Contents

Introduction  History Of Robot  Motion of Robot  Types of Robot  Behavior Based Robotics  History of Behavior Based Robotics  Need of Behavior Based Robotics  Technology & working of Behavior Based Robotics  Application of Behavior Based Robotics  Merits of Behavior Based Robotics  Demerits of Behavior Based Robotics  Robotics for today & tomorrow  Conclusion  Reference

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nuclear waste clean up) or may be used to automate repetitive tasks that can be performed more cheaply by a robot than by the employment of a human (e. such as the Stewart platform. the robotic arm of the space shuttle) or autonomously under the control of a programmed computer. This form of robot is common in science fiction stories.g. Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. The word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov. Other structures. A robot may act under the direct control of a human (eg.) Specifically. The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain (its functionality being akin to the skeleton of a body). Some robots. automobile production. all robots share the features of a mechanical. are comparatively rare. manufacture. robot can be used to describe an intelligent mechanical device in the form of a human. their design. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the human arm. Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics. Robots may be used to perform tasks that are too dangerous or difficult for humans to implement directly (e. Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly. mechanics. such robots are yet to become common-place in reality. such as those that mimic the mechanical structure of humans. in his science fiction short story "Runaround" (1941). The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks.g. actuators (its muscles) and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. However. and application.Introduction A robot is an electro-mechanical device that can perform autonomous or preprogrammed tasks. use closed parallel kinematic chains. Robotics is the science and technology of robots. various animals and insects. movable structure under some form of control. The control of a robot involves three distinct 2 . and software and a person working in the field has become known as a roboticist. The chain is formed of links (its bones).

Using strategies from the field of control theory. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings. the position of its joints or its end effector). A robot may not injure humanity or. processing and action (robotic paradigms). A robot may not injure a human being. 3. except where such orders would conflict with the first law. The study of motion can be divided into kinematics and dynamics. except where that would conflict with the 0‟th Law. Motion Of Robot Any task involves the motion of the robot. obstacle avoidance. Isaac Asimov’s Laws of Robotics 0.g." The stuff of science fiction robotics in the 21st century is different than your parents or your grandparents‟ ideas of robotics. The control of a robot involves various aspects such as path planning. Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second law.phases . 3 . or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm. More complex and adaptable control strategies can be referred to as artificial intelligence. 1. pattern recognition. allow humanity to come to harm. through inaction. meaning "forced labor. 2. History The word robot comes from the Czech word "robota". this information is processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical structure. etc. What used to be thought of as futuristic improbability is now becoming a reality.perception.

Inverse dynamics refers to the calculation of the actuator forces necessary to create a prescribed end effector acceleration. from point A. Direct dynamics refers to the calculation of accelerations in the robot once the applied forces are known." said JPL robotics engineer Barry Werger. Direct dynamics is used in computer simulations of the robot. humans modify their programming code and reload everything. Inverse kinematics refers to the opposite case in which required joint values are calculated for given end effector values. velocities and accelerations have been calculated using kinematics. velocity and acceleration when the corresponding joint values are known. thar be the gold. then hope it eventually works. Some special aspects of kinematics include handling of redundancy (different possibilities of performing the same movement)." Scientists and engineers take several approaches to control robots. by painstakingly constructing maps and other types of models that they use to plan sequences of action with mathematical precision. as done in path planning. The two extreme ends of the spectrum are called "deliberative control" and "reactive control. Once all relevant positions. methods from the field of dynamics are used to study the effect of forces upon these movements. "What we hope to do eventually is get robots to be more independent and learn to adjust their own programming. dominant way in which robots function. collision avoidance and singularity avoidance. orientation.Direct kinematics refers to the calculation of end effector position. then 4 paces northeast to point X. 4 . The robot performs these sequences like a blindfolded pirate looking for buried treasure. Types of Robot "The way robots function now. This information can be used to improve the control algorithms of a robot. move 36 paces north. if something goes wrong. then 12 paces east." The former is the traditional.

The JPL Telerobotics Research and Applications Group. the robot must stop. back-up programs must be in place to abort the plan if the robot encounters an unforeseen rock or hole that may hinder its journey. These are "deliberative" and "reactive". Behavio Based Robotics r Reactive robots became popular at a later date. go all the way down the hill and dig right next to the palm tree.acting connections." which lies toward the "reactive" end of the spectrum. if the map is wrong or lacks detail). on the other hand. Dig if you see a big X on the ground. These robots do not have a plan nor do they have a map. changing features of their environment. Behavior-based control allows robots to follow a plan while staying aware of the unexpected.they are reactive. **The Deliberative (classical AI/traditional) approach involves the robot knowing its environment. focuses on "behavior-based control. This robot will move about and perform tasks in a deliberate manner. There are two main theories regarding the techniques and approaches that are required to control robots.The downside to this is that if anything interrupts the robot's progress (for example. This re-planning process can become costly if repeated over time. led by technical group supervisor Dr. Homayoun Seraji. to ensure the robot's safety. "Reactive" approaches. a map and making decisions based on this information. **The Reactive (behavior based/new AI) approach involves the robot reacting to its environment with tight sensing . developing an internal world model. Also. These robots explore their world and react to the environments as they encounter it . Slow down if there's a rock ahead. get rid of maps and planning altogether and focus on live observation of the environment. The robot must react to the obstacles and 5 . This approach involves programming the robot to react quickly to its environment. thar be the gold. make a new map and a new plan of actions. Turn right when you see a red rock.

