Global climate change

What is climate?
• Climate – average weather of an area over a long period – at least 30 years • General weather conditions and seasonal variations • The climate of the world is changed by - green house effect

Effect of Climate change
 Winds

and ocean currents are disturbed hydrological cycle agriculture

 Upsets

 Disturbs

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Good! Bad! .

Green house gases  Carbon dioxide  Methane  Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)  Nitrous oxide  Ground level Ozone .

Bad Effects of Global warming   Land and ocean temperatures rise North and south pole (Artic and Antarctic) Glaciers melt Sea levels rise Ocean currents change – – – –    Weather patterns change Ecological disturbance Reduction in biodiversity Effect on Agriculture Effect on human health .

5 1 1.5 2.1 .4 .5 -.5 -1.5 3.5 -1 -.1 .2007 Temperature Changes Compared to 1951-1980 -3 -2.

2°C Another study puts the minimum at 2.5°C or 6.How Much is the Temperature Increase?  Some models propose up to 9°C increase this century Two studies put the minimum at 1.5°C   .5°C and maximum at 4.

Changes in Antarctica Ice Mass 1000 800 Ice Mass (km3) 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 2003 2004 Year 2005 .

• Polar Bears Wildlife is Effected – Require ice to live – Might eventually go extinct • Sea turtles – Breed on the same islands as their birth – Could go extinct as some islands as beaches are flooded • Other species may go extinct as rainfall patterns change throughout the world .

Effect on Humans • Sunstroke – many people will die • Since more mosquitoes. snails and insects can grow (as more fish which eat them die due to increase in temperature of the water) – diseases like malaria will be on high • Higher temperature and humidity increase sweating and cause skin diseases and Respiratory diseases .

Potential Worldwide Precipitation Changes -Some regions get more than normal. some less than normal -50 -20 -10 -5 5 10 20 50 .

STEPS TO PREVENT GLOBAL WARMING • • • • Plant more trees Control population growth Cut down rate of CFC’s and fossil fuels Use non-conventional (renewable) sources of energy • Shift from coal to natural gas • Reduce carbon dioxide from smoke • Adopt sustainable agriculture – grow heat resistant crops .

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Kyoto Protocol • The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that aims at reduction of Green House Gases • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto. Japan. on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005 • 192 Parties (191 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC .

This goal is to be achieved by the year 2012 • Individual countries were assigned higher or lower targets and some countries were permitted increases . Nitrous oxide (N2O).Kyoto Protocol • Cut emissions of not only carbon dioxide.2% below the emission levels of 1990. Methane (CH4). and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) • Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 5. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs). like. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). but of also other greenhouse gases.

which have ratified the Kyoto protocol. are not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas production • As a result of this loophole. the West has effectively outsourced much of its carbon emissions to China and India • The Protocol allows Annex I countries to meet their GHG emission limitations by several "flexible mechanisms". such as emissions trading (in terms of carbon credits/Kyoto credits) .Kyoto Protocol • India and China.

allows developed countries to undertake projects to reduce emissions in developing countries to generate Kyoto units • Joint Implementation (JI) allows developed countries to undertake projects to reduce emissions in other developed countries to generate Kyoto units .Kyoto Protocol Clean development mechanism (CDM) and joint implementation • Emission trading allows the countries to purchase GHG emission reductions credits from other countries that do not need to reduce their GHG emissions • The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

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• One carbon credit is equal to reduction of one ton of carbon dioxide. or carbon dioxide equivalent gases • The goal is to allow market mechanisms to drive industrial and commercial processes in the direction of low emissions of GHGs into the atmosphere. .Carbon Credits • Carbon credits and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs).

it has to pay for it in three possible mechanisms to get back the credits. and thus GHG emissions become expensive for the emitters . allocation of carbon credits or Kyoto credits was made to different countries • Each credit gives the owner the right to emit one metric tonne of carbon dioxide or other equivalent greenhouse gas • If a country exceeds its emission quota.Carbon Credits • During Kyoto protocol.

