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1.

INTRODUCTION:
In older days for making gears, cutting splines on shafts, fluting drills, taps and reamers manufacturers use simple and manual indexing method or hand operated indexing method consist by milling machines which are very time consuming operations. So that automation of the indexing came into picture. Now a days manufacturer uses NC, CNC and DNC machines which are the next generation machines after the manual or automatic lathes, milling, drilling, shaping etc. machines. NC (numerical control) has been developed out of the need for higher productivity, lower cost and more precise manufacturing. This is the latest machine tool control system since the industrial revolution and can be considered as the more sophisticated form of automation for controlling machine tools, equipment or processes.

1.1 WHAT IS NC?


Numerical control, popularly known as the NC is very commonly used in the machine tools. Numerical control is defined as the form of programmable automation, in which the process is controlled by the number, letters, and symbols. In case of the machine tools this programmable automation is used for the operation of the machines. In other words, the numerical control machine is defined as the machined that is controlled by the set of instructions called as the program. In numerical control method the numbers form the basic program instructions for different types of jobs; hence the name numerical control is given to this type of programming. When the type of job changes, the program instructions of the job also change. It is easier to write the new instructions for each job; hence NC provides lots of flexibility in its use. The NC technology can be applied to wide variety of operations like drafting, assembly, inspection, sheet metal working, etc. But it is more prominently used for various metal machining processes like turning, drilling, milling, shaping etc. Due to becoming quite NC all the machining operations can be performed at the fast rate resulting in bulk manufacturing cheaper.

1.2 Indexing:
The indexing is the operation of dividing the periphery of a piece of work into any number of equal parts. In cutting spur gears, equal spacing of teeth on the gear blank is performed by indexing. The indexing operations can also be adapted for producing hexagonal and square headed 1

bolts, cutting splines on shaft, fluting drills, taps and reamers and many other jobs, all requiring the periphery of the work piece to be divided equally and accurately. Indexing is accomplished by using a special attachment known as dividing head or index head. The dividing heads are of three types: (1) Plain or simple dividing head, (2) Universal dividing head, (3) Optical dividing head. [1] [8]

1.2.1 PLAIN OR SIMPLE DIVIDING HEAD: The plain dividing head comprises of a cylindrical spindle housed in a frame, and a base bolted to the machine table. The index crank is connected to the tail-end of the spindle directly, mounted on the spindle and rotates with it. The spindle may be rotated through the desired angle and then clamped by inserting lever pin into any one of the equally spaced holes or slots cut on the periphery of the index plate. The work is mounted at the nose end of the spindle by chuck or may be supported between the two centers. The live centre is fitted at the nose of the spindle and the dead centre is held by tailstock. The tailstock is a separate assembly which is bolted to the machine table after aligning its spindle axis with the dividing head spindle. This type of dividing head is used for handling large number of work pieces, which require a very small number of divisions on the periphery. [1]

1.2.2 UNIVERSAL DIVIDING HEAD: The universal dividing head is the most common type of indexing arrangement used in workshops. As the name implies, this type of index head can be used to execute all forms of indexing. A universal dividing head is used for following purposes 1. For setting the work in vertical, horizontal or in inclined positions, relative to the surface. 2. For turning the work piece periodically through a given angle to impart indexing movement. 3. For imparting a continuous rotary motion to the work piece for milling helical grooves. table

The important parts of a universal dividing head are the worm and the worm gear, index plate, sector arm, change gears and the spindles. The working mechanism of a universal dividing head is shown in figure1. The main spindle 5 housed on two accurate bearings carries a worm gear 4 is mounted on the shaft 10 at the other end of which a crank 13 is fitted. The worm gear 4 has 40 teeth and the worm 6 is single threaded. Thus 40m turns of the crank 13 will rotate the spindle 5 to be rotated by 1/40 of a revolution. In order to turn the crank 13 a fraction of a revolution, an index plate 12 is used. An index plate is a circular disc having a different number of equally spaced holes 2

arranged in concentric circles. The index plate 12 is screwed on a sleeve which is loosely mounted on the worm shaft10. Normally, the index plate 12 remains stationary by a lock pin 11 connected with the frame. A spring loaded pin 14 fixed to the crank 13 fits into holes in the index plate 12. If the pin 14 moved from one hole to the next hole in a 18 hole circle of the index plate, the spindle 5 will revolve 1/40*1/18 = 1/720 of a turn. The sector arm shown in figure2 used to eliminate the necessity of counting holes on the index plate each time the index crank is moved. [1]

Figure 1: Indexing Head mechanism

The dividing head spindle 5 is provided with a taper hole at the nose for accommodating a live centre. The nose is threaded on the outside for mounting a chuck or a faceplate. The work 8 may be supported between the two centers 9 or on a chuck.

