bare Board
Assembly
B2
B3
B4
A5
A6
A7
.025
.025
.005
.005
.005
.005
.025
.025
.005
.005
.010
.005
.025
.025
.005
.005
.015
.005
.025
.060
.005
.005
.020
.005
.025
.125
.015
.015
.030
.015
.050
.125
.015
.015
.030
.015
.050
.250
.015
.015
.030
.015
.050
.500
.015
.015
.030
.015
.100
.500
.030
.030
.060
.030
.0002
.001
.00012
.00012
.00012
.00012
/Volt
/Volt
/Volt
/Volt
/Volt
/Volt

B1 - Internal Conductors
B2 - External Conductors, uncoated, sea level to 10,000 ft.
B3 - External Conductors, uncoated, over 10,000 ft.
B4 - External Conductors, with permanent polymer coating (solder mask).
A5 - External Conductors, with conformal coating over assembly.
A6 - External Component lead/termination, uncoated.
A7 - External Component lead/termination, with conformal coating.

DIY HOBBYIST 1 OR 2 LAYER


Trace separation: ................ 0.75mm (30mil)

COMMERCIAL BOARDS 1 OR 2 LAYER


Trace separation: . 0.25mm (10mil) preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

COMMERCIAL BOARDS 4 LAYER


Trace separation: 0.25mm (10mil) preferred

By Jan Zumwalt

0.15mm (5mil) minimum

Page 9 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Drills & Holes

DIY HOBBYIST 1 OR 2 LAYER


Drill size: ......................... 0.90mm (35mil) preferred

1.00mm (40mil) maximum

Hole. device: ................... 0.90mm (35mil) preferred

1.00mm (40mil) maximum

Pad ,device: .................... 1.25mm (50mil)


Via hole: .......................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Via pad:........................... 1.25mm (50mil)

COMMERCIAL BOARDS 1 OR 2 LAYER


Hole, IC: .......................... 0.65mm (26mil) preferred
Hole, resistor & cap: ....... 0.80mm (31mil) preferred
Pad ,device: .................... 1.00mm (40mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) minimum

Via hole: .......................... 0.50mm (20mil), preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

Via pad:........................... 0.75mm (30mil), preferred

0.45mm (18mil) minimum

COMMERCIAL BOARDS 4 LAYER


Hole, IC: .......................... 0.65mm (26mil) preferred
Hole, resistor & cap: ....... 0.80mm (31mil) preferred
Pad ,device: .................... 1.00mm (40mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) minimum

Via hole: .......................... 0.50mm (20mil), preferred

0.18mm (7mil) minimum

Via pad:........................... 0.70mm (27mil), preferred

0.45mm (18mil) minimum

VIAS
All vias on a particular PCB should be the same size. Typical size is 0.60mm (25mil) diameter,
surrounded by a 1.0mm (42mil) diameter via copper pad, if at all possible. Some very dense SMT
boards require small vias down to a 0.012" hole, surrounded by 0.024" diameter via pad.

IC
Typical size is 0.60mm (25-32mil) diameter, surrounded by a 1.0mm (42mil) via copper pad.

CAPACITOR, DIODE, RESISTOR


1.0mm or 1.2mm for other components such as axial resisters and larger capacitors.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 10 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

HOLE SIZES
Standard finished hole sizes. Plating decreases the drilled hole by approx 5-8mm (3-5mils).
mm
mil

.50
.020

Drill Size
# 66 =
# 67 =
# 70 =
# 73 =

.64
.025

.75
.029

Inch
.033
.032
.028
.024

.90
.035

mm
0.84
0.81
0.71
0.60

1.15
.046

1.30
.052

# 76
# 77
# 79
# 80

=
=
=
=

2.00
.079

3.20
.125

.020
.018
.0145
.0135

6.40
.150

0.50
0.46
0.37
0.34

DRILLING
The ideal speed for a 7mm (250mil) hole is about 7,500 rpm. Large bits are good for about 1/4 the
number of holes as smaller sizes. Holes as small as 0.025mm (10mils) are possible in some
advanced shops but holes smaller than about 0.50mm (20mils) should be avoided. Any smaller than
this and anything that can go wrong, will. Namely, small bits break more often much more often.
Try to keep component hole sizes in the 0.75-1.00mm (30-40mil) and mounting holes around 3mm
(125mil). Most manufacturers would probably prefer to keep the hole size 7mm (250mil) or less.
If you see many holes similar 0.90-1.0mm (35/36/39mil) in size, consolidate them into the larger hole
size. Remember the manufacturer will bump this size up 0.1-0.2mm (5-8mils) to account for hole
plating. Since plating varies across the panel, so will the hole sizes. If you dont feel comfortable
manipulating your drill file, tell your manufacturer it is okay for them to do it.