g. was the first behavior-based robot. Grey Walter‟s Tortoise. However. Achieving this paradigm requires developing behaviors for the robot to execute or exhibit. "move forward". H istory of Behavio Based Robotics r While behavior-based robotics is a relatively new field as academic fields go. a small robot made from vacuum tubes. often written with lighthearted titles such as "Planning is just a way 6 . "avoid objects". information science and biology to seek principles common to biological life and machine intelligence. The robots do not build a model of their world they simply act in response to the things they encounter whilst existing there.objects it encounters. If the robot is not embodied any simulation of the robot would simply be an hallucination having no bearing on what would happen in the real world. The complexity of the action produced lay not in the design but in the behavior that arose through interaction with a chaotic world. when cybernetics used control theory. it is possible to find historical predecessors. Ronald Arkin looks all the way back to 1947. This form of robotics has proved to be successful in environments that are unknown to the robot. The behaviors are built up until the robot can function in its world e. it could effectively exhibit certain behaviors such as backing away from strong light and heading toward weak light. rather. environments that are busy or noisy such as a place with moving objects or people (the busy corridor or football pitch). Brooks' papers. have a presence (it is an entity in itself). (Arkin 1998) Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Professor Rodney Brooks. "move backwards". who with students and colleagues built a series of wheeled and legged robots utilising the subsumption architecture. It had no high-level knowledge and could not translate its actions into symbolic meaning. An important part of the behavior based theory is "embodiment" This means that a robot must be embodied. In order to react the robot must be surrounded by the real world. These behaviors enable the robot to explore its environment. It did not model human intelligence or “cognition” of any kind. it provided reactive response without reliance on representation. It is generally agreed that W.

Experiments in Synthetic Psychology" (MIT Press).on two prior milestones in the behavior-based approach. N Behavio Based Robotics eed of r  Perception takes too long. and which have simple but effective behavior-based control systems. whereas. popularised the behavior-based approach.  Modeling/planning component assumes complete models are available. robots with neural networks start out with no knowledge and learn over time.whether by accident or not . T echnology & w orking of Behavior Based Robotics We focus on two of the many approaches to implementing behavior-based control: fuzzy logic and neural networks. "Vehicles . The main difference between the two systems is that robots using fuzzy logic perform with a set knowledge that doesn't improve. Brooks' work builds . W. The second milestone is Valentino Braitenberg's 1984 book.  Overall system cannot respond in real-time. the anthropomorphic qualities of his robots. and the relatively low cost of developing such robots.of avoiding figuring out what to do next". built a pair of vacuum tube-based robots that were exhibited at the 1951 Festival of Britain. nor will it be solved in the near future. Grey Walter.  Most robots built this way have failed (or run very slowly).  Perception is not a solved problem. He describes a series of thought experiments demonstrating how simply wired sensor/motor connections can result in some complexappearing behaviors such as fear and love. Fuzzy Logic 7 . an English scientist with a background in neurological research. In the 1950s.

"With neural networks. A robot functioning with such a system learns somewhat like a baby or a child does. but he or she knew a rule such as „when it is hot. a leading expert in robotic control systems who was recently recognized as the most published author in the Journal of Robotic Systems' 20-year history. that learn through being presented with examples." Similarly. robots can function in a humanistic way and respond to visual or audible signals. „It's hot in here. with linguistic instead of mathematical commands. when one person says to another person. and it will later be able to recognize cats in general. turn on the air conditioning when it thinks the room is hot. a neural network can 'learn' to classify terrain if a geologist shows it images of many types of terrain and associates a label with each one. but can be learned using neural networks. Neural Networks Neural networks are tools that allow robots to learn from their experiences. only at a slower rate. "The concepts of 'interesting' and 'rocky' are ambiguous in nature. Or if the rocky surface has interesting features. associate perceptions with actions and adapt to unforeseen situations or environments. but how do we describe a cat?" Werger said. When the network later sees an image of a terrain it hasn't seen before. That person wasn't told to open the window. "We can train a robot to know that if it encounters rocky surfaces. we can show the robot many examples of cats. 8 . By incorporating fuzzy logic into their engineering technology. Ayanna Howard." said JPL robotics research engineer Dr.' the other person knows to either open the window or turn up the air conditioning. it can determine whether the terrain is hazardous or safe based on its lessons. do something to stay cool. who specializes in artificial intelligence and creates intelligent technology for space applications."Fuzzy logic rules are a way of expressing actions as a human would." Neural networks mimic the human brain in that they simulate a large network of simple elements. for example.'" said Seraji. then the terrain is hazardous. then it may have great scientific value. "We can easily tell a robot that a square is an equilateral object with four sides. or in the case of the above example. similar to brain cells.