Figure 2: Working Mechanism of Universal Dividing Head 1,2 change gears, 3. spindle speed, 4. worm gear, 5. spindle, 6. worm, 7.carrier, 8. work, 9. dead centre, 10. worm shaft , 11. lock pin, 12. index plate, 13. index crank, 14. spring loaded pin, 15. mitre gears, 16. driven shaft.

Figure 3: Sector Arm

The spindle 5 is supported on a swiveling block which enables the spindle to be tilted through any angle from 5 below horizontal to 10 beyond vertical, and the clamped at that position.

The angular setting of the dividing head is affected by using a graduated scale fitted to the body of the dividing head. The dividing head spindle may be connected with the table feed screw through a train of gearing to impart a continuous rotary motion to the work piece for helical milling.

1.2.3 OPTICAL DIVIDING HEAD: The optical dividing heads are used for precise angular indexing during machining, and for checking the accuracy of various angular surfaces. The mechanism comprises of a worm gear which is keyed to the spindle and may be rotated by a worm. A circular glass scale graduated in 1 division is rigidly mounted on the worm wheel. Any movement of the spindle affected by rotating the worm is read off by means of a microscope fitted on the dividing head body. The reading on the circular glass scale is projected through prism on the screen of the microscope eyepiece. The eyepiece has a scale having 60 divisions and each division is equivalent to 1 movement of the circular scale. Thus with this arrangement; a precise indexing movement can be made. [1]

2.

INDEXING METHODS:
There are several different methods of indexing. The choice of any method depends upon the

number of divisions required and the type of dividing head used. The following are the different methods of indexing:

1. Direct or rapid indexing 2. Plain or simple indexing 3. Compound indexing 4. Differential indexing 5. Angular indexing

2.1

DIRECT INDEXING: Direct indexing, often called rapid indexing, is used when a large number of identical pieces

are indexed by very small divisions. The operation may be performed in both plain and universal dividing head. When using a universal head, the worm and worm wheel are first disengaged. This is done in a manner similar to that used in the back gear of a lathe by turning a handle which operates an eccentric bushing. The required number of divisions on the work is obtained by means of the rapid index plate generally fitted to the front end of the spindle nose. The plate has twenty-four equally spaced holes, into any one of which a spring loaded pin is pushed to lock the spindle with the frame. While indexing, the pin is first taken out and then the spindle is rotated by hand, and after the required position is reached it is again locked by the pin. When the plate is turned through the required part of a revolution, the same part of the revolution. With a rapid index plate having 24 holes it is possible to divide the work into divisions of 2,3,4,6,8,12 and 24 parts which are all factors of 24. [1]

RULE FOR DIRECT INDEXING: To find the index movement, divide the total number of holes in the direct index plate by the number of divisions required on the work. In this case, when the direct index plate has 24 holes, the formula for indexing is given below:

No. of holes to be moved = 24/N Where, N = number of divisions required

EXAMPLE-1: Find out the index movement required to mill a hexagonal bolt by direct indexing. The rapid index plate has 24 holes.

No. of holes required = 24/6 = 4

After machining one side of the bolt the index plate will have to be moved by 4 holes for 5 times to machine the remaining faces of the bolt. [1]

2.2

SIMPLE INDEXING: The simple indexing, sometimes called plain indexing, is more accurate and suitable for

numbers beyond the range of rapid indexing. Here, the dividing head spindle is moved by turning the index crank 13, shown in figure. As the shaft 10 carrying the crank has a single threaded worm 6 which meshes with the worm gear 4 having 40 teeth, 40 turns of the crank 13 are necessary to rotate the index head spindle 5 through one revolution. In other words, one complete turn of the index crank 13 will cause the worm wheel 4 to make 1/40 of a revolution. To facilitate indexing to fraction of a turn, index plates are used to cover practically all numbers. Index plates with circles of holes patented by the brown and sharp manufacturing company are as follows: Plate no.1 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 Plate no.2 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 Plate no.3 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49

