     Understand metal production – iron and steel Understand the process of iron and steel production Understand plain carbon Understanf alloy steel Understand cast iron

IRON      Iron is an element and can be pure. Iron can be extracted from iron ores such as rocks. Basic constituent of steel. Iron ores content:    Magnetite Iron Carbonate Hematite Limonite . mineral. The extracted process can be done through Blast Furnace.

 Also called as Black Iron Ore . 72 – 62% Fe (Iron) .  Percentage of Iron.MAGNETITE  Chemical Formula is (Fe 3 O 4 ).because the colour is black.

IRON CARBONATE     Also know as sindrite Chemical formula (FeCO 3 ) Its color is yellowish green Percentage of iron. 35 – 40% Fe (Iron) .

 Percentage of Iron.HEMATITE  Chemical formula (Fe 2 O 3 )  Also known as Red Iron Ore. . 70% Fe (Iron).

LIMONITE  Chemical formula is (FeO(OH).n(H 2 O))  Also known as Brown Iron Ore .

BLAST FURNACE  The purpose of use blast furnace is to reduce and convert iron oxides into liquid iron called “hot metal”.  Iron ores. .  It more ef ficient and more cost ef fective. coke and limestone are put into the top and preheated air blown into the bottom.  The appearance of blast furnace is huge. steel stack lined with refractory brick.  Iron can be extracted by blast furnace because it can be displaced by carbon.


 Charge:  Iron ore. The blast furnace is around 30 metres high and lined with fireproof bricks.  Limestone (calcium carbonate).  Coke . Fe 2 O 3 .often contains sand with iron oxide. haematite .THE PROCESS OF BLAST FURNACE  To ensure the process of extraction there are combined mixture of subtances needed and called as charge. .mainly carbon  The charge is placed a giant chimney called a blast furnace. Hot air is blasted through the bottom.

reacts with the sand to form slag (calcium silicate ):  CaO (s) + SiO (s)  CaSiO 3(l) .REACTION OF IRON PRODUCTION  Oxygen in the air reacts with coke to give carbon dioxide:  C (s) + O 2(g)  CO 2(g)  The limestone breaks down to form carbon dioxide :  CaCO 3(s)  CO 2 (g) + CaO (s)  Carbon dioxide produced in 1 + 2 react with more coke to produce carbon monoxide:  CO 2(g) + C (s)  2CO (g)  The carbon monoxide reduces the iron in the ore to give molten iron :  3CO (g) + Fe 2 O 3(s)  2Fe (l) + 3CO 2(g)  The limestone from 2.

REACTION OF IRON PRODUCTION  Both the slag and iron are drained from the bottom of the furnace.this is called cast iron and is used to make railings and storage tanks. • The slag is mainly used to build roads. • The rest of the iron is used to make steel. . • The iron whilst molten is poured into moulds and left to solidify .

phosphorus.  To produce useful steel.01 – 1%)  Contains varying amounts of manganese. .STEEL  It’s included in the term ferrous metal  It’s a combination of iron & carbon( 0. pig iron need to be oxidized in another furnace at about 1650 °C.  Molten iron is not useful because it’s weak and brittle although it’s very hard . sulfur. silicon & 20 other alloys  Alloys added to produce steel of dif ferent characteristics.

sheet.BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE  Fastest steelmaking process – can make 250 tons of steel / hour  Melted molten iron and scrap are poured (charged) into a vessel. This produces iron oxide which then reacts with carbon to produce CO and CO2.  The molten metal is blasted with pure oxygen. tubing and channel.  Fluxing agents are added. Used to make plate. I-beam. like limestone. The slag floats to the top of the metal. .  Higher steel quality than open hearth.

 Can produce 60-90 tons of steel per day.ELECTRIC FURNACE  Uses electric arc from electrode to metal to heat and melt it.  Steel is higher quality than open-hearth and BOF .



