An empire on rails (after the civil war

)

3/30/07 10:02 AM

The two big industries are steel and railroads (innovation went hand-in hand) economic linkage increased speed and many innovations •air brakes •refrigerator cars (this will change shipping procedures for produce) •dining cars •heated cars •stronger locomotives •electric switches created tons and cities because of railroads •different landscape than Europe •ended isolation and self-sufficiency (cattle from Texas, Fruit from Florida) the development of a national railroad system ed ti ab integrated national economy. By 1916 the us had 254,037 miles of track, more than all of Europe and Russia combined. Industry Empire •the new industrial empire was also based in steel osteel will revolutionize construction in the US •harder and mre durable than iron, steel caused changes in manufacturing, agricultural, transportation and architecture •permitted longr bridges, taler buildings, better plows deadlier weapons, etc… •steel became the worldwide accepted measure of industrial progress ogreat steel districts arose in Penn, Ohio, and Alabama. In each case large coal deposits existed that fueled the huge furnaces •the steel industry revolutionized the idea of a company oyou had to have layers of management oinnovation in the finance dept/ ohad to have lawyers that were experts n labor laws oinnovation in the products (R&D) •steel required economies of scale which meant large companies needed omore managers oproduct development omarketing oconsumer preference •Andrew Carnegies; success was due to his ability to manage oranize, finance, and adopted to market conditions •He perfected vertical integration oCarnegie and other industrial magnates were able to consolidate and industry

omay times this meant vertical integration •the firm wns and operates all elements of production from raw material to the finished product •they were also able to produce quality goods at a low cost •attracted quality subordinates such as Henry Clay Frick(management) and Charles Schwab (finance). Oil used to patent medicines Kerosene lmaps •The groth of the poil industry was chaotic at the start, however a young merchant, John D. Rockefellerbecame a titan and built the Stanadard Oil Company •He destroyed competitors or absorbed thm •Thought that competition was wasteful •Small firms inefficient •He was a distant and had deep religious beliefs •Taught bible classes on Sunday •He consolidated the industry •Started in 1869 had by 1878 owned or leased 90% of the refining capacity of the nation •He was relentless in cost-cutting techniques Women were allocated to domestic servants, clerical positions, garment workers, and telephone operators As well as teaching professions Economic consequence •Quicken the pace of foreign affairs •Revolutionlized journalism •Allowed businesses to expand a centralize •Very few women became lawyers, doctors or accountants •Anabella Mansfield became the first female lawyer in the US in 1869 •“The long day” •the process of feminization started to take place in teaching, in the late 1800’s oa famous book “The long Day” owritten in 1906 and as given $1 for her room and $1.50 for food clothing and transportation •African Americans were employed at the lowest scale of employment they wrrte the last o be hired and the first to be fired •In 1882 the state of California passed the Chinese exclusion act prohibiting the the immigration of chinse workers •

3/30/07 10:02 AM

3/30/07 10:02 AM

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.