Finished Finished
inch
mm

Approximate Use

.017"

0.43

via holes

.025"

0.63

via holes, fine lead devices such as trim pots etc.

.032"

0.81

IC's, 1/4 watt resistors, small diodes, ripple caps etc.

.035"

0.89

Square posted pins that measure .025" on the flat.

.039"

0.1

TO-220 packages, IDC type square posted headers, 1/2 watt resistors, 1N9000
series diodes, IC chip carriers etc.

.049"

1.25

larger connectors, transformer leads, etc.

.057"

1.45

similar to .049" above

.083"

2.10

TO-220 mounting holes, screw holes, general mounting

.122"

3.10

mounting holes

.149"

3.80

mounting holes

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 11 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 12 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Pads
HOBBYIST 1 OR 2 LAYER
1 or 2 layer board: ......... 1.6mm (62mil = .062) FR4 material, 1oz copper
Drill size: ......................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Hole. device: ................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Pad ,device: .................... 1.25mm (50mil)
Via hole: .......................... 0.90mm (35mil)
Via pad:........................... 1.25mm (50mil)

COMMERCIAL BOARDS 1 TO 4 LAYER


Pad ,device: .................... 1.00mm (40mil) preferred

0.90mm(35mil) minimum

Via pad:........................... 0.75mm (30mil), preferred

- 45mm (18mil) minimum

Try to make pads 1.00mm (40mil) bigger than the holes. That may sound like a lot, but remember that
the hole size will be stepped up .005 to .006.
Subtract the hole size from the pad size, remove the .005 that was stepped up, divide by two to get
the annular ring size, and you will be left with a .015 annular ring. Grab a pair of calipers and take a
look at what .015 looks like. It isnt a lot.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 13 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Silkscreen Text
You will want to specify an aperture width of .010 to .012. That means that, while your characters will
possibly survive if they are as little as .040 or .050, you will probably want them to be .070 tall or
taller. When you print your circuit, play around with a pair of calipers and see how tall you can make
the characters and still have the board look good.

CAPACITORS & BATTERIES


Footprints for capacitors and batteries should include plus sign (+) polarity marking on the silk screen
next to the positive pad. (The positive-end-indicator stripe on the capacitor itself should be placed
nearest that plus sign).

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 14 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

LED & DIODES


Footprints for LEDs and other diodes should have a polarity mark -- the "diode arrow symbol" (triangle
+ bar), or at least the bar, in silk-screen. The bar matches the cathode-end-indicator stripe on the
diode itself.

IC
Footprints for ICs should have a polarity mark "dot" or "1" near pin 1. Most people give pin 1 a
"squared-off" pad, and all other pins a "rounded pad". Some people also like additional "10", "20",
"30", etc., marks in silkscreen next to pin 10, pin 20, pin 30, etc.

COMMON TEXT MISTAKES


REFERENCE UNDER PAD OR PACKAGE
Other materials such as TG170, TG150 and CEM can be used for improving characteristics such as
thermo-mechanical properties. For example; TG170 is used when the heat dissipation of a component
is higher than normal.
Reference designators placed on a copper show up in PCB layout software, but not on a physical
PCB. If your reference designators are placed on pads in layout, theyll be missing when you get your
PCB, and placing components will be difficult. In the picture below, the reference designator for R1
will not be printed completely on the PCB. The "1" will be clipped. The reference designator for R2 is
placed correctly.

