CAVERN STORAGE OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

Abstract Mined cavern storage for liquefied natural gas (LNG)l has been under active development for many years in several countries. Described are the efficient mining techniques that renewed U.S. interest in caverns as a storage system by making them economically competitive with conventional storage methods. Laboratory data are reported on the physical and thermal behavior of selected rocks at low temperature. The design, construction, and operation of an insulated test cavern are described. The effects of insulation on evaporation rates and thermally induced rock stresses are discussed. Information on the design and cost of commercial caverns for LNG storage is presented based on the results from this pilot test.
INTRODUCTION

Résumé
Le stockage en excavation du gaz naturel liquéfié a été developpé très activement dans plusieurs pays. Les techniques efficaces de fonçage ou forage ont renouvelé l’intérêt qu’ on portait aux Etats-Unis à ce genre de stockage, reconnu économiquement compétitif aux méthodes conventionnelles. Les résultats d’essais sont donnés concernant le comportement physique et thermique à basse température, de roches préalablement sélectionnées. Le schéma, la construction et l’exploitation d’une caverne expérimentale calorifugée sont décrits. Les informations concernant le schéma et le coût des cavités pour le stockage commercial de gaz naturel liquéfié sont basées sur les résultats de ces essais semi-industriels.

Basically, the excavation technique used is identical to that now used to construct liquefied propane and With the recent rapid growth in energy requirements, butane caverns. These gases are stored under pressure. natural gas has occupied an increasing role in meeting To contain the pressure effectively, a small-diameter these needs on a worldwide basis. The movement and (42 inches) vertical shaft entry to a depth of 400 feet or storage of natural gas in liquid form has required the more is required. The operating pressure is close to the development of new techniques to meet these n e e d ~ . l - ~ hydrostatic head corresponding to the depth of the At present, there are three methods of storing liquefied reservoir. The cavern, as envisaged by the French, is uninsulated and therefore subject to relatively high heat natural gas which are available to the industry: influx rates. (1) Aboveground metal tanks. At the Institute of Gas Technology, studies in 1962on the concept of LNG cavern storage indicated a quite (2) Cryogenic in-ground storage. (3) Below or aboveground prestressed concrete tanks. different approach to be the most promising. The high cost of mining liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage In addition to these, another method-storage of caverns appeared to limit their use as LNG storage conLNG in an underground cavern-has been under inves- tainers. Since LNG could easily be stored at atmostigationin France and the United States, but by different pheric pressure, a cavern need not be deep. Mining approaches. The first work was done by Gaz de France techniques were, therefore, studied, and it was found which contemplated storage of liquefied natural gas in that a large, inclined entry to a room-and-pillar cavern an uninsulated, unlined cavern. Although some articles was best. In addition, it was found that insulation must and papers have been published on the results of these be used to maintain economically low boil-off rates tests, it might be helpful to recapitulate the essential because the LNG in the U.S. would almost always be used for only a few days of peak-shaving with 200 to 300 details of this days of filling and holding. by A. R. KHAN, P. J. ANDERSON, and B. E. EAKIN, Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.
VI-21

Inclined-entry mining technique

The existing practice for LPG caverns has been to provide entry to the excavation by a narrow-diameter vertical shaft due to pressure requirements. These smalldiameter shafts require the use of small, low-production

