UNIT 1 1. Define network? A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes) connected by a media links.

A node can be a Computer, Printer (or) any other device capable of sending and receiving data generated by any other nodes on the network. 2. What are the Requirements in network?  Application Programmer  Network Designer  Network Provider 3. What is Links? Network can consist of two (or)more computers directly connected by some physical medium,such as a coaxical cable (or) an optical fiber.We call such a physical medium a link. 4.What are the two types of links? 1. Multiple Access 2. Point-point Link. 5. What are the two features of layering? • • First it decomposes the problem of building a network into more manageable components. Second it provides a more modular design.

6. What are the 2 protocols in layering? 1. Request-Reply Protocol. 2. Message Stream Protocol. 7. What is meant by Service interface? It is defined on the same computer that wants to use its communication services and also the operations that local objects can perform on the protocol. 8. What is meant by peer to peer interface? It is defined the form and meaning of messages exchange between protocol peers to implement the communication service. 9. What is the purpose of Data Link Layer? It defines a collection of Stream bits into a layer called a frame. 10. What is meant by process to process channel?

17. A standard provides a model or basis for development to which everyone has agreed.BISYNC 2. It is a hourglass shape. Why are protocols needed? In networks.PPP 3. 15. Two entities cannot just send bit streams to each other and expect to be understood. the entities must agree on a protocol. What are the responsibilities of data link layer? Specific responsibilities of data link layer include the following. For communication. 3. If there are no standards. It doesn’t imply strict layering 2.DDCMP 14. . 18. What are the protocols Supported in byte oriented protocols? 1. 12. they must provide protocol specification. Why are standards needed? Co-ordination across the nodes of a network is necessary for an efficient communication. So the simple strategy used by the hamming code to correct single bit errors must be redesigned to be applicable for multiple bit correction. What are the three features in Internet Architecture? 1. difficulties arise. a) Framing b) Physical addressing c) Flow control d) Error control e) Access control 16. To propose a new protocol to be included in this architecture.The unit of data exchanged commonly called a message rather than a packet (or) a frame. 13. A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communication. What is the problem of sentinel Approach? The ETX character might appear in the data portion of the frame BISYNC overcomes the problem by escaping the ETX character by preceding it with a DLE character whenever it appears in the body of a frame. communication occurs between the entities in different systems. Define framing? Framing means blocks of data are exchanged between nodes. What is the purpose of hamming code? A hamming code can be designed to correct burst errors of certain lengths. 11.

There are 2 methods have been developed to control flow of data across communication links. a)Stop and wait. Define the Single bit error and Burst error? a) Single bit error: The term single bit error means that only one bit of a given data unit (such as byte character/data unit or packet) is changed from 1 to 0 or from 0 to 1. a) When an error is discovered. The receiver must follow these steps a) The unit is divided into k section each of n bits. The third and most powerful of the redundancy checking techniques is the cyclic redundancy checks (CRC) CRC is based on binary division. the 4 bit divisor is subtracted from the first 4 bit of the dividend. d) If the result is zero. which automatically corrects certain errors. The sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment.19. Write short notes on error correction. called the CRC remainder is appended to the end of data unit. b) Each bit of the divisor is subtracted from the corresponding bit of the dividend without disturbing the next higher bit. Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data. It is the mechanism to correct the errors and it can be handled in 2 ways. a) In the first step. 20.send several frames at a time UNIT II . 22. c) The sum is complemented. 24. b)Sliding window. A CRC generator uses a modulo-2 division. b) All sections are added together using 1’s complement to get the sum. 25.send one from at a time. the receiver can have the sender retransmit the entire data unit. 21. 23. Write short notes on CRC generator. Here a sequence of redundant bits. Write short notes on CRC. Define flow control. b) A receiver can use an error correcting coder. List out the steps followed is checksum checker side. Mention the categories of flow control. b) Burst error: Means that 2 or more bits in the data unit have changed from 1 to 0 from 0 to 1.