Working There are basically four steps in working of Behavior Based robotics: Basic Navigation ( Exploring ) Landmark Detection Mapping Landmarks Path Planning Basic Navigation (Exploring):    Subsumption Architecture Highest priority is Stroll behavior Lowest priority is Correct behavior Stroll : if( min( sonars 1 2 3 4 ) <= danger-zone ) if( not stopped ) stop else move backward else move forward 9 .

Avoid : if( ( sonar 3 or 4 ) <= safe-zone ) turn left else if( ( sonar 1 or 2 ) <= safe-zone ) turn right Align : if( ( sonar 7 or 8 ) < edging-distance AND( sonar 5 or 6 ) > edging-distance) turn right if( ( sonar 9 or 10 ) < edging-distance AND( sonar 11 or 0) > edging-distance ) turn left Correct : if( sonar 11 < edging-distance AND sonar 0 > edging-distance ) turn left if( sonar 6 < edging-distance AND sonar 5 > edging-distance ) turn right 10 .

consistent left wall and consistent direction. inconsistent walls and inconsistent direction. M apping D e te c ti on 11 .  Confidence Counter increments when sonar and compass readings  Predetermined threshold identifies how many time intervals are needed to justify a landmark are the same as last time interval. consistent left and right walls and consistent direction. 4 types of landmarks:   L andmark D e te c ti on Right wall (RW).  Irregular (I).  Corridor (C). sonar and compass readings are taken.  After a time interval. Left wall (LW). consistent right wall and consistent direction.

Length is obtained through timer (could be confidence counter). C is [ 0 … 15 ]. coarse position estimate. After discovered. qualitative landmark type.  Example: Path Planning     Toto can go to goal starting from any Goal sends signal to neighbor nodes. averaged compass bearing.  Toto can adapt to a changing environment. y <= 127. shortest path to goal. C. landmarks are stored in Toto‟s internal map. L. y ) -128 <= x. Landmark node has a set < T.  Landmark nodes store information discovered through sensors and  Nodes communicate with neighbors. RW. L is [ 1 … 127 ]. P > where T is { LW. all nodes know where goal is. landmark. C. rough estimate of landmark‟s length. 12 . Eventually. I }. Position is obtained through length and compass compass (see next slide). P = ( x.

. It does not involve modeling the environment. For example. healthcare. the behaviors at the following levels may be integrated for group performance. Dangerous landmine removal space .. behavior is simple to implement. The robot can directly “react” to real world stimulus. The gap between perception and action is reduced... . 13 . If the task is highly predictive and structured (e.g. But if information is uncertain or unknown (e.  Merits of Behavior Based Robotics For one thing. Again. assembly line automation or virtual predictive environments) then deliberative approaches are preferred... navigation in an unknown room with moving obstacles) then behavior can help importance. the 3Ds entertainment.g. A pplication of Behavior Based Robotics Dirty – – – – – min in g cleaning .. a combination gives the right result.. Du l l Vacuum cleaning .

2.  Demerits of Behavior Based Robotics  No easy way to incorporate global knowledge (symbolic maps. computer programs. SELF .behaviors concerned with interaction between robots 3. "But by mimicking human techniques. rules etc. The post office even uses neural networks to read handwriting and sort mail. "Does this mean robots in the near future will think like humans? No. like recharging a low battery.)  Hardwired behaviors -. washing machines and some car engines. similar technology is already used in many practical applications such as digital cameras.cannot predict consequences of actions  Extensions: o New behaviors can be learned using neural networks and reinforcement learning o Global knowledge and planning achieved using a higher level deliberative system on top of behavior-based system.  Robotics for today & tomorrow With continuous advances in robotic methods like behavior-based control." Werger said. future space missions might be able to function without relying heavily on human commands. SPECIES . On the home front. UNIVERSE.1. ENVIRONMENT . concerned with moving around the environment 4.robot cannot adapt to new unforeseen situations  Lacks a planning/reasoning component -.preservation. dishwashers. they could become 14 .behaviors such as obstacle avoidance.behavior such as navigating towards a particular beacon concerned with overall task achievement.behaviors to do with self.

ieee. We believe it is possible to develop robot systems in a progressive manner based on the proposed architecture.ieeexplore.wikipedia.com www. Vol 13.  Conclusion Although the implemented robot behaviors are simple as a robot that works in a real environment. the experimental results has convinced us of the possibility of the proposed architecture.com http://EzineArticles.pt/robotics 15 .org {Robotics & Automation Magazine.easier to communicate with." . March2006. and ultimately more efficient.Issue 1} www. more independent.ua.  Reference www.mec.

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