If you place a reference designator under a component, you or your contract manufacturer may be
able to place the component, but it will be hard to find the component on the PCB if you need to
remove or replace the component for repair or debugging. In the picture below, the reference
designator for U1 will be hidden after U1 is placed on the PCB. The reference designator for U2 will
be clearly visible after U2 has been placed.
Place reference designators as close as is practical to their components. Place the reference
designators in a way so that it is clear which components they belong to. Not doing this makes it hard
to place the correct components in the correct place. This is important for assembly and debug. In the
picture below, it's not clear which resistor is R1 and which is R2.
REFERENCE AMBIGUOUS

TOO SMALL FONT


By Jan Zumwalt

Page 15 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Use a font for reference designator that is large enough to easily read. The author has had success
with fonts that are at least 0.060 tall and 0.050 wide. This tip doesn't get a picture because reference
designators of any size can look good on a large, high resolution monitor, especially when you're
zoomed in.
RANDOM ORIENTATION
Reference designators on a PCB should face one or at most two directions. Randomly oriented
reference designators makes assembly and debug more difficult as components are more difficult to
find. The components on the left have reference designators placed appropriately. The components
on the right have reference designators with different orientations, which is bad.

NOT LABELING PIN 1


Integrated circuits should have a clear indicator, like a dot or a star, next to pin 1 to make sure the IC
is installed properly. Improperly installed ICs will likely be damaged or destroyed. Debugging will be
easier if the pin 1 indicator is not buried underneath the IC when the IC is on the PCB. In the picture
below, U1 will be difficult to place correctly. Note that that the pin numbers you see in the picture won't
be on the PCB. U2 will be placed correctly because pin 1 is clearly marked (the square pin).

NOT LABELING POLARITY


Some two-terminal components like LEDs and electrolytic capacitors are polarized. Installing
polarized components incorrectly can cause circuit malfunction or component destruction. LEDs
provide light only when installed properly. If installed backward, LEDs will not conduct, and may even
be damaged by voltage breakdown. Electrolytic capacitors explode if reverse biased. Use footprints
that indicate polarity. Polarity markers should not be buried under the component. In the picture
below, C1's package is not good because the polarity marker will be covered up by the component.
C2's package is good because the polarity marker will be visible when the capacitor is on the PCB.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 16 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

COMPONENTS TOO CLOSE


Placing components too closely together can cause issues like solder bridges. If components are too
close, they may be difficult to probe with an oscilloscope or multimeter, as the probe may short
multiple components together. Placing components too closely together can also make replacing
components difficult. This is best seen on a PCB, as component spacing may look ok on a large
monitor.
NO THERMAL RELIEF
Use thermal relief on component pins to make soldering easier. You may be tempted to not use
thermal relief to reduce electrical and thermal resistance, but not using thermal relief can make
soldering very difficult, especially when a component pad is connected to a large trace or copper fill.
Large traces and copper fills act as heatsinks that can make heating the pad for soldering difficult if
properly thermal relief is not used. In the picture below, there is no thermal relief on the source pin of
Q1. This MOSFET may be hard to solder and desolder. The source pin of Q2 is thermally relieved.
This MOSFET will be easy to solder and desolder. PCB designers can change the amount of thermal
relief to control electrical and thermal resistance of the connection. For example, a PCB designer
could lay traces over the Q2 source pin to increase the amount of copper connecting the source to the
ground node.

By Jan Zumwalt

Page 17 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Environment Factors

The environment in which a PCB is to be used will change a number of factors


needed to design and test it. The ambient temperature is one of these
important factors.

Worst Case Environments


Cat

Min
Temp

Max
Temp

Service

Consumer

0C

+60C

1-3 Yrs

Computer

+15C

+60C

~5 Yrs

Telecomm

-40C

+85C 7-20 Yrs

Civ Aircraft

-55C

+95C

~10 Yrs

Industrial

-55C

+55C

~10 Yrs

Auto Pass Cmp

-55C

+55C

~10 Yrs

Mil Gnd/Ship

-55C

+95C

~5 Yrs

Space

-40C

+85C 5-20 Yrs

Mil Aircraft

-55C

+95C

~5 Yrs

Auto Engine

-55C

+125C

~5 Yrs

By Jan Zumwalt

USE

Page 18 of 30

Rev August 11, 2016

Surface Mount Sizes

Chip Size
Metric
Code
0402
0603
1005
1608
2012
2520
3216
3225
4516
4532
5025

6332

Imperial
Code
01005
0201
0402
0603
0805
1008
1206
1210
1217
1806
1812
2010
2020
2045
2512
2920

Length (mm) Width (mm)


0.4
0.60 +/- 0.05
1.00 +/- 0.05
1.60 +/- 0.10
2.00 +/- 0.15
2.5
3.20 +/- 0.15
3.20 +/- 0.15
3.00 +/- 0.20
4.5
4.5
5.00 +/- 0.15
5.08 +/- 0.20
5.00 +/- 0.15
6.30 +/- 0.15
7.4