Define HDLC. a) Beginning flag field b) An address field c) A control field d) An information field . I frames – used to transport user data and control information relating to user data. Write the types of frame fields contained in HDLC. a) Normal response mode (NRM) b) Asynchronous response mode (ARM) c) Asynchronous balanced mode (ABM) 31. The configuration refers to the relationship of hardware devices on a link. a) Information frames (I-frames) b) Supervisory frames (S-frames) c) Unnumbered frames (U-frames) 32. S. HDLC differentiates between 3 types of stations. a) Primary b) Secondary c) Combined 28. 27. What are the different communication modes in HDLC? HDLC supports 3 modes of communication between stations. 33. primarily data link layer and error controls. Give the usage of I. 29. U frames – reserved for systems management.26. U frames. List the various ways of station configuration. Define configuration. Each frame in HDLC may contain up to 6 fields. The stations are configured in 3 ways a) Unbalanced configuration b) Symmetrical configuration c) Balanced configuration 30. List the types of stations is HDLC. There are 3 types of HDLC frames. S frames – used only to transport control information. It is a bit-oriented data link protocol designed to support both half-duplex and full duplex communication over point to point and midpoint links. Mention the types of frames in HDLC.

38. a) Ethernet b) Token bus c) Token ring d) Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) 37. 35. This was called ‘Ethernet’. Mention the various architecture in a LAN. Network protocol standardized by ANSI and ITU-7.Define LAN.3 LAN. Mention the different kinds of Ethernet networks. Describe the three HDLC station types? The three HDLC station types are: Primary station: The primary station has the complete control of the link. Secondary station: The secondary station sends responses.3 supports a LAN standard originally developed by Xerox and later extended by a joint venture between digital equipment corporations. a) Switched Ethernet b) Fast Ethernet c) Gigabit Ethernet 40. Fiber distributed data interface is a local areas. 41. Define a standard 802. The Primary station sends commands to the secondary station. It supports data rates of 100 Mbps and provides a high-speed alternative to Ethernet and token ring access method used here is token passing. Intel Corporation and Xerox. A Local Area Network (LAN) is a data communication system that allows a number of independent devices to communicate directly with each other in a limited geographic area. 36.3 IEEE 802. 34.e) A frame check sequence (FCS) field f) An ending flag field. List the most command kinds of Base band 802. LAN is dominated by 4 architectures. Write short notes on FDDI. . What is meant by bit stuffing? Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever there are 5 consecutive in the data so that the receiver doesn’t mistake the data for a flag. a) 10 Base 5 b) 10 Base 2 c) 10 Base T d) 1 Base 5 e) 100 Base T 39.

Like Ethernet. Token ring resolves this uncertainty by requiring that stations take turns sending data. If a station wants to send data.The value of the code sub field is 00 Receive not ready(RNR).What is piggy backing? Piggy backing means combining data to sent and acknowledgement of the frame received in one single frame. The value of the code sub field is 11 44. What is Token Bus? Token Bus is a physical bus that operates as a logical ring using tokens. Here stations are logically organized into a ring. station communicates via a common bus. The mechanism that coordinates this rotation is called token passing. Name the four types of S-frames? The four types of S-frames are Receive ready(RR).  Initialization mode. it must wait and capture the token. 48. Piggy backing can save bandwidth because the overhead from a data frame and an ACK frame can be combined into just one frame 43.  Miscellaneous mode 45. This redundancy may create delays of indeterminable length if the traffic is heavy. Combined station sends both commands and responses. A token is passed among stations. The value of the code sub field is 01 Selective reject(SREJ). depending upon the nature and direction of the transmission. Name the five categories of U-frames? The five categories of U-frames are  Mode setting  Unnumbered exchange  Disconnection.This may cause lower priority packets to be locked out of the ring for extended periods if there is a sufficient supply of high priority packets. What is token passing? Stations may attempt to send data multiple times before a transmission makes it onto a link. Define Strict priority Scheme? It defines that no-lower priority packets get sent when lower priority packets get sent when Higher priority packets are watting.What is THT? THT defines how long a given node is allowed to hold the token is Token holding Time.Combined station: The combined station is one which acts either as a primary or a Secondary. The value of the code sub field is 10 Reject(REJ). 47. . 42. 46. Each station may transmit only during its turn and may send only one frame during each turn.