The size of the entry is governed by the size of the loading and transportation equipment. 300. 5 % Cost per storage barrel $ 25.00/bbl Mine development Contingency Office overhead. The most economical method of entry per unit of length is by horizontal tunnel.324 Natural Gas Storage and Transportation O f ---I --J I 4 SECTION STAGE I TOP L E V E L ADVANCEMENT STAGE 2 SECOND L E V E L ADVANCEMENT STAGE S THIRD L E V E L ADVANCEMENT Fig.100.000 $452.500 $4.31 . blasting.000 2.000 bbl at $1.000 50. 1.000 900. PLAN Fig.800 $1. mining equipment. 1000 ft at $100/ft Storage excavation. 10% Office overhead. 5 % Fee.000 $1.300 $497. 300.000 $547.800 25.6-8 Since LNG can be stored at substantially atmospheric pressure. and loading. Consequently. Table I compares these costs for a cavern with an ultimate storage capacity of 300.175.000 125. and may typically be 13 feet wide by 17 feet high.000 bbl at $3.000 75.000 330. 10 % excess) Contingency. The storage excavation for the IGT inclined-entry cavern TABLE I COMPARISON OF EXCAVATION COSTS IGT inclined entry Site selection study Portal preparation Entry.00/bbl (including overage.000 58. the entry size and configuration can be increased and geared to large equipment requirements. deep overburden is not necessary. The progress of the excavation in three stages is depicted in Fig. thus permitting rapid and economical schedules.82 $ Vertical shaft Site Selection study Mine shaft and product handling wells.500 100.000 $1. 1-Typical excavation using room-and-pillar mine system.750 58. the actual excavation of the cavern may progress in stage^. It is estimated that an average daily excavation of 550 cubic yards can be readily maintained. 5% Cost per storage barrel 20. This allows use of larger and more productive equipment with resultant lower excavation costs. Once the entry is dug to the desired depth. 5 % Fixed fee. an inclined shaft entry can be utilized. and hence result in high-cost excavation.000 25. The mining cycle includes drilling.750 $1.292. 300 ft deep Storage excavation.^ A typical excavation using a room-and-pillar mining system is shown in Fig. 2. scaling.000 barrels.500 45. The excavating cost per storage barrel using the above technique is significantlylower than that for a vertical-shaft pressure cavern. 2-Excavation progress. If the depth is not excessive.

The principal cause of concern had been the effect of thermal stresses which could cause cracking and spalling of the rock. sandstone. in view of the at cryogenic temperatures. the only values of Young's modulus available were in compression.7 5. The rock formations from which samples were obtained for these determinations were those that would be encountered at potential cavern sites: limestone. Fig. it was found that the predicted stresses were less perties indicated the necessity of insulation to avoid than the strength of the rock.000 >23.350 >23.000 14. and granite. TABLE II ROCK PROPERTIES To properly evaluate the effects of cryogenic temperatures on the physical properties of the selected rock formations. Previous calculations based on available data indicated that tangential and radial stresses would exceed the strength of the rock at cryogenic temperatures. the storage exca.800 11.pressive strengths. To contain the liquefied natural gas and pre. (c) Ultimate strength in tension. the Cayahoga sandstone formation from McDermott.31 for ling or cracking. dry wet 70 70 70 -200 -200 -200 TABLE III Limestone. (e) Elastic moduli.sion. "F In compression In tension vi___ 10. Ohio. quarried near Rockville. and Table III compares the value of vent damage to the insulation. Selected were the Salem limestone formation of central Indiana. a suitable liner would Young's modulus in compression and tension. Minnesota.966 14. dry wet Granite. Experiments were conducted in which extreme thermal stresses (much greater than those to be encountered in practice) were imposed by restraining the ends of the sample while subjecting the middle portion to -320°F. dry wet Sandstone. However. dry Sandstone. thus corroborating the high evaporation rates.2* o Calculations of heat sion. dry YOUNG'S MODULUS FOR DRY ROCK UNDER TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE STRESS Young's modulus x 106psi 7 Sample Tensile Limestone Granite Sandstone --70°F -100°F Compressive Tensile Compressive ' b 2. When these lower values were used to calculate influx rates based on literature values of thermal pro. the following determinations were made : (a) Coefficient of thermal expansion.8 8.700 21.0 A critical factor in the design of a room-and-pillar cavern is the thermal contraction of the pillars. and the Rockville granite.330 18. (h) Thermal conductivity.stress. as no spalling or cracking occurred when massive rock samples were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. dIy wet Granite. Dimensional stability is largely controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and compressive strength. it was recognized that there was a gross latter value was thought to be acceptable even though lack of published data on the physical properties of rock the rock would be in tension. In making the stress computations. psi Sample Temperature. compared to $4.4 1. It was found to be much lower than in compresl nite homogeneous rock media.900 ?3. have to be found. Table II lists the tensile and comavailable.8 0.87 4.Natural Gas Storage and Transportation 325 includes 10% overage.o 4. (g) Thermal stress tests.0 7.000 800 600 720 580 1120 1140 3280 900 1740 1220 Limestone.6 44 2. As can be seen. the vertical-shaft system.None of the test samples showed any evidence of spalvation costs are $1. but insulation systems were not experimental results. The limited degree of contraction that was exhibited indicates that roof supports should not fail.317 7. Mathematical models used disagreement between computation and experiment it to derive the equations for the thermal stresses and heat was decided to measure Young's modulus under teninflux rates were based on spherical caverns in infi. (d) Specific heat. the use of the At the outset. Since it normally makes little difference whether the modulus Investigationsrequired for development of concept is measured in tension or compression. ULTIMATE STRENGTH IN COMPRESSION AND TENSION Ultimate strength. then .82 per barrel.9 1. (b) Ultimate strength in compression. (f) Poisson's ratio. It is of particular interest to note that dry limestone contracts as the temperature is reduced to -120"F. These computed results could not be reconciled with actual experiments. 3 shows the contraction of the three rock types (both dry and saturated) as the temperature is lowered from 80" to -260°F.