0.2
0.30 +/- 0.05
0.50 + 0.10
0.80 +/- 0.10
1.25 +/- 0.15
2.0
1.60 +/- 0.15
2.60 +/- 0.15
4.20 +/- 0.20
1.6
3.2
2.60 +/- 0.15
5.08 +/- 0.20
11.5 +/- 0.30
3.10 +/- 0.15
5.1

Resistor
Watts
0.03w
0.05w
0.06w
0.06w
0.10w

Solder side

Solder Foot

Height

0.13 +/- 0.05


0.20 +/- 0.10
0.20 +/- 0.10
0.40 +/- 0.25

0.25+ 0.05
0.25 + 0.05
0.30 + 0.20
0.30 + 0.20

0.25 +/- 0.05


0.35 +/- 0.05
0.50 +/- 0.10
0.50 +/- 0.15

0.45 +/- 0.25


0.50 +/- 0.30
0.80 +/- 0.30

0.40 + 0.20 0.60 +/- 0.15


0.40 + 0.20 0.60 +/- 0.10
0.80 +/- 0.25 0.90 max

0.125w
0.250w
0.25w

0.50 + /-0.20
0.50 +/- 0.30
0.80 +/- 0.30
0.80 +/- 0.30
0.60 +/- 0.25

0.50 + /-0.20
0.40+/-0.20
0.80 +/- 0.30
0.80 +/- 0.30
0.50 +/- 0.25

0.75w
0.25w
0.50w
1.00w
0.50w

0.55 + /-0.10
0.70 +/- 0.10
0.9 max
0.9 max
0.60 +/- 0.10

The smaller the physical part, the lower the inductance.


Pick the smallest possible package size which still meets the design criteria.

Pg 19 of 30

Pg 20 of 30

Packaging
DIP - (Dual Inline Package)

SOIC - (Small Outline Integrated Circuit)

PLCC - (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier)

LCC

TO - (Transistor Outline)

TSSOP - (Thin Shrink Small Outline Package)

SOT - (Small Outline Transistor)

SSOP - (Shrink Small Outline Package)

Pg 21 of 30

SOT

Three terminal packages


SOT-223: 6.7 mm 3.7 mm 1.8 mm body: four terminals, one of which is a large heat-transfer pad
[21]

SOT-89: 4.5 mm 2.5 mm 1.5 mm body: four terminals, center pin large heat-transfer pad [22]
SOT-23 (SC-59, TO-236-3): 2.9 mm 1.3/1.75 mm 1.3 mm body: three terminals for a transistor [23]
SOT-323 (SC-70): 2 mm 1.25 mm 0.95 mm body: three terminals [24]
SOT-416 (SC-75): 1.6 mm 0.8 mm 0.8 mm body: three terminals [25]
SOT-663: 1.6 mm 1.6 mm 0.55 mm body: three terminals [26]
SOT-723: 1.2 mm 0.8 mm 0.5 mm body: three terminals: flat lead[27]
SOT-883 (SC-101): 1 mm 0.6 mm 0.5 mm body: three terminals: leadless [28]
Five & six terminal packages
SOT-23-5 (SOT-25): 2.9 mm 1.3/1.75 mm 1.3 mm body: five terminals [32]
SOT-23-6 (SOT-26): 2.9 mm 1.3/1.75 mm 1.3 mm body: six terminals [33]
SOT-23-8 (SOT-28): 2.9 mm 1.3/1.75 mm 1.3 mm body: eight terminals [34]
SOT-353 (SC-88A): 2 mm 1.25 mm 0.95 mm body: five terminals [35]
SOT-363 (SC-88, SC-70-6): 2 mm 1.25 mm 0.95 mm body: six terminals [36]
SOT-563: 1.6 mm 1.2 mm 0.6 mm body: six terminals [37]
SOT-665: 1.6 mm 1.6 mm 0.55 mm body: six terminals [38]
SOT-666: 1.6 mm 1.6 mm 0.55 mm body: six terminals [39]
SOT-886: 1.5 mm 1.05 mm 0.5 mm body: six terminals: leadless
SOT-891: 1.05 mm 1.05 mm 0.5 mm body: five terminals: leadless
SOT-953: 1 mm 1 mm 0.5 mm body: five terminals
SOT-963: 1 mm 1 mm 0.5 mm body: six terminals

