This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
This is to certify that this project entitled, “HUMANOID ROBOT” has been completed As final project and submitted by the group of E.C, Final year ‘D’ section, in leadership of Gaurav Kumar Yadav in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics & Communication Engineering under the institute of M.I.T MORADABAD embodies the work done by him in the guidance of faculties members.
Mr. SHYAM LAL RAO
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
MORADABAD INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MORADABAD Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
HUMANOID ROBOT GROUP MEMBERS:
GAURAV KUMAR YADAV GAURI MUKESH MAHENDRA PRATAP SINGH AMIT KUMAR SHARMA Roll No.: 0808231033 Roll No.: 0808231034 Roll No.: 0808231045 Roll No.: 0808231010 Mr. SHYAM LAL RAO
Semester: 8th Session: 2011-12 Branch: Electronics & Communication Engg. Synopsis: Task on this project: Humanoid bipedal walking is the main task, Autonomous walking
like human move on two leg support with a upper body places and balance dynamically and Camera sensor is placed for communicate with video signals. The motive behind building humanoids is to design a robot that can duplicate the complexities of human motion, decision making, be able to help people and even accomplish tasks that cannot be carried out by humans. Walking process can be branched into two main groups as static and dynamic walking. Static walking in bipedal humanoids involves the complete shifting of the COG of the body over to the base foot area when the other is lifted to move forward. Such robots are designed and controlled from a kinematic standpoint and as a consequence, they have relatively large feet and walk at a slow speed. A static walking biped, “does not move quite like people do and is energetically inefficient…Dynamic stability is needed to walk quickly and over varied terrains. The centre of gravity lies outside the supporting leg base area during walking; the robot tumbles forward to its next step in dynamic equilibrium. Through the careful selection of the lengths and masses of their arms and legs, these maintain their balance while consuming very little energy (from gravity) when walking. Such models walk in a rigid manner, but their constructions are simple. Using this as the starting point, more DOF’s can be added, these being powered and controlled.
~ ii ~
The concept of this design is to make the humanoid robot walk as a two-legged robot and then make it change its mode automatically to a four-legged robot and walk, the robot needed 3 DOF on each leg. Although it has this many DOF’s on each leg, it can’t go sideways or turn but it can only go forward and backward. To add the features described in the previous sentence, at least one more DOF should be added to each leg (which operates about the roll axis). This resemble the joints and the links of the humanoid legs. Take the approximation of the robot has 8 degrees of freedom in legs as 4 degrees of freedom on each leg (ankle, knee, hip). Take running by the proper algorithm, maintaining its balance, and place the upper extremities on the floor. It will then places joints in the proper position in order to continue moving by pushing its arms/wheels with its legs. The walking pattern synthesis is based on Zero Moment Point (ZMP). The ZMP is defined as the point on the ground about which the sum of all the moments of the active forces equals zero. If the ZMP is within the convex hull of all contact points between the feet and the ground, the biped robot is possible to walk. Here after, this convex hull of all contact points is called the stable region. As seen below the basic idea involves shifting the waist to the side opposite to the leg in motion in order to maintain stability. To move a leg forward at least two degrees of freedom are required, one for lifting and one for swinging. Most legs have three degrees of freedom; this makes the robot able to travel in rougher terrain and to do more complex manoeuvres. This leg has three degrees of freedom. In general, adding degrees of freedom to a robots leg means increasing the manoeuvrability of the robot, the range of terrain on which it can travel and the ability to travel in a variety of gaits.
Signature of Project group Signature of Project Guide ~ iii ~
Signature of Project Coordinator
It’s a great pleasure to present this report of final project of ‘HUMANOID ROBOT’ in partial fulfilment of Bachelor of Technology under ‘M.I.T Moradabad’. First I thank our Department for creating such an opportunity for the students to broaden their frame of skills. At the outset, I would like to express my immense gratitude to Mr. Shyam Lal Rao guiding me right from the inception till the successful completion of the project, for extending their valuable guidance share your experience and knowledge about projects. I would also like to thank my friends and all my group members for their help. I
am also happy to do such task with my group members they are also helpful for me and they also co-operate with me. Finally, if I have mistakenly omitted to giving credits, I want to accept the humble apology and I want them to know that without their support there will have differences in this task.