These plates have also been accepted as standard index plates by the Indian machine tool manufacturers. With the three index plates supplied, simple indexing can be used for all divisions up to 50, even numbers up to 100, except 96, and many others. The index plate used on Cincinnati and Parkinson dividing heads is of larger diameter than the Brown and Sharp index plates. The number of holes in each side of the plate is as follows: First side 24,25,28,30,34,37,38,39,41,42,43 Second side 46,47,59,51,53,54,57,58,59,62,66

RULE

FOR SIMPLE INDEXING:

To find the index crank movement, divide 40 by the number of

divisions required on the work. 7

The formula for index crank movement is given below:

Index crank movement =

40 N

Where N= number of divisions required

If the index crank movement deduced from the above formula is a whole number, the index crank should be rotated through a complete number of turns equal to the derived whole number. If the index crank movement deduced from the above equation is a whole number and a fraction, the numerator and the denominator of the fraction after simplifying are multiplied by a suitable common number which will make the denominator of the fraction equal to the number of holes in the index plate circle. The new numerator now stands for the number of holes to be moved by the index crank in the hole circle derived from the denominator, in addition to the complete turns of the index crank. [1]

EXAMPLE-2: Set the dividing head to mill 30 teeth on a spur wheel blank. Index crank movement =

40 1 1 7 7 1 1 1 30 3 3 7 21

Thus for indexing, one complete turn and seven holes in 21 hole circle of the index plate will have to be moved by the index crank. [1]

2.3

COMPOUND INDEXING: The indexing method is called compound due to the two separate movements of the index

crank in two different hole circles of one index plate to obtain a crank movement not obtainable by plain indexing. The index plate is normally stationary by a lock pin which engages with one of the whole circles of the index plate from the back. While indexing, first the crank pin is rotated through a required number of spaces in one of the hole circle of the index plate and the crank pin is engaged with the plate. This first movement is performed similar to the plain indexing. The second index movement is now performed by removing the rear lock pin and then rotating the plate together with index crank forward or backward through the calculated number of spaces of another hole circle, and than the lock pin is engaged. The effective indexing movement will be the summation of the two movements. The method of finding the index crank movement being a complicated one is seldom used now a day. 8

RULE FOR COMPOUND INDEXING: The rule for compound indexing is given by the formula:

40 n1 n2 N N1 N 2

Where, N = the number of divisions required N1 = the hole circle used by the crank pin N2 = the hole circle used by the lock pin n1 = the hole spaced moved the crank pin in N1 hole circle n2 = the hole spaced moved by the plate and the crank pin in N2 hole circle [1]

3.

STEPPER MOTOR:

3.1

INTRODUCTION: A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete

mechanical movements. The shaft or spindle of a stepper motor rotates in discrete step increments when electrical command pulses are applied to it in the proper sequence. The motors rotation has several direct relationships to these applied input pulses. The sequence of the applied pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied. [2] .

Figure 4: Stepper Motor

There are three main types of stepper motors:

1. Permanent Magnet Stepper 2. Hybrid Synchronous Stepper 3. Variable Reluctance Stepper

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3.1.1

PERMANENT MAGNETIC STEPPER MOTOR:

When a phase winding of a stepper motor is energized with current a magnetic flux is developed in the stator. The direction of this flux is determined by the Right Hand Rule which states: If the coil is grasped in the right hand with the fingers pointing in the direction of the current in the winding (the thumb is extended at a 90angle to the fingers), then the thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field.

Figure 5: Motor Winding -1

Figure 6: Motor Winding -2

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Figure 5 shows the magnetic flux path developed when phase B is energized with winding current in the direction shown. The rotor then aligns itself so that the flux opposition is minimized. In this case the motor would rotate clockwise so that its south pole aligns with the north pole of the stator B at position 2 and its north pole aligns with the south pole of stator B at position 6. To get the motor to rotate we can now see that we must provide a sequence of energizing the stator windings in such a fashion that provides a rotating magnetic flux field which the rotor follows due to magnetic attraction. [3]

There are mainly two types: 1) Unipolar Stepper Motor. 2) Bipolar Stepper Motor.

