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Europe in the 1920s

In a lot of places the war icnreased militaristic values, some abandon liberal principles in
order to further their war goals

It was very difficul to do this for some countries

The loss of millions of young men were difficult for a country.

Many of these countries are still going to use austerity measures

As women call for the vote, their is more civil unrest.

Between 1918 and 1925 you see a rash of women suffrage movements people recog-
nized the need for women in the workforce and women moving into the factories and
keeping the home front running

We also see concern throughout governments, in western europe the fact of the west-
ern revolution looms very large

Marxism was an international ideal. Russia is not the logical first place for the marxist
revolution

Trying to close the gap between the rich and the poor

All the new countries from the portions of the austrian empire

Czechoslovakia is the one country that is able to build a functioning democracy

Britain was the main lender f money in the 1900s but in 1920 it was now the US

If you are a soldier, there is a great deal of anxiety as you move back into normal life, for
a lot of soldiers they feel betrayed by the fact that not everyone was 100% behind the
war

A lot of soldiers wrote memoirs; women are not acting like women should act

In the 19th century the goal was that you shouldn’t have to work if you are married to
someone with enough money

It feels for some soldiers that the world has just been turned upside down

Family values changed a bit: where it used to be the case when you dated you had to
have a chaperone,after the war there are far fewer chaperones, more revealing
clothes,personal grooming items go up and it just feels *wrong*

There is a great deal of legitimacy to this anxiety, a lot of soldiers did not want to go
home, you never really integrate back into civillian life, unemployment is high, not much
employment, a very destabalizing force
Europe in the 1920s
It is also an age of mass media, governments will try to use this tool to try and garner
support for the war and spread propoganda, after the war the government will pull back
from this role

The raido became an even more popular form of communication and information. It is a
culture where you can reach the majority of the population for the first time

In the 30’s the use of the radio becomes very ominous as a source of communication by
totalitarian leaders.

Mussolini: Fascist

Mussolini was a man of action ad not of words, but its also inherently nationalistic. He
promises a utopia, the Black Shirts are the strong arm of mussolini Camisetas Negre-
tas. The Italians feel cheated because the alliance never gave them the territory that
they were promised, Mussolini offers national pride and dignity and he als offers order
and stability . He is explicitly modern “makes the trains run on time” he does manage t
get a great deal of power and a lot of support relying on traditional values ad prejudices.
He makes it very hard to have the church counter him .

Builds on anti-semetism

Hitler: Nazi

Hitler is responsible for ending german democracy , the republics inept the firs thing it
does is surrender, so it challenges their legitimacy, so its credibility is severely limited.
Hitler comes to the national scene and he gives germans pride back; the treaty of ver-
sailles is not true and it is not out fault.

He is incredibly charismatic and also has the strong arm contingent

The nazis gain support over the years, a parlimentary government a like minded parties
ill get together to form a majority they get 40% of he vote in 1932 hitler is able to be
chosen as chancellor, as chancellor he bullies the government into voting him extraordi-
nary problems , so everything he does is legalmost of his support came from young
people, 70% support came from people under 40