20 * Thermal conductivitymeasured by the Research and Development Laboratories of the Portland Cement Association. The result is virtually no net change in size from ambient to LNG temperatures. sq ft/hr -320" to 70°F -100" to 70°F -320" to 70°F -100 to 70°F Granite 009 1O 00658 Sandstone 0. Btu/lb-"F -320" to 70°F -100" to 70°F Granite 0. Although all the sites were geologically suitable for construction of a test cavern. Massachusetts. light to medium-gray paragneiss. biotite.71 Limestone 167.57 146.171 f 0.94 159. The rocks are well foliated.05 Sandstone 158. due chiefly to the preferred orientation of TABLE IV THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED ROCK SAMPLES 100% relative humidity -h------7r 50 % relative humidity n Oven dry \ r -250°F -150°F -75°F 0°F 75°F -250°F -150°F -75°F 0°F 75°F -250°F -150°F -75°F VF 75°F Thermal conductivity.0517 24 18 - 21 16 18 16 15 17 15 16 18042 14609 159.002 0. (3) Kansas City. Fig. It consists of hard. (6) Greensburg. Minnesota. . the funds available precluded detailed investigations at every site. caused largely by introduction of feldspar. and sodic plagioclase. The properties of the rock must be such that any excessive thermal stresses caused by cryogenic temperatures will not induce spalling or cracking. lb/cu ft Vacuum saturated Granite 181.326 Natural Gas Storage and Transportation expands as the temperature is further reduced.0614 0. Wisconsin.0674 0. medium-grained. composed chiefly of quartz. A pronounced gneissic banding. seven potential sites were examined: (1) Birmingham. parallels and accentuates the bedding.82 Thermal diffusivity. 3-Thermal expansion of granite. Alabama. limestone and sandstone. Vermont. Pennsylvania. Missouri.004 Density. The site finally selected for the pilot test cavern was Lowell. Drilling programs were conducted at sites 1 and 7.131 f 0._ Granite 29 28 26 23 21 Limestone 36 29 24 20 19 25 22 18 17 16 Sandstone 52 42 36 28 28 21 19 18 17 17 Heat capacity.230 f 0004 Limestone 0 175 f 0.004 0179 f 0. (2) Minneapolis.001 0.0436 Limestone 0. Massachusetts. The thermal properties of the various rocks are presented in Table IV over a temperature range of 70" to -250°F. The rock underlying this site is the Nashoba formation. (4) Rutland. Selection of site for pilot cavern The criteria for the selection of a site for the pilot cavern dictate that it should be located in an area that is geologically acceptable. (7) Lowell.006 Sandstone 0 172 f 0.* Btu/hr/sq ft-"F/in. With these basic limitations in mind. (5) Oak Creek. .

