The transition experience

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Albania •Musli •lots of conflict with Christian neighbors •Enver Hoxha obecame the leader of the Albanian cmmunist party in 1941 odeclares himself an orthodox Marxist lenninist (or a stalin follower) what this means is that you’re going to collectivize agriculture and everyone’s personal property rights will be stripped he also imprisoned and executed thousands of people wh disagreed with his methods vast amount of propoganda in the 1950’s that under Hoxha that Albania had made great progress, and was self sufficient hoxah’s bggest legacy are the construction of thousands of bunkers or “pillboxes” because he was paranoid and thought that America was going to invade Albania and insurgents •The problems really comes in 1956 and Kruzhev gives the 20th Congress speech and renounces stalin, and Hoxha being a devout Stalinist, decides that he has to break from the soviet party and align himself with the Chinese communists, because they are closer to the marxuist ideals than Kruzhev •he built up a cult of personality •finally in 1976 a regime of repression is lifted in china when they decide to normalize relations with the west othis is a problem with Hoxha since china has gone against orthodox talinism oSo Albania becomes a completely isolate country from 1979 to 1985 •Hoxha dies and a difficult transition ensues •Lots of fighting until 2002 Yugoslovia only in the Balkans did communists retain power after the fall of the USSR extensive violence in 1989 were contained to two Balkan states, yugoslovia and Romania •communism might have been troublesome but it kept ethnic conflicts at bay •in 1989 the resulting yugoslovia was not democratic reform it was the development of old factions and ethnic animosity •Nationalism oNationalist sentiment alive and well in yugoslo Many people, religions, beiefs Serbia: Serbian orthodox, tied to Russia •Volojvodania POST WWII tying a nation together

•yugoslobie created by partisan groups from all these nations bound together by the shared dream of socialism •created as a loose coalition of groups meant to deter Serbian nationalism •Nationalism remains, as the communist party under Marshall Tito struggled to grant limited dissent •result- the 1974 constitution of the socialist federal republic of yugoslovia a decentralized constitutional system that fomemnts ethnic unrest and disunity •Awkward constitutional agreement, arbitrarily established republics with shaky boundaries ad the plan is that periodically a new premier would stand ain and that way everyone would be garunteed representation odissent in coratia, Kosovo, and erbia •how dd the communist regime deal with communist unrest? ohe doesn’t crack down on them like with the soviet union, he has a grudging tolerance for dissent and grand constitutional mendments ogives each of the 6 republics to veto legislation oand a rotating presidency oit weakend the center, so when yugoslovia fell apart there was nothing to hold it together communism started to become questioned in th 80s Croatia •Croatian nationalist under the leadership of Franjo Tudjman begin to protest Yugoslovian centralized control •they protest economic centralization arguing that croatia and slovenia being the wealthies nations in the union were losing their assets to the poorer nations in the south •the 1974 constitution creates enough autonomy to allow these nations to become competitors with the south instead of unified •Tudjman is complex character a staunch Croatian nationalist and communist Serbia and Kosovo •Serbian nationalism centered around its own church, a deep sense of its role s the leader off yugoslovia anger at Serbian minority persecution anger at Serbian minority persecution in countries out side of Serbia and a sense of entitlement after WWII •Losovo- a sacred place for Serbians inhabited by muslim Albanians who seek independence from Serbian control violence erupts first in 1981 •1985 serbian academy of sciences memo an expression of Serb nationalist sentiment •nationalism finally adopted by the head of Serbian Communist party Slobodan Milosovec oA Part y official in 1986 he bcame head of the Serbian communist party, what he did was change thigns to Serbian nationalism which

is more successful, by changing the catch phrase of the party it took the wind out of democratic reformers ohe wins the first election and it prevents real alternatives from becoming options in Serbia ohe terrifies the croats bsonians Seven periods of Yugoslav •Unrest in Kosovo leads to Serbian crackdown other natios begin independence(JNA) Yugoslav national army partially in response to Serbian aggression oThe JNA soon answers only directly to Serbian and Miloseveč •Spring 1990 croats and Slovenes move towards independence oSlovenia and croatia move to create constitutional separation, multi party state oserbia votes to maintain a single party system •Period 2 Aug 1990-May 1991 oSituation moves from tension to violence ofighting breakd out between croatia and Serbia over the future of Serbians living in Croatia oKosovo independence is also squelched in southern Serbia •period šis where warfare vbreaks out 1991 -1992 omay 1991 a croatian is due to become the new yugoslovian president. Serbia refuses oJune 1991 croatia and slovenia declare independence oYugoslovian forces (under Serbian Leadership) withdraw from slovenia but not from Croatia oThe Yugoslav army (the JNA( under Serbian leadership takes over the serbian Krajina of croatia and begins to move into croatia proper othe international community gets involved sanctions are imposed against Serbia Independent croatia and slovenia are recognized •Period 4 war switched to bosnia oBosnia split long ethnic lines consisting of Bosnians, Herzegovans (Muslim), and Croats (Catholic) voting for independence and serbs (orthodox) living in Bosnia voting to stay in Yugoslavia under Serbian leadership oMarch 1992 maority Bosnians vote for independence. The serbian army sets up road blocks cutting off the Bosnian cities from the Serbian dominated rural areas Srpska. The set us as a separate parliament and are recognized by Serbia oApril 1992 Bosnian serbs begin to take over large sections of Bosnia. Chetnik gangs begin driving Bosnian people romtheir villages oEthnic cleansing begins in earnest

3/22/07 7:27 AM

3/22/07 7:27 AM