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1. List the determinants of the mean arterial pressure. -MAP = SVR*CO = SVR*SV*HR 2.

Formulate the relationship between pulse pressure, stroke volume and the compliance of the arterial system. - Pulse Pressure is determine by SV, and SV is related to compliance because compliance is stroke volume/pulse pressue 3. Describe the effects of gravity on the cardiovascular system. -venous pooling 4. Explain how the respiratory pump and skeletal muscle work to maintain blood flow Both assist in venous return; the respiratory pump decreases intrathoracic pressure by increasing chest pressure. 5. Describe the effects of changes in venous compliance on central venous pressure An increase in venous compliance will vasodilate and increase venous volume, thereby increasing venous radius leading to a decrease in resistance which causes an increase in venous return leading to an increase in preload and thus an increase in right atrial pressure. 6. Define basal tone and neural tone. Basal tone: metabolic/intrinsic effects on vascular tone Neural tone: tone due to sympathetic activity. 7. Define intrinsic and extrinsic control of blood flow. Intrinsic: Ability of the tissue to control its own blood flow Extrinsic: xternal controls. 8. Understand the role of vasodilator metabolites in the metabolic control of blood flow. -Autoregulation. Vasodilator dilates, increasing flow, thus washing away dilators. 9. Explain how changes in the metabolic rate of a tissue alter the vascular resistance in that tissue. Increase vasodilation =increase in radius = decrease in resistance = decrease in afterload = increase in SV increase in CO = increase in venous return = increase in preload = decrease vasodilation. 10. Compare and contrast active hyperemia and autoregulation. 11. Describe the role of vasodilating metabolites in autoregulation. To control the regulation of blood flow passively. 12. Explain the role of sympathetic activity in the neural control of the systemic circulation.

Neural Tone: Sympa/Parasympa activity adds to basal tone. Notably, Beta 1 e.g. norepi for the sympathetic, and 13. Describe how changes in sympathetic activity can cause an increase or decrease in vascular resistance. Norepi infusion = Increase in sympa = decrease in radius = increase in resistance 1. Explain how stretch receptors detect changes in arterial pressure. Increases in pressure = increases stretch = increases afferent activity = inc para, dec sympa = inc HR etc. 2. Describe the effect of changes in mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure on afferent activity from the arterial baroreceptors. Inc MAP = inc in baroreceptor firing. 3. Describe the effects of the afferent activity from the arterial baroreceptors on the efferent sympathetic and parasympathetic activity from the cardiovascular control center. Increase aff =inc para, decrease sympa; decrease in aff = increase in sympa, dec in para 4. List the four effectors of the baroreceptor reflex. B2, A1, and muscarinic receptors 5. Describe the sequence of events that occur in the baroreceptor reflex when the arterial pressure increases or decreases. dec pressure = dec stretching = dec firing = dec afferent activity = inc inc sympa; dec para sympa; inc sympa stimulates a1 & b1, increasing HR, CO, SV, contractility, while decreasing muscarinic. 6. Explain the interaction of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the control of the heart rate. Sympa: controls contractility, SV, resistance. Parasympa: controls heart rate. 7. Understand the mechanisms for the control of blood flow in the major organs. 8. Explain how intrinsic mechanisms control blood flow and how the arterial baroreceptor reflex controls arterial pressure. 9. List one major characteristic of the control of blood flow in each of the major organs.