Pg 22 of 30

Resistor Markings

Pg 23 of 30

Capacitor Markings
CAPACITOR MARKING EXAMPLES
1pf(1)
7pf(7)
20pf(20)
47pf(47)
120pf(121)
330pf(331)
1.5nf(152)
10nf(103)
68nf(683)

2pf(2)
8pf(8)
22pf(22)
50pf(50)
140pf(141)
470pf(471)
2nf(202)
15nf(153)
100nf(104)

3pf(3)
9pf(9)
27pf(27)
56pf(56)
150pf(151)
560pf(561)
2.2nf(222)
20nf(203)

4pf(4)
10pf(10)
30pf(30)
68pf(68)
180pf(181)
680pf(681)
3.3nf(332)
22nf(223)

Pg 24 of 30

5pf(5)
15pf(15)
33pf(33)
82pf(82)
220pf(221)
820pf(821)
4.7nf(472)
33nf(333)

6pf(6)
18pf(18)
40pf(40)
100pf(101)
300pf(301)
1nf(102)
6.8nf(682)
47nf(473)

Circuit Software Formats


Protel

Proprietary Formats

Eagle - (Free version available)

Express PCB

PCB - (Free, Open Source)

Pad2Pad

FreePCB - (Win32, Free, Open Source)


KiCAD - - (*nix, Free, Open Source)
Orcad
PCad
Target
Boardmaker
Dex Autotrax
WinBoard

Pg 25 of 30

Common Conversions
MM VS MIL
1 millimeter
1 inch
1/100 inch

=
=
=

0.0394 inch
25.4 mm
0.25 mm

1/64 inch
1/32 inch
1/16 inch

= 0.39 mm
= 0.79 mm
= 1.58 mm

Pg 26 of 30

3/32 inch =
1/8 inch =
1/4 inch =

2.30 mm
3.17 mm
6.35 mm

TIME
1sec(second) =

1,000ms(millisecond)

1sec

1,000,000uS(microsecond)

1ms(millisecond)

1/1,000sec(second)

1ms(millisecond)

1,000uS(microsecond)

Pg 27 of 30

Standard Components
PC audio jack........................................... 3.5mm
Walwart pwr ............................................. 5.5mm

hole, IC .................................... 0.65mm (26mils)


hole, res/cap ........................... 0.75mm (31mils)

smd push switch, sm ............ 5x7mm (20x28mil)

hole VIA ................................... 0.20mm (8mils)

smd push switch, lg ............ 5x12mm (20x48mil)


smd push sw, sm rectangle . 3x6mm (12x24mil)

pad, IC ..................................... 1.00mm (40mil)


pad, resistor/cap ..................... 1.10mm (34mils)

1/8w resistor .................. 8x0.5mm (200x20mil)

pad VIA ................................... 0.50mm (20mil)

1/4w resistor ................ 10x0.6mm (400x24mil)


1/2w resistor ................ 15x0.6mm (600x24mil)

Trace width: .............................. 0.25mm (10mil)

1w resistor ................... 20x0.8mm (800x31mil)

Trace seperation: ...................... 0.25mm (10mil)

2w resistor ................. 25x0.8mm (1000x31mil)

Pg 28 of 30

By: Jan Zumwalt


August 11, 2016

2 layer 3 x 3 board
(75mm x 75mm)

Service Provider

2 layer, 6 x 6 board
(150mm x 150mm)

2 qty

10 qty

25 qty

50 qty

2 qty

10 qty

25 qty

50 qty

Smart-Prototyping.com

$2.00

$1.25

$1.50

$1.75

$18.00

$9.00

$7.00

$6.00

MakerStudio.cc

$1.00

$1.00

$1.00

$1.00

$21.00

$7.25

$6.50

$6.50

Elecrow.com

$2.50

$2.50

$1.50

$1.50

$17.00

$9.00

$4.00

$4.00

PcbWway.com

$2.25

$1.25

$1.50

$1.25

$9.00

$5.75

$4.00

$3.20

ITEAD.cc

$2.00

$2.00

$1.75

$1.50

$6.25

$6.25

$4.00

$3.75

EasyEda.com

$3.50

$1.75

$1.25

$1.25

$5.00

$4.00

$3.25

$3.25

Note: Amounts are price for each board rounded up to nearest .25, but does not included shipping.
Prices effective August 1, 2016

