Colonial Slavery

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Allodially First slaves were indentured servants, mortgaged their bodies for several years to their chespapeake masters 100,000 slaves by 1700 “headright system” slaves were more expensive than indentured servants •slaves were apparently treated better than indentured servants 11 million slaves were brought tio the new world from about 1492 to 1792 only 600,000 ended up in north America. Most went to south America (brazil) and the west indies. Most came after 1700 many new world settlers discovered how well this labor system operartd in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in 1670 there were approximately 5,000 black slaves •first slaves sold in the US also white indentured servants were cheaper slave traders sold their crgo in the west indies and got a higher price in 1680's the demand for slavery increases •had to deal with economic and social reasons owages started to increase in England so the pool of indentured servants started to diminish oPlanters feared the growing number of landless freemen in the colonies (former indentured servants) oplantations had to resort to a different form of a labor supply to replace the loss of indentured servants oIn 698 the royal African company lost its crown-granted monopoly on carryinf slaves t the colonies oMany people got into the slave trade oMany from rhode island got in the business Slaves were captured on the adrican coast who then traded them to european and American flesh merchants Many came from west Africa presnt day Angola and senegal. Bounded and branded thy were sent to the new world and sold oon auction blocks, hoerver others were taken from the interior of Africa as much as 20% died on the voyage •eventually las appeared that decreed the ironconditions of slavery for blacks •early in the 1600s the legal difference between a slave and a servant was unclear, however by he end of the century sharp distinctions were made The so-called slave codes were erected which ade among other things, blacks and their children the property for life of their white masters, This did two things!

•Enhance slave investmet rtherefore expanded the black population •Enhance reproduction makes southern colonies very very wealthy some colonies made it a crime to teach slaves how to read and write Cant buy your way out of slavery Also African American slaves were much more manageable workforce than indentured servants slavery might have begun because of economic reasons; however racial discrimination would also play a role Native born African Americans added more spice already to the melting pot speech- African words became English words voodoo withchcraft Religion introduce dance and song song banjo and bongo which already was the start of jazz Another revolt in 1739 in south Carolina this was called the stono uprising which some slaves killed several whites and was violently put doen •in the end however blacks proved to be much more manageable Many black became seamen to escape the drudgery o=f life on the lantations

Immigration and Diversity

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Most hite peope who immigrated ito the new world came for economic and religious reasons The Scot-Irish 150,000 came to the new world not English, no royalty to the crown were not irish Property right sand incentives •Collective ownership and problems •Ex. o10 workers and they collectively own the land othey produce 100 bushels of corn othe average ouput per worker is 10 bushels per worker oassume someone becomes lazy they cut work their work production in half so whats the total production now? 95 Whats the average per person? 9.5 oConclusion: cuts work load by 50% but only loses 5% output or consumption oIncentive to lower work production oASSUME the opposite effect: workers or worker increases production from 10-12 busheles per week so what’s the total output now? 102 increases work load bu 20%, however increase in consumption of 2%, no incentive to increase workload. Scott landowners mirated to Ireland because of poor farmland in Scotland Religious conflict sprrad of commercial farming and high rent force the scot irisdh to migrte for better economic opportunities •Settled in the frontier of Pennsylvania then in Virginia and Maryland •refused to pay rent or taxes •superb frontiersmen and very individualistic •adamantly patriotic •hated the british government for the things that were done to them especilly uprooting them •lead the armed march of the paxton boys protesting •some years later, the regulator movement in NC a revolt against eastern domination of colony’s affairs killed Christian Indians including omen and childten Locals treated the Indian killers as heroes •They kept the Sabbath and anything else they could gt their hands on oAbout a dozen future presidents ere of scot irish descent Germans •6% over 100,000 come to the new world •settled mostly in Pennsylvania •no loyalty to the english crown •mostly were Lutheran •biggest reason they cme to America was to improve their material lives •mistakenly called ennsylvania dutch because the english thought thegerman word deutsch meant dutch •best farmers in the colony other groups that came to the new world French Hugenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss and scot highlanders (the only group loyal to the crown) •Jews settle in nyc •welsh NY •Scot settle new jewsy and Georgia Involuntary groups that came to the NW •African Americans 20% of the population •transportation act allowed convicted felons to be sent to the new world Geographically •new England was the most non diverse, mostly puritans and mostly English •John c Calhoun called them the cloud sniffers of the colonies

•Middle states o50% was non nglish oespecially ennsylvania •the south o80-90% of the population was black o18 of the 56 people who signed the declaration of independence were NON nglish •Conclusion although the population was mostly anglo saxon the thirteen colonies were the most diverse in te world •an aerican identity will start •inter racial marrigae african ouulaton id vrty vrtydovrtdr •thi j j iiiiiiiiiiililrlllkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkby te anerica fvf thr intrtekk kvkr hsiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilv nesn ppstrnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnth in teractial •the clonies are goign to be the forrunner of a lot of different thigns

Structure of colonial society economic transformation

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