Figure 7: Different types of stepper motors

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3.2 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


Motor Type Rated voltage Rated Current/Phase No. of Phases Step Angle Excitation Method 23LM-C720-02 12 V 1.5 A 4 1.8 2-2 Phase(Bipolar)

Table 1: Technical Specification

3.3 FEATURES:

3.3.1 EASY ANGLE AND SPEED CONTROL Stepping motors move by rotating in steps of predetermined degrees called the step angle. The degrees rotated and the speed of rotation is easily controlled using electrical signals called pulses. [4]

Figure 8: Step Angle of Motor

3.3.2 STEP ANGLE 0.72 - 5-Phase Stepping Motor 0.9 - 2-Phase Stepping Motor High-Resolution Type 1.8 - 2-Phases Stepping Motor Standard Type

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3.3.3 PULSES A pulse is an electrical signal that repeats ON and OFF voltages as shown in the illustration below. Each cycle of ON and OFF (1 cycle) is called a pulse. Normally, 5 volts is used. ON is high and OFF is low. [4]

Figure 9: Pulses

3.3.4 HIGH TORQUE/GOOD RESPONSE Stepping motors are compact, but produce high torque. This provides excellent acceleration and fast movement. [4]

3.3.5 HIGH RESOLUTION/HIGH POSITIONING PRECISION There are two types of stepping motors: the 5-phase stepping motor, which rotates 0.72 for each pulse, and the 2-phase stepping motor, which rotates 1.8 for each pulse. The angular distance moved corresponds to the number of pulses input, with a stopping accuracy of _0.05

3.3.6

HOLDING TORQUE

Stepping motors produce high holding torque even while stopped. The stop position can be held without relying on a mechanical brake. [4]

3.4

STEPPER MOTOR ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES:


1. The rotation angle of the motor is proportional to the input pulse. 2. The motor has full torque at standstill (if the windings are energized) 3. Precise positioning and repeatability of movement since good stepper motors have an accuracy of 3 5% of a step and this error is non cumulative from one step to the next. 4. Excellent response to starting/ stopping/reversing. 5. Very reliable since there are no contact brushes in the motor, therefore the life of the motor is simply dependant on the life of the bearing.

3.4.1 ADVANTAGES:

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6. The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor simpler and less costly to control. 7. It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to the shaft. 8. A wide range of rotational speeds can be realized as the speed is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses

3.4.2 DISADVANTAGES 1. Resonances can occur if not properly controlled. 2. Not easy to operate at extremely high speeds.

3.5
3.5.1

DESIGN CONSIDERATION
MECHANICAL PARAMETERS, LOAD, FRICTION, INERTIA: The performance of a stepper motor system (driver and motor) is also highly dependent on

the mechanical parameters of the load. The load is defined as what the motor drives. It is typically frictional, inertial or a combination of the two. Friction is the resistance to motion due to the unevenness of surfaces which rub together. Friction is constant with velocity. A minimum torque level is required throughout the step in over to overcome this friction (at least equal to the friction). Increasing a frictional load lowers the top speed, lowers the acceleration and increases the positional error. The converse is true if the frictional load is lowered. Inertia is the resistance to changes in speed. A high inertial load requires a high inertial starting torque and the same would apply for braking. Increasing an inertial load will increase speed stability, increase the amount of time it takes to reach a desired speed and decrease the maximum self start pulse rate. The converse is again true if the inertia is decreased. The rotor oscillations of a stepper motor will vary with the amount of friction and inertia load. Because of this relationship unwanted rotor oscillations can be reduced by mechanical damping means however it is more often simpler to reduce these unwanted oscillations by electrical damping methods such as switch from full step drive to half step drive. [6]

3.5.2 STEP ANGLE ACCURACY: One reason why the stepper motor has achieved such popularity as a positioning device is its accuracy and repeatability. Typically stepper motors will have a step angle accuracy of 3 5% of

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one step. This error is also noncumulative from step to step. The accuracy of the stepper motor is mainly a function of the mechanical precision of its parts and assembly.

