Industrialization and urbanization

4/2/07 1:02 PM

Railroads •Especially in England You need a free and growing population And you need technology Railroads facilitate this movement •Governments help build them •A lot of restrictions as to what employers can do with their employees •The best government is the government that governs the lease •The railroads are also going to grow on the basis of technology: the steam engine •When you’re using water as uyour energy source you need to be close to wsources of water •Once you move to steam power yu can produce anywhere •We se factories being built this very much shapes the nature of the industrial revolution •We start to see the balance of the population from rural to urban •We also see transformation in the nature of labor and the way in which a worker sees him/her self •with the industrial revolution we see the wage labor enter into society •it also brings in a great deal of disparity •also poverty becomes more visible •cities are alos very difficult places odirty ono polltion controls oand dangerous to live in oLife expectancy in Manchester (17 yrs) the average is 40 osome cities are ging to try and avoid problems by banning industrialization opeople also wrried about the impact of industrialization on the family and children •child labor: people get worried about it •government calls up inquiry on child labor in England •what are some of the problems with child labor? •In 1833 the fctory act is passed and has the following provisions oChildren underthe age f9 are not permitted to work ochildren 9-13 only alloed t work 9 hours a weekd oand 13-18 13 hours oalowed education othis causes a problem wit supervision oadditionally only applied ochildren in the textile industry

ok 1842 the mines act prohibits women af children from preventing women from working undergrouns opeople pass laws to deal wth the ecvesses f working in the 1800s opeople that are benifirinf deom indusialization are actvelt caling for some change othe workers want change but habe no polticial voice oother natins will sgarg to doolo the brtisibh lead ourbanization othis growth is fueled by immigration overcrowding is a huge problem and there’s not enough housing for people geographical distribution of the population changes, they hae super defined boundaries the sanitary situation gets worde •garbage sits on streets •not enough water •outbreaks of diseases and rages ocholera oif you were poor I spreads fster •the poor believe that diseases are conspiracies to get rid of them •eventually this will lead to calls for reform social reform very chauvinistic towards he poor there is a cncern about illegitimacy in major cities, somewhere betewwen 25-50% of children that were born were illegitimate oundling hospitals about 33,000 childre are left t founding hospitals

4/2/07 1:02 PM

4/2/07 1:02 PM

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