however. and a flexible. a water vapor barrier. Logs of boreholes A and B were prepared and borehole photographs taken. borehole C was inclined towards borehole A at 15" from the horizontal to intersect the foliation perpendicular to the core axis. . while not the most ideal.4-Location and orientation of pilot cavern. The water barrier had to be capable of sealing fractures in the rock surface which might be up to inch wide. Three boreholes were drilled at the site to obtain samples for cryogenic testing (Fig. and. locally. An insulation and sealing system was formulated based on consultations with manufacturers and fabricators of insulation and liner material. although some exposures display lowangle. an adhesive (if required) to bond the insulation to the barrier. After examination of the existing logs and cores from the cavern. 4).24' Fig. would be workable and would provide a stringent test for the concept of a pilot test cavern. at which point frozen pore water will form an adequate moisture barrier.Natural Gas Storage and Transportation 327 the micas parallel to the bedding. foamed insulation. is often completely obscured because of strong folding and shearing which was followed by the intensive feldspathization. The bedding. impermeable (LNG barrier) liner fastened to the foamed insulation. Lowell. The system consists of the load-bearing cavern wall surface. The rocks tend to break into tabular slabs bounded by foliation planes and joint surfaces. and remain integral to 32"F. it was decided that the rock. Liner and insulation system The economic advantages of cavern storage of LNG are contingent on the successful utilization of a linerinsulation system which would contain the LNG and reduce the large heat-influx rates from bare rock. Massachusetts. high-angle oblique joints. + O HOLE 3 97. sufficiently impermeable to water and water vapor under a hydrostatic head up to 90 psi. Most prominent is a set of nearly vertical cross joints (perpendicular to the linear flow structure). able to bond to a wet surface. Boreholes A and B were drilled vertically.

resist spalling or cracking due to the cryogenic temperatures. Excavation of the cavern entry was delayed by surface water. From these tests. Since it is important that the primary layer of insulation not separate from the wall during cooldown and operation of the cavern. The bonding of the liner is achieved by a simple heat seal. it was decided that a combination plastic and metal liner would best meet the containment requirements. the relative bonding strengths of the polyurethane foam insulation to the rock surface coated with a water barrier were evaluated. The laminate selected has a high ultimate tensile and tear strength. The deeper rock was dry as expected. Since it would be impractical and uneconomical to install an all-metal liner capable of withstanding the cryogenic temperatures. The results of these tests showed that the bonding of the Urethane foam to a moist rock surface had sufficient strength to prevent the foam from peeling off the wall. the results indicated no failure at the joints. Dacron. The initial construction consisted of the removal of overburden to bedrock at the entrance to the inclined entry. we concluded that the PILLAR seams and liner material had performed satisfactorily. and be easily and economically applicable. 5-Cross-sectional view of LNG pilot cavern. Design and construction Construction of the pilot test cavern was begun in the spring of 1966./hr-sq ft-OF) was selected. and very low permeability to methane gas. The stripping of the surface overburden cut the normal groundwater flow network.14 Btu-in. The cavern and gallery were then excavated.328 Natural Gas Storage and Transportation The basic criteria for a successful insulation require that the insulation have a low thermal conductivity. . Exhaustive testing as cited above was also conducted on the seams. Based on the results of this search. A polyurethane foam insulation which has a low thermal conductivity (k = 0. high elongation. The problem of blasting and mucking the area adjacent to the entry was solved when adequate pumps were installed. and combinations thereof. This drainage. at a period of high groundwater level. Tests of the effect of direct contact between LNG and the liner as a function of time also revealed no change. The composite liner-insulation system was finally tested for compatibility in a small prestressed concrete tank to determine if it would meet the containment requirements. The mining was held to a tolerance of 5 3 inches from the CONCRETE VAPOR B A R R I E R INSULATION \ / AND DRAIN FOR SUMP P U M P m L I Q U I D PU BULK HEAD GALLER Y SECTION VIEW Fig. tests conducted after alternate and repeated cycling with boiling water and liquid nitrogen indicated no change in physical properties. The problem was further compounded by large flows through the fracture network in the weathered rock at the rock-overburden interface. IRaddition. using a tape composed of the same material as the liner but with a special cryogenic adhesive. The rock at the entry was removed by blasting and the inclined entry subsequently made. investigations were made of other liner systems. The final design of the liner-insulation system and its bonding to the rock surface is described below. aluminum. based on its physical and chemical properties. Tests were conducted on three such liners-essentially laminates composed of Mylar. This resulted in drainage into the excavation. made it difficult to keep the working area dry.