Step Position Error The maximum positive or negative position error caused when the motor has rotated one step from the previous holding position. Step position error = measured step angle - theoretical angle

Positional Error The motor is stepped N times from an initial position (N = 360/step angle) and the angle from the initial position is measured at each step position. Hysteresis Positional Error The values obtained from the measurement of positional errors in both directions.

3.5.3 INDUCTANCE: Stepper motors are rated with a varying degree of inductance. A high inductance motor will provide a greater amount of torque at low speeds and lower torque at higher speeds. 3.5.4 MOTOR STIFFNESS: By design, stepping motors tend to run stiff. Reducing the current flow to the motor by a small percentage will smooth the rotation. Likewise, increasing the motor current will increase the stiffness but will also provide more torque. Trade-offs between speed, torque and resolution are a main consideration in designing a step motor system. 3.5.5 MOTOR HEAT: Step motors are designed to run hot (50-90 C). However, too much current may cause excessive heating and damage to the motor insulation and windings. AMS step motor products reduce the risk of overheating by providing a programmable Run/Hold current feature.[6]

3.6

APPLICATIONS:
Computer-controlled stepper motors are one of the most versatile forms of positioning

systems. They are typically digitally controlled as part of an open loop system, and are simpler and more rugged than closed loop servo systems. 16

Industrial applications are in high speed pick and place equipment and multi-axis machine CNC machines often directly driving lead screws or ball screws. In the field of lasers and optics they are frequently used in precision positioning equipment such as linear actuators, linear stages, rotation stages, goniometers, and mirror mounts. Other uses are in packaging machinery, and positioning of valve pilot stages for fluid control systems. Commercially, stepper motors are used in floppy disk drives, flatbed scanners, computer printers, plotters, slot machines, and many more devices. Some people looking for generators for homemade Wind Turbines found success in using stepper motors for generating power. [7]

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4.

MATLAB CONTROL:
Mat lab is matrix-based software for scientific and engineering numeric computation and

visualization. Matlab is chosen as the programming tool primarily because of simple GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces), immediate graphics facilities, built-in functions, the possibility of adding user-written functions, and interactive mode of work, simple programming and its wide availability on computing platforms The parallel port of a PC is used to drive stepper motors by using the DB-25 parallel port connector. The PC's parallel port is a simple and inexpensive tool for building computer controlled devices and projects.

4.1

CONVENTIONAL LOGIC OF PROGRAM:

M= Module of Cutter Z= No. of teeth D= Diameter of blank

To Find Maximum No of Teeth on Blank

D 2 M

No. of Revolution for One Teeth

35 X Z

For one rev. of indexing head we require no of pulses. =360/1.8 = 200.

Therefore required revolution for one teeth =X200

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4.2 MAT LAB LOGIC OF PROGRAM: a=digitalio('parallel','LPT1'); addline(a,0:7,'out'); D = input('Enter diameter : '); m = input('Enter module : '); Z = D/m - 2; x = 35/z; p = x*200; for i=1:4:p putvalue(a,1); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,0); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,4); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,0); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,2); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,0); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,8); pause(0.015); putvalue(a,0); pause(0.015); end

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Figure-10 SNAPSHOT 1

Figure-11 SNAPSHOT 2

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4.3 CIRCUIT:

Figure11: Circuit -1.

4.3.1 COMPONENTS OF CIRCUIT:


Components Resister Resister Relay Optocuplor Transister Battery specification 385 100 12V/12V 4N35 12V 12V
Table 2: Components of Circuit

no. of components 4 4 4 4 4 1

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Figure12: Circuit -2.

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5. ASSEMBLY OF STEPPER MOTOR WITH INDEXING HEAD:

Figure 13: Assembly -1

Figure 14: Assembly -2

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Figure 15: Assembly -3

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References:
[1] S.K. Hajara Choudhary, A.K. Hajra Choudhary, Nirjhar Roy Book of workshop technology vol-ii, Dhanpat Rai Publication 2007, Page No-451 to 468 [2] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stepper_motor [3] www.solarbotics.net/library/pdflib/pdf/motorbas.pdf [4] http://www.educypedia.be/electronics/motorstep.htm [5] http://www.piclist.com/techref/piclist/jal/drivingbipolarsteppermotors.htm [6] http://mechatronics.mech.northwestern.edu/design_ref/actuators/stepper_intro.html [7] http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/step/types.html [8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indexing_head

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