Transport layer delivery The transport layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message. 52. Data Transfer. How to detect a missing a token? To detect a missing token.49. which transfers packets from an input to one or more outputs. UNIT III 51. it has no way of knowing if the network is capable of delivering. .What are the two stage process in VCI? 1. In delayed release means the frame is transmits has gone all the way around the ring and been moved. This interval equals NumStations * THT+Ring Latency NumStations=Number of Stations on the ring Ring Latency=Total propagation delay of the ring. A switch is a multi-input. 50. 54.What are the Two approaches in switching? Datagram or Connectionless approach Virtual circuit or Connection-oriented approach. since any packet that turns up at a switch can be immediately forwarded. the monitor watches for a passing token and maintains a timer equal to the maximum possible token rotation time. When a host sends a packet. What are the characteristics in Connectionless networks? • • A host can send a packet anywhere at any time. Connection setup 2.What is the difference between network layer delivery and the transport layer delivery? Network layer delivery The network layer is responsible for the the source-to-destination delivery of packet across multiple network links. Define early release and delayed released? The sender can insert the token back on to the ring immediately following its frame this is called early release. Define Switching? Switch is a mechanism that allows us to interconnect links to form a larger network. multioutput device. 53. 55.

For large networks 0 7 bits of the network address 24 bits of host address . to refer an arbitrary collection of networks interconnected to provide some sort of host-host packet delivery service. 62.56.without saying exactly how to get from one node to the next. 59. 2.Loose source route: It specifies a set of nodes to be traversed . the transport protocol divides it into smaller usable blocks. The combining process is called concatenation.Addressing Scheme: It provides a way to identify all hosts in the internetwork 2. Define the categorized of source routes? There are two categorized of source routes 1. 58. The connection state for a single connection consists of an entry in a VC table in each switch through which the connection passes.What is meant by segmentation? When the size of the data unit received from the upper layer is too long for the network layer datagram or data link layer frame to handle. 60.Define the IP specification address? The IP specifications divide addresses into the following classes : • Class A . 57.Daa Delivery : It is a model of data deleivery.Define internetwork? Internetwork or sometimes just “internet” with a lowercase I.What is meant by segment? At the sending and receiving end of the transmission.What is meant by Concatenation? The size of the data unit belonging to a single session are so small that several can fit together into a single datagram or frame. the transport protocol combines them into a single data unit. 64. The dividing process is called segmentation. TCP divides long transmissions into smaller data units and packages each into a frame called a segment.Strict source route: Every node among the path must be specified. 63. Define Extended LAN? It is a collection of LANs connected by one or more bridges said to form an extended LAN. Define Connection setup phase? In the connection setup phase it is necessary to establish “connection state “in each of the switches between the source and destination hosts. 61.What are the two parts in IP service model? 1.

reserved for potential uses in the future 1 1 1 1 28 bits 65.end delivery Addressing Reliable delivery Flow control Multiplexing 67.What are the four aspects related to the reliable delivery of data? The four aspects are. Define the Drawbacks of RARP • • Since it operates at low level.For multi-cast messages ( multi-cast to a "group" of networks ) 1 1 1 0 28 bits for some sort of group address • Class E .What are the duties of the transport layer? The services provided by the transport layer End-to.• Class B .For small networks 1 1 0 21 bits of the network address 8 bits of host address • Class D .Currently unused. it requires direct addresss to the network which makes it difficult for an application programmer to build a server. It doesn't fully utilizes the capability of a network like ethernet which is enforced to send a minimum packet size since the reply from the server contains only one small piece of information. Error control .For medium networks 1 0 14 bits of the network address 16 bits of host address • Class C . the 32-bit internet address UNIT IV 66.

Backward Explicit Congestion Notification FECN . 73. The sender can respond to this warning by simply reducing the data rate. Connection service Connectionless services 70.What is function of transport layer? The protocol in the transport layer takes care in the delivery of data from one application program on one device to an application program on another device. They act as a link between the upper layer protocols and the services provided by the lower layer.What are the two possible transport services? Two basic types of transport services are.What is the function of BECN BIT? The BECN bit warns the sender of congestion in network. . 75. A connection is a single logical path between the source and destination that is associated with all packets in a message. 71.Forward Explicit Congestion Notification 74. The transport layer creates the connection between source and destination.What is meant by congestion? Congestion in a network occur if user send data into the network at a rate greater than that allowed by network resources. Creating a connection involves three steps: • Connection establishment • Data transfer & Connection release. 72.Why the congestion occur in network? Congestion occur because the switches in a network have a limited buffer size to store arrived packets. The sender and receiver are communicating with each other and are using some types of flow control at a higher level. the transport layer may create a connection between the two end ports. 69.Sequence control Loss control Duplication control 68. What are the three events involved in the connection? For security .How will the congestion be avoided? The congestion may be avoided by two bits BECN .What is the function of FECN? The FECN bit is used to warn the receiver of congestion in the network.