These measurements will be correlated with photoelastic studies. and (2) whether special steels are required for bolts in this type of service. Thermal tests .Natural Gas Storage and Transportation 329 Thermal tests include the measurements of temperature distributions and boil-off rates to facilitate heat influx calculations. insulation thickness to be used for a required evaporainsulation will be selectively removed from the cavern tion rate. 5. It will be Effect of insulation on heat influx and thermal stresses trucked from a liquefaction plant at Birmingham. Of these properties. Evaporation rates will be measured hourly. Approximately 150 thermocouples are located in the insulation and surrounding rock. The actual pillar space occupied a structural failure. The framing was held to the cavern wall with studs at points of contact with the rock. Tape of the same composition as the liquid barrier material with a pressure. These data. entry to facilitate these measurements. During the mining operation.5 gallons per minute. The total surface area of exposed rock for a particular storage capacity determines the history of the structural components of the cavern. desired line. the thermal conductivity is the most variable. equaThe U. The cavern was then coated with a sealant to prevent moisture from seeping through the wall onto the insulation. the effect of insulation is to decrease the measurements from the mechanical strain rosettes in magnitude of the heat influx rates and the thermally the cavern. A cross-sectional view of the pilot cavern is presented in Fig. Temperature distributions will be measured above and OPERATION below the liquid level at various depths into the rock as As of writing. the cavern construction has been com. optical strain and borehole deformation measurements will be made at the cavern wall adjacent to the gallery. Uniform-size panels of insulation were purchased and field trimmed to fit in the cavern. They will facilitate the computation of a complete stress-strain history for the cavern from its virgin state through mining to operation. Bureau. This compilation will be invaluable for designing commercial-size caverns. were then framed with lumber. The liquid barrier was then glued to the laminate. which were made heat influx rates. two seams producing water were intersected: One was 3 to 5 feet from the cavern entrance which produced 4. Before the third cycle of operation of the cavern. it will be possible to evaluate (1) the effect of low temperatures on the number and spacing of bolts required in future installations. Alabama.well as between each layer of insulation.S. A special gallery was constructed in the temperatures. the other was approximately 9 feet into the right side of the cavern between the column and the right-hand wall which produced 4 gallons per minute. The walls and roof of the cavern.and temperature-sensitive adhesive coating was used to seal the interior layer of the panels. cumulative heat influx. The cavern will be tested in three thermal cycles profiles will be measuredin the pillar. Bureau of Mines determined the tectonic tions were derived to determine the heat influx rates and (regional) stresses in the rock before and after mining the thermal stresses during cooling to cryogenic the cavern. This surface area can be optimized by maxito maximize thermal stresses in the rock and to simulate mizing the mined volume and decreasing the volume occupied by the pillars. and to simulate actual operation of a commercial unit. and entry up to the vapor barrier. Both were successfully grouted. Borehole photographs will be taken to visually record any effects on the fractures in the pillar. The panels were then fastened to the framing with adhesive. Pull tests will be made on selected roof bolts to establish their performance before and after operation of the cavern. a brushed layer of concrete was poured on the cavern floor to smooth irregularities and provide for drainage to the LNG sump pump. Based on the data obtained from these tests. Selected bolts will also be instrumented with thermocouples and strain gages to determine both their thermal and stress histories during operation. roof. These panels were used in combination with a paper-aluminum laminate as the form for the foam-in-place Urethane.2*lo The equations describe temperature. floor. The first and third cycles will be conducted The thermal properties of the rock-specific heat and with liquid nitrogen trucked from Boston. permit determination of the stress-strain induced rock stresses. coupled with the change-in-strain Obviously. LNG will be used only for the second cycle. Temperature pleted. end wall. Prior to installation of the insulating panels. thermal conductivity-and the latent heat of the evaporation of the stored liquid affect the transient heat flow Rock tests in rock cavities. Because of the unavailability of liquefaction equipment. As stated earlier. and the radial with a borehole deformation gage developed by the and tangential stresses at any point in the rock. In addition.