GENERIC BOARD SPECIFICATIONS


For a number of years I have taken notice of several companies that manufactured and sell small
boards at very reasonable prices. Everybody seems to be making money. How are these high quality
boards being made at such low prices? Is there some way you and I can get professional results for
just a dollar or two?
I spent four days on an Internet research quest and was very surprised at the results (see table-1). I
would like to share with you what I found. The cost estimates I am providing have been rounded up to
the nearest 25. Price rounding increases readability and makes allowance for a little bit of inflation. I
believe you will find these prices accurate and useful for at least a year.
Early on I set a goal to try to get a real world apples to apples comparison. I wanted to be able to
judge legitimate pricing trends (I was not really interested in a specific project). This guide is meant to
lead us towards low cost PCB fabrication with professional quality. Achieving this turned out to be
easier said then done! I had to consider what the typical needs of an average electronic hobbyist
might be (if an average exists!). I eventually broke PCB fabrication needs into four major criteria (1)
quantity of boards, (2) board size, (3) number of layers, and (4) typical specifications.
The production quantity that a hobbyist is probably going to need is one to five circuit boards.
Pg 29 of 30

However, I also had a personal curiosity about larger production runs. When I spot checked several
PCB fabricators internet sites, I noticed many did not provide pricing for one-hundred or more parts
and the pricing seemed to flatten out well before that. Realistically, not very many hobbyists would be
laying down the cash needed for a run of one-hundred or more boards. Besides, one-hundred or more
boards is no longer a hobby, its a business! I whimsically gazed heavenward, in a rather arbitrarily
fashion I picked quantities of two and ten for proof of concept designs, then twenty-five and fifty for
small production runs.
What would be an appropriate board size? Admittedly the hobbyist is apt to have very specific needs.
We would be wise to eliminate the very small (2 x 2 or smaller) boards. There is a well established
niche market that adequately provides for very small boards in quantities of one or two. Small low
quantity boards also do not typically jeopardize significant sums of money. At the other extreme, most
PCB fabricators production equipment is limited to a maximum board size of about ten to fifteen
inches in the largest dimension, so that narrows the upper size. I pulled from my past experience and
chose two representative board sizes: 3 x 3 and 6 x 6 form factors.
How many layers would be typical? I think we would agree that many single layer boards are apt to be
prototyped in an experimenters home. Three or four layer boards are certainly interesting but would
add considerably overhead to the data to be acquired and sifted thru. So, I chose to stay with two
layer boards and was hopeful that we could use a little interpolation to give ball park trends for other
needs.
Choosing the specifications was much simpler than I thought it might otherwise be. Many PCB
fabricators have (from their own experience) determined what the public is interested in. They
frequently advertize economy services that are targeted for mass customer appeal. All that was
needed, was to document the commonality of these offers. The solution pretty much managed itself.
Are there any important observations from this data? Positively, YES!
The first thing that struck me was the conspicuous absence of many vendors that I had been using.
Most the fabricators I had used did not even qualify to be on this list! I would have expected the major
players to fall within 10%-15% of the lowest prices, but that was certainly not the case. Some
fabricators best price is two to five times higher than other competitors.
Some carful shopping is certainly going to be prudent. Some vendors literally offer two boards for the
same price that another vendor will make ten! Notice that Table-1 shows we could order fifty 6x6
boards from some fabricators for the same price as two 3x3 boards from others. Which would you
rather have?
It should be pointed out that some fabricators do not offer economy pricing. They may automatically
include many other desirable options. For example, some insist on
testing and/or minimum quantity orders of three or four boards. There
are several vendors that provide two sided solder masks and double
silk screening at no additional charge. There may be some
fabricators that have lower prices but do not have internet quote
systems so they were not researched. Several fabricators offer first
or second time return customers up to 80% discounts and these
provisions are not considered in this report.
No attempt was made to compare quality, consistency, lead time, on
time delivery, location and accessibility, customer service, problem
resolution, shipping, nor combining multiple circuits on panels. These
other considerations are certainly worth adjustments to the value that
someone is receiving. Still, I hope this helps. As for me, I will soon be
trying some new discount PCB fabricators.
[Jan Zumwalt has instructed University level aviation, robotics and
engineering electronics. He is a retired aerospace engineer that now
enjoys electronics as a hobby during his pastime.]

Pg 30 of 30