This process is called interleaving. 82. Cell loss ratio (CLR) Cell transfer delay (CTD) Cell delay variation (CDV) Cell error ratio (CER) 80. 83.What is interleaving? The switch moves from device to device at a constant rate and fixed order.List out the user related attributes? User related attributes are SCR – Sustainable Cell Rate PCR – Peak Cell Rate MCR.What is framing bits? One or more synchronization bits are usually added to the beginning of each frame. the data link layer adds the header.What is meant by quality of service? The quality of service defines a set of attributes related to the performance of the connection.What are the networks related attributes? The network related attributes are. What is the difference between service point address. 77.What are the two categories of QoS attributes? The two main categories are User Oriented Network Oriented 78. including one or more slot dedicated to each sending device. logical address and physical address? Service point addressing The transport layer header includes a type of address called a service point address or port address. For each connection. which defines the source machine’s address . which makes a data delivery from a specific process on Logical addressing If a packet passes the network boundary we need another addressing to differentiate the source and destination systems.Minimum Cell Rate CVDT – Cell Variation Delay Tolerance 79. 81. These bitts are called framing bits.What is frame? A frame consists of one complete cycle of time slots. The network layer adds a header.76. the user can request a particular attribute each service class is associated with a set of attributes. Physical addressing If the frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network.

The data connection is made between the data transfer processes. It is a system for sending messages to other computer users based on e-mail addresses. Country domain: Uses two characters to identify a country as the last suffix.What is the function of SMTP? The TCP/IP protocol supports electronic mail on the Internet is called Simple Mail Transfer (SMTP). uses generic suffixes. 88. The server has two components: the server control process and the server data transfer process. Domain name space is divided into three different sections: generic domains.What is the purpose of Domain Name System? Domain Name System can map a name to an address and conversely an address to name. The control connection uses very simple rules of communication. The control connection is made between the control processes. 87. The data connection needs more complex rules due to the variety of data types transferred. 90. Inverse domain: Finds the domain name given the IP address. The server SMTP at the receiving side receives the NVT ASCII data and delivers it to MIME to be transformed back to the original data. the other for control information. the client control process. 89. One connection is used for data transfer. UNIT – V and the destination machine’s address.What is the difference between a user agent (UA) and a mail transfer agent (MTA)? The UA prepares the message. MIME transforms non-ASCII data at the sender site to NVT ASCII data and deliverers it to the client SMTP to be sent through the Internet. 84. country domains & inverse domain.Discuss the basic model of FTP. 85. which indicate the logical address of the sender and receiver. and the client data transfer process. 86.Why is an application such as POP needed for electronic messaging? . and puts the message in the envelope.Discuss the three main division of the domain name space. creates the envelope. FTP establishes two connections between the hosts. The MTA transfers the mail across the Internet.How does MIME enhance SMTP? MIME is a supplementary protocol that allows non-ASCII data to be sent through SMTP. SMTP provides mail exchange between users on the same or different computers.one computer to a specific process on another computer. The client has three components: the user interface. Generic domain: Define registered hosts according to their generic behavior. 91.Discuss the TCP connections needed in FTP.

Workstations interact with the SMTP host which receives the mail on behalf of every host in the organization. to retrieve messages by using a client-server protocol such as Post Office Protocol .Give the format of HTTP request message Request Line Headers A Blank Line Body (present only in some messages) 93. the SMTP client still needed on the desktop to forward messages from the workstation user to its SMTP mail server.Give the format of HTTP response message. version 3(POP3). Although POP3 is used to download messages from the server. 92. .