20 -40 -60 ) 5 IO 15 20 O 5 IO 15 20 O 5 IO I5 20 YEARS Fig.500 General office overhead expense. 300.000 Fee.. Although Capacity: 300.800 Total for excavation storing a cryogenic liquid. 5 % 46.300 (s1.000 Entry 330.000 210. 5 % With an insulated cavern. $ we anticipate that this would be decreased to as low as Excavation: 20.800 pillar space of 15 to 20 % would be technically feasible. 5 % tures will be considerably higher than for a bare cavern $547.000-barrel 20. 10% rate. 5 % We have discussed earlier the excavation technique Summary of costs: adopted in this concept which results in low excavation Excavation-300.000 Liner granite.300 547. sandstone.000 bbl(1068 million CF) Evaporation rate: 0.300 Contingency.000 Installation stresses at these higher temperatures will not exceed the $886. However.000 Wail sealer 604.000 Site selection study 10% pending completion of the research program. . must all be 80 Total for insulation/liner $1. or 21. $930. It is 2.82/bbl InsuIation/liner installationcosts per storage barrel.500 Portal preparation evident that decreasing the pillar space results in a 100. Thus. which enables the designer to calculate the ESTIMATED COST OF CAVERN STORAGE height and permissible span between pillars. the costs due to sealing.000 bbl at $1.100 60 40 5 W - 3 t œ 20 a œ E o w I - I .41/bbl cost per storage barrel.571.000 bbl at $5.300 46.000 bbl at $3. 5 % will occur.000 tensile strength of the rock.023. 25. erection of bulkheads.300 Contingency.330 Natural Gas Storage and Transportation TABLE V would be determined by the mechanical properties of the rock. From structural considerations.ûOû General office overhead expense. Fig. 6 presents the interface Insufationlliner: temperatures as a function of time for a 300.000 Storage excavation including overage decreased effective heat transfer area with consequently $452.05 %/day an extremely conservative value of 50 % pillar space has been used for projected cost estimates of large caverns.500 Projected costs for large caverns Fee. the rock interface tempera25. lining. we believe that a $497. and no spalling or cracking 44. insulatTotal cavern cost.24/bbl ing.800 1. the calculated thermally induced rock Vapor/liquid barriers and sump 31. etc.500 Sub-total lower insulation thickness for the same evaporation 45. to determine the total 300.023.000 Insulation insulated cavern excavated in limestone. 4-Rock-insulation interface temperaturesfor large cavern.