GAURAV KUMAR YADAV GAURI MUKESH MAHENDRA PRATAP SINGH AMIT KUMAR SHARMA
~ iv ~
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 Fig.10 Fig.11 Fig.12 Fig.13 Fig.14 Fig.15 Fig.16 Fig.17 Fig.18 Fig.19 Fig.20 Fig.21 Fig.22 Fig.23 Fig.24 Fig.25 Fig.26
DISCRIPTION OF FIGURE
Motors. Locomotion of Humanoid Robot. Foot mechanism and reaction moment at knee. Foot placed mechanism. Various types of joints with DOF. (a) Prismatic joint, (b) Revolute joint. Kinematics between joint and cordinate. Application on three joint link of forward kinamatics. Inverse kinamatics application. Bubble rob a practical example. A humanoid simulation on VREP. Stepper motor principle. GOTECK Servo motor. PWM signal to control the servo. Angular rotation depends on duty cycle. (a) Conduction(b) Non-conduction state of an ideal diode Darlington Pair circuit. H-Bridge Motor Driver circuit. 741 As A Comparator. 324 As A Comparator. Windowing Output Between Thresholds. Astable Multivibrator circuit. Monostable Multivibrator circuit. Bistable Timer circuit. LDR, Digital IR sensor, IR Tx and Rx, distance, and pressure sensors. IR analog module circuit.
3 5 9 10 12 13 14 15 15 17 18 19 20 22 22 25 26 27 28 28 28 29 30 30 32 33
Fig.27 Fig.28 Fig.29 Fig.30 Fig.31 Fig.32 Fig.33 Fig.34 Fig.35 Fig.36 Fig.37 Fig.38 Fig.39 Fig.40 Fig.41 Fig.42 Fig.43 Fig.44 Fig.45 Fig.46 Fig.47 Fig.48 Fig.49 Fig.50 Fig.51 Fig.52 Fig.53 Fig.54
Digital IR transmitter and receiver TSOP 38Khz circuit with PCB layout. Digital IR sensor design of 38Khz. MCU general connections. LCD pins hardware and interface circuit. Servo pin out with control. R5= 5K and C3= 0.1uF then servo rotate +74.3 R5= 1K and C3= 0.1uF then servo rotate +90 R5= 1K and C3= 1uF then servo rotate +90 Multiple servo. six servos are connected with a pic MCU. A 9 channel servo controller. Own servo controller to drive 9 servos. servo arrangement with U & L connector. A complete Servo bracket. servo bracket and with servo arrangement. Aluminum U shape servo bracket top and bottom. Servo holding with screws in brackets. Connection of joints as symmetric joint. Servo dimension in cm. (a) Holding band (b) rotating band of Servo bracket dimension in cm. (a)A single servo bracket,(b) after all bands cut. one servo hold, two brackets symmetrical connect, 4 DOF leg modal. connnectro or link of N or L type. Bands cut, A servo bracket, all servo brackets. A servo mount and two brackets connection. Servo connection, biped legs, legs with base. upper part and complete body design. Pic MCU board with ICSP port.
33 34 36 38 40 41 41 41 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 48 48 50 51 51 54 55 55 56 57 58 58
~ vi ~
Fig.55 Fig.56 Fig.57 Fig.58 Fig.59 Fig.60 Fig.61
(a)complete development board, (b)after supply connect. walking stages. Stability on dynamic motion. walking pattern concept. Fire alarm circuit with layout. USB PIC programmer with usb cable. USB pICprog window interface software.
59 60 60 61 63 64 64
~ vii ~
LIST OF ABBREVIATION
BJT IC PCB LDR IR LED GND RF COG ZMP VHP DOF VREP LCD PWM USB Bipolar junction transistor Integrated circuit Printed circuit board Light Dependent resistor Infra-red Light Emitting diode Ground Radio frequency Centre of gravity Zero moment point Virtual horizontal plane Degree of freedom Virtual robot Experimentation platform Liquid crystal display Pulse width modulation Universal serial bus
~ viii ~
LIST OF SYMBOLS
2N3904 741 324 555 7805 VDD VSS N-P-N transistor OP-AMP IC Quadruple op-amp IC Timer IC Voltage Regulator (5V) High voltage Low voltage
~ ix ~
LIST OF CONTENTS
Content Certificate Page No. i ii iv v viii 1 1 6 11 13 14 16 18 22 25 25 31 33 34 37 38 40 42 44
List of Figures List of Abbreviations Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Chapter 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Introduction to Robotics Humanoids Introduction Basic Mechanics involved Understanding Revolute, Prismatic Joints Forwards and Inverse Kinematics Advanced Robotics Simulation Tool Understanding Motors – Stepper and Servo Servo Mechanism and Control Essential Electronics Understanding Sensors Making your own IR based Sensor Introducing Embedded System Control Autonomous Robotics Concepts Controlling LCD, Real World Interfacing to microcontroller Driving Servo Motor Multiple Servo Controlling Issue Multi-channel PWM and Servo Controller ~x~
Designing Concepts 3.1 3.2 .3.3 3.4 3.5 Developing Humanoid Joints Servo Brackets and Connection Types Degree of Freedom Combining the Servos to develop the Humanoid Structure Programming the Humanoid Robot
46 46 47 49 50 52 54 54 58 59 62 63 64
4.1 Complete Body Hardware 4.2 Make Own Development Board 4.3 Think about logic and program
Chapter 5. Appendix Appendix
Conclusion A B Fire alarm USB pic programmer
~ xi ~
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.