Carbon Credits • Mechanims I – Emission Trading: Countries that have not used up their quotas can sell their unused allowances as carbon credits. . while others that are about to exceed their quotas can buy them. • Mechanism II .Clean Development Mechanism: Developed countries (responsible for high GHG emissions. listed as Annex I countries) can start GHG reduction projects in relatively un-developed country (listed as non-annex countries). will set it in some other developed country. At present Russia and Ukraine are having highest number of JI projects. • Mechanism III – Joint Implementation Mechanism: A developed country with relatively high cost of setting up of GHG reduction project.

subject to the market position.The actual value of each credit may vary. Currently its value is about 12-20 Euros .

000 million are in pipeline. . the second highest transacted volumes in the world. 97 billion till 2012. the revenue from 200 projects is estimated at Rs. • India’s carbon market is growing faster than even information technology. • As per the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change. bio technology and BPO sectors as 850 projects with a huge investment of Rs 650.Carbon Credits – Indian Scenario • India has generated approximately 30 Million carbon credits and approximately 140 million in run.

• Ozone exists within both the tropospheric and stratospheric zones of the Earth’s atmosphere • It is formed by the interaction of oxygen with UV radiation • O2 + h  O + O • O + O 2  O3 • In the troposphere. ground level ozone is a major air pollutant and primary constituent of photochemical smog • In the stratosphere.What is Ozone? Ozone Layer? • Ozone (O3) is a highly-reactive form of oxygen. the ozone layer is an essential protector of life on earth as it absorbs harmful UV radiation before it reaches the earth. .

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. • It is more prominent over Antarctic region • In fact a hole is formed in the ozone layer over the Antarctic region.Ozone layer depletion • Ozone is naturally found in stratosphere which occurs 30 km above the ground level • It has a normal thickness of 3mm • In the past 4-5 decades a progressive decrease in ozone layer thickness is observed.

CClF3 • There are others like. • CFC-114.Ozone layer is being destroyed due to chemicals like CFC: Chlorofluorocarbons: • CFC -11 is trichlorofluoromethane CCl3F • CFC-12 is dichlorodifluromethane. CHLOROTETRAFLUOROEHTANE ETC. CCl2F2 • CFC-13 is chlorotrifluoromethane. .

The reactions are… • CFCl3 + h  CFCl2 + Cl • Cl + O3  ClO + O2 • ClO + O3  Cl +2O2 • These reactions are catalyzed by Br and I radicals also. .

CFC’s and ozone depletion • Chlorofluorocarbons are created and used in refrigerators and air conditioners • These chlorofluorocarbons are not harmful to humans and have been a benefit to us. Once released into the atmosphere. chlorofluorocarbons are bombarded and destroyed by ultraviolet rays In the process chlorine is released to destroy the ozone molecules • .

but Ozone layer depletion is more over Antarctic • This is because of the so called Polar Stratospheric clouds formed there in winters (-90oC) with no oxides of nitrogen that can trap the Cl free radicals • CFCs accumulate in these clouds and in summer when sunlight returns form a platform for ozone depletion .Facts about ozone depletion • A single chlorine keeps on destroying for two years before it is converted to HCl or ClONO2 • Nitrogen oxides can trap the chlorine free radicals and stop ozone depletion • All the CFCs are released in northern hemisphere.

Polar Stratospheric Clouds .

paints and other materials .Effects of ozone layer depletion • UV radiation causes sunburns. skin cancer • UV radiation absorbed by cornea in the eye leads to cataracts • Loss of phyto and zooplankton in lakes and ponds • phytoplankton in oceans reduces CO2 levels their decrease increases global warming • Yields of food other crops reduced • Greater evaporation of surface water • Destroys fibres.

The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 .

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1993 (Bangkok). followed by a first meeting in Helsinki. May 1989. 1995 (Vienna). 1991 (Nairobi). 1992 (Copenhagen). and entered into force on January 1. 1987. 1997 (Montreal). it had undergone several revisions later. 1989. and 1999 (Beijing) .CFC emission should be cut by 35% by year 2000 • after hearing more bad news about seasonal thinning of ozone layer above Antarctica in 1989. in 1990 (London).Montreal Protocol • The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion • Opened for signature on September 16.

Kofi Annan .Montreal Protocol • 36 countries signed the treaty first in 1987 • At present it has been ratified by 196 states • If the international agreement is adhered to. the ozone layer is expected to recover to 1980 levels by 2050 • "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol" .

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