R. Geological Survey. May 12-20. 35. Civil Engineering.. and evaporation rates are necessary for projecting costs of the cavern storage system and thus enhancing the relative economic position of this type of storage. To be printed. “Recent Developments in Liquefaction of Natural Gas for Peak Shaving”. 53. Gaz. and EAKIN. YOUNG.C.000-barrelcavern excavated in the rock found at the pilot cavern site is presented in Table V.. Oil Gas J. C. With the prospect of increasing LNG shipments from gas-rich countries to markets in Europe and Japan. space requirements in crowded areas may dictate the necessity for belowground cavern storage.. Ind. Data on rock properties were developed under an earlier program sponsored by the American Gas Association. 65-67 (1965). 260-87 (1965) June. “Cavern Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas”. A. Pa. Operating Section.A. the storage cost decreases.. Also. Conference Preprint 216 presented at the American Society of Civil Engineers Transportation Conference. Washington. 1963. B.. R. 9. “Preliminary Study of Techniques and Costs of Underground Storage for Liquefied Natural Gas”. 58.. KHAN. The pillar space is conservatively 50 % .G. J. Colo. The guidance and counsel of Messrs. Institute of Gas Technology Technical Report No. not necessarily the optimum. and Drs. May 1963.. “Cavern Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas”. B. EAKIN. “Recent Developments in LNG Storage Systems”. Unpublished Report to Gas Operations Research Committee. assisted in the construction phases and cost estimation. 1965. is assumed. configuration. R.. multiple units would not be required for these large volumes as with metal or concrete tanks... December. 10. Cameron and Jones.. Huebler. R. A. G. “Cavern Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas”. Guralnick and S.. since a single entry which represents a significant portion of the cost could just as easily serve a larger storage cavern.a boil-off rate of 0-05. CONCLUSIONS We have traced briefly the work that has been undertaken to develop the concept of storing LNG at atmospheric pressures in underground caverns. and MAROTI. B.. An estimate for the total storage costs of a 300. J. Denver. 1962. E. Paper CEP-62-12.. The economics of this storage system improve more rapidly for increased capacity than for other storage techniques. and Zeni-McKinney-Williams Corp. “Storage Containers for Liquefied Natural Gas”. Inc. 2. Paper No.. American Gas Association. “Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas”. 11. if large volumes of gas are required for peakshaving with distribution from a centrally located facility. cavern storage of LNG can be an economical solution.. 3. less insulation is required for the same evaporation rate with a consequent decrease in overall storage cost. E. and KHAN. Massachusetts”.. Pittsburgh. “Belowground Storage of Liquefied Natural Gas in Prestressed Concrete Tanks”. Appears as. Sci.Natural Gas Storage and Transportation 331 added. Part II. 8. May 17. to . and participating companies) (1963) July. 1965.. 7. Monte Carlo. subsidiary of Dravo Corporation. We anticipate that the successful proof of this concept will provide the industry with yet another competitive method of storage. Paper presented at American Gas Association Production Conference. S. 53. Sci. INC.. BAIR. P. SLIEPCEVICH. 1963. J. Am. BRESSON. As storage volume is increased. A. M. S. As pillar space is decreased.G. CAMERON AND JONES. Mim.. Am. REFERENCES 1. E.. H. 4. SCISSON. BRESSON. 551-57 (1963). which is sponsoring this project. May 20. From the foregoing it can be concluded that the optimum size.. H. present this paper. “Liquefied Natural Gas-A New Source of Energy”: Part I.S. 321 presented at the Ist International Conference on Petroleum and the Sea. Also.. E. 87. U. PB-35a and PE-35a sponsored by A.. “Ship Transportation”. Fred Wright and J. O. W. ANDERSON. J.. Weil is also gratefully acknowledged. At the time of this writing. CASTLE. A. Monaco. “Planning for Mined Underground LPG Storage”. 141-44 (1960) May 2. 308-16 (1965) September. A. CLOSNER. “Peak Load Shaving and Other Uses”. Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the permission of Gas Storage Inc.A. 5. August. R. the completed pilot cavern awaits filling with LNG for completion of the test program. 8 (covering Projects PB-35. 6. EAKIN. “Geology of the Andover Granite and Surrounding Rocks. D. Minneapolis.

por muchos años.332 Natural Gas Storage and Transportation ABSTRACTO Almacenamiento de gas natural licuado en cavernas El almacenamiento de gas natural licuado en cavernas ha sido desarrollado activamente. en varios países. Se describen el diseño. Se describen las eficientes técnicas mineras que han renovado en los Estados Unidos el interés en las cavernas como sistema de almacenamiento. Se discuten los efectos del aislamientoen la evaporación y los esfuerzos inducidos en rocas tratadas térmicamente. con base en los resultados de la prueba piloto. a bajas temperaturas. . Se informa sobre el diseño y el costo de cavernas de tipo comercial para el almacenamiento de gas natural licuado. la construccióny la operación de una caverna de prueba aislada térmicamente. haciéndolas económicamente competidoras con el método convencional de almacenamiento. Se presentan resultados de laboratorio sobre comportamiento físico y térmico. de rocas apropiadas.

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