Static: Fixed-content documents that are created and stored in a server. CGI is a standard for communication between HTTP servers and executable programs. The documents in the WWW can be grouped into three broad categories: static. It allows additional text to include codes that define fonts.What is the purpose of HTML? HTML is a computer language for specifying the contents and format of a web document. layouts.Define CGI.Status Line Headers A Blank Line Body (present only in some messages) 94. It is used in crating dynamic documents. Dynamic: Created by web server whenever a browser requests the document. How is a secret key different from public key? .Name four factors needed for a secure network. Integrity: The data must arrive at the receiver exactly as it was sent.Write down the three types of WWW documents. 95. Active: A program to be run at the client side. Non-Reputation: The receiver must able to prove that a received message came from a specific sender. 98. embedded graphics and hypertext links. Privacy: The sender and the receiver expect confidentiality. Authentication: The receiver is sure of the sender’s identity and that an imposter has not sent the message. 97. dynamic and active. 96.

The private key is kept by the receiver. 101. For one million people to communicate. What is URL? (Uniform Resource Locator) A Client that want to access a web page need an address to facilitate the access of documents distributed throughout the world. http uses the concept of uniform resource locators. you can create an equivalent of an electronic or digital signature by the way you send data. there needs to be N (N-1)/2 secret keys. For one million users to communicate. What are the advantages & disadvantages of secret key encryption? Advantage: Secret Key algorithms are efficient: it takes less time to encrypt a message. If N people in world want to use this method. of bits is reduced (some of the bits are dropped). Expanded permutation: The no. In network transactions. What are the advantages & disadvantages of public key encryption? Advantages: a) Remove the restriction of a shared secret key between two entities. It is similar to that of signing transactions documents when you do business with a bank. The sender uses this key and an encryption algorithm to encrypt data. and publicly distribute the other one. Compressed permutation: The no. Disadvantage: If you use large numbers the method to be effective. Straight permutation: The no. In public key. Disadvantages: a) Each pair of users must have a secret key. Permutation is transposition in bit level. the same key is used by both parties. The URL is a . Define substitutional & transpositional encryption. Here each entity can create a pair of keys. The reason is that the key is usually smaller. b) The distribution of the keys between two parties can be difficult. there are two keys: a private key and a public key. only two million keys are needed. Define permutation. the receiver uses the same key and the corresponding decryption algorithm to decrypt the data. keep the private one. b) The no. of keys needed is reduced tremendously. a half-billion secret keys are needed. 103. of bits in the input and output are preserved. 100. 99. What is a digital signature? Digital signature is a method to authenticate the sender of a message. Substitutional: A character level encryption in which each character is replaced by another character in the set. So it is not recommended for large amounts of text. Calculating the cipher text using the long keys takes a lot of time. The public key is announced to the public.In secret key. 102. of bits is increased (some bits are repeated). So it is used to encrypt or decrypt long messages. Transpositional: A Character level encryption in which the characters retain their plaintext but the position of the character changes. 1.

106. hypertext document can contain picture. What is data encryption standard? The algorithm encrypts a 64 bit plaintext using a 56 bit key. An item can be associated with another document by a pointer. What is hypertext and hypermedia? The www uses the concept of hypertext and hypermedia. The key is shared. The www has a unique combination of flexibility. 109. What is the operating mode of DES? i) Electronics Code Block ii)Cipher Block Chaining Mode iii)Cipher Feedback Mode iv)Cipher Stream Mode . 105. The text is put through 19 different complex procedures to create a 64 bit ciphertext. 107. Hypertext documents contain only text. What is cryptograpy ? Cryptograpy refer to the science and art of transforming message to make them secure and immune to attacks.standard for specifying any kind of information on the internet.. 104. graphics and sound. and user friendly feature that distinguish it from other service provided by the internet. Port and Path. DES has two transpoposition blocks. What is encryption? An encryption algorithm transforms the plaintext to cipher text. Host Computer. The URL defines four things: Method.. In a hypertext environment information is stored in a set of document that is linked using the concept of pointer. The reader who is browsing through can move to other document by choosing the item that are linked to other documents. 108. 110. one swapping block and 16 complex blocks called iteration blocks. What is World Wide Web (WWW)? The World Wide Web is repository of information spread all over the world and linked together. What is symmetric key cryptography? In symmetric key cryptography the same key is used by the sender and receiver. portability.

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