 δ-ferrite – Solid solution of carbon in iron. intermetallic compound.Liquid solution of carbon in iron. .  Austenite – interstitial solid solution of carbon in γ-iron.PHASE IN TRANSFORMATION OF IRON – CARBON ALLOY  The following phases are involved in the transformation.  α-ferrite – solid solution of carbon in α-iron  Cementite – iron carbide. occurring with iron-carbon alloys:  L . having fixed composition Fe3C.

.09% at 2719 ºF (1493ºC) – temperature of the peritectic transformation.FERRITE  Maximum concentration of carbon in δ-ferrite is 0.  The crystal structure of δ-ferrite is BCC (cubic body centered).

. permitting high solubility of carbon – up to 2.  Solubility is higher when compared to ferrite.  Austenite does not exist below 1333 ºF (723ºC) and maximum carbon concentration at this temperature is 0.83%.06% at 2097 ºF (1147 ºC).AUSTENITE  Austenite has FCC (cubic face centered) crystal structure.

025% at 1333 ºF (723ºC). α-ferrite exists at room temperature.FERRITE α-ferrite has BCC crystal structure low solubility of carbon – up to 0. .

 Crystal structure is orthormobic. influencing on the properties of steels and cast irons.CEMENTITE  It is an intermetallic compound  Cementite is a hard and brittle substance.  Low tensile strenght and high comprehensive strength. .

   In practice only hypoeutectic alloys are used.09% in course solidification. All iron-carbon alloys (steels and cast irons) experience eutectoid transformation at 1333 ºF (723ºC).51% of carbon. containing up to 2. experience eutectic transformation at 2097 ºF (1147 ºC). resulting in formation of austenite.67% of carbon. The eutectoid concentration of carbon is 0. containing from 2. Iron-carbon alloys.06% of carbon.51%.  Alloys.3%. but less than 2.06%. are called steels. it contains primary austenite crystals and some amount of the liquid phase. When temperature of an alloy from this range reaches 2097 ºF (1147 ºC). forming as a result of decomposition of austenite at slow cooling conditions). containing carbon more than 0. called ledeburite. Alloys. The latter decomposes by eutectic mechanism to a fine mixture of austenite and cementite. austenite transforms to pearlite (fine ferrite-cementite structure.PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS OCCUR WITH IRON . When the temperature of an alloy reaches 1333 ºF (733ºC).83%.06% to 4. The eutectic concentration of carbon is 4.06 to 6. start solidification with formation of crystals of δ -ferrite. Carbon content in δ-ferrite increases up to 0.CARBON ALLOYS The following phase transformations occur with iron -carbon alloys:  Alloys.3%) are called cast irons.   . and at 2719 ºF (1493ºC) remaining liquid phase and δ -ferrite perform peritectic transformation. These alloys (carbon content from 2. containing up to 0. form primary austenite crystals in the beginning of solidification and when the temperature reaches the curve ACM primary cementite stars to form.

6.14 wt % C (usually < 1 wt % ) α-ferrite + Fe3C at room T (Chapter 12)  Cast iron: 2.7 wt % (usually < 4. Three types of ferrous alloys :  Iron: less than 0.008 wt % C in α−ferrite at room T  Steels: 0.008 .2.T YPES OF FERROUS ALLOYS  Classification.14 .5 wt %) .

Below this temperature austenite does not exist.  Lower critical temperature (point) A1 is the temperature of the austenite-to-pearlite eutectoid transformation.  Magnetic transformation temperature A2 is the temperature below which α-ferrite is ferromagnetic. below which cementite starts to form as a result of ejection from austenite in the hypereutectoid alloys.  Upper critical temperature (point) ACM is the temperature. below which ferrite starts to form as a result of ejection from austenite in the hypoeutectoid alloys. .CRITICAL TEMPERATURES Critical temperatures  Upper critical temperature (point) A3 is the temperature.


 Purpose of alloying        Increase hardenability Improve strength at ordinary temperature Improve mechanical properties at either high or low temperatures Improve toughness at any minimum hardness or strength Increase wear resistance Increase corrosion resistance Improve magnetic properties .ALLOY STEELS  Alloy steels are iron-carbon alloys. to which alloying elements are added with a purpose to improve the steels properties as compared to the carbon steels.

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