The Great War

Imperialism, 1898 Spain looses the last of the american possessions in the spanish-american war (good times) This is also when puerto rico becomes independent of Spain. The Philippines did not just rise up enjoy when the americans come in and liberate the Philippines from spain. The us enters a long and bloody war to control the Philippines. Italy loses ethiopia and the japanese are expanding into China ad Taiwan and in 1904 japan attacks russian forces and wins non-western power wins over a western power. A lot more resistance on the part of the colonized peoples. The Boxer rebellion, rebellion against the government who made concessions to the brittish during the opium wars Turkish Nationalists, Indian nationalists. Nationalism on the part of the colonized people is going to be successful. Within europe, the powers are trying to protect themselves. Triple Alliance- Led by the germans German, Austria, and Italy. When germany needs to protect itself it needs political sympathizers and geographically useful.The austrians have a problem with nationalism though, to the south they are inhabited by slavic people, who want to be free. The slavs for a long time had been put down by western european people.So when bismarck is building up his alliance system, he has to figure out someway to make russia and austrians play nice together, inevtibally it doesnt work. Dual Alliance- Between Germany and Austria, if one of us is attacked we will respond. Why on earth would you connect yourself with austria when russia is likly to get involoved with Austria? Basically bismarck has no intention of honoring the other side of the agreement.

The movement that is the slavic nationalism is called Pan-Slavism and the largest slavic nation is russia, so smaller slavic groups are going to look to russia for support and help. Bismarck does two things: he has a propoganda campaing to persude the europeans that the germans are happy where they are, at the same time he wants to protect germany to prevent a two front war so he seeks alliances. William II becomes the German emperor and doesn’t likeBismarck’s plan he is not happy with the concillatory language . William gives a speech that germany will take its place in the sun and fires bismarck, after about 1890, the isolation of the french and the russians starts to fall apart and feel vulnerable.

The Great War
Inspite of all their differences, French and Russians start to talk Triple Entente (Entente Cordial) [not formalized]- they start working out conflicts they have with each other and do sign some agreements. French and english start talking to each-other also, even though they hated each other. Germans ad the english are actually natural allies. If the english are going to ally with the french, they have to figure out why they don’t want to ally with the germans. Germany starts building a navy, but can’t quite get it right. And england finds that threatening so they side with france. Increase in tensions There are several wars in the balkans in 1912 and each time the slavic peoples who are dominatd by austria are lookingg for some independence Each time the slavs look to russia and say ‘help’ but russia always says no. It seems that there is no way to avoid war June 28 1914 Archduke ferdinand of austria goes to sarejevo and is shot dead in his car, as it turns out the shooter was serbian and is a member of the terrorist group called the black hand . The black hand was a well connected terrorist group and had roots in pro pan slavism and had connections wit the serbian government. Austria gives ultimatums to serjevo should concede to austria that terrorism is bad and that the austrian police inspect the crime and serbia feels that that will eat away at their soveriegnty. The ultimatums are unacceptable. The austrians knew this and hoped that they woulnt accept them. The serbs actually accept everything except allowing austrians comming in to investigate. The austrians invade, and think that germany will help them, but intitially they dont. This time the slavs say help to russia and this time russia does. But they are not industrialized or fast. The germans now have a two-front war problem Schlieffen Plan. Basically said that russia will take a long time in the east so France will be quicker that means they will take out france first and then move to the east to stop russia. Germans violate the neutrality of belgium by crossing through it so britian declares war on germany.

The Great War
The french forces were not humiliated in 1914 , Paris is never taken and the line stalls in paris and the war stagnates ad it becomes a war of attrition, and whoever runs out first loses. Only france is self sufficent on food, the germans need very much to capture some coastline or else they will loose the war. Also they expected wars of movement and speed. And it becomes a trench war. When the order was given you go over the top into ‘no man’s land’ when soldiers were given the order to go over the top they were mowed down with these new weapons. And barbed wire was also developed . In the fist three months of the war 1.5 million casualties, the first group to go over the top usually experienced 90% mortality French general says it is working against us. Cult of the offensive. The nature of the fighting was traumatizing ad the losses were staggering. This war chnged the way te west thinks because it is so horrriffic. The us does not declare Lusitania , 1200 passengers on board, 125 which are american, sunk by a submarine by the germans Batlle of the sonne 20,000 troupes died after that trip over the top Racial barriers are going to fall The war was a total war Fun Governments throughout europe are going to take control of the economy and make sure that official policies can’t be criticized, so a lot of sedition laws are passed No clear goal for WWI The workforce is restructured b/c a lot of men are brought into the service, a lot of women are used to filll the positions When men are wounded and come home, they are unable to take the jobs that they had beforewhat it means to be male and what it means to be female 100,000 vietnamese (vietnam is a french colony) forced to work in france Exonomic strif created with the war

The Great War
The home front Rusian revolution Provisional government, Mar 1917 Bolshevik revolution, Novemeber 1917 People don’t like the tzar because they don’t think he knows what is going on with the war Every failure becomes the tzar’s failure The peasants dont have land ad tey are very unhappy about this 1917 in March revolution has exploded, naklus and alexandra are forced off the throne called ‘February revolution Peace, Land , and bread The provisional government continues to fight the revolution The communists led by lenin (the octoberists revolution) The first thing they do is negotiate the peace The us is unprepared for war by spig of 1918 we have enough troupes to make a difference, the german army suffers more than 2,000,000 casualties The kaiser abdicates, and a republic is declared Armistice in Nov 11, 1918 10 million dead 30 million wounded The economy was in shambles, an peopel didnt have enough to eat, flue epidemic killed 20,000,000i KNOW A lot of moral questions Peacemaking Weimar govenrment in Gemrany How do we rebuild europe? How do restructure the peace The victors want revenge,r they want humiliation.

The Great War
The french lost over a million buildng Wilson’s 14 points Austrians loose 3/4 of their territory Treaty of Versailles Igned in te hall of mirrors Alsace and Lorraine get this land back (france gets this back) Reparations- a demand that the germans pay for the civilian damage that was caused, 132 billion gold marks; a amount that germany can’t pay ‘ Article 231 paying the reparations and war guilt clause Hyper inflation League of natiomn

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